Oggi voglio parlarvi di un merviglioso animale alato che annuncia tradizionalmente la primavera. Secondo la leggenda più nota il suo petto diventò rosso quando staccò una spina dalla corona insanguinata della testa di Cristo.
Nella prima parte vedremo, grazie a wikipedia, alcuni stralci (perciò se ne consiglia la visione anche alla fonte originale) di documenti riguardanti le sue caratteristiche, nella seconda invece scopriremo alcune curiosità e soprattutto il simbolismo totemico.
Buona lettura! FONTE:
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.
Il pettirosso (Erithacus rubecula, Linnaeus 1758) è un piccolo uccello passeriforme che antecedentemente era classificato come facente parte della famiglia dei Turdidae e ora classificato come parte della famiglia dei Muscicapidae.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pettirosso_Inverno.jpg
Attribution: Diamonddavej at en.wikipedia
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Erithacus-rubecula-melophilus_Dublin-Ireland.jpg
AUTORE: André Karwath aka Aka
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:European_Robin_aka.jpg
* Lunghezza = 13 - 14 cm
* Peso = 11 - 22 grammi
* Apertura alare = 6,8 - 7,7 cm
* Età media = 3 - 4 anni
Il pettirosso è un piccolo uccello cantore europeo molto comune. Pur avendo dimensioni ridotte è conosciuto per il suo comportamento spavaldo. È di aspetto paffuto e senza collo. Gli adulti hanno il petto e il fronte colorato di arancio. Il resto del piumaggio è di colore bruno oliva. Ai giovani manca la colorazione arancione e sono fortemente macchiettati. Il comportamento è confidente rispetto all'uomo ed ha attitudine vivaci note a tutti. Spesso quando si lavora in giardino e si rigira la terra il pettirosso si avvicina molto all'uomo per ricercare vermi o insetti venuti alla luce. È presente in Italia tutto l'anno, insettivoro, migratore a breve raggio, territoriale anche durante lo svernamento.
I boschi di conifere sono il suo habitat naturale, ma è spesso presente anche in giardini, siepi, boschetti, boschi con sottobosco. Nidifica nei buchi o nelle spaccature di alberi, ai piedi delle siepi, nell'edera o anche in vecchi oggetti lasciati dall'uomo (esempio bollitore). Il nido ha la forma di una tazza perfettamente rotonda.
Il pettirosso si nutre in aperta campagna nel sottobosco. Il suo regime alimentare è composto soprattutto da Invertebrati che vivono nel suolo (insetti, coleotteri, lumache, vermi e ragni). Durante l'autunno e fino alla primavera consuma anche molte bacche e frutti piccoli. La sua tecnica per procacciare il cibo è ben adattata alla vegetazione densa e agli spazi aperti che si trovano sia nel sottobosco sia nei giardini. Accovacciato su un ramo basso osserva l'ambiente vicino e quando individua una preda vola giù e l'afferra per poi accovacciarsi di nuovo. Può anche saltellare sul terreno, fermandosi qua e là per individuare una preda. Nella foresta l'uccello spesso approfitta dal fatto che altri animali (cinghiali, cervi o fagiani) disturbano gli insetti o altri animali nel sottosuolo. Forse per questo motivo è sempre molto interessato a seguire una persona intenta a zappare la terra. Si sono anche osservati dei pettirossi che seguivano una talpa, intenta a scavare la galleria, per catturare i vermi.
Il richiamo è un tic persistente e spesso ripetuto. Il canto è una serie variata e definita di frasi corte e altamente gorgheggiate. Sia il maschio che la femmina cantano d'inverno quando occupano territori separati. Questo vuole dire che il canto è udibile durante tutto l'anno. Spesso cantano anche all'imbrunire o al buio e vengono confusi con l'usignolo.
[modifica] Specie simili
Presso i centri abitati di medio-bassa quota possono essere osservati in primavera ed estate altri piccoli turdidi, quali il Codirosso spazzacamino, il Codirosso e l'Usignolo (Luscinia megarhynchos). Quest'ultimo, grande come un passero e di forme più slanciate rispetto al Pettirosso, è caratterizzato da un piumaggio bruno uniforme con coda castana; il forte e melodioso canto, emesso anche di notte, è molto noto.
Il Codirosso (Phoenicurus phoenicurus), grande quanto il Pettirosso, è caratterizzato dalla coda rossastra spesso agitata in modo frenetico e dal piumaggio più chiaro di quello del congenere Codirosso spazzacamino; il maschio è molto vistoso: fronte bianca, gola nera, petto rossiccio e dorso grigio.
* BirdLife International 2008. Erithacus rubecula. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Versione 2010.1
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rotkehlchen_WP.jpgFONTE
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The European Robin (Erithacus rubecula), most commonly known in Anglophone Europe simply as the Robin, is a small insectivorous passerine bird that was formerly classed as a member of the thrush family (Turdidae), but is now considered to be an Old World flycatcher (Muscicapidae). Around 12.5–14.0 cm (5.0–5.5 in) in length, the male and female are similar in colouration, with an orange breast and face lined with grey, brown upperparts and a whitish belly. It is found across Europe, east to Western Siberia and south to North Africa; it is sedentary in most of its range except the far north.
The term Robin is also applied to some birds in other families with red or orange breasts. These include the American Robin (Turdus migratorius), which is a thrush, and the Australian red robins of the genus Petroica, members of a family whose relationships are unclear.
The European Robin was one of the many species originally described by Linnaeus in his 18th century work, Systema Naturae, under the name of Motacilla rubecula. Its specific epithet rubecula is a diminutive derived from the Latin ruber 'red'. The genus Erithacus was created by French naturalist Georges Cuvier in 1800, giving the bird its current binomial name of E. rubecula.
The distinctive orange breast of both sexes contributed to the European Robin's original name of redbreast (orange as the name of a colour was unknown in English until the sixteenth century, by which time the fruit of that name had been introduced). In the fifteenth century, when it became popular to give human names to familiar species, the bird came to be known as Robin redbreast, which was eventually shortened to Robin. Other older English names for the bird include Ruddock and Robinet. In American literature of the late 19th century, this robin was frequently called the English Robin. The Frisian robyntsje or robynderke is similar to the English name, while Dutch Roodborstje and French Rouge-gorge both refer to the distinctively coloured front.
The Robin belongs to a group of mainly insectivorous birds that have been variously assigned to the thrushes or "flycatchers", depending on how these groups were perceived taxonomically. Eventually, the flycatcher-thrush assemblage was re-analysed and the genus Erithacus assigned to a group of thrush-like true flycatchers, the tribe Saxicolini, that also includes the nightingale and the Old World chats.
Two Eastern Palearctic species are usually placed in the genus Erithacus, the Japanese Robin (E. akahige) and the Ryūkyū Robin (E. komadori), the latter being a restricted-range island species. Biogeography and mtDNA cytochrome b sequence data indicate that these might better be classified with some Far Eastern "nightingales", leaving only the European species in Erithacus.
In its large continental Eurasian range, Robins vary somewhat, but do not form discrete populations that might be considered subspecies. Thus, Robin subspecies are mainly distinguished by forming resident populations on islands and in mountainous areas. The Robin found in the British Isles and most of western Europe, Erithacus rubecula melophilus, also occurs as a vagrant in adjacent regions. E. r. witherbyi from Northwestern Africa, Corsica, and Sardinia closely resembles melophilus but for a shorter wing length. The northeasternmost birds, large and fairly washed-out in colour are E. r. tataricus. In the southeast of its range, E. r. valens of the Crimean Peninsula, E. r. caucasicus of the Caucasus and N Transcaucasia, and E. r. hyrcanus southeastwards into Iran are generally accepted as significantly distinct.
On Madeira and the Azores, the local population has been described as E. r. microrhynchos, and although not distinct in morphology, its isolation seems to suggests the subspecies is valid (but see below). The most distinct birds are those of Tenerife and Gran Canaria (E. (r.) superbus), which may be a distinct species, the Tenerife Robin, Erithacus superbus. It is readily distinguished by a white eye-ring, an intensely coloured breast, and a grey line that separates the orange-red from the brown colouration. Its belly is entirely white. Robins from the western Canary Islands – El Hierro, La Palma and La Gomera – on the other hand are indistinguishable from European E. r. rubecula. While cytochrome b sequence data and vocalisations indicate that the Tenerife/Gran Canaria Robins are indeed very distinct and probably derived from colonisation by mainland birds some 2 million years ago, The west Canary Islands populations are younger (Middle Pleistocene) and only beginning to diverge genetically. In addition, Tenerife and Gran Canaria birds are well distinct genetically and the latter have been named E. (r.) marionae; a thorough comparison between superbus and marionae is pending. Initial results suggest that birds from Gran Canaria have wings about 10% shorter than those on Tenerife.
 Other robins
The larger American Robin (Turdus migratorius) is named for its similarity to the European Robin, but the two birds are not closely related. The similarity lies largely in the orange chest patch in both species. This American species was incorrectly shown "feathering its nest" in London in the film Mary Poppins, but it only occurs in the UK as a very rare vagrant. Some Central and South American Turdus thrushes are also named as robins such as the Mountain Robin (T. plebejus). The Australian "robin redbreast", more correctly the Scarlet Robin (Petroica multicolor), is more closely related to the crows and jays than it is to the European Robin. It belongs to the family Petroicidae, commonly called "Australasian robins". The Red-billed Leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea) is sometimes named "Pekin Robin" by aviculturalists. Yet another group of Old World Flycatchers, this time from Africa and Asia is the genus Copsychus; its members are known as Magpie-robins, one of which, the Oriental Magpie Robin (C. saularis), is the national bird of Bangladesh.
The Robin has a fluting, warbling song in the breeding season, when they often sing into the evening, and sometimes into the night, leading some to confuse them with the Nightingale (Luscinia megarhynchos). Nocturnal singing in urban Robins occurs in places that are noisy during the day, suggesting that they sing at night because it is quieter, and their message can propagate through the environment more clearly. Daytime noise outperformed night-time light pollution as a predictor of nocturnal singing activity in urban robins in Sheffield, England. Both the male and female sing during the winter, when they hold separate territories, the song then sounding more plaintive than the summer version. The female Robin moves a short distance from the summer nesting territory to a nearby area that is more suitable for winter feeding. The male Robin keeps the same territory throughout the year.
The Robin is diurnal, although has been reported to be active hunting insects on moonlit nights or near artificial light at night. Well known to British and Irish gardeners, it is relatively unafraid of people and likes to come close when anyone is digging the soil, in order to look out for earthworms and other food freshly turned up. Indeed, the robin is considered to be a gardener's friend and for various folklore reasons the robin would never be harmed. In continental Europe on the other hand, robins were hunted and killed as with most other small birds, and are more wary. Robins also approach large wild animals, such as wild boar and other animals which disturb the ground, to look for any food that might be brought to the surface. In autumn and winter, robins will supplement their usual diet of terrestrial invertebrates, such as spiders, worms and insects, with berries and fruit. They will also eat seed mixtures placed on bird-tables.
Male Robins are noted for their highly aggressive territorial behaviour. They will attack other males that stray into their territories, and have been observed attacking other small birds without apparent provocation. Such attacks sometimes lead to fatalities, accounting for up to 10% of adult Robin deaths in some areas.
Because of high mortality in the first year of life, a Robin has an average life expectancy of 1.1 years; however, once past its first year it can expect to live longer and one Robin has been recorded as reaching the age of 12 years. A spell of very low temperature in winter may also result in significant mortality. This species is parasitised by the moorhen flea, Dasypsyllus gallinulae.
The avian magnetic compass of the Robin has been extensively researched and uses Vision-Based Magnetoreception, in which the Robin's ability to sense the magnetic field of the earth for navigation is affected by the light entering the bird's eye. The physical mechanism of the Robin's magnetic sense is not fully understood, but may involve quantum entanglement of electron spins.
The robin features prominently in British folklore, and that of northwestern France, but much less so in other parts of Europe. It was held to be a storm-cloud bird and sacred to Thor, the god of thunder, in Norse mythology. More recently, it has become strongly associated with Christmas, taking a starring role on many Christmas cards since the mid 19th century. The Robin has also appeared on many Christmas postage stamps. An old British folk tale seeks to explain the Robin's distinctive breast. Legend has it that when Jesus was dying on the cross, the Robin, then simply brown in colour, flew to his side and sang into his ear in order to comfort him in his pain. The blood from his wounds stained the Robin's breast, and thereafter all Robins got the mark of Christ's blood upon them. An alternative legend has it that its breast was scorched fetching water for souls in Purgatory. The association with Christmas, however, more probably arises from the fact that postmen in Victorian Britain wore red uniforms and were nicknamed "Robin"; the Robin featured on the Christmas card is an emblem of the postman delivering the card. Robins also feature in the traditional children's tale, Babes in the Wood; the birds cover the dead bodies of the children.
In the 1960s, in a vote publicised by The Times newspaper, the Robin was adopted as the unofficial national bird of the UK. The Robin was then used as a symbol of a Bird Protection Society.
Several English and Welsh sports organisations are nicknamed "The Robins". These include the professional football (soccer) clubs Bristol City, Swindon Town, Cheltenham Town (whose home colours are red) and, traditionally, Wrexham FC, as well as the English Rugby League team Hull Kingston Rovers (whose home colours are white with a red band). A small bird is an unusual choice, though it is thought to symbolise agility in darting around the field. Moreover, the Swindon Robins is the full name of the local Speedway promotion.FONTE
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The American Robin or North American Robin (Turdus migratorius) is a migratory songbird of the thrush family. It is named after the European Robin because of its reddish-orange breast, though the two species are not closely related, with the European robin belonging to the flycatcher family. The American Robin is widely distributed throughout North America, wintering south of Canada from Florida to central Mexico and along the Pacific Coast. It is the state bird of Connecticut, Michigan, and Wisconsin. It has seven subspecies, but only T. m. confinis in the southwest is particularly distinctive, with pale gray-brown underparts.
The American Robin is active mostly during the day and assembles in large flocks at night. Its diet consists of invertebrates (such as beetle grubs and caterpillars), fruits and berries. It is one of the earliest bird species to lay eggs, beginning to breed shortly after returning to its summer range from its winter range. Its nest consists of long coarse grass, twigs, paper, and feathers, and is smeared with mud and often cushioned with grass or other soft materials. It is among the first birds to sing at dawn, and its song consists of several discrete units that are repeated.
The adult robin is preyed upon by hawks, cats and larger snakes, but when feeding in flocks, it is able to be vigilant and watch other birds for reactions to predators. Brown-headed Cowbirds lay eggs in robin nests (see brood parasite), but robins usually reject the cowbird eggs.
American Robin -- Humber Bay Park (East) (Toronto, Canada) -- 2005, by en:User:Mdf
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Turdus-migratorius-002.jpg
The American Robin is the state bird of Connecticut, Michigan and Wisconsin. It was also depicted on the 1986 Birds of Canada series Canadian $2 note, but this note has since been withdrawn. Robin's egg blue is a color named after the bird's eggs.
The Tlingit people of Northwestern North America held it to be a culture-hero created by Raven to please the people with its song.
One of the Houses of the Raven Tribe from the Nisga'a Nation holds the Robin as a House Crest.
The Robin is considered a symbol of spring. A well-known example is a poem by Emily Dickinson, "I Dreaded That First Robin So". Among other 19th-century poems about the first robin of spring is "The First Robin" by Dr. William H. Drummond, which according to the author's wife is based on a Quebec superstition that whoever sees the first robin of spring will have good luck.
American popular songs featuring this bird include "When the Red, Red Robin (Comes Bob, Bob, Bobbin' Along)", written by Harry M. Woods and a hit for Al Jolson and others, and "Rockin' Robin", written by Roger Thomas and a hit for Bobby Day and others.
Although the comic-book superhero Robin was inspired by an N. C. Wyeth illustration of Robin Hood, a later version had his mother nicknaming him Robin because he was born on the first day of spring. His red shirt suggests the bird's red breast.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:American_Robin_KSC01pp1005.jpg
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:AmericanRobinNestWithEggs.jpg