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 Masaru Emoto and memory of water - Masaru Emoto e la memoria dell'acqua

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MessaggioOggetto: Masaru Emoto and memory of water - Masaru Emoto e la memoria dell'acqua   Gio 31 Mar 2011 - 16:56

FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masaru_Emoto


Masaru Emoto
(江本勝 Emoto Masaru; Yokohama, 22 luglio 1943) è uno pseudoscienziato e saggista giapponese
conosciuto per il suo controverso pensiero (sulla presunte "memoria
dell'acqua"), riguardo al rapporto tra i pensieri umani e l'acqua, considerata a una temperatura convenzionale di -4 °C.
Egli sostiene di avere documentato, con fotografie di cristalli
d'acqua, il fatto che i cristalli assumerebbero a suo dire una forma
armonicamente simmetrica o, al contrario, caotica e disordinata, in
conseguenza della presunta "energia" a cui sarebbero esposti, sia essa
sotto forma di suono (voce, musica), parola scritta (etichetta applicata
a una brocca) o di pensiero[1].
Dal 1999 Emoto ha pubblicato diversi libri della stessa collana, intitolati Messages from Water
(Messaggi dall'acqua), contenenti fotografie di cristalli d'acqua a suo
dire sottoposti al trattamento con "preghiera, musica o scritte
avvicinate a contenitori d'acqua".
Le sue asserzioni sono state pesantemente criticate dalla comunità
scientifica internazionale, che ha sottolineato come non esistano prove
scientifiche di merito, come sia impossibile riprodurre in condizioni
controllate le sue affermazioni, e che Emoto, oltre a non avere
competenze scientifiche, abbia avviato un'ampia attività commerciale
privata, basata sulla vendita di libri e prodotti fondati solo sulle sue
teorie prive di fondamento scientifico[2][3][4].


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masaru_Emoto


Masaru Emoto (江本 勝, Emoto Masaru?, born July 22, 1943) is a Japanese
author and entrepreneur known for his claim that if human speech or
thoughts are directed at water droplets before they are frozen, images
of the resulting water crystals
will be "beautiful" or "ugly" depending upon whether the words or
thoughts were positive or negative. Emoto claims this can be achieved
through prayer, music or by attaching written words to a container of
water.
Since 1999 Emoto has published several volumes of a work titled Messages from Water, which contains photographs of water crystals next to essays and "words of intent."
In addition to his books, Emoto also sells various water products
from his websites and catalogs, which are purported to have healing
properties derived from his research and experiments.
Masaru Emoto (江本 勝, Emoto Masaru?, born July 22, 1943) is a Japanese
author and entrepreneur known for his claim that if human speech or
thoughts are directed at water droplets before they are frozen, images
of the resulting water crystals
will be "beautiful" or "ugly" depending upon whether the words or
thoughts were positive or negative. Emoto claims this can be achieved
through prayer, music or by attaching written words to a container of
water.
Since 1999 Emoto has published several volumes of a work titled Messages from Water, which contains photographs of water crystals next to essays and "words of intent."
In addition to his books, Emoto also sells various water products
from his websites and catalogs, which are purported to have healing
properties derived from his research and experiments.
Commentators have criticized Emoto for insufficient experimental controls,[6] and for not sharing enough details of his approach with the scientific community.[7]
In addition, Emoto has been criticized for designing his experiments in
ways that leave them open to human error influencing his findings.[8]
In the day-to-day work of his group, the creativity of the
photographers rather than the rigor of the experiment is an explicit
policy of Emoto.[9] Emoto freely acknowledges that he is not a scientist,[10] and that photographers are instructed to select the most pleasing photographs.[11]
In 2003, James Randi publicly offered Emoto one million dollars if his results can be reproduced in a double-blind study.[12]
In 2005, Kristopher Setchfield from the Natural Science Department at Vermont published a paper[13] that analyzed deeper motives regarding Emoto's study. In his paper, Kristopher writes,
Unfortunately for his credibility with the scientific community,
Dr. Emoto sells products based on his claims. For example, the products
page of Emoto's Hado website is currently offering "geometrically
perfect" "Indigo water" that is "highly charged hexagonally structured
concentrate," and supposedly creates "structured water" that is "more
easily assimilated at the cellular level" for $35 for an eight-ounce
bottle. Without providing scientific research references for the
allegedly amazing qualities of his Indigo Water, Emoto's commercial
venture calls to mind ethical concerns regarding his intent and
motivation—questions that would not be present if any scientist had
published research supporting his claims.

In 2006, Emoto published a paper together with Dean Radin and others in the journalExplore: The Journal of Science and Healing. They describe that in a double blind
test approximately 2000 people in Tokyo could increase the aesthetic
appeal of water stored in a room in California, compared to water in
another room, solely through their positive intentions.[14]
Triple-blind study


A better-controlled "triple-blind" follow-up study published in the Journal of Scientific Exploration
did not yield positive results. More than 1,900 of Mr. Emoto's
followers focused gratitude on water bottles in a vault over a period of
three days. The water was then frozen and compared to two different
sets of controls in a very elaborate protocol. The crystals, both
"treated" and not, on average, were not considered to be particularly
beautiful (scoring 1.7 on a scale of 0 to 6, where 6 was very
beautiful). The treated crystals were also rated slightly less beautiful
than a set of controls. An objective comparison of contrast did not
reveal any significant differences among the samples.[15]
There were, however, potential problems with the "triple-blind" follow up. As the study explains:
In any experiment involving intention, the intentions of the
"investigators" cannot be cleanly isolated from those of the nominal
participants and this in turn constrains how one should properly
interpret the results. In addition, there were many uncontrolled degrees
of freedom in this experiment which may have allowed ‘‘unintended
intentional’’ effects to creep in. They all involve human decisions,
e.g. selecting six specific bottles of water from a huge population of
available bottles, randomly assigning those bottles to three conditions,
selecting and preparing the water drops, placing the water drop samples
inside the freezer, searching for and photographing ice crystals on the
frozen water drops at different magnification levels, choosing one of a
large possible set of image processing algorithms to provide an
objective measure of image contrast, and so on."[16]




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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Masaru Emoto and memory of water - Masaru Emoto e la memoria dell'acqua   Gio 31 Mar 2011 - 16:59

FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_memory

La memoria dell'acqua

Water memory is a conjecture that water is capable of retaining a "memory" of substances once dissolved in it to arbitrary dilution.[1][2] Shaking the water at each stage of a serial dilution is claimed to be necessary for an effect to occur.[3] The concept was proposed by Jacques Benveniste to explain the purported therapeutic powers of homeopathic remedies, which are prepared by diluting solutions to such a high degree that not even a single molecule of the original substance remains in most final preparations. Benveniste sought to prove this basic tenet of homeopathy by conducting an experiment to be published "independently of homeopathic interests" in a major journal.[4]

While some studies, including Benveniste's, have reported such an effect, double-blind replications of the experiments involved have failed to reproduce the results, and the concept is not accepted by the scientific community.[5] Liquid water does not maintain ordered networks of molecules longer than a small fraction of a nanosecond.[6]

The most prominent advocate of this idea was the French immunologist Jacques Benveniste.[4] His team at the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM) diluted a solution of human antibodies to such a degree that there was virtually no possibility that a single molecule remained. Nonetheless, they reported, human basophils responded to the solutions just as though they had encountered the original antibody (part of the allergic reaction). The effect was reported only when the solution was shaken violently during dilution. Benveniste stated: "It's like agitating a car key in the river, going miles downstream, extracting a few drops of water, and then starting one's car with the water." [7] At the time, Benveniste offered no theoretical explanation for the effect.

Benveniste submitted the research to the prominent science journal Nature for publication. There was concern on the part of Nature's editorial oversight board that the material, if published, would lend credibility to homeopathic practitioners even if the effects were not replicable.[7] There was equal concern that the research was simply wrong, given the changes that it would demand of the known laws of physics and chemistry. The editor of Nature, John Maddox, stated that, "Our minds were not so much closed as unready to change our whole view of how science is constructed."[7] Rejecting the paper on any objective grounds was deemed unsupportable, as there were no methodological flaws apparent at the time.

In the end, a compromise was reached. The paper was published in Nature Vol. 333 on 30 June 1988,[3] but it was accompanied with an editorial by Maddox that noted "There are good and particular reasons why prudent people should, for the time being, suspend judgment" and described some of the fundamental laws of chemistry and physics which it would violate, if shown to be true.[1] Additionally, Maddox demanded that the experiments be re-run under the supervision of a hand-picked group of what became known as "ghostbusters", including Maddox, famed magician-cum-paranormal researcher James Randi, and Walter Stewart, a physicist and freelance debunker at the U.S. National Institutes of Health.

In the first series of supervised experiments, the original experimental procedure was followed as it had been when the paper was first submitted for publication. The experiments were successful, matching the published data quite closely. However, Maddox noted that during the procedure the experimenters were aware of which test tubes originally contained the antibodies and which did not. A second experimental series was started with Maddox and his team in charge of the double-blinding; notebooks were photographed, the lab videotaped, and vials juggled and secretly coded. Randi went so far as to wrap the labels in tinfoil, seal them in an envelope, and then stick them on the ceiling so Benveniste and his colleagues could not read them. No memory effect was observed in the blinded experiments.

Nature published a follow-up report in the next issue:[8] "We conclude that there is no substantial basis for the claim that antiIgE at high dilution (by factors as great as 10120) retains its biological effectiveness, and that the hypothesis that water can be imprinted with the memory of past solutes is as unnecessary as it is fanciful." Nevertheless, there was no suggestion of fraud; Maddox and his team initially speculated that someone in the lab "was playing a trick on Benveniste,"[7] but later concluded, "We believe the laboratory has fostered and then cherished a delusion about the interpretation of its data." Maddox also pointed out that two of Benveniste's researchers were being paid for by the French homeopathic company Boiron.

In a response letter published in the same issue of the journal, Benveniste lashed out at Maddox and complained about the "ordeal" he endured at the hands of the Nature team, comparing it to "Salem witchhunts or McCarthy-like prosecutions."[9] In both the Nature response and a following Quirks and Quarks episode, Benveniste especially complained about Stewart, who he stated acted as if they were all frauds and treated them with disdain, complaining about his "typical know-it-all attitude". In his Nature letter, Benveniste also implied that Randi was attempting to hoodwink the experimental run by doing magic tricks, "distracting the technician in charge of its supervision!" He was more apologetic on Quirks and Quarks, re-phrasing his mention of Randi to imply that he had kept the team amused with his tricks and that his presence was generally welcomed. He also pointed out that although it was true two of his team-members were being paid for by a homeopathic company, the same company had paid for Maddox's team's hotel bill.

Maddox was unapologetic, stating "I'm sorry we didn't find something more interesting." On the same Quirks and Quarks show he dismissed Benveniste's complaints, stating that the possibility that the results would be unduly promoted by the homeopathy community demanded an immediate re-test. In failing, the tests demonstrated that the initial results were likely due to the experimenter effect. He also pointed out that the entire test procedure that Benveniste later complained about was one that had been agreed upon in advance by all parties. It was only when the test then failed that Benveniste disputed its appropriateness.

The debate continued in the letters section of Nature for several issues before being ended by the editorial board. It continued in the French press for some time.[10] For all of the arguing over the retests, it has done nothing to stop what Maddox worried about; even in the light of their failure they are still used to claim that the experiments "prove" that homeopathy works.[11] One of Benveniste's co-authors on the Nature paper, Francis Beauvais, later stated that while unblinded experimental trials usually yielded "correct" results (i.e. ultradiluted samples were biologically active, controls were not), "the results of blinded samples were almost always at random and did not fit the expected results: some 'controls' were active and some 'active' samples were without effect on the biological system."[12]
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