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 Colibrì: instancabile gioia e nettare della vita

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AutoreMessaggio
Tila
Iniziato Sciamano
Iniziato Sciamano


Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Colibrì: instancabile gioia e nettare della vita   Lun 21 Feb 2011 - 10:05

Buondì a tutti,

stamani vedremo insieme uno dei più piccoli esemplari del mondo alato...nella prima parte grazie a wikipedia conosceremo le sue caratteristiche e le sue abitudini, nonchè le meravigliose immagini. Riporto solo stralci dai ricchi documenti di wikipedia perciò per approfondimenti consiglio la visione ai link originali.

Mentre nella seconda parte scopriremo alcune curiosità ma soprattutto il simbolismo totemico che, in parte, ho già anticipato nel titolo.

Buona lettura!

FONTE:
http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trochilidae


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Stripe-tailed_Hummingbird.jpg

I Trochilidi (Trochilidae Vigors, 1825) sono una famiglia di uccelli dell'ordine Apodiformes, comunemente noti come colibrì.

Descrizione

Sono uccelli di piccole dimensioni, dal peso che varia da 5 a 20 grammi: il più grande è il colibrì gigante (Patagona gigas) che pesa, in media, circa 20 g ed è lungo fino a 21,5 cm.

Le penne hanno un colore particolarmente brillante. La colorazione non è dovuta alla pigmentazione delle penne. Queste sono ricoperte da piccolissime lamelle cornee trasparenti che contengono microscopiche bolle d'aria, che funzionano da prismi ottici. Il raggio di luce viene così scomposto nei suoi colori originari dando una colorazione cangiante diversa a seconda dell'angolo di osservazione.

Distribuzione e habitat

La maggior parte delle specie è concentrata nelle foreste tropicali dell'America centrale e meridionale

Biologia

Hanno eccezionali capacità di volo, grazie alla più grande apertura alare, in rapporto alle dimensioni del corpo, di tutti gli uccelli. Sono gli unici uccelli ad avere la capacità di volare all'indietro. La frequenza del battito alare è la più elevata di tutti gli uccelli. Per il colibrì gigante è di 8-12 battiti al secondo, per colibrì di medie dimensioni di 20-25 battiti al secondo. Il battito alare delle specie più piccole può raggiungere anche 100 battiti al secondo durante le evoluzioni del corteggiamento. Il loro battito cardiaco, la cui frequenza media è circa 10 volte quella di un essere umano, può raggiungere picchi di 1260 battiti al minuto.

Riproduzione

La femmina costruisce da sola il nido, mentre il maschio, dopo l'accoppiamento, esegue voli acrobatici per attirare altre femmine.

I nidi sono costruiti intrecciando muschi, licheni e fili d'erba, peli di animale e piume. Il tutto viene legato da fili di ragnatela, che il colibrì raccoglie nella foresta. I nidi vengono fissati alle foglie o ai filamenti vegetali con nettare rigurgitato, usato come colla.

La femmina di solito depone 2 uova bianche che cova per 100-130 giorni a seconda della specie. I piccoli vengono nutriti dalla madre che rigurgita nelle loro gole il nettare e gli insetti predigeriti. Dopo circa 70 giorni i piccoli escono dal nido e vengono nutriti per oltre 2 settimane prima di divenire autonomi. La femmina del colibrì, per entrare in una nuova zona ricca di nettare, si concede al maschio dominante del gruppo in cui essa vuole entrare.

Tassonomia

La famiglia comprende circa 355 specie, raggruppate in 2 sottofamiglie

* Phaethornithinae
* Trochilinae



Archilochus colubris
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Male_Ruby-Throated_Hummingbird_1.jpg


Ensifera ensifera
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sword-billed_Hummingbird_%28Ensifera_ensifera%29.jpg


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hummingbird

Hummingbird
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hummingbirds are birds that comprise the family Trochilidae. They are among the smallest of birds, most species measuring in the 7.5–13 cm (3–5 in) range. Indeed, the smallest extant bird species is a hummingbird, the 5-cm Bee Hummingbird. They can hover in mid-air by rapidly flapping their wings 12–90 times per second (depending on the species). They can also fly backwards, and are the only group of birds able to do so.[1] Their English name derives from the characteristic hum made by their rapid wing beats. They can fly at speeds exceeding 15 m/s (54 km/h, 34 mi/h).[2]


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Archilochus-alexandri-002-edit.jpg


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Colibri-thalassinus-001-edit.jpg

Diet

Hummingbirds drink nectar, a sweet liquid inside certain flowers. Like bees, they are able to assess the amount of sugar in the nectar they eat; they reject flower types that produce nectar that is less than 10% sugar and prefer those whose sugar content is stronger. Nectar is a poor source of nutrients, so hummingbirds meet their needs for protein, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, etc. by preying on insects and spiders.[3]

Most hummingbirds have bills that are long and straight or nearly so, but in some species the bill shape is adapted for specialized feeding. Thornbills have short, sharp bills adapted for feeding from flowers with short corollas and piercing the bases of longer ones. The Sicklebills' extremely decurved bills are adapted to extracting nectar from the curved corollas of flowers in the family Gesneriaceae. The bill of the Fiery-tailed Awlbill has an upturned tip, as in the Avocets. The male Tooth-billed Hummingbird has barracuda-like spikes at the tip of its long, straight bill.

The two halves of a hummingbird's bill have a pronounced overlap, with the lower half (mandible) fitting tightly inside the upper half (maxilla). When hummingbirds feed on nectar, the bill is usually only opened slightly, allowing the tongue to dart out and into the interior of flowers.

Like the similar nectar-feeding sunbirds and unlike other birds, hummingbirds drink by using protrusible grooved or trough-like tongues.[4] Hummingbirds do not spend all day flying, as the energy cost would be prohibitive; the majority of their activity consists simply of sitting or perching. Hummingbirds feed in many small meals, consuming many small invertebrates and up to twelve times their own body weight in nectar each day. They spend an average of 10–15% of their time feeding and 75–80% sitting and digesting.

Co-evolution with ornithophilous flowers


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Purple-throated_carib_hummingbird_feeding.jpg

Hummingbirds are specialized nectarivores[5] and are tied to the ornithophilous flowers they feed upon. Some species, especially those with unusual bill shapes such as the Sword-billed Hummingbird and the sicklebills, are co-evolved with a small number of flower species.

Many plants pollinated by hummingbirds produce flowers in shades of red, orange, and bright pink, though the birds will take nectar from flowers of many colors. Hummingbirds can see wavelengths into the near-ultraviolet, but their flowers do not reflect these wavelengths as many insect-pollinated flowers do. This narrow color spectrum may render hummingbird-pollinated flowers relatively inconspicuous to most insects, thereby reducing nectar robbing.[6][7] Hummingbird-pollinated flowers also produce relatively weak nectar (averaging 25% sugars w/w) containing high concentrations of sucrose, whereas insect-pollinated flowers typically produce more concentrated nectars dominated by fructose and glucose.[8]

Aerodynamics of flight


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hummingbird_Aerodynamics_of_flight.jpg

Hummingbird flight has been studied intensively from an aerodynamic perspective using wind tunnels and high-speed video cameras.

Writing in Nature, the biomechanist Douglas Warrick and coworkers studied the Rufous Hummingbird, Selasphorus rufus, in a wind tunnel using particle image velocimetry techniques and investigated the lift generated on the bird's upstroke and downstroke. They concluded that their subjects produced 75% of their weight support during the downstroke and 25% during the upstroke. Many earlier studies had assumed (implicitly or explicitly) that lift was generated equally during the two phases of the wingbeat cycle, as is the case of insects of a similar size. This finding shows that hummingbirds' hovering is similar to, but distinct from, that of hovering insects such as the hawk moths.[10]

The Giant Hummingbird's wings beat at 8–10 beats per second, the wings of medium-sized hummingbirds beat about 20–25 beats per second and the smallest can reach 100 beats per second during courtship displays.


A trail of wake vortices generated by a hummingbird's flight. Discovered after training a bird to fly through a cloud of neutrally buoyant helium-filled soap bubbles and recording airflows in the wake with stereo photography.[9]
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hummingbird_wake_Pengo.svg


Metabolism

With the exception of insects, hummingbirds while in flight have the highest metabolism of all animals, a necessity in order to support the rapid beating of their wings. Their heart rate can reach as high as 1,260 beats per minute, a rate once measured in a Blue-throated Hummingbird.[11] They also consume more than their own weight in nectar each day, and to do so they must visit hundreds of flowers daily. Hummingbirds are continuously hours away from starving to death, and are able to store just enough energy to survive overnight.[12]

Hummingbirds are capable of slowing down their metabolism at night, or any other time food is not readily available. They enter a hibernation-like state known as torpor. During torpor, the heart rate and rate of breathing are both slowed dramatically (the heart rate to roughly 50–180 beats per minute), reducing the need for food.

The dynamic range of metabolic rates in hummingbirds[13] requires a corresponding dynamic range in kidney function.[14] The glomerulus is a cluster of capillaries in the nephrons of the kidney that removes certain substances from the blood, like a filtration mechanism. The rate at which blood is processed is called the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Most often these fluids are reabsorbed by the kidneys. During torpor, to prevent dehydration, the GFR slows, preserving necessities for the body such as glucose, water and salts. GFR also slows when a bird is undergoing water deprivation. The interruption of GFR is a survival and physiological mechanism unique to hummingbirds.[14]

Studies of hummingbirds' metabolisms are highly relevant to the question of how a migrating Ruby-throated Hummingbird can cross 800 km (500 mi) of the Gulf of Mexico on a nonstop flight. This hummingbird, like other birds preparing to migrate, stores up fat to serve as fuel, thereby augmenting its weight by as much as 100 percent and hence increasing the bird's potential flying time.[15]


Lifespan

Hummingbirds have long lifespans for organisms with such rapid metabolisms. Though many die during their first year of life, especially in the vulnerable period between hatching and leaving the nest (fledging), those that survive may live a decade or more. Among the better-known North American species, the average lifespan is 3 to 5 years. By comparison, the smaller shrews, among the smallest of all mammals, seldom live more than 2 years.[16] The longest recorded lifespan in the wild is that of a female Broad-tailed Hummingbird that was banded (ringed) as an adult at least one year old then recaptured 11 years later, making her at least 12 years old. Other longevity records for banded hummingbirds include an estimated minimum age of 10 years 1 month for a female Black-chinned similar in size to Broad-tailed, and at least 11 years 2 months for a much larger Buff-bellied Hummingbird.[17]

Range

Hummingbirds are restricted to the Americas from southern Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, including the Caribbean. The majority of species occur in tropical and subtropical Central and South America, but several species also breed in temperate climates and some hillstars even occur in alpine Andean highlands at altitudes of up to 5,200 metres (17,100 ft).[18] The greatest species richness is in humid tropical and subtropical forests of the northern Andes and adjacent foothills, but the number of species found in the Atlantic Forest, Central America or southern Mexico also far exceeds the number found in southern South America, the Caribbean islands, the United States and Canada. While less than 25 different species of hummingbirds have been recorded from the United States and less than 10 from Canada and Chile each,[19] Colombia alone has more than 160[20] and the comparably small Ecuador has about 130 species.[21]

Only the migratory Ruby-throated Hummingbird breeds in continental North America east of the Mississippi River and Great Lakes. The Black-chinned Hummingbird, its close relative and another migrant, is the most widespread and common species in the western United States, while the Rufous Hummingbird is the most widespread species in western Canada.[22]

Most hummingbirds of the U.S. and Canada migrate south in fall to spend the winter in northern Mexico or Central America. A few southern South American species also move to the tropics in the southern winter. A few species are year-round residents in the warmer coastal and interior desert regions. Among these is Anna's Hummingbird, a common resident from southern California inland to southern Arizona and north to southwestern British Columbia.

The Rufous Hummingbird is one of several species that breed in western North America and are wintering in increasing numbers in the southeastern United States, rather than in tropical Mexico. Thanks in part to artificial feeders and winter-blooming gardens, hummingbirds formerly considered doomed by faulty navigational instincts are surviving northern winters and even returning to the same gardens year after year. Individuals that survive winters in the north, however, may have altered internal navigation instincts that could be passed on to their offspring. The Rufous Hummingbird nests farther north than any other species and must tolerate temperatures below freezing on its breeding grounds. This cold hardiness enables it to survive temperatures well below freezing, provided that adequate shelter and feeders are available.


Systematics and evolution

In traditional taxonomy, hummingbirds are placed in the order Apodiformes, which also contains the swifts. However, some taxonomists have separated them into their own order, Trochiliformes. Hummingbirds' wing bones are hollow and fragile, making fossilization difficult and leaving their evolutionary history poorly documented. Though scientists theorize that hummingbirds originated in South America, where there is the greatest species diversity, possible ancestors of extant hummingbirds may have lived in parts of Europe to what is southern Russia today.[24]

There are between 325 and 340 species of hummingbird, depending on taxonomic viewpoint, divided into two subfamilies, the hermits (subfamily Phaethornithinae, 34 species in six genera), and the typical hummingbirds (subfamily Trochilinae, all the others). However, recent phylogenetic analyses suggest that this division is slightly inaccurate, and that there are nine major clades of hummingbirds: the topazes and jacobins, the hermits, the mangoes, the coquettes, the brilliants, the Giant Hummingbird (Patagona gigas), the mountain-gems, the bees, and the emeralds.[25] The topazes and jacobins combined have the oldest split with the rest of the hummingbirds. The hummingbirds are the second most specious bird family on earth (after the tyrant flycatchers).

Fossil hummingbirds are known from the Pleistocene of Brazil and the Bahamas; however, neither has yet been scientifically described, and there are fossils and subfossils of a few extant species known. Until recently, older fossils had not been securely identifiable as those of hummingbirds.

In 2004, Dr. Gerald Mayr of the Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt am Main identified two 30-million-year-old hummingbird fossils and published his results in Science.[26] The fossils of this primitive hummingbird species, named Eurotrochilus inexpectatus ("unexpected European hummingbird"), had been sitting in a museum drawer in Stuttgart; they had been unearthed in a clay pit at Wiesloch–Frauenweiler, south of Heidelberg, Germany and, because it was assumed that hummingbirds never occurred outside the Americas, were not recognized to be hummingbirds until Mayr took a closer look at them.

Fossils of birds not clearly assignable to either hummingbirds or a related, extinct family, the Jungornithidae, have been found at the Messel pit and in the Caucasus, dating from 40–35 mya; this indicates that the split between these two lineages indeed occurred at that date. The areas where these early fossils have been found had a climate quite similar to the northern Caribbean or southernmost China during that time. The biggest remaining mystery at the present time is what happened to hummingbirds in the roughly 25 million years between the primitive Eurotrochilus and the modern fossils. The astounding morphological adaptations, the decrease in size, and the dispersal to the Americas and extinction in Eurasia all occurred during this timespan. DNA-DNA hybridization results [27] suggest that the main radiation of South American hummingbirds at least partly took place in the Miocene, some 12–13 mya, during the uplifting of the northern Andes.

Wing Structure and Colours

Many of the Hummingbird species have bright plumage with exotic colouration. In many species, the coloring does not come from pigmentation in the feather structure, but instead from prism-like cells within the top layers of the feathers. When light hits these cells, it is split into wavelengths that reflect to the observer in varying degrees of intensity. The Hummingbird wing structure acts as a diffraction grating. The result is that, merely by shifting position, a muted-looking bird will suddenly become fiery red or vivid green.[28] However, not all hummingbird colors are due to the prism feather structure. The rusty browns of Allen's and Rufous Hummingbirds come from pigmentation. Iridescent hummingbird colors actually result from a combination of refraction and pigmentation, since the diffraction structures themselves are made of melanin, a pigment.[29]

In myth and culture

Aztecs wore hummingbird talismans, the talismans being representations as well as actual hummingbird fetishes formed from parts of real hummingbirds: emblematic for their vigor, energy, and propensity to do work along with their sharp beaks that mimic instruments of weaponry, bloodletting, penetration, and intimacy. Hummingbird talismans were prized as drawing sexual potency, energy, vigor, and skill at arms and warfare to the wearer.[37]

* The Aztec god Huitzilopochtli is often depicted as a hummingbird. The Nahuatl word huitzil (hummingbird) is an onomatopoeic word derived from the sounds of the hummingbird's wing-beats and zooming flight.
* One of the Nazca Lines depicts a hummingbird.
* The Ohlone tells the story of how Hummingbird brought fire to the world.[38]
* Trinidad and Tobago is known as "The land of the hummingbird," and a hummingbird can be seen on that nation's coat of arms and 1-cent coin as well as its national airline, Caribbean Airlines.
* Auto enthusiasts named Chrysler's reduction gear Starter motor, used from the early 60s to the late 90s, the Highland Park Hummingbird.



FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Selasphorus_rufus_on_Saltspring_Island.jpg

References

1. ^ Ridgely, Robert S.; and Paul G. Greenfield. The Birds of Ecuador, volume 2, Field Guide, Cornell University Press, 2001
2. ^ Clark and Dudley (2009). "Flight costs of long, sexually selected tails in hummingbirds". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, March 2009.
3. ^ Not All Sweetness and Light
4. ^ Cade, Tom J.; and Lewis I. Greenwald. "Drinking Behavior of Mousebirds in the Namib Desert, Southern Africa", The Auk, v. 83, No. 1, January 1966.
5. ^ Stiles, Gary (1981). "Geographical Aspects of Bird Flower Coevolution, with Particular Reference to Central America". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 68 (2): 323–351. doi:10.2307/2398801. http://jstor.org/stable/2398801.
6. ^ Rodríguez-Gironés, M. A.; Santamaría, L. (2004). "Why Are So Many Bird Flowers Red?". PLoS Biol 2 (10): e350. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020350. PMID 15486585.
7. ^ Altschuler, D. L. (2003). "Flower Color, Hummingbird Pollination, and Habitat Irradiance in Four Neotropical Forests". Biotropica 35 (3): 344–355.
8. ^ Nicolson, S. W. (2003). "Nectar as food for birds: the physiological consequences of drinking dilute sugar solutions". Plant Syst. Evol. 238: 139–153. doi:10.1007/s00606-003-0276-7.
9. ^ Rayner, J.M.V. 1995. Dynamics of vortex wakes of flying and swimming vertebrates. J. Exp. Biol. 49:131–155.
10. ^ Warrick, D. R.; Tobalske, B.W. & Powers, D.R. (2005). "Aerodynamics of the hovering hummingbird". Nature 435: 1094–1097 doi:10.1038/nature03647 (HTML abstract)
11. ^ Lanny Chambers. "About Hummingbirds". Hummingbirds.net. http://www.hummingbirds.net/about.html#heartbeat. Retrieved 25 January 2009.
12. ^ Hainsworth, Reed; Wolf, Larry (May 1993). "Hummingbird Feeding". Wildbird Magazine. http://www.hummingbirds.net/hainsworth.html.
13. ^ Suarez, R. K.; Gass, C. L. (2002). "Hummingbirds foraging and the relation between bioenergetics and behavior". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A. 133: 335–343.
14. ^ a b Bakken, B. H., McWhorter, T. J., Tsahar, E., Martinez del Rio, C. (2004). "Hummingbirds arrest their kidneys at night: diel variation in glomerular filtration rate in Selasphorus platycercus". The Journal of Experimental Biology. 207: 4383–4391.
15. ^ Skutch, Alexander F. & Singer, Arthur B. (1973): The Life of the Hummingbird. Crown Publishers, New York. ISBN 0-517-50572-X
16. ^ Churchfield, Sara. (1990). The natural history of shrews. Cornell University Press. pp. 35–37. ISBN 0801425956.
17. ^ Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Bird Banding Laboratory. Longevity Records AOU Numbers 3930 – 4920 2009-08-31. Retrieved 2009-09-27.
18. ^ Fjeldså, J., & I. Heynen (1999). Genus Oreotrochilus. Pp. 623-624 in: del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott, & J. Sargatal. eds. (1999). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 5. Barn-owls to Hummingbirds. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ISBN 84-87334-25-3
19. ^ Jaramillo, A., & R. Barros (2010). Species lists of birds for South American countries and territories: Chile.
20. ^ Salaman, P., T. Donegan, & D. Caro (2009). Checklist to the Birds of Colombia 2009. Conservation Colombiana 8. Fundación ProAves
21. ^ Freile, J. (2009). Species lists of birds for South American countries and territories: Ecuador.
22. ^ a b Williamson, S. L. (2002). A Field Guide to Hummingbirds of North America (Peterson Field Guide Series). Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. ISBN 0-618-02496-4
23. ^ http://www.cosmosmagazine.com/news/1829/hummingbird-sings-with-its-tail-feathers
24. ^ Mayr, Gerald (March 2005). "Fossil Hummingbirds of the Old World" (PDF). Biologist 52 (1): 12–16. http://www.senckenberg.de/files/content/forschung/abteilung/terrzool/ornithologie/hummingbird_biologist.pdf.
25. ^ McGuire, J. A., Witt, C. C., Altshuler, D. L., and Remsen Jr., J. V. 2007. "Phylogenetic systematics and biogography of hummingbirds: Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of partitioned data and selection of an appropriate partitioning strategy." Systematic Biology, 56: 837–856.
26. ^ "Oldest hummingbird fossil found". Cbc.ca. 2004–05–06. http://www.cbc.ca/health/story/2004/05/06/bird_fossils040506.html. Retrieved 2009–01–25.
27. ^ Bleiweiss, Robert; Kirsch, John A. W. & Matheus, Juan Carlos (1999): DNA-DNA hybridization evidence for subfamily structure among hummingbirds. Auk 111(1): 8–19. fulltextPDF (901 KB)
28. ^ |url=http://www.hsus.org/press_and_publications/humane_society_magazines_and_newsletters/wild_neighbors_news/volume_2_nuber_2_spring_2000/hummingbirds_in_your_backyard/
29. ^ |url=http://www.learner.org/jnorth/search/HummerNotes1.html
30. ^ "Hummingbird Nectar Recipe". Nationalzoo.si.edu. http://nationalzoo.si.edu/ConservationAndScience/MigratoryBirds/WebCam/hummingbird_nectar_recipe.cfm. Retrieved 2010-03-20.
31. ^ "Arizona Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Newsletter, April 2005" (PDF). http://microvet.arizona.edu/AzVDL/newsletters/Apr05.pdf. Retrieved 2010-03-20.
32. ^ "Feeders and Feeding Hummingbirds (The Entire Article)". Faq.gardenweb.com. 2008–01–09. http://faq.gardenweb.com/faq/lists/hummingbird/2003021845028716.html. Retrieved 2009–01–25.
33. ^ "Hummingbird F.A.Q.s from the Southeastern Arizona Bird Observatory". Sabo.org. 2008–11–25. http://www.sabo.org/hbfaqs.htm#honey. Retrieved 2009–01–25.
34. ^ "Should I Add Red Dye to My Hummingbird Food?". Trochilids.com. http://www.trochilids.com/dye.html. Retrieved 2010-03-20.
35. ^ Williamson, S. (2000). Attracting and Feeding Hummingbirds. (Wild Birds Series) T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. ISBN 0-7938-3580-1
36. ^ "Tucson's Hummingbird Feeder Bats". The Firefly Forest. http://fireflyforest.net/firefly/2006/10/11/tucsons-hummingbird-feeder-bats/. Retrieved 2010-03-20.
37. ^ Werness, Hope B; Benedict, Joanne H; Thomas, Scott; Ramsay-Lozano, Tiffany (2004). The Continuum Encyclopedia of Animal Symbolism in Art. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 229. ISBN 9780826415257. http://books.google.com/?id=fr2rANLrPmoC&pg=PA228&lpg=PA228&dq=hummingbird+mythology+symbolism. Retrieved 2009–01–03.
38. ^ Native Expressions: "How Hummingbird Got Fire" at the National Parks Conservation Association (archived)

Tornare in alto Andare in basso
Tila
Iniziato Sciamano
Iniziato Sciamano


Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Re: Colibrì: instancabile gioia e nettare della vita   Mar 22 Feb 2011 - 15:27

Ecco alcuni dei documenti riguardanti la simbologia e le curiosità del colibrì...buona lettura.


FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huitzilopochtli


Raffigurazione del XVI secolo di Huitzilopochtli
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Huitzilopochtli_1.jpg

Huitzilopochtli
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Huitzilopchtli, scritto anche Uitzilopochtli ("colibrì del sud" o "colui che viene dal sud"), secondo la mitologia azteca era un dio della guerra e del sole e protettore della città di Tenochtitlán, sulle cui rovine sorge oggi Città del Messico. Sua madre era Coatlicue, suo padre una sfera piumata (o, in alternativa, Mixcoatl). Secondo alcuni avrebbe avuto una sorella, Malinalxochi. Il suo messaggero era Paynal.

La sorella di Coatlicue, Coyolxauhqui, la uccise perché rimasta incinta in modo 'disdicevole' (a causa di una sfera piumata). Il feto, Huitzilopchtli, uscì dal suo ventre ed uccise Coyolxauhqui, oltre a molti altri fratelli e sorelle. Poi lanciò la testa di Coyolxauhqui nel cielo e questa si trasformò nella Luna, in modo che la madre potesse avere il conforto di vederla nel cielo ogni sera.

Nelle rappresentazioni artistiche viene raffigurato come un colibrì, oppure con le piume dello stesso uccello che adornano la testa e la gamba sinistra, la faccia dipinta di nero ed un serpente ed uno specchio in ambedue le mani.

Gli aztechi usavano fare un impasto simile al pane con i semi di papavero e lo modellavano a immagine del dio Huitzilopochtili e lo davano da mangiare ai sacrificanti allo scopo di assimilarne i poteri.



FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huitzilopochtli

Huitzilopochtli
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Huitzilopochtli, as depicted in the Codex Telleriano-Remensis.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Huitzilopochtli_telleriano.jpg

In Aztec mythology, Huitzilopochtli, also spelled Uitzilopochtli (Classical Nahuatl: Huitzilopōchtli [hwitsiloˈpoːtʃtɬi] "Hummingbird on the Left", or "Left-Handed Hummingbird", huitzilin being Nahuatl for hummingbird), was a god of war, a sun god, and the patron of the city of Tenochtitlan. He was also the national god of the Mexicas of Tenochtitlan. He was a god of tremendous power who commanded terrible fear that had to be assuaged by human sacrifice. Today, he is not believed to be actively worshiped.[1]

Genealogy

Huitzilopochtli's mother was Coatlicue, and his father was a ball of feathers (or, alternatively, Mixcoatl). His sister was Malinalxochitl, a beautiful sorceress, who was also his rival. His messenger or impersonator was Paynal.

In one of the recorded creation myths, Huitzilopochtli is one of the four sons of Ometeotl, he made the first fire from which a half sun was created by Quetzalcoatl.

The legend of Huitzilopochtli is recorded in the Mexicayotl Chronicle. His sister, Coyolxauhqui, tried to kill their mother because she became pregnant in a shameful way (by a ball of feathers). Her offspring, Huitzilopochtli, learned of this plan while still in the womb, and before it was put into action, sprang from his mother's womb fully grown and fully armed. He then killed his sister Coyolxauhqui and many of his 400 brothers. He tossed his sister's head into the sky, where it became the moon, so that his mother would be comforted in seeing her daughter in the sky every night. He threw his other brothers and sisters into the sky, where they became the stars.[2]

History and myth

Huitzilopochtli was a tribal god and a legendary wizard of the Aztecs. Originally he was of little importance to the Nahuas, but after the rise of the Aztecs, Tlacaelel reformed their religion and put Huitzilopochtli at the same level as Quetzalcoatl, Tlaloc, and Tezcatlipoca, making him a solar god. Through this, Huitzilopochtli replaced Nanahuatzin, the solar god from the Nahua legend. Huitzilopochtli was said to be in a constant struggle with the darkness and required nourishment in the form of sacrifices to ensure the sun would survive the cycle of 52 years, which was the basis of many Mesoamerican myths. While popular accounts claim it was necessary to have a daily sacrifice[citation needed], sacrifices were only done on festive days. There were 18 especially holy festive days, and only one of them was dedicated to Huitzilopochtli.

Every 52 years, the Nahuas feared the world would end as the other four creations of their legends had. Under Tlacaelel, Aztecs believed that they could give strength to Huitzilopochtli with human blood and thereby postpone the end of the world, at least for another 52 years.

The Great Temple of Tenochtitlan was dedicated to Huitzilopochtli and Tlaloc because they were considered equals in power. Sixteenth century Dominican Friar Diego Durán wrote, "These two gods were always meant to be together, since they were considered companions of equal power." [3] The Templo Mayor actually consisted of a pyramidal platform, on top of which were twin temples. The left one was Huitzilopochtli's, and the right one was Tlaloc's.

According to Miguel León-Portilla, in this new vision from Tlacaelel, the warriors that died in battle and women who died in childbirth would go to serve Huitzilopochtli in his palace (in the south, or left). From a description in the Florentine Codex, Huitzilopochtli was so bright that the warrior souls had to use their shields to protect their eyes. They could only see the god through the arrow holes in their shields, so it was the bravest warrior who could see him best. From time to time, those warriors could return to earth as butterflies or hummingbirds.

[edit] Tenochtitlan mythic origins

There are several legends and myths of Huitzilopochtli. According the Aubin Codex, the Aztecs originally came from a place called Aztlan. They lived under the ruling of a powerful elite called the "Azteca Chicomoztoca". Huitzilopochtli ordered them to abandon Aztlan to find a new home. He also ordered them never to call themselves Aztec; instead they should be called "Mexica." Huitzilopochtli guided them through a long journey. For a time, Huitzilopochtli left them in the charge of his sister Malinalxochitl, who, according to legend, founded Malinalco, but the Aztecs resented her ruling and called back Huitzilopochtli. He put his sister to sleep and ordered the Aztecs to leave the place. When she woke up and realized she was alone, she became angry and desired revenge. She gave birth to a son called Copil. When he grew up, he confronted Huitzilpochtli, who had to kill him. Huitzilopochtli then took his heart and threw it in the middle of Lake Texcoco. Many years later, Huitzilopochtli ordered the Aztecs to search for Copil's heart and build their city over it. The sign would be an eagle perched on a cactus, eating a precious serpent. The Aztecs finally found the eagle, who bowed to them, and they built a temple in the place, which became Tenochtitlan.

There are different versions of this encounter, but generally the eagle is told to have been eating a snake. This image is seen on the flag of Mexico.

Iconography

In art and iconography, Huitzilopochtli was represented as a hummingbird (or with just the feathers of such on his head and left leg), a black face, and holding a scepter shaped like a snake and a mirror. In the great temple his statue was decorated with cloth, feathers, gold, and jewels, and was hidden behind a curtain to give it more reverence and veneration. Another variation lists him having a face that was marked with yellow and blue stripes and he carries around the fire serpent Xiuhcoatl with him.[[1]]

According to legend, the statue was supposed to be destroyed by the soldier Gil González de Benavides, but it was rescued by a man called Tlatolatl. The statue appeared some years later during an investigation by Bishop Zummáraga in the 1530s, only to be lost again. There is speculation that the statue still exists in a cave somewhere in the Anahuac Valley.

Calendar

Diego Duran described the festivities for Huitzilopochtli. Panquetzaliztli (7 December to 26 December) was the Aztec month dedicated to Huitzilopochtli. People decorated their homes and trees with paper flags; there were ritual races, processions, dances, songs, prayers, and finally human sacrifices. This was one of the more important Aztec festivals, and the people prepared for the whole month. They fasted or ate very little; a statue of the god was made with amaranth (huautli) seeds and honey, and at the end of the month, it was cut into small pieces so everybody could eat a little piece of the god. After the Spanish conquest, cultivation of amaranth was outlawed, while some of the festivities were subsumed into the Christmas celebration.

According to the Ramirez Codex, in Tenochtitlan circa sixty prisoners were sacrificed at the festivities. Sacrifices were reported to be made in other Aztec cities, including Tlatelolco, Xochimilco, and Texcoco, but the number is unknown, and no currently available archeological findings confirm this.

For the reconsecration of Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan in 1487, dedicated to Tlaloc and Huitzilopochtli, the Aztecs reported that they sacrificed about 20,400 prisoners over the course of four days. While accepted by some scholars, this claim also has been considered Aztec propaganda. There were 19 altars in the city of Tenochtitlan.



Secondo l'articolo seguente il modo di volare del colibrì, riconducibile al simbolo dell'infinito, porta a credere che il suo simbolismo sia attinente all'eternità, alla continuità.

Il colibrì è instancabile nella sua ricerca di nettare e ciò ci ricorda che dobbiamo cercare senza sosta il lato positivo, dolce della nostra vita.

Dobbiamo essere tenaci e persistere per il perseguimento dei nostri sogni.


FONTE:
http://www.whats-your-sign.com/hummingbird-animal-totem.html

Hummingbird Symbolism

It is not commonly known that the fluttering wings of the hummingbird move in the pattern of an infinity symbol - further solidifying their symbolism of eternity, continuity, and infinity.

By observing the Hummingbird, we see they are seemingly tireless. Always actively seeking the sweetest nectar, they remind us to forever seek out the good in life and the beauty in each day.

Amazing migrators, some Hummingbirds are known to wing their way as far as 2000 miles to reach their destination. This quality reminds us to be persistent in the persuit of our dreams, and adopt the tenacity of the Hummingbird in our lives.

The Hummingbird animal totem is a messenger of hope and jubilation.

Hummingbird Animal Totems offer attributes like:

* energy
* vitality
* joy
* renewal
* sincerity
* healing
* persistence
* peace
* infinity
* agility
* playfulness
* loyalty
* affection

The Hummingbird animal totem most important message to you is:
"The sweetest nectar is within!"

The most profound questions the Hummingbird asks is:

* "Where is your joy?"
* "Is your happiness found within, or do you seek it externally?"
* "What is the source of your joy?"
* "What must you do to increase your joy?"


FONTE: http://www.esoterya.com/totem-colibri/2422/

gioia e di amore per la vita. Questo splendido animaletto riesce a gustare la bellezza dei fiori, l’armonia della natura, e viene messo in fuga se sente vibrazione negative, poiché è orientato verso l’estetica e la bellezza.

Il colibrì dispensa gioia e amore, sia attraverso il contatto con i fiori che in quello con uomini e animali.

Grazie a lui innumerevoli piante fioriscono e crescono, poiché, le aiuta a diffondersi spargendo il nettare che raccoglie. La magia del colibrì parte e si nasconde nel suo atto di aprire il cuore, per questo motivo in diverse culture delle sue piume servono per la preparazione di filtri d’amore.

Questo animaletto è unico nel suo genere, difatti è in grado di volare in avanti, indietro e anche restando fermo nella stessa posizione. Questa sua peculiarità del tutto speciale ha fatto si che dottrine degli antichi Maya, lo facessero direttamente appartenere di diritto alla prossima epoca, quella del quinto mondo.

Gli uomini dotati della forza del colibrì hanno sono portati all’equilibrio e alla felicità, aiutano le persone a sviluppare la gioia di vivere e dare il meglio di se.
Come il colibrì, l’essere umano dotato della sua forza disprezza la bruttezza e il cattivo umore e riesce sempre e comunque a trovare luoghi dove la bellezza e l’armonia regnano sovrane.


FONTE: http://animalitotem.wordpress.com/2008/02/04/animali-dalla-a-alla-d/

Gioia e celebrazione. Aiuta a coltivare una visione di gioia e di bellezza Ci incoraggia a vedere la bellezza in ogni cosa e ad apprezzare il dono della vita. Utile in tempi di transizione (viaggi, cambiando casa / lavoro, ecc).
Tornare in alto Andare in basso
 
Colibrì: instancabile gioia e nettare della vita
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