QUESTA SCHEDA CONTIENE INFORMAZIONI CHE POSSONO GENERARE SITUAZIONI DI PERICOLO E DANNI. I DATI PRESENTI HANNO SOLO UN FINE ILLUSTRATIVO E IN NESSUN CASO ESORTATIVO. PRIMA DI PROSEGUIRE SI PREGA DI LEGGERE ATTENTAMENTE LE AVVERTENZE.AVVERTENZE:Tutte le informazioni, voci e documenti riportati su Shamanism&Co sono da considerare ad ESCLUSIVO SCOPO DIVULGATIVO!
Le eventuali nozioni e/o procedure mediche, erboristiche di medicina popolare, ecc. NON POSSONO SOSTITUIRE IN ALCUN CASO IL CONSIGLIO DEL MEDICO o di qualunque altro operatore sanitario. Rivolgetevi sempre al vostro medico o altro addetto del settore sanitario per qualsiasi quesito possiate avere.
Shamanism&Co non può esser ritenuto responsabile dei risultati o delle conseguenze di un qualsiasi utilizzo o tentativo di utilizzo di una qualsiasi delle informazioni pubblicate.
Buon pomeriggio a tutti,
oggi vi parlerò di una pianta dalle proprietà calmanti e antistress.
Nella prima parte riporto stralci di documenti di wikipedia riguardanti questa pianta in generale nella seconda, dove riporterò le sue proprietà e curiosità, parlerò in dettaglio della passiflora incarnata.
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:PassifloraCaerulea_Bluete_von_oben.jpg
Passiflora è un genere di Passifloraceae che comprende circa 465 specie di piante erbacee perenni ed annuali, arbusti dal portamento rampicante e lianoso, arbusti e alberelli, alti fino a 5-6 m, originarie dell'America centro-meridionale, con alcune specie provenienti dal Nord America, Australia e Asia.
Il nome del genere, adottato da Linneo nel 1753 e che significa "fiore della passione" (dal latino passio = passione e flos = fiore), gli fu attribuito dai missionari Gesuiti nel 1610, per la somiglianza di alcune parti della pianta con i simboli religiosi della passione di Cristo, i viticci la frusta con cui venne flagellato; i tre stili i chiodi; gli stami il martello; la raggiera corollina la corona di spine.
Le radici generalmente fascicolate, in alcuni casi sono carnose, a volte con produzione di pollini radicali, alcune specie come la Passiflora tuberosa hanno radici tuberose.
Il fusto abbondantemente ramificato, è sottile, talvolta cavo, a sezione rotonda, quadrata, triangolare o poligonale, solitamente di colore verde nei giovani esemplari, ricoperto da corteccia nei soggetti vetusti.
Le foglie sono alterne, di forma, consistenza, dimensioni ed aspetto variabili, con specie a foglie semplici lanceolate, bilobate o palmate con 3-9 lobi, con dimensioni di pochi millimetri come la P. gracillima fino a dimensioni di diversi decimetri come la P. gigantifolia. Nelle specie rampicanti all'ascella delle foglie ci sono gli organi di ancoraggio, a forma di viticci o più raramente appendici ramificate dotate di ventose, come nella P. discophora e nella P. gracillima, o in alcuni casi delle formazioni spinose.
I fiori sono normalmente ermafroditi, ascellari e solitari, raramente riuniti a coppie come nella P. biflora, o riuniti in racemi come si può osservare nella P. racemosa; le dimensioni sono molto variabili in dipendenza della specie, potendo arrivare al diametro di 12-15 cm della P. quadrangularis.
Generalmente hanno tre brattee di varia forma, a volte colorate e dotate di ghiandole nettarifere, il calice più o meno allungato, con 5 sepali, 5 petali a volte assenti; è normalmente presente una corona di filamenti di forma e colore variabile, con 5 filamenti che portano le antere e 3 stili recanti gli stigmi, a volte profumati o con odore sgradevole.
I frutti sono generalmente bacche ovoidali o allungate, ricoperte da un leggero tegumento che, a maturazione, si colora di giallo, viola, blu o nero, a volte con striature gialle o verdi, a volte è una capsula deiscente a maturazione, di varie dimensioni; all'interno del frutto si trova una polpa gelatinosa (arillo) che contiene piccoli semi di forma appiattita, cuoriformi, di colore scuro, coriacei e rugosi.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Passiflora_caerulea.JPG
* Come pianta ornamentale nei giardini per ricoprire muri, recinzioni, pergole; in vaso negli appartamenti o in serra.
* Per il consumo dei profumati frutti eduli (maracuya, come sono chiamati nei Caraibi), dal sapore delicato, le specie più coltivate a questo scopo sono: la P. antioquiensis, la P. coccinea, la P. edulis, la P. laurifolia, la P. ligularis, la P. maliformis, la P. membranacea, la P. mixta, la P. mollissima, la P. nitida e la P. vitifolia.
* Per le proprietà medicinali.
Le informazioni qui riportate hanno solo un fine illustrativo: non costituiscono e non provengono da prescrizione né da consiglio medico. Wikipedia non dà consigli medici: leggi le avvertenze.
[modifica] Proprietà medicinali
Le specie utilizzate a scopi medicinali sono la P. caerulea, la P. incarnata e la P. edulis.
Nell'antichità, gli Aztechi, utilizzavano la passiflora come rilassante.
* L'infuso, lo sciroppo e l'estratto fluido delle parti verdi raccolte da giugno a settembre e fatte essiccare all'ombra in luogo arieggiato, vantano proprietà sedative del sistema nervoso, tranquillanti, ansiolitiche, antispasmodiche, curative dell'insonnia e dell'isterismo; inducono un sonno fisiologico e una attività diurna priva di ottundimento. Già ai tempi della prima guerra mondiale, la passiflora fu utilizzata nella cura delle "angosce di guerra".
* L'infuso di foglie e fiori viene utilizzato per la psicoastenia.
* Le foglie sono ricche di flavonoidi e curarine ricche di proprietà sedativa e antispasmodica. La passiflora è indicata contro la tachicardia, l'ansia e il sonno.
* Le caratteristiche farmacologiche della Passiflora incarnata la rendono utile per facilitare lo svezzamento dagli psicofarmaci, sempre se utilizzata in ambito medico e con raziocinio. (P.Campagna. Farmaci Vegetali. Minerva Medica ed. 2008)
* I frutti crudi di P. caerulea possono provocare nausea e vomito in seguito a ingestione. Contengono inoltre glicosidi cianogenetici con azione depressiva sul centro cardio-respiratorio.
* In caso di elevato sovradosaggio si possono verificare lievi effetti di carattere allucinogeno.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Flor_de_maracuj%C3%A1.JPG
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Passiflora_incarnata.jpg
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Passiflora_caerulea_%282005_10_08%29_-_vrucht_open_%282%29.jpgFONTE
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Passiflora, the passion flowers or passion vines, is a genus of about 500 species of flowering plants, the namesakes of the family Passifloraceae. They are mostly vines, with some being shrubs, and a few species being herbaceous. For information about the fruit of the passiflora plant, see passionfruit. The monotypic genus Hollrungia seems to be inseparable from Passiflora, but further study is needed.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bildtankstelle_1_090.jpg
The family Passifloraceae is found worldwide except in Antarctica, and Passiflora is absent from Africa though many other members of the family Passifloraceae exist there (e.g. the more plesiomorphic Adenia).
Nine species of Passiflora are native to the USA, found from Ohio to the north, west to California and south to the Florida Keys. Most other species are found in South America, China, and Southern Asia, New Guinea, four or more species in Australia and a single endemic species in New Zealand. New species continue to be identified: for example, P. pardifolia and P. xishuangbannaensis have only been known to the scientific community since 2006 and 2005, respectively.
Species of Passiflora have been naturalised beyond their native ranges. For example, Blue Passion Flower (P. caerulea) now grows wild in Spain. The purple passionfruit (P. edulis) and its yellow relative flavicarpa have been introduced in many tropical regions as commercial crops.
The decorative passion flowers have a unique flower structure, which in most cases requires a large bee to effectively pollinate. In the American tropics, wooden beams are mounted very near passionfruit plantings to encourage carpenter bees to nest. The size and structure of flowers of other Passiflora species is optimized for pollination by hummingbirds (especially hermits like Phaethornis) , bumble bees, wasps or bats, while yet others are self-pollinating. The Sword-billed Hummingbird (Ensifera ensifera) with its immensely elongated bill has co-evolved with certain passion flowers, such as P. mixta.
Yellow Passion Flower (P. lutea) pollen is apparently the only pollen eaten by the unusual bee Anthemurgus passiflorae. However, these bees simply collect the pollen, but do not pollinate the flowers.
Passiflora species are important sources of nectar for many insects. The leaves are used as food plants by the larva of the swift moth Cibyra serta and many longwing butterflies (Heliconiinae). Well-known species among the latter are the American Sara Longwing (Heliconius sara) and the Asian Leopard Lacewing (Cethosia cyane). The caterpillars of the Postman Butterfly (Heliconius melpomene) prefer P. menispermifolia and P. oerstedii when available; those of the Zebra Longwing (Heliconius charithonia) feed on Yellow Passion Flower, Two-flowered Passion Flower (P. biflora), and Corky-stemmed Passion Flower (P. suberosa). Those of the Banded Orange (Dryadula phaetusa) are found on P. tetrastylis, those of the Julia Butterfly (Dryas iulia) on Yellow Passion Flower and P. affinis, and those of the Gulf Fritillary (Agraulis vanillae) on Yellow Passion Flower, Stinking Passion Flower (P. foetida) and Maypop (P. incarnata).
To prevent the butterflies from laying too many eggs on any single plant, some passion flowers bear small colored nubs which resemble the butterflies' eggs and seem to fool them into believing that more eggs have already been deposited on a plant than actually is the case. Also, many Passiflora species produce sweet nutrient-rich liquid from glands on their leaf stems. These fluids attract ants which will kill and eat many pests that they happen to find feeding on the passion flowers.
The bracts of the Stinking Passion Flower are covered by hairs which exude a sticky fluid. Many small insects get stuck to this and get digested to nutrient-rich goo by proteases and acid phosphatases. Since the insects usually killed are rarely major pests, this passion flower seems to be a protocarnivorous plant.
Banana Passion Flower or "banana poka" (P. tarminiana), originally from Central Brazil, is an invasive weed, especially on the islands of Hawaii. It is commonly spread by feral pigs eating the fruits. It overgrows and smothers stands of endemic vegetation, mainly on roadsides. Blue Passion Flower (P. caerulea) is holding its own in Spain these days, and it probably needs to be watched so that unwanted spreading can be curtailed.
On the other hand, some species are endangered due to unsustainable logging and other forms of habitat destruction. For example, the Chilean Passion Flower (P. pinnatistipula) is a rare vine growing in the Andes from Venezuela to Chile between 2,500 and 3,800 meters altitude, and in Coastal Central Chile, where it occurs in woody Chilean Mediterranean forests. P. pinnatistipula has a round fruit, unusual in Tacsonia group species like Banana Passion Flower and P. mixta, with their elongated tubes and brightly red to rose-colored petals.
Notable and sometimes economically significant pathogens of Passiflora are several sac fungi of the genus Septoria (including S. passiflorae), the undescribed proteobacterium called "Pseudomonas tomato" (pv. passiflorae), the Potyvirus Passionfruit woodiness virus, and the Carlavirus Passiflora latent virus.
Passiflora incarnata, one of the most common of Passion flowers.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:File-Passiflora_incarnata_3.jpg
Use by humans
Hundreds of hybrids have been named and hybridizing is currently being done extensively for flowers, foliage and fruit. A number of species of Passiflora are cultivated outside their natural range because of their beautiful flowers.
During Victorian times the flower (which in all but a few species lasts only one day) was very popular and many hybrids were created using Winged-stem Passion Flower (P. alata) and Blue Passion Flower (P. caerulea) and other tropical species.
Many cool-growing Passiflora from the Andes Mountains can be grown successfully for their beautiful flowers and fruit in cooler Mediterranean climates, such as the Monterey Bay and San Francisco in California and along the Western Coast of the U.S. into Canada. One Blue Passion Flower or hybrid even grew to large size at Malmö Central Station in Sweden.
Passion flowers have been a subject of studies investigating extranuclear inheritance; paternal inheritance of chloroplast DNA has been documented in this genus. The plastome of the Two-flowered Passion Flower (P. biflora) has been sequenced.
The French name for this plant has lent itself to La Famille Passiflore, a highly successful children's book series by Geneviève Huriet, and an animated series based upon it. These have been translated into English as Beechwood Bunny Tales and The Bellflower Bunnies, respectively.
Most species have round or elongated edible fruit from two to eight inches long and an inch to two inches across, depending upon the species or cultivar.
* The Passion fruit or maracujá (P. edulis) is cultivated extensively in the Caribbean and south Florida and South Africa for its fruit, which is used as a source of juice. A small purple fruit which wrinkles easily and a larger shiny yellow to orange fruit are traded under this name. The latter is usually considered just a variety flavicarpa, but seems to be more distinct in fact.
* Sweet Granadilla (P. ligularis) is another widely-grown species. In large parts of Africa and Australia it is the plant called "passionfruit": confusingly, in South African English the latter species is more often called "granadilla" (without an adjective). Its fruit is somewhat intermediate between the two sold as P. edulis.
* Maypop (P. incarnata), a common species in the southeastern US. This is a subtropical representative of this mostly tropical family. However, unlike the more tropical cousins, this particular species is hardy enough to withstand the cold down to -4°F (-20°C) before its roots die (it is native as far north as Pennsylvania and has been cultivated as far north as Boston and Chicago.) The fruit is sweet, yellowish, and roughly the size of a chicken's egg; it enjoys some popularity as a native plant with edible fruit and few pests.
* Giant Granadilla (Giant Tumbo or badea, P. quadrangularis), Water Lemon (P. laurifolia) and Sweet Calabash (P. maliformis) are Passiflora species locally famed for their fruit, but not widely known elsewhere yet.
* Wild Maracuja are the fruit of P. foetida, which are popular in Southeast Asia.
* Banana passionfruits are the very elongated fruits of P. tripartita var. mollissima and P. tarminiana. These are locally eaten, but their invasive properties make them a poor choice to grow outside of their native range.
Medical and entheogenic uses
P. incarnata (maypop) leaves and roots have a long history of use among Native Americans in North America and were adapted by the European colonists. The fresh or dried leaves of maypop are used to make a tea that is used to treat insomnia, hysteria, and epilepsy, and is also valued for its analgesic properties. P. edulis (passion fruit) and a few other species are used in Central and South America for similar purposes. Once dried, the leaves can also be smoked.
Many species have been found to contain beta-carboline harmala alkaloids. which are MAO inhibitors with anti-depressant properties. The flower and fruit have only traces of these chemicals, but the leaves and the roots are often more potent and have been used to enhance the effects of mind-altering drugs. The most common of these alkaloids is harman (1-methyl-9H-b-carboline), but harmaline (4,9-Dihydro-7-methoxy-1-methyl-3H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole), harmalol (1-methyl-2,3,4,9-tetrahydropyrido[3,4-b]indol-7-one), harmine (7-Methoxy-1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) and harmol[clarification needed] were found. The species known to bear such alkaloids include: P. actinea, P. alata (winged-stem passion flower), P. alba, P. bryonioides (cupped passion flower), P. caerulea (blue passion flower), P. capsularis, P. decaisneana, P. edulis (passion fruit), P. eichleriana, P. foetida (stinking passion flower), P. incarnata (maypop), P. quadrangularis (giant granadilla), P. ruberosa, P. subpeltata and P. warmingii
Other compounds found in passion flowers are coumarins (e.g. scopoletin and umbelliferone), maltol, phytosterols (e.g. lutenin) and cyanogenic glycosides (e.g. gynocardin) which render some species, i.e. P. adenopoda, somewhat poisonous. Many flavonoids and their glycosides have been found in Passiflora, including apigenin, benzoflavone, homoorientin, 7-isoorientin, isoshaftoside, isovitexin (or saponaretin), kaempferol, lucenin, luteolin, n-orientin, passiflorine (named after the genus), quercetin, rutin, saponarin, shaftoside, vicenin and vitexin. Maypop, Blue Passion Flower (P. caerulea), and perhaps others contain chrysin, a flavone with confirmed anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory, supposed aromatase inhibitor properties. Also documented to occur at least in some Passiflora in quantity are the hydrocarbon nonacosane and the anthocyanidin pelargonidin-3-diglycoside.
As regards organic acids, the genus is rich in formic, butyric, linoleic, linolenic, malic, myristic, oleic and palmitic acids as well as phenolic compounds, and the amino acid α-alanine. Esters like ethyl butyrate, ethyl caproate, n-hexyl butyrate and n-hexyl caproate give the fruits their flavor and appetizing smell. Sugars, contained mainly in the fruit, are most significantly d-fructose, d-glucose and raffinose. Among enzymes, Passiflora was found to be rich in catalase, pectin methylesterase and phenolase.
The medical utility of very few species of Passiflora has been scientifically studied. In initial trials for treatment of generalized anxiety disorder, maypop extract performed as well as oxazepam but with fewer short-term side effects. It was recommended to follow up with long-term studies. In another study performed on mice, it was shown that Passiflora alata has a genotoxic effect on cells, and further research was recommended before this one species is considered safe for human consumption.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Passiflora_edulis_in_Hyderabad,_AP_W_IMG_0091.jpg
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Passiflora_coccinea_%281%29.jpg
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Passiflora_racemosa_InflorescenceFlowersLeaves_BotGardBln0906c.JPGFONTE:
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Passiflora incarnata, commonly known as Maypop, Purple passionflower, True passionflower, Wild apricot, and Wild passion vine, is a fast growing perennial vine with climbing or trailing stems. A member of the passionflower genus Passiflora, the Maypop has large, intricate flowers with prominent styles and stamens. One of the hardiest species of passionflower, it is a common wildflower in the southern United States. The Cherokee in the Tennessee area called it ocoee; the Ocoee River and valley are named after this plant, which is the Tennessee State Wildflower.
The stems can be smooth or pubescent; they are long and trailing, possessing many tendrils. Leaves are alternate and palmately 3-lobed, measuring from 6-15 cm. They have two characteristic glands at the base of the blade on the petiole. Flowers have five bluish-white petals. They exhibit a white and purple corona, a structure of fine appendages between the petals and corolla. The large flower is typically arranged in a ring above the petals and sepals. They are pollinated by insects such as bumblebees, and are self-sterile. The flower normally blooms in July.
The fleshy fruit, also in itself called a Maypop, is an oval yellowish berry about the size of a hen egg; it is green at first, but then becomes orange as it matures. As with other passifloras, it is the larval food of a number of butterfly species, including the zebra longwing and Gulf Fritillary. In many cases its fruit is very popular with wildlife.
Traditionally, the fresh or dried whole plant has been used as a herbal medicine to treat nervous anxiety and insomnia. It may improve the quality of sleep The dried, ground herb is frequently used in Europe by drinking a teaspoon of it in tea. A sedative chewing gum has even been produced. In cooking, the fruit of this variety is sometimes used for jam and jellies or as a substitute for its commercially grown South American brother, Passiflora edulis (the fruit is of comparable size and juice yield.) The fruit can be eaten out of hand and when encountered makes a very tasty (but very seedy) snack. Historically it was a favorite of colonial settlers of the South and Native Americans alike.
The Maypop occurs in thickets, disturbed areas, near riverbanks, and near unmowed pastures, roadsides, and railroads. It thrives in areas with lots of available sunlight. It is not found in shady areas beneath a forest canopy.
1. ^ "State Symbols". Tennessee.gov. http://www.tennesseeanytime.org/homework/symbols.html#flowers. Retrieved 27 June 2009. [dead link]
2. ^ Plants For A Future: Passiflora incarnata
3. ^ Ngan A, Conduit R. ,"A Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Investigation of the Effects of Passiflora incarnata (Passionflower) Herbal Tea on Subjective Sleep Quality." Phytother Res. 2011 Feb 3;
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Passiflora incarnata
* Floridata.com: Passiflora incarnata
* Passiflora incarnata: information and pictures
* University of Florida Extension
* USDA plant profile for Purple passionflower includes photographs of flowers and fruits.
* Plant and herbal information By Stephen Foster.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Passiflora_incarnata_fruit.jpg
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Passionflower.jpg