La prima parte è dedicata agli articoli di wikipedia, sia italiana che inglese, essendo i loro documenti molto vasti io riporto solo stralci, perciò se volete approfondire l’argomento vi consiglio la visione ai link originali.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Passer_domesticus3.jpg
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.
Il passero domestico o passera europea o passera oltremontana (Passer domesticus, Linnaeus 1758), chiamato più spesso semplicemente passero, è probabilmente l'uccello più diffuso e noto in Europa, sia nelle città che nelle campagne.
Ne esistono 16 sottospecie.
Aspetti morfologici [modifica]
Il piumaggio dei maschi adulti differisce dal piumaggio delle femmine e degli immaturi. Il maschio è facilmente confondibile con le altre specie del genere Passer, se non fosse per il vertice grigio. La taglia è di circa 15 cm, per 32 grammi di peso.
Sono una specie molto socievole, infatti possono stare in guppi di una decina di esemplari e spesso si avvicinano agli umani per cercare cibo. I passeri europei per liberarsi dei parassiti fanno "bagni" di terra.
Distribuzione e habitat
Si trova in Europa, Mediterraneo, Medio Oriente.
Il maschio prepara più nidi, nei posti più disparati ma sempre comodi, sotto le tegole, negli anfratti di edifici e occasionalmente sugli alberi, la paglia è la componente principale dei suoi nidi, che poi imbottisce con piume di altri uccelli, l'ingresso del nido è sempre laterale. La femmina che si farà attirare in uno dei nidi preparati dal maschio, vi deporrà dalle 4 alle 8 uova, come arriva la primavera; la nidiata è svezzata da entrambi i genitori.
Non migra e, in zone abitate, si lascia avvicinare parecchio dalle persone. Vive in stormi anche grandi ed è socievole anche nel periodo di cova.
* BirdLife International 2008. Passer domesticus. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Versione 2010.1
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:House_Sparrow-Mindaugas_Urbonas-8.jpgFONTE
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The sparrows, true sparrows, or Old World sparrows in the family Passeridae are small passerine birds. As eight or more species nest in or near buildings, and the House Sparrow and Eurasian Tree Sparrow in particular inhabit cities in large numbers, sparrows may be the most familiar of all wild birds.
Characteristics and classification
Generally, sparrows tend to be small, plump brown-grey birds with short tails and stubby, powerful beaks. The differences between sparrow species can be subtle. They are primarily seed-eaters, though they also consume small insects. A few species scavenge for food around cities and, like gulls or pigeons, will happily eat virtually anything in small quantities. Members of this family range in size from the Chestnut Sparrow (Passer eminibey), at 11.4 cm (4.5 inches) and 13.4 g, to the Parrot-billed Sparrow (Passer gongonensis), at 18 cm (7 inches) and 42 g (1.5 oz). Sparrows are physically similar to other seed-eating birds, such as finches, but have a vestigial dorsal outer primary feather and an extra bone in the tongue.
The Old World true sparrows are indigenous to Europe, Africa and Asia. In Australia and the Americas, early settlers imported some species which quickly naturalised, particularly in urban and degraded areas. House Sparrows, for example, are now found throughout North America, in every state of Australia except Western Australia, and over much of the heavily populated parts of South America.
Some authorities previously classified the related estrildid finches of the Old World tropics and Australasia as members of the Passeridae. Like the true sparrows, the estrildid finches are small, gregarious and often colonial seed-eaters with short, thick, but pointed bills. They are broadly similar in structure and habits, but tend to be very colourful and vary greatly in their plumage. There are about 140 species. The 2008 Christidis and Boles taxonomic scheme lists the estrildid finches as the separate family Estrildidae, leaving just the true sparrows in Passeridae.
American sparrows, or New World sparrows, are in a different family, Emberizidae, despite some physical resemblance such as the seed-eater's bill and frequently well-marked heads.
The Hedge Sparrow or Dunnock (Prunella modularis) is similarly unrelated. It is a sparrow in name only, a relic of the old practice of calling any small bird a "sparrow".
Old World sparrows in literature are usually House Sparrows.
* In the Gospel of Mary, Anna, Mary's mother, sees a sparrow before she laments to God.
* The Greek poet Sappho, in her "Hymn to Aphrodite", pictures the goddess's chariot as drawn by sparrows.
* The Roman poet Catullus addresses one of his odes to his lover Lesbia's pet sparrow (‘Passer, deliciae meae puellae...’), and writes an elegy on its death (‘Lugete, o Veneres Cupidinesque...’).
* In the New Testament, Jesus reassures his followers that not even a sparrow can fall without God's notice, and that their own more significant suffering is certainly seen and potentially forestalled or redeemed by God (Luke 12:6; Matthew 10:29). This passage is referenced in the hymn "His Eye Is on the Sparrow".
* In the poem "An Essay on Man" by Alexander Pope, the New Testament passage is similarly referenced: Who sees with equal eye, as God of all, / A hero perish, or a sparrow fall
* The Venerable Bede's (8th c.)"sparrow in the hall" episode describes the moment of transition between Anglo-Saxon pagan and Christian eras. Ecclesiastical History of the English Church And People.
* In Phyllyp Sparowe (pub. c. 1505), by the English poet John Skelton, Jane Scrope's laments for her dead sparrow are mixed with antiphonal Latin liturgy from the Office of the Dead.
* In Hamlet, by William Shakespeare, as Hamlet faces his tragic fate, he says, "There's a special providence in the fall of a sparrow". This presumably refers to the New Testament quotation shown above.
* In the Daphne du Maurier short story "The Birds", sparrows are one of the small birds that attacked the children in their beds.
* In the Redwall series of fantasy novels, sparrows are portrayed as fierce fighters; the main sparrow character is Warbeak.
* In The Dark Half by Stephen King, sparrows are regarded as psychopomps - those who usher souls into the next world.
* Sparrows are also mentioned in the poem "The Trees are Down" by Charlotte Mew: "They must have heard the sparrows flying".FONTE
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) is a species of passerine bird of the sparrow family Passeridae. It occurs naturally in most of Europe, the Mediterranean region, and much of Asia. It has also been intentionally or accidentally introduced to many parts of the world, making it the most widely distributed wild bird. It is strongly associated with human habitations, but it is not the only sparrow species found near houses. It is a small bird, with feathers mostly different shades of brown and grey.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Passer-domesticus-sparrow-female-closeup-0b.jpg
The House Sparrow is a chunky bird, typically about 16 centimetres (6.3 in) long, ranging from 14–18 centimetres (5.5–7.1 in). It has a large rounded head, a short tail, and a stout bill. In weight, the House Sparrow generally ranges from 24–39.5 grams (0.85–1.39 oz). Weight varies by sex, with females usually smaller than males. Younger birds are smaller, males are larger during the winter, and females larger during the breeding season. Between and within subspecies, there is further variation based on latitude, altitude, climate, and other environmental factors, under biological rules such as Bergmann's rule.
The plumage of the House Sparrow is mostly different shades of grey and brown. The sexes differ, with females and juveniles mostly buff, and the male marked with bold colours. The male is duller in fresh non-breeding plumage, with buff tips on many feathers. Wear and preening expose bright markings of brown and black, including a throat and chest patch, called a "bib" or a "badge". This patch is variable in width and general size, and some scientists have suggested that patches signal social status or fitness, a hypothesis which has led to a "veritable 'cottage industry'" of studies, which have only conclusively shown that patches increase in size with age. In breeding plumage, the male's crown is grey, and it is marked with black on its throat and beneath its crown. The cheeks and underparts are pale grey. The mantle and upper back are a warm brown, broadly streaked with black, while the lower back, rump and uppertail coverts are a greyish-brown. The female has no black on head or throat, nor a grey crown and its upperparts are streaked with brown. The juvenile is deeper brown, and the white is replaced by buff; the beak is pink to dull yellow.
There is some variation in the twelve subspecies of House Sparrow. The subspecies are divided into two groups, the Oriental indicus group, and the Palaearctic domesticus group. Birds of the domesticus group have grey cheeks, while indicus group birds have white cheeks, as well as bright colouration on the crown, a smaller bill, and a longer black bib. The subspecies Passer domesticus tingitanus differs little from the nominate subspecies, except in the worn breeding plumage of the male, in which the head is speckled with black and underparts are paler. P. d. balearoibericus is slightly paler than the nominate but darker than P. d. bibilicus. P. d. bibilicus is paler than most subspecies, but has the grey cheeks of domesticus group birds. The similar P. d. persicus is paler and smaller, and P. d. niloticus is nearly identical but smaller. Of the less wide ranging indicus group subspecies, P. d. hyrcanus is larger than P. d. indicus, P. d. bactrianus is larger and paler, P. d. parkini is larger and darker with more black on the breast than any other subspecies, and P. d. hufufae is paler.
The House Sparrow can be confused with a number of other seed-eating birds, especially its relatives in the genus Passer. Many of these relatives are smaller, with an appearance that is neater or "cuter", as with the Dead Sea Sparrow. The dull-coloured female often can not be distinguished from other birds, and it is nearly identical to the females of the Spanish Sparrow and Italian Sparrow. The Eurasian Tree Sparrow is smaller and more slender with a chestnut crown and a black patch on each cheek. The male Spanish Sparrow and Italian Sparrow are distinguished by their chestnut crowns. The Sind Sparrow is smaller, with the male less black on the throat and the female usually having a distinct pale supercilium.
All of the House Sparrow's vocalisations are variations on its short and incessant chirping call. Transcribed as chirrup, tschilp, or philip, this note is made as a contact call by flocking or resting birds, or by males to proclaim nest ownership and invite pairing. In the breeding season this call becomes what is called an "ecstatic call", which is similar to a song, as it is uttered by the male at great speed. Young birds, especially in captivity, also give a true song, a warbling similar to that of the European Greenfinch. Aggressive male House Sparrows give a trilled version of their call, transcribed as "chur-chur-r-r-it-it-it-it". This call is also used by females in the breeding season, to establish dominance over males while displacing them to feed young or incubate eggs. The House Sparrow gives a nasal alarm call, the basic sound of which is transcribed as quer, and it gives a shrill "chree" call in great distress. Another House Sparrow vocalisation is what has been described as an "appeasement call", a soft quee given to inhibit aggression, usually by a mated pair. These vocalisations are not unique to the House Sparrow, but are shared with small variations by all sparrows.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:House_Sparrow_%28M%29_I_IMG_7881.jpg
The House Sparrow is a very social bird. It is gregarious at all seasons when feeding, often forming flocks with other types of bird. It also roosts communally, its nests are usually grouped together in clumps, and it engages in a number of social activities, such as dust and water bathing, and "social singing", in which birds call together in bushes. The House Sparrow feeds mostly on the ground, but it flocks in trees and bushes. For the larger part it is sedentary, rarely moving more than a few kilometres. There is limited migration in sedentary populations, with mountain birds moving to lower altitudes and some young birds dispersing long distances, especially on coasts. In addition, two subspecies, bactrianus and parkini, are predominately migratory and unlike the birds in sedentary populations that migrate, prepare for migration by putting on weight. Non-breeding House Sparrows roost in large groups in trees, gathering some time before and calling together. At feeding stations and at the nest, the female House Sparrows are dominant, despite their smaller size.
Relationships with humans
The House Sparrow is closely associated with humans. Usually, it is regarded as a pest, since it consumes agricultural products and spreads disease to humans and their domestic animals. Even birdwatchers often hold it in little regard because of its molestation of other birds. In most of the world the House Sparrow is not protected by law. Attempts to control House Sparrows include the trapping, poisoning, or shooting of adults; the destruction of their nests and eggs; or less directly, blocking nest holes and scaring off sparrows with noise, glue, or porcupine wire.
The House Sparrow has an extremely large range and population, and is not seriously threatened by human activities, so it is assessed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List. However, populations are declining in many parts of the world. These declines were first noticed in the United States, where they were initially attributed to the spread of the House Finch, but have been most severe in Western Europe. Declines have not been universal, as no serious declines have been reported from Eastern Europe, but they have occurred in Australia, where the House Sparrow is a recently introduced species. In the Netherlands, the House Sparrow is even considered an endangered species, and the population has dropped by half since the 1980s. In Britain, populations peaked in the early 1970s, but have since declined by 68 percent overall, and over 90 percent in urban areas. In London, the House Sparrow almost disappeared from the central city. These declines are not unprecedented, as similar reductions in population occurred when the internal combustion engine replaced the horse in the 1920s and a major source of food in the form of spillage was lost.
Various causes for the dramatic decreases in population have been proposed, including predation, electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones, and diseases. A shortage of nesting sites is probably a factor, and conservation organisations have encouraged the use of special nest boxes for sparrows. The main cause of the decline seems to be nestling starvation due to an insufficient supply of insect food. The decline in the insect population is caused by an increase of monoculture crops, the heavy use of pesticides, the replacement of native plants in cities with introduced plants and parking areas, and possibly the introduction of unleaded petroleum, which produces toxic compounds such as methyl nitrite. Protecting insect habitats on farms, and planting native plants in cities benefit the House Sparrow, as does establishing urban green spaces.
To many people across the world, the House Sparrow is the most familiar wild animal and, because of this familiarity, it is frequently used to represent the common and vulgar, or the lewd. One of the reasons for the introduction of House Sparrows throughout the world was their association with the European homeland of many immigrants. Sparrows are referred to in religious texts, and in ancient literature, most notably in the New Testament and in Catullus's poems about Lesbia. These references may not specifically refer to the House Sparrow, or even to small, seed-eating birds, but later writers who were inspired by these texts often had the House Sparrow in mind.
The House Sparrow is only represented in ancient Egyptian art very rarely, but an Egyptian hieroglyph is based on it, the sparrow hieroglyph:
The symbol had no phonetic value and was used as a determinative in words to indicate small, narrow or bad.