Forum di sciamanesimo, antropologia e spirito critico
Nei momenti più bui, ricorda sempre di fare un passo alla volta.
Voler ottenere tutto e subito è sciocco
Nei momenti più difficili, ricorda sempre che le abitudini stabiliscono un destino.
Stabilisci quelle che ti danno energia e crescita.
È solo nell’ora più profonda del Duat, nella Notte oscura dell’anima che possiamo vedere noi stessi.
E capire come superare la notte.
Non rifuggire l’oscurità, impara a vederci attraverso.
Tutto passa e scorre, il giorno diviene notte e la notte giorno.
Ciò che è bene per te ora domani diverrà un ostacolo e un impedimento, o un danno, e viceversa.
Tutto finisce e muta, come la pelle di un serpente.
Impara ad essere la volontà pura di vivere e non la pelle morta di un intento esaurito.
Tutto ciò che non supera l’alba del tuo nuovo giorno, non deve essere portato con te.
Il mondo è infinito, non giudicare perdite e guadagni come il piccolo pescatore che non ha mai visto l’Oceano.
Sconfinate sono le possibilità della Ruota.
Impara a fluire e solo allora senza occhi, senza orecchie né pensiero, vedrai, sentirai e capirai il Tao.
(Admin - Shamanism & Co. © 2011 - All rights reserved)


Forum di sciamanesimo, antropologia e spirito critico

forum di sciamanesimo, antropologia, spirito critico, terapie alternative, esoterismo. Forum of shamanism, anthropology, criticism, alternative therapies and esoterism
 
IndicePortaleFAQCercaRegistrarsiAccedi

Condividere | 
 

 Puma: pazienza, controllo.

Vedere l'argomento precedente Vedere l'argomento seguente Andare in basso 
AutoreMessaggio
Tila
Iniziato Sciamano
Iniziato Sciamano


Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Puma: pazienza, controllo.   Mar 3 Mag 2011 - 13:25

Mi sono accorta che mancava un altro splendido esemplare dei felidi...magnifico animale dall'aspetto nobile e fiero.

Nella prima parte riporto soltanto stralci degli articoli di wikipedia, perciò per un approfondimento si consiglia la visione ai link originali.

Buona lettura!

FONTE:
http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puma_concolor

Puma concolor
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Il puma (Puma concolor o Felis concolor), chiamato anche coguaro o leone di montagna, è un carnivoro appartenente alla famiglia dei Felidi presente in America settentrionale, centrale e meridionale. Pur essendo un animale di grande taglia, nell'ambito dei felidi è più vicino come parentela ai gatti che ad altri felini di dimensioni simili come i leopardi. Il suo parente più prossimo si è recentemente rivelato essere il giaguarondi[1], simile al puma in alcuni dettagli d'aspetto (colore, pupilla tonda) ma piccolo come un gatto domestico.

La parola "puma" viene dalla lingua amerindia quechua ed era considerato animale sacro dagli Aztechi e Maya del Messico. Nella lingua inglese esistono più di 40 nomi differenti per indicare il puma, spesso usati solo a livello regionale, come cougar, mountain lion, panther, catamount, e painted cat. In Brasile il puma viene chiamato suçuarana, dalla lingua tupi; da quest'ultimo termine, attraverso un complesso passaggio tra una lingua e un'altra, si è giunti al termine inglese "cougar", usato nei media statunitensi con una frequenza forse maggiore di "puma".[2][3][4]

Il nome "mountain lion" fa invece riferimento alla sua somiglianza estetica con una leonessa (dovuta al colore marrone-rossastro con la punta della coda nera), mentre "catamount" è derivato da mountain cat (gatto di montagna).[5]

Nell'America del Nord, in particolare negli Stati Uniti, la parola panther ("pantera") da sola si riferisce al puma, sebbene il termine black panther ("pantera nera") sia correttamente associato solo con le varianti affette da melanismo di leopardi o di giaguari, piuttosto che di puma. In Europa e in Asia, "pantera" significa "leopardo" e si può riferire sia al leopardo maculato sia a quello nero. Nell'America meridionale, "pantera" si riferisce solo al giaguaro, sia quello maculato, sia quello nero. Il gene del melanismo si può trovare in una grande varietà di felini, compresi il leone, la tigre, il leopardo, il giaguaro, il caracal, il jaguarondi, il serval, l'ocelot, il margay, la lince rossa; non sono mai stati documentati, tuttavia, casi di melanismo nell'America settentrionale in Puma concolor, anche se persistono leggende metropolitane di "pantere nere". Tali resoconti aneddotici hanno particolare vigore sugli Appalachi degli Stati Uniti orientali, una regione dove è comunemente accettato il fatto che il Puma concolor sia stato interamente estinto prima della fine del XIX secolo, e dove non sono state documentate presenze ristabilite di popolazioni in propagazione fino al 2005.

Caratteristiche

Recenti studi sui geni suggeriscono che il puma sia imparentato in modo relativamente stretto al ghepardo nordamericano estinto Miracinonyx; recenti ricerche molecolari[1] sembrano indicare una discreta affinità anche con il ghepardo moderno, con il quale presenta alcune similitudini esteriori. Per contro, il puma non è uno stretto parente dei veri grandi felini (il leone, la tigre, il giaguaro, il leopardo ecc.), e viene tassonomicamente classificato con i piccoli felini, ma, fra questi ultimi, è nettamente il più grande (anche nel caso si includesse il ghepardo tra i "piccoli" felini, il puma rimarrà comunque il membro più pesante della sottofamiglia). I puma che vivono più vicino all'equatore sono i più piccoli, e crescono in grandezza nelle popolazioni più vicine ai poli.

Il puma è alto 70 cm circa dalla spalla. La sua lunghezza, esclusa la coda, è in media di 130 cm per i maschi e 110 cm per le femmine, cui si aggiungono tra i 66 e i 78 cm di coda. Il suo peso varia dai 50 ai 70 kg circa per i maschi (ma alcuni esemplari possono arrivare anche a 120 kg) e dai 35 ai 50 kg circa per le femmine. Confrontando le dimensioni generali dei felidi di maggiore taglia[6], il puma risulta essere al quarto posto dopo leone, tigre e giaguaro ed insieme al leopardo (mentre il ghepardo, di altezza simile al puma, è molto più leggero).

Il pelo è corto, morbido, folto e dal colore uniforme e molto variabile. Le zampe anteriori hanno 5 dita, mentre quelle posteriori 4, con unghie retrattili. I puma sono tra gli animali più agili, potendo fare salti alti 4 metri e lunghi 10, e detengono il record di "salto in alto" tra tutti i mammiferi terrestri.

L'aspetto generale del puma ricorda quello di diversi altri felini: la colorazione è come quella del leone, mentre le proporzioni corporee ricordano vagamente quella di un robusto ghepardo (al quale è forse più affine). Il coguaro ha in comune con quest'ultimo la testa piccola e tondeggiante, il collo piuttosto lungo, il corpo snello e le zampe più lunghe e sottili di quelle di altri felidi di grossa taglia (benché queste caratteristiche non siano così accentuate come nel ghepardo); tuttavia le estremità delle zampe sono robuste come nei felini più tipici. Nella bocca hanno 4 grandi canini, 12 incisivi più piccoli e 14 molari, come tutti i Felidi. I puma emettono numerosi richiami, che si differenziano da maschio e femmina, ma, a differenza dei grandi felini, nessun ruggito. Il richiamo più noto di questo animale[7] (descritto da alcuni ricercatori nordamericani come Truman Everts simile a quello dell'uomo) viene spesso attribuito nei prodotti USA ad altri grandi felidi, in particolare il leopardo e la pantera nera.[8]

In libertà, i puma possono raggiungere dai 18 ai 20 anni d'età, sebbene la loro vita duri di solito un decennio; in cattività arrivano ai 25 anni o più. Possono anche essere addomesticati.



FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cougar_sitting.jpg

Colore

Il più delle volte i puma sono bruno fulvo, biondo rossiccio, o grigio argento; il mento ed il petto, comunque, sono sempre biancastri. I puma appena nati sono di colore beige, pezzati, ed hanno degli anelli sulla coda; la pezzatura sbiadisce durante i primi anni di vita. Esistono anche puma anormalmente pallidi e persino bianchi. Sono stati descritti pure puma di colore marrone anormalmente scuro con addomi bianchi, soprattutto nell'America meridionale e centrale, chiamati couguar noire da Georges-Louis Leclerc, conte di Buffon. Non ci sono resoconti autenticati di puma affetti da vero melanismo nell'America settentrionale [1] [2] [3].

Stile di vita
[modifica] Alimentazione

I puma cacciano mammiferi di quasi tutte le taglie. Nel Nordamerica si annoverano cervi e renne fra le prede del puma, ma anche topi, ratti, moffette, procioni, castori ed opossum, come pure pecore e giovani bovini. Anche altri predatori come i coyote e le linci rosse possono essere sopraffatti dal puma. Oltre ai mammiferi, il puma si nutre anche di uccelli e, in alcune regioni, di pesci. Non mangia, però, carogne ed evita anche i rettili.

Per abbattere una preda più grossa, il puma inizialmente le si avvicina di soppiatto. Da una distanza più breve le salta addosso sul dorso e le rompe l'osso del collo con un forte morso alla gola. Ha una fortissima potenza muscolare nelle gambe ed è il felino che riesce a spiccare i balzi maggiori, fino a 13,5 m in lunghezza e 4,5 in altezza (inufficialmente sono stati riportati salti di 18 metri). Arriva alla velocità di 80 km/h in corsa, ma occasionalmente può raggiungere 96 km/h, rendendolo perciò il felino più veloce dopo il ghepardo. Il puma tuttavia è molto più forte del ghepardo e a differenza di quest'ultimo utilizza la lotta corpo-a-corpo per sottomettere la preda: riesce a gettare a terra con l'aiuto della corsa animali 8 volte il suo peso (puma femmine di 45 kg hanno atterrato caribu di 360 kg) ed è diverse volte più forte di un uomo (le stime vanno da 5 a 8 volte per esemplari di 70–80 kg). A differenza del leopardo, il comportamento di mettere al riparo le prede sugli alberi non sembra essere mai stato riscontrato nel puma, il che forse indica una maggiore capacità di competere con gli altri carnivori del suo ambiente.

Il puma è un felino timido, che evita solitamente gli insediamenti umani. Occasionalmente, tuttavia, può attaccare l'uomo. Negli Stati Uniti si verificano, di solito, circa quattro avvenimenti del genere ogni anno; vittime degli attacchi sono perlopiù bambini. Si tratta dell'unico dei "piccoli felini" ad essere considerato potenzialmente pericoloso per le persone.

Il puma stesso, oltre all'uomo, ha pochi nemici da temere. Solo lupi ed orsi possono ogni tanto predare puma giovani o malati in Nordamerica; in Sudamerica l'unico vero competitore è il giaguaro.

Riproduzione

Essendo solitari, i puma si incontrano solo durante il periodo dell'accoppiamento, che spesso, anche se non esclusivamente, va da novembre a giugno, per sei giorni al massimo, prima che il maschio abbandoni di nuovo la femmina alcune settimane prima del parto. Il periodo di gestazione dura circa tre mesi. Una figliata può essere composta da uno a sette cuccioli, di norma due o tre. Ogni piccolo pesa dai 230 ai 450 grammi, ed è grande da 20 a 30 centimetri. I cuccioli assumono cibo solido dopo circa 6-7 settimane e si separano dalla madre dopo circa 20 mesi.

La presenza di un mantello maculato nei piccoli coguari è considerato un tratto ancestrale ereditato dall'antenato comune dei felini e carnivori affini (anche i leoni presentano questa caratteristica), nonché un esempio di tratto infantile arcaico che si perde nell'adulto.[9]


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mountain_lion_kittens.jpg

Sottospecie

Si distinguono tradizionalmente tra le 24 e le 32 sottospecie di puma. Nell'America del Nord, due vengono considerate estinte. Come particolarmente minacciata è classificata la pantera della Florida (Puma concolor coryi), che nelle regioni paludose delle Everglades è sopravvissuta agli stermini. Ne esistono soltanto meno di 80 esemplari (secondo altre fonti tra 25 e 50) non in cattività. La salvezza di questa piccola sottospecie di puma, dal colore rosso intenso, è pertanto uno degli obiettivi principali delle organizzazioni locali per la salvaguardia dell'ambiente. Per proteggerli ed analizzarli, ogni animale è dotato di un collare elettronico per l'identificazione e la determinazione dell'ubicazione.

La pantera della Florida è l'unica sottospecie che sopravvive a est del Mississippi, da dove scomparve a causa della caccia abusiva dei coloni europei durante i secoli XIX e XX. L'altra sottospecie occidentale, il coguaro del Wisconsin (Puma concolor schorgeri) fu sterminata ufficialmente nel 1925, sebbene da allora si siano registrati avvistamenti non verificati. È possibile che anche il puma orientale (Puma concolor cougar) sia attualmente estinto.

Altre sottospecie esistenti sono:

* Puma del Mato Grosso (Puma concolor acrocodia)
* Puma del Venezuela meridionale (Puma concolor anthonyi)
* Puma del sud (Puma concolor araucanus)
* Puma messicano (Puma concolor azteca)
* Puma della Colombia (Puma concolor bangsi)
* Leone di Yuma (Puma concolor browni)
* Puma della California (Puma concolor californica)
* Puma brasiliano (Puma concolor concolor)
* Puma dell'America centrale (Puma concolor costaricensis)
* Puma amazzonico (Puma concolor discolor)
* Coguaro del Colorado (Puma concolor hippolestes)
* Puma della Bassa California (Puma concolor improcera)
* Puma del Perù (Puma concolor incarum)
* Coguaro dell'Arizona (Puma concolor kaibabensis)
* Puma maya (Puma concolor mayensis)
* Coguaro del Montana (Puma concolor missoulensis)
* Coguaro dell'Oregon (Puma concolor oregonensis)
* Puma della Bolivia (Puma concolor osgoodi)
* Puma della Patagonia (Puma concolor patagonica)
* Puma argentino (Puma concolor pearsoni)
* Puma cileno (Puma concolor puma)
* Puma dell'Ecuador (Puma concolor soderstromi)
* Puma del Texas (Puma concolor stanleyana)
* Coguaro di Vancouver (Puma concolor vancouverensis)

Recenti studi di genetica molecolare (M. Culver e altri) suggeriscono tuttavia che in realtà esistono solo sei sottospecie:

* Puma concolor couguar: America del Nord e America centrale fino al nord del Nicaragua
* Puma concolor costaricensis: dal Nicaragua a Panama
* Puma concolor concolor: nord dell'America del Sud
* Puma concolor capricornis: est dell'America del Sud (Brasile)
* Puma concolor puma: sud dell'America del Sud (Cile e sud dell'Argentina)
* Puma concolor cabrerae: centro dell'America del Sud (Bolivia, Paraguay e nord dell'Argentina)

e che la differenziazione di più sottospecie è priva di fondamento scientifico. Con l'eccezione di una popolazione del nordovest degli Stati Uniti, i puma rappresentano tutti una popolazione omogenea. Nell'America centrale e meridionale si trova maggiore variabilità. Queste conclusioni sono state più tardi riviste, scoprendo che lo spazio vitale del puma durante l'ultima era glaciale fu limitato al Sudamerica, con l'eccezione di una piccola area circoscritta nel nordovest degli Stati Uniti. A questo studio si accompagna anche una rivalutazione delle sottospecie estinte e minacciate.

Minaccia ed importanza per gli uomini

Anche se protetto, il puma viene tuttavia cacciato da alcuni contadini, preoccupati del loro patrimonio zootecnico. La specie nel complesso, però, non è considerata in pericolo. Il puma perlopiù fugge l'uomo; solo in casi eccezionali aggredisce degli adulti.

Il puma era altamente rispettato presso gli indiani d'America. A lui venivano attribuite qualità come il comando, la forza, l'ingegno, la lealtà, l'impegno e il coraggio.

I colonizzatori bianchi nell'America del Nord hanno a lungo cacciato il puma, non solo per proteggere il proprio bestiame da questo animale, ma anche perché ambivano al suo trofeo.

Un popolo nordamericano, gli erie, trae forse dal puma il proprio nome, che viene considerato un'abbreviazione di erielhonan, in italiano "lunga coda". Per questo motivo erano chiamati dai francesi anche Nation du Chat, "popolo del gatto".

[modifica] Il puma nella cultura popolare

* Nello slang inglese, il termine cougar, o cougar woman (plurale cougars e cougar women), che letteralmente significa "coguaro" e quindi "puma", è passato ad indicare una donna più che trentenne, e spesso più che quarantenne, in cerca di rapporti con uomini molto più giovani; di solito questo tipo di donne sono finanziariamente indipendenti, tali da poter mantenere anche le loro "prede".

* "Los Pumas" è il nome con cui, nel gergo del rugby, si indica la nazionale argentina; ciò è dovuto all'errore di un giornalista sudafricano che nel 1965, durante una tournée dei Pumas, li definì così con riferimento al felino presente nel loro stemma il quale, però, è un giaguaro. Visti buoni risultati di quel tour, gli argentini mantennero il nomignolo, utilizzando il termine "Jaguars" solo per una selezione sudamericana creata per opportunità politica negli anni '80 per affrontare il Sudafrica nel periodo del bando per l'Apartheid. Altre squadre nazionali che prendono il nome da un animale sono, tra le altre, i Wallabies (nazionale australiana; wallaby è il termine con cui si indicano alcune specie di canguro) e gli Springboks (nazionale sudafricana; lo springbok è una piccola antilope).


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cougar

Cougar
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The cougar (Puma concolor), also known as puma, mountain lion, mountain cat, catamount or panther, depending on the region, is a mammal of the family Felidae, native to the Americas. This large, solitary cat has the greatest range of any large wild terrestrial mammal in the Western Hemisphere,[3] extending from Yukon in Canada to the southern Andes of South America. An adaptable, generalist species, the cougar is found in every major American habitat type. It is the second heaviest cat in the American continents after the jaguar. Although large, the cougar is most closely related to smaller felines.

A capable stalk-and-ambush predator, the cougar pursues a wide variety of prey. Primary food sources include ungulates such as deer, elk, moose, and bighorn sheep, as well as domestic cattle, horses and sheep, particularly in the northern part of its range. It will also hunt species as small as insects and rodents. This cat prefers habitats with dense underbrush and rocky areas for stalking, but it can also live in open areas. The cougar is territorial and persists at low population densities. Individual territory sizes depend on terrain, vegetation, and abundance of prey. While it is a large predator, it is not always the dominant species in its range, as when it competes for prey with other predators such as the jaguar, grey wolf, American Black Bear, and the grizzly bear. It is a reclusive cat and usually avoids people. Attacks on humans remain fairly rare, despite a recent increase in frequency.[4]

Due to excessive hunting following the European colonization of the Americas and the continuing human development of cougar habitat, populations have dropped in most parts of its historical range. In particular, the cougar was extirpated in eastern North America in the beginning of the 20th century, except for an isolated sub-population in Florida. However, in recent decades, breeding populations have moved east into the far western parts of the Dakotas, Nebraska, and Oklahoma. Also, transient males have been verified as far east as the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and Illinois, where a cougar was shot in the city limits of Chicago.[5][6][7]


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mountain_lion.jpg

Naming and etymology

With its vast range, the cougar has dozens of names and various references in the mythology of the indigenous Americans and in contemporary culture. The cougar has numerous names in English, of which puma and mountain lion are popular. Other names include catamount, panther, mountain screamer and painter. Lexicographers regard painter as a primarily upper-Southern U.S. regional variant on "panther",[8] but a folk etymology, fancying a resemblance between the typically dark tip of its tail and a paintbrush dipped in dark paint, has some currency.

The cougar holds the Guinness record for the animal with the highest number of names, presumably due to its wide distribution across North and South America. It has over 40 names in English alone.[9]

"Cougar" may be borrowed from the archaic Portuguese çuçuarana, via French; the term was originally derived from the Tupi language. A current form in Brazil is suçuarana. It may also be borrowed from the Guaraní language term guaçu ara or guazu ara. "Puma" comes, via Spanish, from the Quechua language.[10][11][12]

Taxonomy and evolution


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Puma_face.jpg

he cougar is the largest of the small cats. It is placed in the subfamily Felinae, although its bulk characteristics are similar to those of the big cats in the subfamily Pantherinae.[1] The family Felidae is believed to have originated in Asia approximately 11 million years ago. Taxonomic research on felids remains partial and much of what is known about their evolutionary history is based on mitochondrial DNA analysis,[13] as cats are poorly represented in the fossil record,[14] and there are significant confidence intervals with suggested dates. In the latest genomic study of Felidae, the common ancestor of today's Leopardus, Lynx, Puma, Prionailurus, and Felis lineages migrated across the Bering land bridge into the Americas approximately 8 to 8.5 million years (Mya) ago. The lineages subsequently diverged in that order.[14] North American felids then invaded South America 3 Ma ago as part of the Great American Interchange, following formation of the Isthmus of Panama. The cougar was originally thought to belong in Felis (Felis concolor), the genus which includes the domestic cat. As of 1993, it is now placed in Puma along with the jaguarundi, a cat just a little more than a tenth its weight.

Studies have indicated that the cougar and jaguarundi are most closely related to the modern cheetah of Africa and western Asia,[14][15] but the relationship is unresolved. It has been suggested that the cheetah lineage diverged from the Puma lineage in the Americas (see American cheetah) and migrated back to Asia and Africa,[14][15] while other research suggests the cheetah diverged in the Old World itself.[16] The outline of small feline migration to the Americas is thus unclear.

Recent studies have demonstrated a high level of genetic similarity among the North American cougar populations, suggesting that they are all fairly recent descendants of a small ancestral group. Culver et al. suggest that the original North American population of Puma concolor was extirpated during the Pleistocene extinctions some 10,000 years ago, when other large mammals such as Smilodon also disappeared. North America was then repopulated by a group of South American cougars.[15]

Subspecies

Until the late 1980s, as many as 32 subspecies were recorded; however, a recent genetic study of mitochondrial DNA[15] found that many of these are too similar to be recognized as distinct at a molecular level. Following the research, the canonical Mammal Species of the World (3rd edition) recognizes six subspecies, five of which are solely found in Latin America:[1]

Argentine puma (Puma concolor cabrerae)
includes the previous subspecies and synonyms hudsonii and puma (Marcelli, 1922);
Costa Rican Cougar (Puma concolor costaricensis)
Eastern South American cougar (Puma concolor capricornensis)
includes the previous subspecies and synonyms acrocodia, borbensis, capricornensis, concolor (Pelzeln, 1883), greeni and nigra;
North American Cougar (Puma concolor couguar)
includes the previous subspecies and synonyms arundivaga, aztecus, browni, californica, coryi, floridana, hippolestes, improcera, kaibabensis, mayensis, missoulensis, olympus, oregonensis, schorgeri, stanleyana, vancouverensis and youngi;
Northern South American cougar (Puma concolor concolor)
includes the previous subspecies and synonyms bangsi, incarum, osgoodi, soasoaranna, sussuarana, soderstromii, suçuaçuara and wavula;
Southern South American puma (Puma concolor puma)
includes the previous subspecies and synonyms araucanus, concolor (Gay, 1847), patagonica, pearsoni and puma (Trouessart, 1904)

The status of the Florida panther, here collapsed into the North American Cougar, remains uncertain. It is still regularly listed as subspecies Puma concolor coryi in research works, including those directly concerned with its conservation.[17] Culver et al. themselves noted low microsatellite variation in the Florida panther, possibly due to inbreeding;[15] responding to the research, one conservation team suggests "the degree to which the scientific community has accepted the results of Culver et al. and the proposed change in taxonomy is not resolved at this time."[18]

Biology and behavior
[edit] Physical characteristics

Cougars are slender and agile members of the cat family. They are the fourth largest cats[19][20] and adults stand about 60 to 76 centimeters (2.0 to 2.5 ft) tall at the shoulders. The length of adult males is around 2.4 meters (8 ft) long nose to tail, with overall ranges between 1.5 and 2.75 m (5 and 9 ft) nose to tail suggested for the species in general.[21][22] Of this length, 63–96 cm (25–38 in) is comprised by the tail.[23] Males typically weigh 53 to 100 kilograms (115 to 220 pounds), averaging 62 kg (137 lb). Females typically weigh between 29 and 64 kg (64 and 141 lb), averaging 42 kg (93 lb).[24][25][26] Cougar size is smallest close to the equator, and larger towards the poles.[3]

The head of the cat is round and the ears erect. Its powerful forequarters, neck, and jaw serve to grasp and hold large prey. It has five retractable claws on its forepaws (one a dewclaw) and four on its hind paws. The larger front feet and claws are adaptations to clutching prey.[27]

Cougars can be almost as large as jaguars, but are less muscular and not as powerful; where their ranges overlap, the cougar tends to be smaller than average. The cougar is on average larger and heavier than the leopard. Despite its size, it is not typically classified among the "big cats", as it cannot roar, lacking the specialized larynx and hyoid apparatus of Panthera.[28] Like domestic cats, cougars vocalize low-pitched hisses, growls, and purrs, as well as chirps and whistles. They are well known for their screams, as referenced in some of their common names, although these screams are often misinterpreted to be the calls of other animals.[29]

Cougar coloring is plain (hence the Latin concolor) but can vary greatly between individuals and even between siblings. The coat is typically tawny, but ranges to silvery-grey or reddish, with lighter patches on the under body including the jaws, chin, and throat. Infants are spotted and born with blue eyes and rings on their tails;[24] juveniles are pale, and dark spots remain on their flanks.[22] Despite anecdotes to the contrary, all-black coloring (melanism) has never been documented in cougars.[30] The term "black panther" is used colloquially to refer to melanistic individuals of other species, particularly jaguars and leopards.[31]

Cougars have large paws and proportionally the largest hind legs in the cat family.[24] This physique allows it great leaping and short-sprint ability. An exceptional vertical leap of 5.4 m (18 ft) is reported for the cougar.[32] Horizontal jumping capability from standing position is suggested anywhere from 6 to 12 m (20 to 40 ft). The cougar can run as fast as 55 to 72 km/h (35 to 45 mi/h),[33] but is best adapted for short, powerful sprints rather than long chases. It is adept at climbing, which allows it to evade canine competitors. Although it is not strongly associated with water, it can swim.[34]

Social structure and home range

Like almost all cats, the cougar is a solitary animal. Only mothers and kittens live in groups, with adults meeting only to mate. It is secretive and crepuscular, being most active around dawn and dusk.

Estimates of territory sizes vary greatly. Canadian Geographic reports large male territories of 150 to 1000 square kilometers (58 to 386 sq mi) with female ranges half the size.[33] Other research suggests a much smaller lower limit of 25 km2 (10 sq mi) but an even greater upper limit of 1300 km2 (500 sq mi) for males.[39] In the United States, very large ranges have been reported in Texas and the Black Hills of the northern Great Plains, in excess of 775 km2 (300 sq mi).[45] Male ranges may include or overlap with those of females but, at least where studied, not with those of other males, which serves to reduce conflict between cougars. Ranges of females may overlap slightly with each other. Scrape marks, urine, and feces are used to mark territory and attract mates. Males may scrape together a small pile of leaves and grasses and then urinate on it as a way of marking territory.[34]

Home range sizes and overall cougar abundance depend on terrain, vegetation, and prey abundance.[39] One female adjacent to the San Andres Mountains, for instance, was found with a large range of 215 km2 (83 sq mi), necessitated by poor prey abundance.[42] Research has shown cougar abundances from 0.5 animals to as much as 7 (in one study in South America) per 100 km2 (38 sq mi).[24]

Because males disperse farther than females and compete more directly for mates and territory, they are most likely to be involved in conflict. Where a sub-adult fails to leave his maternal range, for example, he may be killed by his father.[45] When males encounter each other, they hiss, spit, and may engage in violent conflict if neither backs down.[40] Hunting or relocation of the cougar may increase aggressive encounters by disrupting territories and bringing young, transient animals into conflict with established individuals.[46]

Relationships with humans

In mythology

The grace and power of the cougar have been widely admired in the cultures of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. The Inca city of Cusco is reported to have been designed in the shape of a cougar, and the animal also gave its name to both Inca regions and people. The Moche people represented the puma often in their ceramics.[84] The sky and thunder god of the Inca, Viracocha, has been associated with the animal.[85]

In North America, mythological descriptions of the cougar have appeared in the stories of the Hocąk language ("Ho-Chunk" or "Winnebago") of Wisconsin and Illinois[86] and the Cheyenne, amongst others. To the Apache and Walapai of Arizona, the wail of the Cougar was a harbinger of death.[87]


Moche puma, Larco Museum collection
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:MochePuma.jpg

Livestock predation

During the early years of ranching, cougars were considered on par with wolves in destructiveness. According to figures in Texas in 1990, 86 calves (0.0006% of a total of 13.4 million cattle & calves in Texas), 253 Mohair goats, 302 Mohair kids, 445 sheep (0.02% of a total of 2.0 million sheep & lambs in Texas) and 562 lambs (0.04% of 1.2 million lambs in Texas) were confirmed to have been killed by cougars that year.[88][89] In Nevada in 1992, cougars were confirmed to have killed 9 calves, 1 horse, 4 colts, 5 goats, 318 sheep and 400 lambs. In both cases, sheep were the most frequently attacked. Some instances of surplus killing have resulted in the deaths of 20 sheep in one attack.[90] A cougar's killing bite is typically applied to the back of the neck or head, differing greatly from the throat bite used by coyotes and indiscriminate mutilation by feral dogs. The size of the tooth puncture marks also helps distinguish kills made by cougars from those made by smaller predators.[91]

Attacks on humans

See also: List of fatal cougar attacks in North America

Due to the expanding human population, cougar ranges increasingly overlap with areas inhabited by humans. Attacks on humans are rare, as cougar prey recognition is a learned behavior and they do not generally recognize humans as prey.[4] Attacks on people, livestock, and pets may occur when the cat habituates to humans or is in a condition of severe starvation. Attacks are most frequent during late spring and summer, when juvenile cougars leave their mothers and search for new territory.[59]

Between 1890 and 1990, in North America there were 53 reported, confirmed attacks on humans, resulting in 48 nonfatal injuries and 10 deaths of humans (the total is greater than 53 because some attacks had more than one victim).[92] By 2004, the count had climbed to 88 attacks and 20 deaths.[93]

Within North America, the distribution of attacks is not uniform. The heavily populated state of California has seen a dozen attacks since 1986 (after just three from 1890 to 1985), including three fatalities.[58] Lightly populated New Mexico reported an attack in 2008, the first there since 1974.[94]

As with many predators, a cougar may attack if cornered, if a fleeing human stimulates their instinct to chase, or if a person "plays dead". Exaggerating the threat to the animal through intense eye contact, loud but calm shouting, and any other action to appear larger and more menacing, may make the animal retreat. Fighting back with sticks and rocks, or even bare hands, is often effective in persuading an attacking cougar to disengage.[4][59]

When cougars do attack, they usually employ their characteristic neck bite, attempting to position their teeth between the vertebrae and into the spinal cord. Neck, head, and spinal injuries are common and sometimes fatal.[4] Children are at greatest risk of attack, and least likely to survive an encounter. Detailed research into attacks prior to 1991 showed that 64% of all victims–and almost all fatalities–were children. The same study showed the highest proportion of attacks to have occurred in British Columbia, particularly on Vancouver Island where cougar populations are especially dense.[92] Preceding attacks on humans, cougars display aberrant behavior, including: active during daylight hours, unafraid of humans, and stalking humans.[95] There have sometimes been incidents of pet cougars mauling people.[96][97]



FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cougar_closeup.jpg


Ultima modifica di Tila il Mar 5 Lug 2011 - 13:14, modificato 1 volta
Tornare in alto Andare in basso
Tila
Iniziato Sciamano
Iniziato Sciamano


Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Re: Puma: pazienza, controllo.   Mer 4 Mag 2011 - 12:56

Sulla simbologia di questo magnifico animale ho trovato tantissimo materiale, cercherò nei prossimi giorni di completare la scheda...

Oggi vedremo, nell'articolo seguente, che tra le sue capacità e simboli c'è la sua forza, è un animale molto forte ed è consapevole di ciò, il puma vi insegnerà a non abusare di tale forza, è un leader nato, è astuto, potente, sono sempre in attività, hanno autocontrollo, sono degli ottimi amici e amano la famiglia.

Venerato in molte tribù, considerato il ponte di collegamento tra la mente e lo spirito, colui che insegna l'equilibrio della natura.

Per chi ha questo totem sono molto utili le discipline tipo lo Yoga o il Tai Chi.

FONTE: http://wolfs_moon.tripod.com/cougartotem.html

~Life Paths~
Animal Totems & Earth Medicine

Spirit of Cougar

with

Wolfs Moon

Role: Leader~
Lesson: Proper Use of Power
Element: Earth
Wind: West ~The Quest Within~
Medicine: Emissary

Spectral figure
prowls the night,
your yellow eyes burning bright,
as you watch the story
of Humanity unfold

Wisdom garnered
through experiences faced,
a proud lineage of courage traced
back through the haunting canyons
of Time untold

Your chilling scream
pierces the veil,
the resonating echo leaves a trail
that speaks to us
of a soul that stands alone

Emissary & messenger,
of the planes you travel between,
though rarely heard and seldom seen,
our souls respond in resplendent joy
when you guide us ~Home~

~Keywords~

Leadership Standing Behind Convictions Confidence
Clever Awareness Learning Proper use of Power
Messenger between Humans & The Divine Beings
Balance Steadfast Responsible
Dependable


Leadership

Watching the Cougar (also known in other cultures and regions as either
Puma or Mountain Lion) one is keenly aware of the formidable grace and power that is reflected in every stride taken or leap made. And yet the sense is that the Cougar has a conscious awareness of his strength and the potential to inflict great harm with very little effort, a fact that is reflected in the tenderness with which the female cougar treats her young as a mouth that can easily crush bones is also capable of exceptional gentleness as she bathes her cubs.

Adults can weigh in anywhere between 100 - 200 lbs., with an average
length of 48 - 60 inches with an additional 28 inches of tail. They are renowned jumpers, possessing the ability to leap 30 feet horizontally and up to 18 feet vertically, a testimony to the powerful leg muscles of these magnificent creature beings.

***For the two-legged beside whom Cougar strides, there will exist an inherent power and strength that is the very core of their Being. These are incredibly powerful individuals, though such power is gifted via a process of trial and error as the Cougar soul learns the difference between using such formidable power, and abusing it.

Most Cougar individuals have an inner respect and understanding of their
own abilities and hence, will generally not throw their weight around unless they are either backed into a corner from which there is no obvious escape, or unless they are operating from an extremely damaged or unintegrated Personality Center. Yet for those who begin wielding such a gift in a reckless manner, many painful encounters and situations will arise that may initially perplex the one who walks with Cougar, bringing losses in fortune, falls from positions of leadership or even public humiliation and/or scandal. Eventually, the unintegrated Mountain Lion will reflect upon the choices that have led him/her to such losses and embarrassments
and, in new found humility, they will recognize the Lessons behind such experiences and (in most instances) modify their behavior and beliefs accordingly.

One of the hallmark characteristics of the Cougar Soul, is an innate quest to
reach the best within themselves. It matters not whether they reach the top of the corporate ladder, excel academically, or are the leader of a cherished cause, these individuals will exude the sense that they are meant to be in the role of leader.

Interestingly however, most two-leggeds beside whom Cougar pads, will be reluctant leaders and will often find themselves at the top of the chain of command during an emergency or crisis when less capable individuals collapse around them. Seeing what needs to be done and acting accordingly, the Mountain Lion will stabilize the unbalanced situation and perform damage control. This capacity to calmly assess and rectify problem situations will not go unnoticed, and here again may lie a challenge for the Cougar soul.

Because they generally make reluctant admirals (at least initially), the one that journeys with Mountain Lion may appear somewhat unimpressed with gaining the same promotion that may be jealously coveted by their peers. Such apparent indifference is often misinterpreted as arrogance, and petty envy amongst co-workers often surfaces as a result.

When Cougar Soul can embrace in humility and grace his/her Gift of
Leadership and wield such power with compassion and strength, the leap is made to a higher plane of unity with the Soul’s Unique Purpose for incarnating.***

Standing Behind Convictions

Most cultures that have Cougar as one of several key figures of their lore
recognize this beautiful cat as a creature of great strength, cunning and power. And in observing the Mountain Lion in the wild, it is easy to see where such tales of prowess stem from as they utilize not only their strength alone, but also employ their intelligence and stealth.

By looking at the solid and long form of the Cougar, it becomes apparent that these cats are designed for multiple tasks, as their large paws bespeak of an ability to traverse a wide variety of terrain from grassy paths to high granite walls. Their long, thick tails assist them with balancing in precarious positions and heights, while their muscular legs propel them higher and longer in leaps than any other cat. Such a diverse design hints at the ability these animals have to gain dominance over their environment and maneuver in areas virtually inaccessible to other creatures of the wild.

***As Cougar is sure-footed atop their canyon and desert perches, so is the
two-legged beside whom Cougar strides, certain of his/her approach to life. Much like their Totem Spirit, the human counterpart will exude an aura of quiet strength that will make an impression upon Others.

The impression made will almost always be one of respect and/or
admiration, though the Cougar Soul seems to elicit extreme responses in Others. While some peers encountered taking an instant liking to the Cougar individual, while others will feel immediately threatened by the strong presence and hence an immediate and vehement dislike may ensue.

Yet all who come to know the individual beside whom Mountain Lion
journeys will tend to agree that these are souls that stand firm in their beliefs and convictions. These are the sort of people who appear to have a moral fiber made of bedrock as they will seldom waver or be badgered from their beliefs.

Although their moral/spiritual beliefs may not necessarily be “traditional,”
they will have a set of self-imposed code of ethics and morality that they will stand firmly behind. These granite philosophies are part of what makes these individuals so highly trusted by friends, family and those who know the strength of character the Cougar soul exhibits.

Conversely, there will be an equal number of detractors that would love
nothing more than to see Mountain Lion tumult from a position of great height, as perhaps their own honesty and conviction pales in comparison to the Cougar’s lofty spirituality. Such individuals who are operating from a point of insecurity deeply rooted in a unintegrated Personality Center, will tend to project their own unresolved issues off onto the Cougar soul, rather than examine where they may improve and enrich their own lives by living in closer accordance with their own belief system.

When challenged on their morals or beliefs, the Cougar individual will
become much like the Mountain Lion defending his/her territory, and an ordinarily placid two-legged can come out with fangs bared when backed into a corner. Such attacks on their beliefs are capable of cutting right to the core of the Cougar soul, as these are honorable people that do their upmost to be trustworthy, dependable and honest.

If a two-legged with Cougar as a Totem is operating from the Shadow or
~Contrary Medicine,~ there may exist a tendency to be dogmatic in their practices or beliefs, holding very little patience for philosophy or belief systems different from their own. Yet this is rare, as most Mountain Lion’s respect the “spiritual territories” of others almost as much as they guard their own right to think and believe as they see fit.

For the two-legged operating from the Higher Octave of Cougar Medicine, the men are the knights in shining armor of eras long past that live and defend the values of trust, honesty, faithfulness and honor. The female Cougars are the ~Earth Mothers~ that exude an aura of Oneness with the All and a deep reverence for the environment. In both the male and female, a profound connection and respect for the ancient customs and traditions of indigenous people will be felt and expressed, though they themselves may not have been born with Native American blood and remind Others of the importance of respect for the Wisdom of the Elders.***

Balance

As previously stated, the Cougar is the top cat when it comes to leaps of
distance and height. This is due to both the strong leg muscles these felines possess, as well as the balancing weight of their tails.

Most often, the Mountain Lion (true to one of its names) dwells atop lofty
perches in mountains and canyons, as well as high desert mesas. Such heights as these animals dwell requires sure-footedness and grace of movement, and herein their long and thick tails are employed to assist with balance as is required of those who exist in such precarious terrain. Acting as a highly effective counterbalance, the Cougar’s tail assists in steadying them as they walk along the narrow pathways and crevices etched from the granite and sandstone cliffs in which these beautiful creature beings call home.

***For the two-legged with Cougar as a Primary Totem, the keyword of
Balance becomes crucial in integrating a ~holistic~ Mind/Body & Spirit approach. Although these individuals are by nature very sensual and “earthy” types (and as such there will be an emphasis on their physical ~Self~), they are also keenly aware of the needs of the mind and soul as well. If the Cougar Soul is in good physical shape yet is not developing his/her spiritual side, or conversely, if the one beside whom Mountain Lion stalks is involved in spiritual learning and growth but they don’t exercise their body or mind, the unbalance will be more keenly felt than it would be for other individuals. The result is that there will be much inner turmoil
and stress with the questioning of “what is missing in my life?” becoming a predominant pondering.

The best form of physical exercise for the Cougar individual would be one
that takes into consideration the Whole Self (again, Mind/Body and Spirit). An excellent example of such well targeted exercise for the Mountain Lion, would be Yoga, or perhaps Ti-chi, as these are both forms of exercise that employ All levels of the Self . . . the body is in movement, the energy centers are being stimulated and aligned, and the mind is in deep focus or meditation.

If you are a Cougar Soul and are currently feeling “out of alignment,” pay attention to this feeling and heed it, for this is precisely what is occurring. Stop and take an honest evaluation of your life and your approach to this Journey. What are you neglecting, or what areas of your life and expression are you over-indulging in? Because Balance is such a key for you, it is crucial for your development that you become aware of your keen need for a WHOLE approach to life.

Are there certain individuals that are draining you of your energy, freedom or right to express yourself in a healthy and meaningful manner? If so, then those relationships need to also be evaluated in detached honesty. Because of your powerful, yet unassuming nature, there will be those that will seek to undermine your confidence and balance. If this is the case, confrontation, restructuring of relationships or even some “endings” may be in order.

The art of Balancing your life ought to be approached in stages however, as it is also quite characteristic of the Mountain Lion individual to immediately leap into action and attempt to take on too much at once. The key here is moderate and progressive steps forward. No matter how long the journey takes, and regardless of the occasional step or two “backward,” so long as more movement is made forward than back, the Journey is being walked and the goal is drawing ever nearer. Remember, we all arrive exactly where we need to be, exactly when we need to be there.***

Messenger between Humans & The Divine Beings

Native American lore holds the Cougar as the champion of the two-legged
who presents the humans “case” to the ~One Above.~ Acting as the emissary on behalf of we of the two-leggeds, Cougar asks for forgiveness for our follies and misbehavers while carrying messages between human and the Divine.

Because Humans are capable of intentional and unprovoked violence, spite,
hatred and other emotions and behaviors not witnessed in the Creature Beings, the task of emissary for Cougar can be a challenging one. He/she must find the Light at the center of the darkness, the beauty and grace that lives beyond the sometimes tangled core of the human personality center.

For his faithful guidance and support of we humans, he is revered amongst
many tribes, and given thanks for acting on our behalf. His belief in us a faith that may best be reciprocated in acts of kindness to All Life, compassion and embracing in understanding the surface and transitory ~differences~ of spiritual beliefs, race or economic background of our fellow two-leggeds. In this manner, we show our thankfulness for his faith and trust in us.

***Cougar Spirit will travel beside a two-legged who possesses a keen insight and perception. This insight may surface via an ~extra-sensory-perception,~ or it may firmly rooted in a more ~practical~ understanding of the human psyche and subconscious mind. Both mediums and psychotherapists are often found with Cougar as a Primary Animal Ally.

The Mountain Lion Soul will often be a bridge of understanding between
two diametrically opposed individuals, factions or groups as theirs is the Medicine of Emissary. As such, others will often turn to them for their non-partial perspective as the Cougar individual is quite capable of seeing all sides of any given situation. Then, when he/she becomes connected with a cause or belief, they make excellent, out-spoken proponents of such a cause and hence are outstanding spokespersons for a variety of ventures which capture their attention.

While such Medicine brings the Gift of harmony between opposites, the
individual with Cougar as a Totem will often find him/herself in the middle of an argument, attempting to bring understanding and equilibrium to both “sides.” This is a beautiful trait when it is the Cougar’s conscious choice to become involved, yet the challenge is that the two-legged beside whom Mountain Lion walks may often find themselves immersed without a conscious decision to do so. Friends, family even strangers may take advantage of their inherent drive to be a mediator, and in those moments, the Cougar Soul may suddenly find themselves the target of attack from either side, becoming the “middle person” in an entirely uncomfortable sense of the word!

By establishing clear boundaries and guidelines with Others as to when and
by how much, they are willing to act as a “go between,” the Cougar individual is fulfilling his/her principle Medicine of Messenger without falling victim to the unresolved issues and grievances of Others. As the Cougar grows from cub to adult (spiritually/metaphorically speaking), the lessons learned in defining boundaries assists as they fulfill their Medicine of Messenger and teach Others the power of understanding and harmony.***-

Tornare in alto Andare in basso
Tila
Iniziato Sciamano
Iniziato Sciamano


Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Re: Puma: pazienza, controllo.   Sab 7 Mag 2011 - 14:50

Nel seguente documento il puma è simbolicamente associato alla leardship, è un totem potente che ci insegna ad essere leader senza abusare del potere.

FONTE: http://www.linsdomain.com/totems/pages/cougar.htm

COUGAR, MOUNTAIN LION

Muscles rippling, free on the mountains,
Great cat of cunning, hunting and seeking,
Teach me quietness and stealth of purpose.
Show me the secrets of quiet magic.

Leadership

This is a very powerful, but very difficult totem.
Cougar medicine is the lesson of the use of power,
how to be an effective, fair leader and not abuse power.

This totem’s gift is how to balance power, intention, strength and grace.
It is the balance of body, mind and spirit.
The first responsibility of leadership is truth.
Remember: Responsibility is no more than the ability to respond to any situation.
Cougar can teach you how to bring out your power
and fill your heart with it that will enable you to take charge of your life.
You can use Cougar power to defend yourself or to attack.

Some of the information on this webpage was derived from the following sources:
Sans, Jamie & Carson, David. Medicine Cards: the Discovery of Power Through the Way of Animals. Santa Fe, NM. 1988. Print.
Andrews, Ted. Animal-speak: the Spiritual & Magical Powers of Creatures Great & Small. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 1993. Print.
Andrews, Ted. Animal-Wise: the Spirit Language and Signs of Nature. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 1999. Print.
D. J. Conway. Animal Magick: the Art of Recognizing & Working with Familiars. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 2003. Print.
Farmer, Steven D. Animal Spirit Guides. Hayhouse Inc., 2006. Print.



Associato anche al sole, alla vivacità, alla pazienza, alla sicurezza di sè, al silenzio...come vedremo nel seguente articolo per questo nobile animale vi sono anche altri simbolismi.

Il puma è un ottimo protettore, un guardiano che sa essere feroce ed agressivo per proteggervi.

FONTE:
http://www.whats-your-sign.com/symbolic-puma-meaning.html

Symbolic Puma Meaning

As it is closely related, symbolic puma meaning is also similar to the symbolic meaning of panthers, mountain lion, & cougar.

These noble cats are symbols of courage and power. This falls in line with the puma/mountain lion being associated with the sun, and solar vibrancy in some cultures (South American, & Central American). Learn more about solar animals here.

Other attributes and symbolic puma meaning, (and it's cousins the mountain lion, panther & cougar):

Strength
Nobility
Patience
Silence
Decision
Action
Guardianship
Leadership
Self-assurance

Puma meaning (as well as symbolism of mountain lions or cougars) speaks to us of inspection, observation and scrutiny. In the wild, this creature will stare at an object, unmoving, for what seems like an eternity. Further, she does this with stillness, patience. To those of us who heed the puma as a guide, we would take great care to observer our own lives with the kind of intese focus the puma does.

People who have identified the puma, mountain lion, and/or cougar as their animal totem are people who typically come into this world with a spiritual knowing. Those who attract this animal totem have a deeper understanding of spiritual things. They are very psychic, intuitive, and are likely to be artistically inclined.

Furthermore, the puma is a very protective energy. If you have this creature as your animal totem, you are blessed to have such a fierce and aggressive guardian with you. When called upon you will be amazed at the resourcefulness and assistance the puma meaning can offer.

In closing, it is important to recognize the puma and it's relatives are cats of sudden, vigorous action. This being the case, those who share the puma as their totem should be mindful of their tendancy to lash out too quickly, or act out in haste. Call upon the patience and observation of the puma before taking action in order to avoid quick and unsavory consequences.
Tornare in alto Andare in basso
Contenuto sponsorizzato




MessaggioOggetto: Re: Puma: pazienza, controllo.   Oggi a 0:24

Tornare in alto Andare in basso
 
Puma: pazienza, controllo.
Vedere l'argomento precedente Vedere l'argomento seguente Tornare in alto 
Pagina 1 di 1

Permesso di questo forum:Non puoi rispondere agli argomenti in questo forum
Forum di sciamanesimo, antropologia e spirito critico :: SCIAMANESIMO :: I TEMI DELLO SCIAMANESIMO - THEMES OF SHAMANSIM :: Animali Totem e Spiriti Guida - Totem Animals and Allies Spirits :: Totem Animals M-Q-
Andare verso: