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 Uncaria tomentosa

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Tila
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Femminile Serpente
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MessaggioOggetto: Uncaria tomentosa   Mer 16 Mar 2011 - 11:25

QUESTA SCHEDA CONTIENE INFORMAZIONI CHE POSSONO GENERARE SITUAZIONI DI PERICOLO E DANNI. I DATI PRESENTI HANNO SOLO UN FINE ILLUSTRATIVO E IN NESSUN CASO ESORTATIVO. PRIMA DI PROSEGUIRE SI PREGA DI LEGGERE ATTENTAMENTE LE AVVERTENZE.


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L'uso di questa pianta per scopi medicinali, in popolazioni indigene, risale a duemila anni o più.

Usata come tonico naturale, per il trattamento di malattie reumatiche, come antinfiammatorio, immunostimolante e antidolorifica.

Ma delle sue proprietà specifiche parleremo nella seconda parte intanto vi riporto i documenti di wikipedia di questa singolare pianta rampicante...

Buona lettura!

FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uncaria_tomentosa


Uncaria tomentosa
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Thorns_U_tomentosa.jpg

Uncaria tomentosa (popularly known in English as Cat's Claw, although that name is also used for various other plants; in Spanish as Uña de Gato (Cat nail) or as Indian name Vilcacora) is a woody vine found in the tropical jungles of South and Central America, which derives its name from its claw-shaped thorns. It is used as an alternative medicine in the treatment of a variety of ailments. Other common names include: hawk's claw, pot hook, sparrowhawk nail,

Description

Uncaria tomentosa is a liana deriving its name from hook-like thorns that resemble the claws of a cat. U. tomentosa can grow up to 30 m (100 ft) tall, climbing by means of these thorns. The leaves are elliptic with a smooth edge, and grow in opposite whorls of two. Cat's claw is indigenous to the Amazon rainforest, with its habitat being restricted primarily to the tropical areas of South and Central America.

Taxonomy

There are two species of Cat's Claw, Uncaria tomentosa and Uncaria guianensis, each having different properties and uses. The two are frequently confused but U. tomentosa is the more heavily researched for medicinal use[2] and immune modulation, while U. guianensis may be more useful for osteoarthritis.[3] U. tomentosa is further divided into two chemotypes with different properties and active compounds, a fact ignored by most manufacturers[4] that can have significant implications on both its use as an alternative medicine and in clinical trials to prove or disprove its efficacy.[5]

Medicinal uses

The parts used medicinally include the inner bark and root, taken in the form of capsules, tea and extract.

U. tomentosa is used in nootropic drugs, as well as in treatment of cancer and HIV infection. It contains several alkaloids that are responsible for its alleged medical effects, as well as tannins and various phytochemicals.[6] The chemotype of the plant determines the dominant type of alkaloid it produces, and thus its properties in vivo. One chemotype has roots which produce mostly the pentacyclic alkaloids that are responsible for the immune-strengthening effects desired by most consumers. The second chemotype produces tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids known as rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline which counteract the immune-strengthening actions of the pentacyclic alkaloids, reduces the speed and force of the heart's contraction, and in high doses produce ataxia, lack of coordination and sedative effects.[5] Since U. tomentosa comes in at least these two different chemotypes, without chemical testing it is impossible to know which chemical compounds will predominate in a plant collected randomly from a natural setting.

Some ingredients appear to act as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer agents.[6] As a herbal treatment, Cat's Claw is used to treat intestinal ailments such as Crohn's disease, gastric ulcers and tumors, parasites, colitis, gastritis, diverticulitis and leaky bowel syndrome, while manufacturers claim that U. tomentosa can also be used in the treatment of AIDS in combination with AZT, the treatment and prevention of arthritis and rheumatism, diabetes, PMS, chronic fatigue syndrome, prostate conditions,[7] immune modulation,[8] Lyme disease[9] and systemic lupus erythematosus.[10] A 2005 review of the scholarly literature on Cat's Claw indicates there is supporting evidence toward its use in treating cancer, inflammation, viral infection and vascular conditions, and for its use as an immunostimulant, antioxidant, antibacterial and CNS-related agent.[6]

Indigenous use

The indigenous peoples of South and Central America have used U. tomentosa for medicinal purposes for two thousand years or more. It is often added to Ayahuasca. Researchers have investigated the use of the plant by the Asháninka tribe of Peru, who use the plant as a general health tonic, contraceptive, anti-inflammatory agent for the gastrointestinal tract, and as a treatment for diarrhea, rheumatic disorders, acne, diabetes, cancer and diseases of the urinary tract.[11] In Brazilian traditional medicine it is used against dengue to reduce inflammation [12]

Allergies

Individuals allergic to plants in the Rubiaceae family and different species of Uncaria may be more likely to have allergic reactions to Cat's Claw.[13] Reactions can include itching, rash and allergic inflammation of the kidneys. In one documented case, kidney failure occurred in a patient with Lupus erythematosus[14] but it is not known if this was due to an allergic reaction or another cause.

There are other plants which are known as cat's claw (or uña de gato) in Mexico and Latin America; however, they are entirely different plants, belonging to neither the Uncaria genus, nor to the Rubiaceae family. Some of the Mexican uña de gato varieties are known to have toxic properties.

Footnotes

1. ^ "Species Information". sun.ars-grin.gov. http://sun.ars-grin.gov:8080/npgspub/xsql/duke/plantdisp.xsql?taxon=1972. Retrieved 2008-03-01.
2. ^ Gattuso, M., Di Sapio, O., Gattuso, S., Li Pereyra, E. (2004). "Morphoanatomical studies of Uncaria tomentosa and Uncaria guianensis bark and leaves". Phytomedicine 11 (2-3): 213–223. PMID 15070175.
3. ^ Piscoya J, Rodriguez Z, Bustamante SA, et al. (2001). "Efficacy and safety of freeze-dried cat's claw in osteoarthritis of the knee: mechanisms of action of the species Uncaria guianensis". Inflamm Res. 50 (9): 442–8. doi:10.1007/PL00000268. PMID 11603848.
4. ^ Keplinger, K., Laus, G., Wurm, M., Dierich, M.P., Teppner, Herwig. (1999). "Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC.—Ethnomedicinal use and new pharmacological, toxicological and botanical results" (PDF). J Ethnopharmacol 64 (1): 23–34. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00096-8. PMID 10075119. http://www.samento.com.ec/sciencelib/sarticles/Uncaria81B4.pdf.
5. ^ a b Tyler, Varro E. (Sept-Oct, 1997). "An herb to forget — cat's claw — Uncaria tomentosa". Nutrition Forum 14 (5). http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0GCU/is_n5_v14/ai_20097503. (Warning: pop-ups)
6. ^ a b c Heitzman ME, Neto CC, Winiarz E, Vaisberg AJ, Hammond GB (January 2005). "Ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Uncaria (Rubiaceae)". Phytochemistry 66 (1): 5–29. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2004.10.022. PMID 15649507. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0031-9422(04)00555-2.
7. ^ NutraSanus article on Cat's Claw
8. ^ Information on Cat's Claw
9. ^ Treatment of Lyme disease with Cat's Claw
10. ^ Cat's claw used to treat Lupus erythematosus
11. ^ The Longwood Herbal Task Force article on Cat's Claw
12. ^ Reis SR, Valente LM, Sampaio AL, et al. (March 2008). "Immunomodulating and antiviral activities of Uncaria tomentosa on human monocytes infected with Dengue Virus-2". Int. Immunopharmacol. 8 (3): 468–76. doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2007.11.010. PMID 18279801. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1567-5769(07)00380-3.
13. ^ Intelihealth article discussing uses and dangers of Cat's Claw
14. ^ Hilepo JN, Bellucci AG, Mossey RT (1977). "Acute renal failure caused by 'cat's claw' herbal remedy in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus". Nephron 77 (3): 361. doi:10.1159/000190304. PMID 9375835.

References

* Germplasm Resources Information Network: Uncaria tomentosa


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uncaria

Uncaria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Uncaria is a genus of flowering plants in the family Rubiaceae. It has about 40 species.[1] Their distribution is pantropical, with most species native to tropical Asia, three from Africa and the Mediterranean and two from the neotropics.[2] They are known colloquially as Gambier, Cat's Claw or Uña de Gato. The latter two names are shared with several other plants. The type species for the genus is Uncaria guianensis.[3]

Indonesian Gambier (U. gambir) is a large tropical vine with leaves typical of the genus, being opposite and about 10 cm (3.9 in) long. The South American U. tomentosa is called Uña de Gato. Uncaria sinensis is common in China.

Uncaria was named in 1789 by Johann von Schreber in his Genera Plantarum edition 8[a] (not to be confused with books of the same title by Linnaeus, Jussieu, and others).[4][5] The genus name is derived from the Latin word uncus, meaning "a hook".[6] It refers to the hooks, formed from reduced branches, that Uncaria vines use to cling to other vegetation.

Uncaria is a member of the tribe Nauclea, but its position within that tribe remains unresolved.[7]

Description

Woody lianas; climbing by hooks formed from reduced, modified branches. Stipules entire or bifid. Inflorescence a compact head, terminal, at the ends of plagiotropic branches and their very reduced branches. Corolla lobes without appendages. Seeds with a long wing at each end, the lower wing deeply bifid.[8]
[edit] Species

The following species list may be incomplete or contain synonyms.

* Uncaria elliptica R.Br. & G. Don (Malaysia)
* Uncaria gambir Roxb. - Gambier or Gambir (Indonesia)
* Uncaria guianensis J.F.Gmel. (Guyana)
* Uncaria hirsuta Havil.
* Uncaria homomalla Miq. (East India, Malaysia)
* Uncaria macrophylla Wall. (SE Asia)
* Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Jacks. (China)



* Uncaria scandens (Sm.) Hutch.
* Uncaria sessilifructus Roxb.
* Uncaria setiloba Benth.
* Uncaria sinensis (Oliv.) Havil. (syn. Nauclea sinensis)
* Uncaria tomentosa DC - Cat's Claw (South America)
* Uncaria wangii How


Uses

Cat's claw (U. tomentosa) and the Chinese species are used medicinally. The glycosidic compounds have recognized anti-inflammatory properties, while the alkaloids increase the reactivity of lymphocytes, granting higher response to viral infection. Cat's claw has two varieties depending on whether the alkaloids have four rings or five. The five-ring alkaloid variety is medicinal and is called "savéntaro" by the Asháninka.

Gambier (U. gambir) is used in Indonesia for chewing with areca and betel, for tanning, and for dyeing. It contains many catechins which are known to have many medicinal properties and are components of Chinese herbal remedies and certain modern medicines. To make gambier, the leaves are first boiled in water. They absorb it and turn brownish in color. The leaves are then pressed mechanically to squeeze and extract liquid. This liquid is then dried into a semi-solid paste and molded into cubes, which are dried in the sun. Gambier is generally packed in 50 kilogram multilayered packing (PP Bags inside and gunny bags outside).

U. rhynchophylla has also been shown to be a powerful MAO-B inhibitor.[9]

Research has shown that rhamnose, a chemical extracted from uncaria plants, can actively regenerate skin, making it feel plumper and more elastic.[10]

[edit] References

1. ^ Uncaria At: World Checklist of Rubiaceae At: Kew Gardens Website. (see External links below).
2. ^ David J. Mabberley. 2008. Mabberley's Plant-Book third edition (2008). Cambridge University Press: UK. ISBN 978-0-521-82071-4
3. ^ Uncaria In: Index Nominum Genericorum. In: Regnum Vegetabile (see External links below).
4. ^ Uncaria in International Plant Names Index. (see External links below).
5. ^ Johann Schreber. 1789. Gen. Pl., ed. 8[a]. (Genera Plantarum Eorumque Characteres Naturales Secundum Numerum, Figuram, Situm, & Proportionem Omnium Fructificationis Partium. (Ed. 8[a])). volume 1, page 125. Frankfurt am Main, Germany(see External links below).
6. ^ Umberto Quattrocchi. 2000. CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names volume IV. CRC Press: Boca Raton; New York; Washington,DC;, USA. London, UK. ISBN 978-0-8493-2673-8 (set).
7. ^ Ulrika Manns and Birgitta Bremer. 2010. "Towards a better understanding of intertribal relationships and stable tribal delimitations within Cinchonoideae s.s. (Rubiaceae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56(1):21-39. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2010.04.002
8. ^ Colin E. Ridsdale. 1978. "A revision of Mitragyna and Uncaria (Rubiaceae)". Blumea 24(1):43-100.
9. ^ Lin RD, Hou WC, Yen KY, Lee MH (November 2003). "Inhibition of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) by Chinese herbal medicines". Phytomedicine 10 (Cool: 650–6. PMID 14692725.
10. ^ "Chemical from tropical flower latest weapon against wrinkles". The Daily Telegraph. February 6, 2011. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/healthnews/8306768/Chemical-from-tropical-flower-latest-weapon-against-wrinkles.html. Retrieved January 7, 2011.

* Germplasm Resources Information Network: Uncaria


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Numero di messaggi : 1826
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Uncaria tomentosa   Gio 17 Mar 2011 - 9:08

Il nome deriva, si pensa a causa delle protuberanze a forma di uncino delle sue foglie, dal latino "uncus" (unghia o gancio).

Cresce nelle zone più impervie e difficilmente raggiungibili dell'Amazzonia, per poter arrivare alla luce è costretta ad attaccarsi ad altre piante ma senza svolgere nessuna azione parassitaria.

E' una pianta molto forte non soggetta a malattie né a parassiti, forse è proprio questa sua forza e resistenza alle malattie che trasmette all'uomo, infatti viene usata principalmente per la sua azione immunostimolante.

I suo estratti prevengono la formazione di radicali liberi.

Tra le sue proprietà e i suoi impieghi la uncaria tomentosa è un ottimo antiinfiammatorio, antivirale, antidolorifico, cicatrizzante, epatoprotettrice.

E' stata dimostrata la sua capacità di inibire la proliferazione di cellule tumorali.

Utile quindi in caso di dolori da infiammazioni acute e croniche, osteoarticolari e muscolari, allergie e sindromi da immunodeficienza.

Si pensa che siano state le spine a forma di uncino a suggerire ai curanderos peruviani le proprietà cicatrizzanti e antidolorifiche della Uncaria.

Oggi l'esistenza di questa preziosissima pianta, grazie come al solito all'uomo, è messa a rischio a causa dello sfruttamento delle foreste amazzoniche.



Bibliografia:

Corso Pratico di Erboristeria Ed. Riza


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