Admin, oggi il mio bighellonare su internet mi ha portata a scoprire questo popolo del nord della Cina, come vedremo le loro pratiche e credenze principali erano lo sciamanesimo fino al 1950, erano considerati sciamani molto potenti, furono costretti ad abbandonare le loro credenze e pensa che l'ultimo sciamano è morto nel 2000; ho trovato un PDF in lingua inglese che parla proprio di questo sciamano quello che segue è il link:
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.
Gli Oroqen (鄂伦春族), o anche Oroqin, Orochen o Orochon (da non confondere con gli Oroch del Krai di Khabarovsk o con gli Orochi dell'oblast' di Sakhalin), sono un gruppo etnico del nord della Cina classificato nei 56 gruppi etnici riconosciuti ufficialmente dalla Repubblica popolare cinese. Il loro nome letteralmente significa "popolo che vive sulle montagne".
Vivono principalmente nelle Mongolia Interna e lungo il fiume Heilongjiang (Amur), in una zona denominata Bandiera autonoma di Oroqen, una landa costituita perlopiù da foreste e con capoluogo la piccola cittadina di Alihe.
La popolazione si attesta sui 7.000 individui, che parlano la propria lingua nativa, l'orogen (ceppo Tungus, gruppo Manchi-tungusic, famiglia di lingue altaiche), o il cinese. Non hanno nessun linguaggio scritto.
Sono per la maggior parte cacciatori e sono soliti indossare pellicce o abiti fatti con pelli di animali. Gli animali che vivono nelle steppe innevate sono anche la loro fonte primaria di cibo (cervi, alci, cinghiali, renne). Alcuni di loro hanno smesso di praticare la caccia e si sono adeguati alle leggi in vigore in Cina per quanto riguarda la protezione degli animali. Il governo centrale, infatti, ha promesso case ed approvvigionamenti a tutti gli Orogen che abbandonano il vecchio stile di vita.
Le loro abitazioni sono tradizionalmente costruite in legno, hanno una particolare forma di cono e sono denominate Xierenzhu (letteralmente: casa su pali di legno).
Gli Orogen sono rappresentati al Congresso dei Popoli da un proprio delegato e sono riconosciuti come minoranza etnica.FONTE:
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Oroqen people (simplified Chinese: 鄂伦春族; traditional Chinese: 鄂倫春族; pinyin: Èlúnchūn zú; Mongolian: Orčun; also spelt Orochen or Orochon) are an ethnic group in northern China. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China. According to the 2000 Census, 44.54% live in Inner Mongolia and 51.52% along the Heilongjiang River (Amur) in the province of Heilongjiang. The Oroqin Autonomous Banner is also located in Inner Mongolia.
The Oroqens are mainly hunters and it is customary of them to use animal fur and skins for clothing. Many of them have given up hunting and adhered to laws that aimed to protect wildlife in the People's Republic of China. The government is said to have provided modern dwellings for those who have left behind the traditional way of life. The Oroqen are represented in the People's Congress by their own delegate and they are a recognized ethnic minority.
The Oroqen language is a Northern Tungusic language. Their language is very similar to the Evenki language and it is believed that speakers of these two languages can understand 70% of the other language. Their language is still unwritten; however, the majority of the Oroqen are capable of reading and writing Chinese and some can also speak the Daur language.
The Oroqen ethnic group is one of the oldest ethnic groups in northeast China. Their name Oroqen, means "people using reindeer" (in Mongolian, it means "Guruchin"), it is a name they gave themselves. The ancestor of the Oroqens originally lived in the vast area south of the Outer Xing'an Mountains and north of Heilongjiang. They once formed part of the ancient people known as the Shiwei. In the 17th century, following the invasions by Russia, some Oroqens moved to the area near the Greater and Lesser Xing'an Mountains.
The Oroqen are exogamous and only marriages among members of different clans are permitted. The traditional dwelling is called a sierranju (Chinese: xierenzhu) is covered in the summer with birch bark and in the winter with deer furs. These dwellings have conical forms and are made out of 20 to 30 pine sticks. The dwellings are usually about six meters of diameter and five meters of height. In the center a fire is placed that serves so much as of a kitchen and as of source of lighting. Birch bark is an important raw material in the traditional culture next to the furs. It served for the preparation of containers of all types, from the manufacture of children cradles to boats. With respect to the reindeer herding Evenki, Oroqen and Nanai, which all shared the use of birch bark, it can be said that these cultures are part of a "birch bark" culture.
Until the early 1950s the main religion of the nomadic Oroqen was shamanism. In the summer of 1952 cadres of the Chinese communist party coerced the leaders of the Oroqen to give up their "superstitions" and abandon any religious practices. These tribal leaders, Chuonnasuan (Meng Jin Fu) and Zhao Li Ben, were also powerful shamans. The special community ritual to "send away the spirits" and beg them not to return was held over three nights in Baiyinna and in Shibazhan.
The last living shaman of the Oroqen, Chuonnasuan (Meng Jin Fu), died at the age of 73 on 9 October 2000. His life, initiatory illness, and training as a shaman are detailed in a published article, also online available.
Sacrifices to ancestral spirits are still routinely made, and there is a folk psychological belief in animism.
Traditionally the Oroqen have a special veneration for animals, especially the bear and the tiger, which they consider their blood brothers. The tiger is known to them as wutaqi which means "elderly man" while the bear is amaha which means "uncle“.
This is a photo of Chuonnasuan (1927-2000), the last shaman of the Oroqen people, taken by Richard Noll in July 1994 in Manchuria near the Amur River border between the People's Republic of China and Russia (Siberia). Oroqen shamanism is now extinct.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chuonnasuan,_the_last_shaman_of_the_Oroqen,_in_July_1994_%28Photo_by_Richard_Noll%29.jpg
1. ^ Noll, Richard; Shi, Kun (2004). "Chuonnasuan (Meng Jin Fu). The Last Shaman of the Oroqen of Northeast China" (pdf). Journal of Korean Religions (6): 135–162. http://www.desales.edu/assets/desales/SocScience/Oroqen_shaman_FSSForumAug07.pdf. It describes the life of Chuonnasuan, the last shaman of the Oroqen of Northeast China.
* "The people on mountains—the Oroqen nationality". Nationalities in Northeast China and Inner Mongol. Science Museums of China • Computer Network Information Center of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CNIC,CAS). http://www.kepu.net.cn/english/nationalityne/oro/200312050026.html.
* Noll, Richard; Shi, Kun (2004). "Chuonnasuan (Meng Jin Fu). The Last Shaman of the Oroqen of Northeast China" (pdf). Journal of Korean Religions (6): 135–162. http://www.desales.edu/assets/desales/SocScience/Oroqen_shaman_FSSForumAug07.pdf. It describes the life of Chuonnasuan, the last shaman of the Oroqen of Northeast China.
* Orochen Foundation