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 Giaguaro

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AutoreMessaggio
Tila
Iniziato Sciamano
Iniziato Sciamano


Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Giaguaro   Gio 12 Mag 2011 - 6:52

Admin mancava ancora un bellissimo micione nel nostro inventario.

Nella prima parte vedremo le sue caratteristiche, grazie alla documentazione di wikipedia, nella seconda invece conosceremo la simbologia, le leggende e le curiosità legate a questo splendido felino.

Buona lettura!


FONTE:
http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panthera_onca

Panthera onca
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Il giaguaro (Panthera onca Linnaeus, 1758) è il più grosso felino americano; fra i felini solo il leone e la tigre sono ancora più pesanti.

Il nome «giaguaro» deriva dal nome attribuito a questo animale dagli indios del Sudamerica: «Yaguar» o «Yaguara» ("colui che uccide con un balzo"); ma in tutta l'area di lingua spagnola in cui vive il giaguaro è chiamato «el tigre». Non si tratta di una tradizione errata come può sembrare: infatti, pur venendo spesso confuso con il leopardo dai non-esperti, il giaguaro per forma e ruolo ecologico è molto più simile alla tigre, tanto da esserne considerato l'equivalente americano.


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jaguar_head_shot.jpg

Descrizione

Benché il giaguaro fosse stato descritto per la prima volta nel 1560 dall'esploratore Coronado, che s'imbatté in questa specie in quella zona ora chiamata Nuovo Messico, nei secoli successivi si è controllato il peso di pochissimi giaguari. Un grosso maschio ucciso in Brasile pesava 130 kg; fra i maschi frequentemente si trovano soggetti che pesano 90 kg. La femmina è notevolmente più piccola e può pesare tra i 70 e i 90 kg.

Come lunghezza del corpo il giaguaro non è più grande del leopardo: esso misura circa 1,5-1,8 m più 60–70 cm di coda ed è alto 67-76 (fino a 85) cm al garrese. Tuttavia differisce nella forma dal suo cugino del Vecchio Mondo: il leopardo è un animale snello e leggero; invece il giaguaro ha un aspetto robusto e muscoloso, avendo la testa piuttosto grossa, il corpo compatto e la coda corta in proporzione al resto del corpo. Queste caratteristiche, unite al passo più lento, sono di per sè già sufficienti per distinguerlo con facilità dagli altri felini maculati nei giardini zoologici.

Tuttavia il metodo più sicuro per distinguere queste due specie è quello di esaminare da vicino il disegno del mantello: entrambi presentano macchie scure riunite in rosette di varia grandezza in diverse zone del corpo, ma mentre nel giaguaro queste rosette sono più ampie, con l'interno di colore rossastro e con una macchiolina tonda al centro, quelle del leopardo sono molto più piccole e fitte, e sono prive del color rosso o delle macchie al loro interno. Naturalmente, questa confusione tra giaguaro e leopardo può sorgere solo in situazioni "lontane" dall'ambiente naturale (zoo, musei, mass-media ecc.) poiché i leopardi abitano in Africa e in Asia, mentre i giaguari vivono solo in America. Il giaguaro ed il leopardo sono specie strettamente imparentate; essi discendono da un comune antenato che attraversò l'istmo preistorico esistente tra la Siberia e l'Alaska. Dal momento in cui la via di comunicazione tra i due continenti restò interrotta, le due popolazioni si differenziarono sempre più, finché si consolidarono nelle due specie attuali, che sono molto diverse.

Giaguaro e leopardo sono a loro volta strettamente imparentati con tigre e leone, e questi animali discendono tutti dallo stesso antenato comune; in realtà la ricostruzione dell'albero filogenetico dei quattro grandi felini del genere Panthera non è ancora definitiva. Alcuni studiosi sospettano che il leopardo rappresenti in realtà la forma più antica e primitiva del gruppo, seguita al secondo posto dal leone, mentre tigre e giaguaro invece rappresenterebbero le specie più recenti del gruppo. Se ciò è vero, allora il parente vivente più prossimo del giaguaro è la tigre, confermando così la tradizione ispanoamericana di chiamare "tigre" questo animale, mentre il leopardo, a dispetto della somiglianza, sarebbe in realtà l'animale meno affine al giaguaro nell'ambito dei moderni Panthera.[1]

Distribuzione e habitat

L'area in cui vive il giaguaro si estendeva dal sud degli Stati Uniti fino alla Patagonia settentrionale comprendendo quindi l'America centrale e parte dell'America meridionale; oggi tuttavia è scomparso in buona parte del suo antico areale, e oggi sopravvive soprattutto nel bacino amazzonico.

I giaguari per lo più vivono nelle fitte foreste possibilmente vicino ai fiumi dei bassopiani, dove c'è più riparo e maggiore abbondanza di prede. Tuttavia questi animali possono vivere anche in habitat più aridi: in Argentina, ad esempio, essi abitano in terreni più aperti, nascondendosi tra le canne o nei boschetti. Negli Stati Uniti del sud (dove i giaguari sono sempre stati rari) sono stati visti in aspre zone montagnose, coperte da foreste, a circa 2500 m sul livello del mare: anche in Colombia si possono trovare giaguari sulle montagne.

Biologia

I giaguari cacciano usando il sistema tipico dei felini. Essi seguono furtivamente la preda attraverso il sottobosco, prima di lanciare l'attacco finale, fulmineo e da distanza ravvicinata; su brevi distanze possono correre velocemente, ma mancano di resistenza al pari degli altri felidi. A volte stanno in agguato e aspettano che una possibile preda passi nelle vicinanze, tuttavia il metodo di caccia del giaguaro tende ad essere più attivo di quello di altri Panthera, e vanno con frequenza alla ricerca delle loro prede.

Il giaguaro è un abile arrampicatore, sebbene meno esperto rispetto al leopardo a causa della maggiore stazza, e può passare diverse ore della sua giornata sugli alberi. I giaguari vanno a caccia di cervi, grossi roditori, come il capibara e gli aguti, di pecari, e affrontano anche i tapiri, animali che raggiungono il peso di un piccolo cavallo; hanno una alimentazione variata, perché a volte si cibano di pesci, che afferrano dall'acqua con le zampe; si sono visti giaguari tuffarsi in acqua per assalire caimani discretamente grossi, così come anaconde subadulte o i grandi pesci amazzonici Arapaima. Questa familiarità con l'acqua accomuna il giaguaro alla tigre, e questi due esempi rendono inattendibile la credenza comune secondo cui tutti i felini "odiano l'acqua". Tuttavia, né il giaguaro né la tigre presentano specializzazioni anatomiche per l'ambiente acquatico, mentre molte delle prede acquatiche sopraccitate passano buona parte della vita in acqua e sono ben adattate a questo elemento: i giaguari hanno quindi dovuto evolvere diversi adattamenti comportamentali per catturarle.

Come detto sopra, spesso il giaguaro attacca anaconde abbastanza grandi e caimani e non è intimidito da animali più grandi, anche se affrontati direttamente. Il suo scheletro massiccio mosso da una robusta muscolatura lo rendono il più forte di tutti i grandi felini a parità di dimensioni: un individuo di 70 kg può trascinare nella fitta giungla, con molti impedimenti, una preda di 360 kg e esemplari più grandi riescono a trasportare su un albero giovenche (che pesano fino a 400 kg, ma possibilmente anche fino a 500). Molti reportage sembrano mostrare che un giaguaro di 100–110 kg è forte quasi come una tigre di 190–200 kg. Il suo cranio (il più voluminoso in proporzione al corpo tra tutti i grandi felidi) fa sì che il suo morso sia il più potente (sempre a parità di dimensioni) della sua famiglia; ciò è forse all'origine di una peculiarità unica del giaguaro: preferisce uccidere le grandi prede mordendole alla testa piuttosto che alla gola o alla nuca. I lunghi canini penetrano nei punti più sottili e delicati del cranio e lo "smontano", provocando morte immediata nella preda, in maniera analoga al classico morso al collo degli altri grandi felidi che separa le vertebre cervicali provocando lo stesso effetto di uccisione istantanea.[2]


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jaguar_tier_2.jpg

Riproduzione

Si dice che nelle regioni settentrionali i giaguari si riproducano in gennaio; altrove non sembrano prediligere un particolare periodo per riprodursi; negli zoo le nascite possono avvenire in qualsiasi mese. Il periodo di gestazione dura dai 95 ai 105 giorni: di solito nascono da due a quattro cuccioli, eccezionalmente soltanto uno. I piccoli appena nati sono molto scuri, poiché il loro manto è fittamente coperto di macchie nere piene, solo leggermente più chiare al centro; ciascuna di queste macchie formerà in seguito una rosetta. Come è di norma tra i felini, il padre non si interessa dell'allevamento dei suoi cuccioli; essi crescono all'incirca con la stessa rapidità degli altri grossi felini. Un maschio allevato in cattività in uno zoo americano a poco meno di due anni di età pesava 75 kg e doveva ancora crescere molto.

I giaguari e l'uomo

In merito ai rapporti che corrono tra i giaguari e gli animali domestici, i pareri sono discordi: alcuni affermano che i giaguari uccidono raramente il bestiame, altri, invece, sostengono che ciò accade sovente. Si racconta che un giaguaro, negli Stati Uniti del Sud, uccise diciassette vitelli in un brevissimo periodo.

Con l'aumento della popolazione verificatasi nelle due Americhe, è diminuito il numero dei giaguari. Nel XVII secolo nel solo Paraguay ogni anno venivano uccisi duemila giaguari; ora, benché questi siano frequenti in certe zone, la cifra sarebbe considerata altissima anche tenendo conto di tutta l'area abitata dalla specie. È impossibile dire quanti siano esattamente i giaguari, poiché di solito sono molto elusivi e molti individui sfuggono ai censimenti. Dove la caccia è redditizia essi rimangono entro un territorio piuttosto piccolo; quando i tempi si fanno difficili vagano in zone più vaste ed allora si possono scorgere in luoghi dove di solito non ve ne sono.

Nonostante la mole e l'indubbia forza il giaguaro attacca raramente l'uomo, e non è temuto alla stessa maniera degli altri tre felini del genere Panthera. Per spiegare l'atteggiamento di questo felino nei riguardi dell'uomo basterà il racconto di ciò che accadde presso Centre City, nel Texas, una notte del 1903: alcuni ragazzi che passeggiavano coi loro cani scoprirono un giaguaro, che prontamente si rifugiò su un albero. Un giovane armato di rivoltella gli sparò e lo ferì; l'animale si gettò a terra e si rifugiò in alcuni cespugli vicini: qui fu presto circondato da persone attirate dal fracasso. Benché in situazione disperata il giaguaro non tentò alcuna sortita (come fanno invece i leopardi) contro i suoi aggressori; però straziò ed uccise un cane e riservò lo stesso trattamento ad un cavallo che si era trovato coinvolto nella mischia. Pur con la confusione ed il vantaggio dell'oscurità non fece alcun tentativo di aggredire gli uomini, e alla fine fu colpito da una pallottola e ucciso.[senza fonte]

Nonostante ciò, esempi di giaguari "mangiatori di uomini" non sembrerebbero del tutto sconosciuti. Nel 1825 un giaguaro viveva in un'isola bassa e cespugliosa lungo un affluente del Rio Grande in quel territorio che ora si chiama Nuovo Messico; il fiume per una piena, si ingrossò rapidamente, e il giaguaro per salvarsi dovette gettarsi a nuoto toccando terra nel giardino del Convento di San Francisco a Santa Fé. Vedendo una porta aperta cercò rifugio nel convento dove, entrato in sacrestia, fu immediatamente affrontato da un converso che veniva dal confessionale; il giaguaro lo uccise e dopo di lui uccise una dopo l'altra tre persone accorse in aiuto. I sopravvissuti chiusero la porta della sacrestia imprigionandolo; dopo di che, praticata una feritoia nella porta vi introdussero la canna di un fucile e spararono al giaguaro uccidendolo.[senza fonte]


Guerriero Giaguaro Azteco dal Codice Magliabechiano
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jaguar_warrior.jpg

Bibliografia

Caso, A., Lopez-Gonzalez, C., Payan, E., Eizirik, E., de Oliveira, T., Leite-Pitman, R., Kelly, M. & Valderrama, C. 2008. Panthera onca. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Versione 2010.1

^ http://www.helsinki.fi/~mhaaramo/metazoa/deuterostoma/chordata/synapsida/eutheria/carnivora/aeluroidea/pantheriinae.html
^ Animal Face Off, Discovery Channel "Giaguaro vs Anaconda"



FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaguar

Jaguar
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The jaguar (play /ˈdʒæɡwɑr/ or UK /ˈdʒæɡjuː.ər/; Panthera onca) is a big cat, a feline in the Panthera genus, and is the only Panthera species found in the Americas. The jaguar is the third-largest feline after the tiger and the lion, and the largest in the Western Hemisphere. The jaguar's present range extends from Southern US and Mexico across much of Central America and south to Paraguay and northern Argentina. Apart from a known and possibly breeding population in Arizona (southeast of Tucson), the cat has largely been extirpated from the United States since the early 20th century.

This spotted cat most closely resembles the leopard physically, although it is usually larger and of sturdier build and its behavioral and habitat characteristics are closer to those of the tiger. While dense rainforest is its preferred habitat, the jaguar will range across a variety of forested and open terrain. It is strongly associated with the presence of water and is notable, along with the tiger, as a feline that enjoys swimming. The jaguar is largely a solitary, opportunistic, stalk-and-ambush predator at the top of the food chain (an apex predator). It is a keystone species, playing an important role in stabilizing ecosystems and regulating the populations of the animals it hunts. The jaguar has an exceptionally powerful bite, even relative to the other big cats.[3] This allows it to pierce the shells of armoured reptiles[4] and to employ an unusual killing method: it bites directly through the skull of prey between the ears to deliver a fatal bite to the brain.[5]

The jaguar is a near threatened species and its numbers are declining. Threats include habitat loss and fragmentation. While international trade in jaguars or their parts is prohibited, the cat is still frequently killed by humans, particularly in conflicts with ranchers and farmers in South America. Although reduced, its range remains large; given its historical distribution, the jaguar has featured prominently in the mythology of numerous indigenous American cultures, including that of the Maya and Aztec.


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Junior-Jaguar-Belize-Zoo.jpg

Etymology

It comes to English from one of the Tupi–Guarani languages, presumably the Amazonian trade language Tupinambá, via Portuguese jaguar.[6] The Tupian word, yaguara "beast", sometimes translated as "dog",[7][8] is used for any carnivorous mammal.[9] The specific word for jaguar is yaguareté, with the suffix -eté meaning "real" or "true".[6][9][10]

The first component of its taxonomic designation, Panthera, is Latin, from the Greek word for leopard, πάνθηρ, the type species for the genus. This has been said to derive from the παν- "all" and θήρ from θηρευτής "predator", meaning "predator of all" (animals), though this may be a folk etymology[11]—it may instead be ultimately of Sanskrit origin, from pundarikam, the Sanskrit word for "tiger".[12]

Onca is the Portuguese onça, with the cedilla dropped for typographical reasons, found in English as ounce for the Snow Leopard, Uncia uncia. It derives from the Latin lyncea lynx, with the letter L confused with the definite article (Italian lonza, Old French l'once).[13]

In many Central and South American countries, the cat is referred to as el tigre ("the tiger").

Taxonomy

The jaguar, Panthera onca, is the only existent New World member of the Panthera genus. DNA evidence shows that the lion, tiger, leopard, jaguar, snow leopard, and clouded leopard share a common ancestor and that this group is between six and ten million years old;[14] the fossil record points to the emergence of Panthera just two to 3.8 million years ago.[14][15] Phylogenetic studies generally have shown that the clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) is basal to this group.[14][16][17][18] The position of the remaining species varies between studies and is effectively unresolved.

Based on morphological evidence, British zoologist Reginald Pocock concluded that the jaguar is most closely related to the leopard.[18] However, DNA evidence is inconclusive and the position of the jaguar relative to the other species varies between studies.[14][16][17][18] Fossils of extinct Panthera species, such as the European Jaguar (Panthera gombaszoegensis) and the American Lion (Panthera atrox), show characteristics of both the lion and the jaguar.[18] Analysis of jaguar mitochondrial DNA has dated the species lineage to between 280,000 and 510,000 years ago, later than suggested by fossil records.[19]

Geographical variation


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Panthera_onca_-Amazona_Zoo,_Cromer,_Norfolk,_England-8a.jpg

The last taxonomic delineation of the jaguar subspecies was performed by Pocock in 1939. Based on geographic origins and skull morphology, he recognized eight subspecies. However, he did not have access to sufficient specimens to critically evaluate all subspecies, and he expressed doubt about the status of several. Later consideration of his work suggested only three subspecies should be recognized.[20]

Recent studies have also failed to find evidence for well defined subspecies, and are no longer recognized.[21] Larson (1997) studied the morphological variation in the jaguar and showed that there is clinal north–south variation, but also that the differentiation within the supposed subspecies is larger than that between them and thus does not warrant subspecies subdivision.[22] A genetic study by Eizirik and coworkers in 2001 confirmed the absence of a clear geographical subspecies structure, although they found that major geographical barriers such as the Amazon River limited the exchange of genes between the different populations.[19] A subsequent, more detailed, study confirmed the predicted population structure within the Colombian jaguars.[23]

Pocock's subspecies divisions are still regularly listed in general descriptions of the cat.[24] Seymour grouped these in three subspecies.[20]

Panthera onca onca: Venezuela through the Amazon, including
P. onca peruviana (Peruvian Jaguar): Coastal Peru
P. onca hernandesii (Mexican Jaguar): Western Mexico – including
P. onca centralis (Central American Jaguar): El Salvador to Colombia
P. onca arizonensis (Arizonan Jaguar): Southern Arizona to Sonora, Mexico
P. onca veraecrucis: Central Texas to Southeastern Mexico
P. onca goldmani (Goldman's Jaguar): Yucatán Peninsula to Belize and Guatemala
P. onca palustris (the largest subspecies, weighing more than 135 kg or 300 lb):[25] The Pantanal regions of Mato Grosso & Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, along the Paraguay River into Paraguay and northeastern Argentina.

The Mammal Species of the World continues to recognize nine subspecies, the eight subspecies above and additionally P. o. paraguensis.[1]

Social activity

Like most cats, the jaguar is solitary outside mother-cub groups. Adults generally meet only to court and mate (though limited non-courting socialization has been observed anecdotally[38]) and carve out large territories for themselves. Female territories, which range from 25 to 40 square kilometers in size, may overlap, but the animals generally avoid one another. Male ranges cover roughly twice as much area, varying in size with the availability of game and space, and do not overlap.[38][40] The jaguar uses scrape marks, urine, and feces to mark its territory.[41]

Like the other big cats, the jaguar is capable of roaring (the male more powerfully) and does so to warn territorial and mating competitors away; intensive bouts of counter-calling between individuals have been observed in the wild.[42] Their roar often resembles a repetitive cough, and they may also vocalize mews and grunts.[29] Mating fights between males occur, but are rare, and aggression avoidance behaviour has been observed in the wild.[41] When it occurs, conflict is typically over territory: a male's range may encompass that of two or three females, and he will not tolerate intrusions by other adult males.[38]

The jaguar is often described as nocturnal, but is more specifically crepuscular (peak activity around dawn and dusk). Both sexes hunt, but males travel farther each day than females, befitting their larger territories. The jaguar may hunt during the day if game is available and is a relatively energetic feline, spending as much as 50–60% of its time active.[30] The jaguar's elusive nature and the inaccessibility of much of its preferred habitat make it a difficult animal to sight, let alone study.

Ecology

Distribution and habitat

It has been an American cat since crossing the Bering Land Bridge during the Pleistocene epoch; the immediate ancestor of modern animals is Panthera onca augusta, which was larger than the contemporary cat.[23] Its present range extends from Mexico, through Central America and into South America, including much of Amazonian Brazil.[52] The countries included in this range are Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica (particularly on the Osa Peninsula), Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, United States and Venezuela. The jaguar is now extinct in El Salvador and Uruguay.[2] It occurs in the 400 km² Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary in Belize, the 5,300 km² Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve in Mexico, the approximately 15,000 km² Manú National Park in Peru, the approximately 26,000 km² Xingu National Park in Brazil, and numerous other reserves throughout its range.

The inclusion of the United States in the list is based on occasional sightings in the southwest, particularly in Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. In the early 20th century, the jaguar's range extended as far north as the Grand Canyon, and as far west as Southern California.[47] The jaguar is a protected species in the United States under the Endangered Species Act, which has stopped the shooting of the animal for its pelt. In 2004, wildlife officials in Arizona photographed and documented jaguars in the southern part of the state. For any permanent population to thrive, protection from killing, an adequate prey base, and connectivity with Mexican populations are essential.[53] On February 25, 2009 a 118 lb Jaguar was caught, radio-collared and released in an area southwest of Tucson, Arizona; this is farther north than had previously been expected and represents a sign that there may be a permanent breeding population of Jaguars within southern Arizona. It was later confirmed that the animal is indeed the same male individual (known as 'Macho B') that was photographed in 2004 and is now the oldest known Jaguar in the wild (approximately 15 years old.)[54] On Monday March 2, 2009, Macho B, which is the only jaguar spotted in the U.S. in more than a decade, was recaptured and euthanized after he was found to be suffering from kidney failure.[55]

Completion of the United States–Mexico barrier as currently proposed will reduce the viability of any population currently residing in the United States, by reducing gene flow with Mexican populations, and prevent any further northward expansion for the species.[56]

The historic range of the species included much of the southern half of the United States, and in the south extended much farther to cover most of the South American continent. In total, its northern range has receded 1,000 kilometers southward and its southern range 2,000 km northward. Ice age fossils of the jaguar, dated between 40,000 and 11,500 years ago, have been discovered in the United States, including some at an important site as far north as Missouri. Fossil evidence shows jaguars of up to 190 kg (420 lb), much larger than the contemporary average for the animal.[57]

The habitat of the cat includes the rain forests of South and Central America, open, seasonally flooded wetlands, and dry grassland terrain. Of these habitats, the jaguar much prefers dense forest;[30] the cat has lost range most rapidly in regions of drier habitat, such as the Argentinian pampas, the arid grasslands of Mexico, and the southwestern United States.[2] The cat will range across tropical, subtropical, and dry deciduous forests (including, historically, oak forests in the United States). The jaguar is strongly associated with water and it often prefers to live by rivers, swamps, and in dense rainforest with thick cover for stalking prey. Jaguars have been found at elevations as high as 3,800 m, but they typically avoid montane forest and are not found in the high plateau of central Mexico or in the Andes.[30]

Substantial evidence exists that there is also a colony of non-native melanistic leopards or jaguars inhabiting the rainforests around Sydney, Australia. A local report compiled statements from over 450 individuals recounting their stories of sighting large black cats in the area and confidential NSW Government documents regarding the matter proved wildlife authorities were so concerned about the big cats and the danger to humans, they commissioned an expert to catch it. The three-day hunt later failed, but ecologist Johannes J. Bauer warned: "Difficult as it seems to accept, the most likely explanation is the presence of a large, feline predator. In this area, [it is] most likely a leopard, less likely a jaguar."[58]

Ecological role

The adult jaguar is an apex predator, meaning that it exists at the top of its food chain and is not preyed on in the wild. The jaguar has also been termed a keystone species, as it is assumed, through controlling the population levels of prey such as herbivorous and granivorous mammals, apex felids maintain the structural integrity of forest systems.[28][59] However, accurately determining what effect species like the jaguar have on ecosystems is difficult, because data must be compared from regions where the species is absent as well as its current habitats, while controlling for the effects of human activity. It is accepted that mid-sized prey species undergo population increases in the absence of the keystone predators and it has been hypothesized that this has cascading negative effects.[60] However, field work has shown this may be natural variability and that the population increases may not be sustained. Thus, the keystone predator hypothesis is not favoured by all scientists.[61]

The jaguar also has an effect on other predators. The jaguar and the cougar, the next largest feline of the Americas, are often sympatric (related species sharing overlapping territory) and have often been studied in conjunction. Where sympatric with the jaguar, the cougar is smaller than normal and is smaller than the local jaguars. The jaguar tends to take larger prey and the cougar smaller, reducing the latter's size.[62] This situation may be advantageous to the cougar. Its broader prey niche, including its ability to take smaller prey, may give it an advantage over the jaguar in human-altered landscapes;[28] while both are classified as near-threatened species, the cougar has a significantly larger current distribution.

Conservation status

Jaguar populations are rapidly declining. The animal is considered Near Threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources,[2] meaning it may be threatened with extinction in the near future. The loss of parts of its range, including its virtual elimination from its historic northern areas and the increasing fragmentation of the remaining range, have contributed to this status. The 1960s saw particularly significant declines, with more than 15,000 jaguar skins brought out of the Brazilian Amazon yearly; the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) of 1973 brought about a sharp decline in the pelt trade.[63] Detailed work performed under the auspices of the Wildlife Conservation Society reveal that the animal has lost 37% of its historic range, with its status unknown in an additional 18%. More encouragingly, the probability of long-term survival was considered high in 70% of its remaining range, particularly in the Amazon basin and the adjoining Gran Chaco and Pantanal.[52]

The major risks to the jaguar include deforestation across its habitat, increasing competition for food with human beings,[2] poaching, hurricanes in northern parts of its range, and the behaviour of ranchers who will often kill the cat where it preys on livestock. When adapted to the prey, the jaguar has been shown to take cattle as a large portion of its diet; while land clearance for grazing is a problem for the species, the jaguar population may have increased when cattle were first introduced to South America as the animals took advantage of the new prey base. This willingness to take livestock has induced ranch owners to hire full-time jaguar hunters, and the cat is often shot on sight.[29]

The jaguar is regulated as an Appendix I species under CITES: all international trade in jaguars or their parts is prohibited. All hunting of jaguars is prohibited in Argentina, Belize, Colombia, French Guiana, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Suriname, the United States (where it is listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act), Uruguay and Venezuela. Hunting of jaguars is restricted to "problem animals" in Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico and Peru, while trophy hunting is still permitted in Bolivia. The species has no legal protection in Ecuador or Guyana.[24]

Current conservation efforts often focus on educating ranch owners and promoting ecotourism.[64] The jaguar is generally defined as an umbrella species — a species whose home range and habitat requirements are sufficiently broad that, if protected, numerous other species of smaller range will also be protected.[65] Umbrella species serve as "mobile links" at the landscape scale, in the jaguar's case through predation. Conservation organizations may thus focus on providing viable, connected habitat for the jaguar, with the knowledge that other species will also benefit.[64]

Given the inaccessibility of much of the species' range—particularly the central Amazon—estimating jaguar numbers is difficult. Researchers typically focus on particular bioregions, and thus species-wide analysis is scant. In 1991, 600–1,000 (the highest total) were estimated to be living in Belize. A year earlier, 125–180 jaguars were estimated to be living in Mexico's 4,000 square kilometer (2400 mi²) Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, with another 350 in the state of Chiapas. The adjoining Maya Biosphere Reserve in Guatemala, with an area measuring 15,000 square kilometers (9,000 mi²), may have 465–550 animals.[66] Work employing GPS–telemetry in 2003 and 2004 found densities of only six to seven jaguars per 100 square kilometers in the critical Pantanal region, compared with 10 to 11 using traditional methods; this suggests that widely used sampling methods may inflate the actual numbers of cats.[67]

On 7 January 2008 United States Fish and Wildlife Service Director H. Dale Hall approved a decision by the George W. Bush Administration to abandon jaguar recovery as a federal goal under the Endangered Species Act. Some critics of the decision said that the jaguar is being sacrificed for the government's new border fence, which is to be built along many of the cat's typical crossings between the United States and Mexico.[68]

In the past, conservation of jaguars sometimes occurred through the protection of jaguar "hotspots". These hotspots were described as Jaguar Conservation Units, and were large areas populated by about 50 jaguars. However, some researchers recently determined that, in order to maintain a robust sharing of the jaguar gene pool necessary for maintaining the species, it is important that the jaguars are interconnected. To facilitate this, a new project, the Paseo del Jaguar, has been established to connect several jaguar hotspots.[69]

In mythology and culture

Pre-Columbian Americas

In pre-Columbian Central and South America, the jaguar has long been a symbol of power and strength. Among the Andean cultures, a jaguar cult disseminated by the early Chavín culture became accepted over most of what is today Peru by 900 BC. The later Moche culture of Northern Peru used the jaguar as a symbol of power in many of their ceramics.[70]

In Mesoamerica, the Olmec—an early and influential culture of the Gulf Coast region roughly contemporaneous with the Chavín—developed a distinct "were-jaguar" motif of sculptures and figurines showing stylized jaguars or humans with jaguar characteristics. In the later Maya civilization, the jaguar was believed to facilitate communication between the living and the dead and to protect the royal household. The Maya saw these powerful felines as their companions in the spiritual world, and a number of Maya rulers bore names that incorporated the Mayan word for jaguar (b'alam in many of the Mayan languages). The Aztec civilization shared this image of the jaguar as the representative of the ruler and as a warrior. The Aztecs formed an elite warrior class known as the Jaguar Knights. In Aztec mythology, the jaguar was considered to be the totem animal of the powerful deity Tezcatlipoca.

The jaguar has had importance in Brazil, where the indigenous peoples of Brazil used its fat.[citation needed]

Contemporary culture

The jaguar and its name is widely used as a symbol in contemporary culture. It is the national animal of Guyana, and is featured in its coat of arms.[71] The flag of the Department of Amazonas, a Colombian department, features a black jaguar silhouette pouncing towards a hunter.[72] The jaguar also appears in banknotes of Brazilian Real.

Jaguar is widely used as a product name, most prominently for a luxury car brand. The name has been adopted by sports franchises, including the NFL's Jacksonville Jaguars and the Mexican football club Jaguares de Chiapas. Grammy winning Mexican rock band "Jaguares" were also influenced by the magnificent animal to choose their band name. The crest of Argentina's national federation in rugby union features a jaguar; however, because of a historic accident, the country's national team is nicknamed Los Pumas. The country's "A" (second-level) national team in that sport now bears the Jaguars name.

A melanistic jaguar loose in a South American city is the central figure in the 1942 novel Black Alibi by Cornell Woolrich.

In the spirit of the ancient Mayan culture, the 1968 Olympics in Mexico City adopted a red jaguar as the first official Olympic mascot.[73]


Ultima modifica di Tila il Mar 5 Lug 2011 - 9:40, modificato 1 volta
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Numero di messaggi : 1826
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Giaguaro   Gio 12 Mag 2011 - 7:05

Avendo una simbologia simile a quella della pantera si consiglia anche la visione del seguente link interno:

http://sciamanesimo.forumattivo.com/t647-pantera-rivendicazione-del-proprio-potere

Nei documenti che seguono scopriremo l'influenza che il giaguaro ha esercitato sull'uomo, le credenze e la mitologia a lui legati.



FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guerriero_giaguaro

Guerriero giaguaro
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

I guerrieri giaguaro (Nahuatl: ocēlōtl) erano uno dei due gruppi di guerrieri scelti dell'esercito azteco, insieme ai guerrieri aquila.

I guerrieri giaguaro indossavano una armatura ichcauipilli che ricordava le sembianze di un giaguaro, l'elmo era aperto e formava la bocca del giaguaro nel costume.

Erano dotati di una mazza maquahuitl e di uno scudo chimalli.



FONTE
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaguar_warrior

Jaguar warrior
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jaguar Warriors or Jaguar Knights (Nahuatl: ocēlōtl) were members of the Aztec imperial army.[1] They were an elite military unit similar to the Eagle warriors. The jaguar motif was used due to the belief that the jaguar represented Tezcatlipoca, god of the night sky. Aztecs also wore these dresses at war because they believed the animal's strengths would be given to them during battles.[citation needed] Jaguar Warriors were used at the battlefront in military campaigns.[1] Many statues and images (in pre-columbian and post-Columbian codices) of these warriors have survived.[2] They fought with a wooded sword studded with obsidian volcanic glass blades, called a Maquahuitl. They also used spears and atlatls.

The Aztec Jaguar warriors were showcased on the American TV show Deadliest Warrior, where they competed against the Zande tribesmen.

To become a Jaguar warrior, a member of the Aztec Army had to capture at least four enemies during battles. This was said to honour their gods in a way far greater than killing enemy soldiers in the battlefield.

[edit] References

^ a b Jaguar Warriors. Ixmiquilpan. Mexico murals
^ Pre-Columbian Stock Photography, Pre-Hispanic Stock Photos, Mesoamerican Travel Photos



FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaguars_in_Mesoamerican_cultures

Jaguars in Mesoamerican cultures
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The representation of jaguars in Mesoamerican cultures has a long history, with iconographic examples dating back to at least the mid-Formative period of Mesoamerican chronology. The jaguar (Panthera onca) is an animal with a prominent association and appearance in the cultures and belief systems of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican societies. Quick, agile, and powerful enough to take down the largest prey in the jungle, the jaguar is the largest of the big cats in the Americas, and one of the most efficient and aggressive predators. Endowed with a spotted coat and well adapted for the jungle, hunting either in the trees or water, making it one of the few felines tolerant of water, the jaguar was, and remains, revered among the indigenous Americans who live closely with the jaguar.

All major Mesoamerican civilizations prominently featured a jaguar god, and for many, such as the Olmec, the jaguar was an important part of shamanism (Miller & Taube, p. 103).


Clay jaguar from Monte Alban, provisionally dated from 200 BC to AD 600. Height: 56 cm (22 inches)
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jaguar_trouv%C3%A9_%C3%A0_Oaxaca.jpg

Olmecs, jaguars, and the "were-jaguar"

The Olmec civilization was first defined as a distinctive art style at the turn of the nineteenth century. The various sculpture, figurines, and celts from what now is recognized as the Olmec heartland on the southern Gulf Coast, reveal that these people knew their jungle companions well and incorporated them into their mythology.

In the surviving Olmec archaeological record, jaguars are rarely portrayed naturalistically, but rather with a combination of feline and human characteristics. These feline anthropomorphic figures may range from a human figure with slight jaguar characteristics to depictions of shamanistic transformations in the so-called transformative pose, kneeling with hands on knees, to figures that are nearly completely feline.

One of the most prominent, distinctive, and enigmatic Olmec designs to appear in the archaeological record has been the "were-jaguar". Seen not only in figurines, the motif also may be found carved into jade “votive axes” and celts, engraved onto various portable figurines of jade, and depicted on several "altars", such as those at La Venta. Were-jaguar babies are often held by a stoic, seated adult male.

The were-jaguar figure is characterized by a distinctive down-turned mouth with fleshy lips, almond-shaped eyes, and a cleft head similar – it is said – to that of the male jaguar which has a cleft running vertically the length of its head.

It is not known what the were-jaguar represented to the Olmec, and it may well have represented different things at different times.

Jaguars and shamans

The jaguar also is important for shamans who often associate the jaguar as a spirit companion or nagual, which will protect the shamans from evil spirits and while they move between the earth and the spirit realm. In order for the shamans to combat whatever evil forces may be threatening, or for those who rely on the shamans for protection, it is necessary for the shamans to transform and cross over to the spirit realm. The jaguar is often as a nagual because of its strength, for it is necessary that the shamans "dominate the spirits, in the same way as a predator dominates its prey" (Saunders 1998:30). The jaguar is said to possess the transient ability of moving between worlds because of its comfort both in the trees and the water, the ability to hunt as well in the nighttime as in the daytime, and the habit of sleeping in caves, places often associated with the deceased ancestors. The concept of the transformation of the shaman is well documented in Mesoamerica and South America and is in particular demonstrated in the various Olmec jaguar transformation figures (Diehl, p. 106).

Jaguars and the Maya

Integration of the jaguar into the sacred and secular realms of the Maya is proven in the archaeological record. The Maya, whose territory spanned the Yucatán Peninsula all the way to the Pacific coast of Guatemala, was a literate society who left documentation of their lives (mostly the lives of the aristocracy) and belief system in the form of bas-relief sculpture on temples, stelae, and pottery. Often depicted on these artifacts are the gods the Maya revered and it is no coincidence that these gods often have jaguar attributes. As stated earlier, the jaguar is said to have the ability to cross between worlds, and for the Maya daytime and nighttime represented two different worlds. The living and the earth are associated with the day, and the spirit world and the ancestors are associated with the night. As the jaguar is quite at home in the nighttime, the jaguar is believed to part of the underworld; thus, "Maya gods with jaguar attributes or garments are underworld gods" (Benson 1998:64). One such god is Xbalanque, one of the Maya Hero Twins who descended to the underworld, and whose entire body is covered with patches of jaguar skin. Another is God L, who is "the primary lord of the underworld" and often is shown with a jaguar ear or jaguar attire, and atop a jaguar throne (Benson 1998: 64-65). Not only is the underworld associated with the ancestors, but it also is understood as, where plants originate. In addition, the Maya's source of fresh water comes from underground pools in the porous limestone that makes up the Yucatán, called cenotes. These associations with water and plants further reinforce the notion of the jaguar as a god of fertility.

The jaguar is further associated with vegetation and fertility by the Maya with what is known as the Waterlily jaguar, which is depicted as having water lilies sprouting from its head (Benson 1998:64-67).

No doubt, the jaguar's brilliant coat made it quite desirable, however, not all were allowed to don the jaguar pelt as it became the identification of the ruling class for the Maya. Not only did Maya kings wear jaguar pelts, but they also adopted the jaguar as part of their ruling name, as a symbol of their might and authority. One such ruling family to incorporate the jaguar into their name is known as, Jaguar Paw, who ruled the Maya city of Tikal in the fourth century. Jaguar Paw I was ousted by central Mexicans from Teotihuacán, and it was not until late in the fifth century that the Jaguar Paw family returned to power (Coe 1999: 90). Other Maya rulers to incorporate the jaguar name include, Scroll Jaguar, Bird Jaguar, and Moon Jaguar, just to name a few (Coe 1999: 247-48). In addition to the ruling class, the jaguar also was associated with warriors and hunters. Those who excelled in hunting and warfare often adorned themselves with jaguar pelts, teeth, or claws and were "regarded as possessing feline souls" (Saunders 1998: 26).


Kukulcan's Jaguar Throne, from the Maya site of Chichen Itza
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jaguar_throne.jpg

Archeologists have found a jar in Guatemala, attributed to the Maya of the Late Classic Era (600-900 AD), which depicts a musical instrument that has been reproduced and played. This instrument is astonishing in at least two respects. First, it is the only stringed instrument known in the Americas prior to the introduction of European musical instruments. Second, when played, it produces a sound virtually identical to a jaguar's growl. A sample of this sound is available at the Princeton Art Museum website.

Tehuantepec

Tehuantl (variously rendered) means "jaguar" in Nahuatl while tepec means "hill". The name refers to a particular hill in southern Mexico which is believed to have been an important shrine in the jaguar cult throughout several eras of Mesoamerican history. Subsequently, the name also was applied to the isthmus in southern Mexico upon which the hill lies, as well as to the gulf on the Pacific shore of the isthmus.

Summary

For those who resided in or near the tropical jungle, the jaguar was well known and became incorporated into the lives of the inhabitants. The jaguar's formidable size, reputation as a predator, and its evolved capacities to survive in the jungle made it an animal to be revered. The Olmec and the Maya witnessed this advanced animal, adopting the jaguar as an authoritative and martial symbol, and incorporated this magnificent beast into their mythology. The jaguar stands today, as it did in the past, as an important symbol for the sacred and profane lives of those who coexist with this majestic feline.

References

Benson, E.P. (1998) "The Lord, The Ruler: Jaguar Symbolism in the Americas." In N.J. Saunders (ed), Icons of Power: Feline Symbolism in the Americas. London: Routledge: 53-76.
Coe, M.D. (1972) "Olmec Jaguars and Olmec Kings." In E.P. Benson (ed), The Cult of the Feline. Washington D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks: 1-12.
Coe, M.D. (1999) The Maya. London: Thames and Hudson: 90, 247-48.
Coe, M.D. (2002) Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs. London: Thames and Hudson: 64, 75-76.
Diehl, Richard (2004). The Olmecs: America's First Civilization. Ancient peoples and places series. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-02119-8. OCLC 56746987.
Davis, Whitney. 1978. "So-Called Jaguar-Human Copulation Scenes in Olmec Art". American Antiquity 43(3): 453-457.
Furst, Peter T. 1981. "Jaguar Baby or Toad Mother: A New Look at an Old Problem in Olmec Iconography", in The Olmec and Their Neighbors, edited by E.P. Benson, Washington D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks: pp 149-162.
Miller, Mary; and Karl Taube (1993). The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya: An Illustrated Dictionary of Mesoamerican Religion. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05068-6. OCLC 27667317.
Murdy, Carson N. 1981. "Congenital Deformities and the Olmec Were-Jaguar Motif", American Antiquity 46(4): 861-871.
Tate, Carolyn E. 1999. "Patrons of Shamanic Power: La Venta’s Supernatural Entities in Light of Mixe Beliefs", Ancient Mesoamerica, 10: 169-188.
Saunders, N.J. (1998) "Architecture of Symbolism: The Feline Image." In N.J. Saunders (ed), Icons of Power: Feline Symbolism in the Americas. London: Routledge: 12-52.


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Numero di messaggi : 1826
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Giaguaro   Lun 30 Mag 2011 - 14:27

Come vedremo nel seguente articolo il simbolismo del giaguaro è legato al mondo dello sciamanesimo...buona lettura!

FONTE: http://wolfs_moon.tripod.com/JaguarTotem.html

Spirit of Jaguar
with
Wolfs Moon

Role: ~Shaman/Shamaness~
Lesson: Integration
Element: Earth/Water
Wind: West ~Quest Within~
Medicine: Prophecy & Shapeshifting

~Keywords~
Power of Mystery & Silence Magical Abilities Integrity
Balancing Elements Vengence & Revenge Sensuality
Clarity from chaos Self-actualization Shamanism
Bridge between the arcane & the mundane Secrecy
Psychic Vision Integration Solitary
Shapeshifting

In ancient temples
your graceful form once walked
. . . silently.

Drifting in and out of shadows
like a vaprous mist of focused intenstity,
your emerald eyes penetrating the darkness
. . . unflinchingly.

Vines now weave and constrict
the crumbling stones of sacred pyramids,
metaphors for the tangled jungle
of the human mind,
whose life has been misspent
in the shattering darkness
of ill intent.

In what echoing halls
of the Dreamtime do you still walk,
vigilant observer for
~He who came from the stars?~

Do you still prowl the dusty corridors of our fears,
offering those willing to face themselves,
in wrenching pain and flowing tears,
your guidance and protection across
the threshold into light?

Guide us,
graceful spirit, to a new day
when war is no longer
a part of our "human"way.

Remind us that the greatest victory
comes from rising above
the chains of our hate and greed,
to stand free in love.

And in that moment,
your graceful form by our side,
we may know the joy of the reunion
the changing of the tide . . .

When the Ancestors return from the stars . . .

Shamanism

The Jaguar carries with him/her a long history in the lore and mythology of several indigenous cultures. In particular, the Mayans held the Jaguar in high esteem, viewing this spotted panther as the Totem Spirit of the Sky God.

Many who have heard of the Mayan Jaguar Priests (Shamans), may have images of gruesome human sacrifices as their only frame of reference for what was a highly complex and intricate belief system. Although it is true that the teaching of the Sky God became perverted and twisted by subsequent generations, to see the Mayan spirituality of centuries past as nothing more than savagery or barbarism is (at best) an ill-informed view.

It is said that a Great Being came to the Mayan people from the stars, and taught them that the greatest of all virtues was integrity. He instructed the people in the beauty of unconditional love, forgiveness, peace and to be honorable and trustworthy. The teachings were of the sacrificial heart, the willingness to give freely of one’s self and one’s material belongings in order to benefit both the individual and the collective ~All.~ Generations later, it is believed that the sacrificial heart became literal (to those who would twist the Sky God’s teachings) as a bloody sacrifice wherein the heart of the victim would be taken from the body and given to the Jaguar Spirit in the hopes of appeasing the Sky God.

The sacrifices had the opposite of their desired effect and, instead of pleasing the Sky God, angered him. To instruct the people that such ways were not a part of hs teaching, the Sky God then sent the Jaguar Spirit to prowl the dreams of the two-leggeds. Where the Jaguar found hearts blackened with hatred, greed or dishonesty, he would haunt those unfortunate souls, relentlessly stalking them until they embraced the wisdom of integrity and transformed their lives. Those who resisted, were met with the vengeance of the Jaguar, and the Animal Totem’s relentless pursuit during the Dreamtime would often cause the human to transition from fright.

***For the two-legged beside whom Jaguar walks, the Earthwalk will be a process of reconnecting to the ~Shaman Within.~

Although born with a heightened sense of awareness and a powerful gift of extrasensory perception (ESP), the Jaguar Soul will generally only come to embrace his/her “gifts” after many years of struggling with the benefits and responsibilities associated with these gifts. This is because there is still much stigma attached to the arena of ESP and associated abilities.

When first emerging on the Red Road of Physical Life, the Jaguar individual will be a wide-open vessel through which Great Mystery may flow. These souls will hear, see or feel things that are non-physical in nature. Not knowing that they may be looked upon with great suspicion for the things that they are able to perceive which others may not be able to, the one beside whom Jaguar pads will convey their experiences freely at first. Yet due to lack of awareness and out-dated belief systems that might be present on the behalf of parents, care givers or teachers, the child with these special abilities soon learns to keep such arcane knowledge and insight to him/herself. This guardedness (and eventual rejection of their psychic talents), is usually precipitated when the adults that are a part of the young Jaguar’s life, react in fear, disbelief or anger. The youngster learns that sharing their insight often leads to being scolded for “imagining things,” reprimanded for “lying,” or perhaps worst of all, being treated with fear as the adult either believes the child to be “evil” or even mentally ill for seeing or hearing things that “aren’t really there.”

Yet because the Role of the one beside whom Jaguar journeys is that of Shaman, the destiny of their ~calling~ cannot be denied indefinitely. Eventually, events in the life of the Jaguar soul will force him/her to confront, embrace and integrate the gifts they have been given by the Original Source.

Shamans serve as a bridge between the Blue Road of Spirit and the Red Road of Physical Life, and as such, hear, see and/or communicate with the “Spirit World.” A Shaman fulfills the Role of priest/priestess, healer, spiritual advisor, teacher of arcane wisdom, outspoken sage and silent observer.

As healer, the Shaman assists the healing process (be this spiritual, emotional, mental or physical in nature), via the application of Medicine. This Medicine is gathered from the Plant People (herbs), the Standing People (trees), the Animal Totems, the Stone People (crystals and other “rocks” such as turquoise, etc.), as well as from their own personal Medicine.

Often just as difficult (and of equal importance) for the Jaguar to embrace, is the ability to communicate freely with the Totems, the spirits of the Ancestors, or those who walk the Blue Road. Whether this ability takes the form of seeing into the future, reading the aura of others, or channeling knowledge from the “other side,” these souls must eventually embrace the ability to see/feel/hear beyond what most others are able. Only by owning and expressing the abilities that have been gifted them, may the one beside whom Jaguar strides fulfill their assignment which they have agreed to prior to taking up the Robe of Physical Life.***

Integration

It is in looking at the Jaguar’s beautiful coat of tan speckled with black
rosettes that we witness an example of the Medicine of Integration in ~visible~ form. When studying the Creature Beings in either their physical or spiritual form, it is important to notice the color(s) of that Creature’s skin/feathers/hide, for much will be revealed in so doing. Where/when we observe a Totem whose skin, feathers or hide has dual or multiple coloration, this bespeaks of the Medicine of Integration. An other example (aside from that of Jaguar) of this principle would be Orca, whose skin is black and white. In the instance of Leopard, Clouded Leopard and Jaguar, the base color of the fur is tan with an overlaying of black spots or rosettes, hence all three of these spotted cats will have Integration as one of the Keywords to their Medicine.

***The human blessed with Jaguar as a primary Animal Spirit, will be
presented with a series of lessons structured to teach him/her the process of integration. In order that the two-legged may more fully embrace this aspect of Jaguar Medicine, he/she will experience a variety of scenarios created to facilitate the absorption of this complex principle. Integration is the key element in learning any lesson, and then applying that lesson to our life, yet it is also the Medicine of embracing perceived opposites.

Chaotic events will be much in evidence in the life of the Jaguar Soul,
events that will necessitate that the human counterpart go within in order to sift through the chaos and painful lessons, so that clarity and higher vision may be attained. The challenge here is frequently found under the guise of a sense of isolation, as the Jaguar individual quickly learns that he/she can only rely on the Self. This is a component that assists these souls in the process of self-actualization, for the Jaguar must first accomplish a requisite level of this Medicine him/herself.

Earth Medicine recognizes life as a continuous circle, or a Sacred Hoop.
The acknowledgment is made that our journey in the physical realm is equal parts darkness and light, experiences of both joy and pain, bitter and sweet. While we might perceive these elements as opposites, the are in reality merely two halves that constitute the Whole, each representative of the experiences necessary for our soul’s evolution.

When examining any totem with the Medicine of Integration, we witness individuals that are journeying around the Wheel of Life to first learn, then teach, that separation is but an illusion. Often, the one beside whom Jaguar prowls will feel separate from the rest of humanity. A loner as a child, who may initially relate more easily with the creature beings than their fellow two-leggeds, these souls will mature into extreme individualists as adults. These will be the members of society that will feel as though they are on the outside looking in . . . on family, friends, society and even life itself.

The aforementioned sense of “not belonging” or fitting in, is a reflection of the Jaguar’s attunement to other realms of existence, for there is always an aspect of the two-legged with whom Jaguar walks that hears, sees or feels the presence of non-physical energy (spirits, totems, etc.) Such heightened awareness of other planes and dimensions (while living in a very material/physical world), can often create a dilemma for these individuals, as he/she struggles to integrate the realms of pure energy with that of the physical, the seen with the unseen.

Once the Jaguar soul comes to understand and embrace the awareness that one existence does not negate the validity of the other and the illusion of separatism is dissolved, these souls come to recognize that they are here to serve as a conduit between realms . . . then the Jaguar Mission has been embraced and the Medicine of Integration is beautifully learned, to be shared and passed along to those taking their first steps on the Beautiful Journey.***


Shapeshifting

From the earliest of recorded histories, numerous cultures and societies have passed along the belief in shapeshifting. Shamans of all spiritual beliefs have practiced shapeshifting (also known as transmorphing) for millennia. Holy men and women from cultures as diverse as the Druids of ancient Ireland and Britain, to nearly every tribe of North and South American Indian, have ceremonies and rituals designed to elicit the shapeshifting experience.

Shapeshifting will generally be sought in one of two different forms, that of spiritual shifting, or that of shifting the actual physical shape, yet it is physical shapeshifting that most Shamans will spend a lifetime learning and striving to attain.

Spiritual transmorphing is the process of seeking to merge with a particular Animal Totem on the soul level, so that a complete union of souls might be experienced. The purpose behind this form of ~shifting~ is multifarious, as the participant seeks to both honor the Creature Being with whom the shifting is sought, as well as to align with the Medicine of that particular Animal Spirit. Equally, guidance may be received from the Totem whilst the spiritual transmorphing takes place, that may assist the two-legged through their journey around the Sacred Hoop of Life.

For the Shaman who has been taught (and has the innate ability) to physically shapeshift, the experience is not only one of a spiritual nature, but culminates in the two-legged physically transforming his/her body into that of a chosen Creature Being. Lifetimes are often devoted to this practice, and often without reaping the sought for result. Yet when one has truly attained the Gift of Shifting Shape, thanks and honor are always offered to the Creature Being whose shape the Shaman assumes. Physical shapeshifting brings the participant into complete alignment with the Medicine of the Totem. The shapeshifter is then able to see all dimensions and realms experientially through the eyes of a particular Totem, or is able to hear with the ears of the Jaguar, the sounds of the Ancestors voices as ~They~ guide and instruct humanity.

***The human counterpart of the Jaguar Spirit, will carry with him/her the Medicine of shapeshifting. This may mean the inherent ability to shapeshift in the manner listed above, or this ability may manifest as the drive and ability to continually reshape the conditions, experiences, psychology and reality of their existence.

From early childhood, the Jaguar individual will exhibit the desire for near constant change. An innate desire to understand the mysteries of life will be much in evidence with the young Jaguar cub and they may be some of the youngest students of earth medicine, astrology, witchcraft or other arcane studies. Whilst their peers are busy with sports and socializing, the Jaguar cub will be immersed in understanding mysteries that others may perceive as “dark” or dangerous.

For some young Jaguars, the exploration of the metaphysical can sometimes include dabbling with “black magic.” When operating from lower personality center as an adult, the interest in the destructive side of magickal knowledge and practice will continue and intensify, with these individuals becoming amongst the most powerful of sorcerers and sorceresses. In this instance, the inheritance of Jaguar Magic is distorted and misused as a tool to manipulate, harm or intimidate others, to achieve worldly success at the expense of their own soul’s development, or to control matter for willful or selfish purposes. A Jaguar soul operating from such contrary Medicine may initially meet with their desired goals, yet at some stage in their spiritual development, they will be required to shapeshift into channeling their unique talents as they were intended when gifted . . . for the benefit of the All and from unconditional love, else their abilities will be stripped from them. When operating from “positive” Medicine, the Jaguar soul will utilize their magical talents for the benefit of others and will be amongst the most accurate psychics, seers, shamans and healers.

Throughout their journey around the Sacred Hoop of Life, the Jaguar soul will encounter numerous scenarios set up by the psyche as a means to facilitate transformation. Yet shapeshifting in the early stages of Jaguar development is never easy. These are the individuals that will drive themselves to the point of physical, mental or emotional exhaustion until the breaking point is reached. Then, once they have burned themselves to the ground, they will arise much like the Phoenix of legend, in a new form with new eyes and a new cycle awaiting them.

Until the lesson of conscious change is thoroughly embraced, the human with Jaguar as a Primary Totem will experience chaotic events and emotional traumas that have been brought about by their own unconscious effort to force the change their soul recognizes is necessary. Yet once the Jaguar soul comes to awareness of this tendency and learns to create the necessary change consciously, and without the high drama that was indulged in earlier in life, the power of the transformation is splendid to behold. Then, the shapeshifter may emerge in the light of conscious awareness, an teacher by example to others of the beauty of a soul unfolding.***


Integrity

When the Sky God came to the Mayan People, he brought with him the Universal Principle of Integrity, and instructed the people to operate always from a center of unconditional love, honesty and compassion. He taught the people that they must live by a code of conduct that would be impeccable, and that they should seek to benefit and care for one another, to live in harmony with the planet and all other life forms.

Just prior to his departure from Earth (when he felt that the people had been thoroughly instructed in the principles of integrity), the Sky God told the people he would return from the stars one day to see if they were living by those principles in order that they may become a part of the Universal Tribe. He further informed the people that he would leave behind his Animal Spirit, the Jaguar, that it would watch over them and keep him informed as to their conduct and behavior toward one another and all other living things.

As mentioned previously, the generations following the Sky God’s
departure witnessed a distortion of his teachings so that the sacrificial heart came to be literal, with the Mayan Jaguar Priests making human sacrifices in which the human heart was offered up to the Jaguar Spirit. So displeased with the actions of cruelty and the warping of the pure and honorable principles that had been given them, the Jaguar began to prowl the dreams of the people in search of those who had twisted the teachings of the Sky God, those whose hearts were blackened with lust for power, irreverence for life, or who were otherwise dishonorable. Upon finding one who was thus depraved, the Jaguar would relentlessly stalk them in the Dreamtime until the perpetrator would either re-align him/herself with the principles of integrity, or until the soul of that two-legged departed the Earth plane for retribution in the spirit world.

***There will be a large emphasis on Integrity in the life of the two-legged beside whom Jaguar strides. The Jaguar Soul’s life will be lead from a standpoint of a moral belief system that is structured to remind the human counterpart of the necessity of operating from truth, valor, honor and respect for the All.

A palpable purity of essence to these individuals will be felt by others who come to know the Jaguar Spirit. The Jaguar individual him/herself will not think about their character or moral fiber, but will merely follow the instruction of an inner voice that is constantly guiding them to operate from a place of fidelity and ~decency.~

In order that the one beside whom Jaguar journeys may successfully
integrate mind, body and soul, their life will be structured in such a way as to develop an inner core of honor, valor, probity and reliability. The lessons in integrity will frequently arrive in the form of relationships with others who may be operating from double-standards. In these instances, the Jaguar’s partner will expect complete faithfulness and commitment from the Jaguar individual, yet will then demand that no such similar “restrictions” be placed on themselves. Or the lesson may surface as experiences with friends, co-workers or siblings who may either take the credit for the Jaguar soul’s work, ~good deed,~ ideas, or selfless acts, or whom may shuffle off responsibility for their own “misdeeds” or wrong doings onto the Jaguar individual.

Trusting by nature, such illustrations of dishonesty and lack of moral
character as mentioned above, will deeply sadden the human counterpart to Jaguar Spirit, and teach him/her the importance of standing by their personal beliefs and taking responsibility for their own actions, choices and decisions. In this way, the lesson is learned that one must be comfortable with facing one’s self in the mirror.

Yet the greatest lesson for the Jaguar soul, may often come in the guise of conflicting desires within their own Self. As a highly sensual individual, these are souls who are enthralled with the beauty and diversity of life, from the brilliant colors, patterns and hues of a sunset, to the aroma of a rose in bloom, to the physical attractiveness of a potential mate. This high degree of sensuality can create deeply felt stimuli that can at times be in contradiction to the best interest of the soul’s growth and can serve as temptation to divert the Jaguar from his/her soul’s path. An example of this principle would be the Jaguar individual who is already in a partnership, being attracted to one outside of his/her present relationship and following the attraction to consummation. Another example may be the one beside whom Jaguar journeys following the instructions of a supervisor to “swindle” a customer in order to receive a financial gain. In both instances, the Jaguar is operating contrary to his/her belief system of integrity. In so doing, the guilt, sense of self-betrayal, and the call of the soul to realign with the character of the Higher Self, will be such as to create an indelible imprint on the psyche to remain within the parameters of their personal integrity.

When the Jaguar soul remains true to his/her moral convictions, and is able to do so from a point of non-judgment and with no hint of self-righteousness, then the wholeness of the integrative process may be experienced. In those moments, the splendor of the mind, body, soul integrity is witnessed and serves as an inspiring example to others.***


Contrary or Shadow Jaguar Medicine

Each Animal Totem may also fill the Role of Shadow Totem, its presence to teach us our most significant life lessons via the vehicle of pain. The Shadow Totem is the guide to our subconscious, the repository of all our unresolved issues, pain, hopes and desires. When we are operating opposite of the higher purpose of a particular totem, we are said to be operating from Contrary Medicine, or from our ~Shadow~ side. To learn more about the Shadow Totem, please click here.

As a Shadow Totem, or for one whose Power, Theme, Mission or Astral Totem is Jaguar yet is operating from Contrary Medicine, the ~Shadow Side~ to this beautiful cat can be quite complex.

One who is operating from Contrary Jaguar Medicine, or who has Jaguar as a Shadow Totem, will be highly unpredictable, unreliable and untrustworthy. The impeccable principles by which a Jaguar soul will conduct his/her life when operating from the higher vibration of Jaguar Medicine, will be nearly non-existent in the behavior of the Shadow Jaguar. It isn’t that the inner voice of “proper conduct” and integrity isn’t present in the soul of Shadow or Contrary Jaguar, but merely that the human counterpart is choosing to block out the guiding voice in favor of material, emotional or physical gains.

Such resistance to the proper use of Jaguar Medicine, will create great havoc and chaos in the life of one beside whom Jaguar walks. Plans that have been carefully plotted and strategized, will fall through at the last moment. Emotional partnerships that were initially achieved through seduction, deceit or manipulation will be severed abruptly when the partner of Shadow Jaguar comes to realize the one they have fallen in love with is not who/what they have presented themselves to be.

Only once the Jaguar soul steps into alignment with his/her personal integrity and the higher vibration of Jaguar Medicine, will the pattern of chaos and pain transform. In understanding the temptation to control or dominate others for what it is, lack of faith in the Self, can the life lessons represented by the Shadow manifestation of this Totem Spirit right itself. Yet if these lessons are learned, absorbed and integrated, the Shadow energy transforms itself as the two-legged shapeshifts into a new form . . . one that is filled with compassion and integrity.



FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Panthera_onca_-Chester_Zoo,_Cheshire,_England-8a.jpg
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Tila
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Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Re: Giaguaro   Sab 6 Ago 2011 - 15:38

Riporto altri documenti, di wikipedia inglese, di miti legati a questo nobile totem.

Buona lettura.


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olmec_were-jaguar

Were-jaguar
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The were-jaguar was both an Olmec motif and a supernatural entity, perhaps a deity.

The were-jaguar motif is charactertised by almond-shaped eyes, a downturned open mouth, and a cleft head.[1] It appears widely in the Olmec archaeological record, and in many cases, under the principle of pars pro toto, the were-jaguar motif represents the were-jaguar supernatural.[2] The were-jaguar supernatural incorporates the were-jaguar motif as well as other features, although various academics define the were-jaguar supernatural differently. The were-jaguar supernatural was once considered to be the primary deity of the Olmec culture but is now thought to be only one of many.[3]

Originally, many scholars believed that the were-jaguar was tied to a myth concerning a copulation between a jaguar and a woman. Although this hypothesis is still recognized as viable by many researchers, other explanations for the were-jaguar motif have since been put forward, several questioning whether the motif actually represents a jaguar at all.

The term is derived from Old English were, meaning "man", and jaguar, a large member of the cat family in the Olmec heartland, on analogy with werewolf.



A stone Olmec were-jaguar, showing common were-jaguar characteristics including a downturned mouth, almond-shaped eyes, pleated ear bars, a headdress with headband, and a crossed-bars icon on the chest
Author Maunus
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jaguarbaby.jpg

Description

Were-jaguar motif

The basic were-jaguar motif combines a cleft head, slanting almond-shaped eyes with round irises, and a downturned open mouth with a flared upper lip and toothless gums.[4] This motif was first described in print by Marshall Saville in 1929 and expanded upon by artist and archaeologist Miguel Covarrubias in his 1946 and 1957 books. In this latter book, Indian Art of Mexico & Central America, Covarrubias included a family tree showing the "jaguar mask" as ancestral to all (later) Mesoamerican rain gods.[5]

At about this time, in 1955, Matthew Stirling set forward what has since become known as the Stirling Hypothesis, proposing that the were-jaguar was the outcome of a mating between a jaguar and a woman.

In response to this groundwork, the were-jaguar became the reigning linchpin of Olmec iconography. Nearly any representation showing a downturned mouth or cleft head was described as a "were-jaguar".[6] A major 1965 Olmec-oriented exhibition was entitled "The Jaguar's Children" and referred to the were-jaguar as "the divine power of the Olmec civilization".[7]

This paradigm was undermined, however, by the discovery that same year of Las Limas Monument 1, a greenstone sculpture that displayed not only a were-jaguar baby, but four other supernaturals, each of whom had a cleft head. Based on analyses of this sculpture, in 1976, Peter David Joralemon proposed definitions for eight Olmec supernaturals, each characterised by specific iconographic combinations.

Were-jaguar as a rain deity

Through this and subsequent research, it became apparent that not every cleft head nor every downturned mouth represented a were-jaguar.[8] Some researchers have therefore refined the were-jaguar supernatural, specifically equating it with the Olmec rain deity,[9] a proposition that artist, archaeologist, and ethnographer Miguel Covarrubias had made as early as 1946 in Mexico South.[10]

The Olmec rain supernatural (or deity) not only displays the characteristic almond-shaped eyes, cleft head, and downturned mouth—that is, the were-jaguar motif—but has several other defining attributes, including a headband and a headdress, the latter usually cleft.[11] The headband is often divided horizontally and decorated with regularly spaced ornaments.[12] In addition to, or often as an extension of, the headdress, the supernatural also sports earbars (often pleated) running down the sides of its face, and a "crossed-bars" icon on the chest and/or navel.[13]


Monument 52 from San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan, showing a classic were-jaguar figure. The long deep groove carved into the back of this sculpture indicates it was part of the drainage system, associating the were-jaguar with rain and water.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Seated_Olmec_Jaguar_from_San_Lorenzo,_Veracruz.jpg

Beyond the term "were-jaguar"

Some academics have even attempted to move away from the term "were-jaguar". For example, in his 1996 monograph, rather than "were-jaguar", Anatole Pohorilenko uses the term "composite anthropomorph", and in their 1993 book, Miller and Taube state that:

An overarching [were-jaguar] theory cannot explain the diversity and complexity of Olmec supernaturals. Only one, the Rain Baby, clearly seems to be a human-jaguar blend."[14]

Depictions

Although they are "strangely absent" from ceramics,[15] three-dimensional representations of the Olmec were-jaguar supernatural appear in a wide variety of stonework, from small greenstone figurines (see this 9 cm figurine) to basalt statues (such as San Lorenzo Monument 52) to larger monuments (see lead photo).

Inert were-jaguar babies are often shown held by stoic adults, as if the infant were being presented. This scene is depicted in a wide range of materials, from small portable carvings (see photo below) to nearly life-size greenstone statuettes (see photo below), to multi-tonne altars (see photo of Altar 5 front here), although it is not known with any clarity what this act represents.

Two-dimensional representations of the were-jaguar were incised onto greenstone celts, painted on pottery, and even carved onto four multi-tonne monoliths at Teopantecuanitlan (see drawing). Lively were-jaguar babies are depicted in bas-relief on the sides of La Venta Altar 5 (see photo below).

According to archaeologist Peter Furst, were-jaguar figurines were likely used as household gods for many people and as spirit helpers or familiars for priests or shamans, aiding in transformative acts and other rituals.[16]

Origins

As the major predator of Mesoamerica, the jaguar was revered by pre-Columbian societies, and adoption of jaguar motifs by the ruling elite was used to reinforce or validate leadership.[17] However, this does not explain the were-jaguar motif in and of itself, and the possible origins of the motif have engaged scholars for over a half century.

The Stirling hypothesis

Matthew Stirling, who made many of the initial Olmec discoveries in the mid-20th century, proposed that the were-jaguar motif was derived from the story of copulation between a male jaguar and a female human, largely based on:

Potrero Nuevo Monument 3,
Tenochititlán Monument 1,
Laguna de los Cerros Monument 20, and
Murals from Chalcatzingo.

This so-called Stirling hypothesis[18] won guarded support from later archaeologists, including Michael D. Coe. Further analysis of these sculptures by scholars including Whitney Davis, Carolyn Tate, Carson Murdy, and Peter Furst, however, have cast doubt on this hypothesis, instead proposing alternatives to explain the jaguar characteristics.

Jaguar as victor

In her 1978 article, Whitney Davis suggests that the so-called depictions of human-jaguar copulation on monuments are instead the beginnings of a jaguar cult or are representative of conquest in battle rather than a sexual conquest. Rather than viewing the people and jaguar-figures in sexual situations, Davis sees the jaguar, or man in jaguar pelts, as an aggressor towards a defeated opponent. Most of the figures in the reliefs and monuments are clothed in loincloths, which would negate copulation, and Davis believes those that are naked appear dead or dying rather than in a sexual posture. It is not uncommon to see unclothed human figures as representative of dead captives or opponents in battle, as in the danzantes of Monte Alban.

Genetic defects

Even before Davis questioned the idea of a belief system centering on human-jaguar copulation, scholars like Michael Coe[19] looked for biological causes for the fleshy lips, cleft head, and toothless mouths that make up the were-jaguar motif. Genetic abnormalities like Down syndrome and spina bifida have been common explanations. People afflicted with spina bifida in particular present developmental defects that coincide with the were-jaguar characteristics. One such condition is encephaloceles, which among other things, can cause separation of the cranial sutures and result in a depression, or cleft, in the head.[20] Cranium bifidum can produce similar results. In addition, there is a higher chance of these conditions occurring within the same family than randomly throughout the population, and there might have been considerable inbreeding among the elite.[21] If children born with this affliction were seen as divine or special in some way, multiple births of affected children within a family or familial line would have reinforced that family's political and religious power.

Were-jaguar as toad

Peter Furst, among others, has suggested that the were-jaguar actually represents a variety of native toad, specifically "an anthropomorphically conceived toad with jaguar characteristics".[22]

Species of toad that are commonly found in Mesoamerica, like Bufo marinus or Bufo valliceps, have the pronounced cleft in the head and, like all toads, have a fleshy mouth with toothless gums. These species of toad are known to have ceremonial and hallucinogenic properties for many cultures of Mesoamerica. Skeletal remains of these species, particularly Bufo marinus, have been found at several archaeological sites in Mesoamerica including Olmec ceremonial centers.[23] These species of toads have inherent symbolic power in their metamorphic life cycle, their fertility, their hallucinogenic venom, and especially their skin-shedding.[24]

Those were-jaguar representations that have fangs commonly attributed as jaguar fangs can also be explained as toad-like. Several times a year, mature toads shed their skin. As the old skin is shed, the toad will eat it. As the skin is eaten, it hangs out of the toad's mouth and closely resembles the fangs of the were-jaguar. The process of regeneration could have symbolised death and rebirth, with all its attendant religious implications.

Summary

There are many theories and associations that swirl around the were-jaguar motif, and they need not be not mutually exclusive. It is possible that were-jaguars meant different things at different times during the Olmec period or to the many different people who created the images. The matter is far from settled.

Notes

^ Coe (1968), p. 42. Diehl, p. 104.
^ Pars pro toto means that a part represents the whole. This principle is common in Olmec art (See, among others, Joralemon, p. 51).
^ See, among others, Miller & Taube, p. 103.
^ Coe (1968), p. 42. Diehl, p. 104.
^ Covarrubias (1957), p. 62.
^ Pool, p. 68.
^ Coe (1965), p. 123.
^ Pool, p. 112.
^ e.g. Pool, p. 116, or Pohorilenko.
^ See Covarrubias (1986) pg. 99, where he says: "stylistic evidence shows that the Olmec jaguar mask is an early form of the rain-god".
^ The headdress may be cleft in back and not, like the were-jaguar motif, at the very top of the head.
^ Pohorilenko (p. 125) says that "the headdress is by far the most important dress item", while Joralemon (1996, p. 56) says that "particularly important is a striated headband".
^ These characteristics of the Olmec rain supernatural/were-jaguar are found in Miller & Taube (p. 126), Joralemon (1996), and Pohorilenko (p. 125). Interestingly enough, while Joralemon finds that the Olmec rain supernatural has "were-jaguar features" (i.e. displays the were-jaguar motif), it is nevertheless not the were-jaguar supernatural. Joralemon includes the earbars in his definition of the were-jaguar supernatural, but states that "the creature never wears a headband, headdress, or other defining attributes. He is easily recognizable from his features alone" (p. 58).
^ Miller & Taube, p. 185.
^ Joralemon, p. 56.
^ Furst (1996), pp. 69-70.
^ Miller & Taube, p. 102.
^ See Miller & Taube, p. 158.
^ Coe, 1962.
^ Murdy 1981, p. 863.
^ Murdy 1981, p. 863-866.
^ Furst (1981, p. 150) was one of the first to propose the were-jaguar as toad connection. Two years later, Alison Bailey Kennedy wrote a 1983 article on this subject for Current Anthropology. Elizabeth Benson, in her 1996 compendium, mentions this theory sympathetically (p. 231; p. 263).
^ Coe (1994), p. 69: "There were a wide number of bones from the marine toad, Bufo marinus". . . at San Lorenzo.
^ Furst (1981), p. 150.
^ Coe 2002, p. 75-76



References

Benson, E.P. and B. de la Fuente, eds. (1996) Olmec Art of Ancient Mexico, National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C., ISBN 0-89468-250-4.
Benson, E.P. (1998) "The Lord, The Ruler: Jaguar Symbolism in the Americas". In N.J. Saunders (ed.), Icons of Power: Feline Symbolism in the Americas. London: Routledge: 53-76.
Coe, Michael D. (1972) "Olmec Jaguars and Olmec Kings". In E.P. Benson (ed.), The Cult of the Feline. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks: 1-12.
Coe, Michael D. (1999) The Maya. London: Thames and Hudson: 90, 247-48.
Coe, Michael D. (2002) Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs. London: Thames and Hudson: 64, 75-76.
Covarrubias, Miguel (1986) [1946]. Mexico South: The Isthmus of Tehuantepec (Reprint, Originally published New York: Knopf ©1946 ed.). London: KPI (Kegan Paul International), distributed by Routledge & Kegan Paul, by arrangement with Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-7103-0184-7. OCLC 14069879.
Covarrubias, Miguel (1957) Indian Art of Mexico and Central America. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Davis, Whitney (1978) "So-Called Jaguar-Human Copulation Scenes in Olmec Art". American Antiquity 43(3): 453-457.
Diehl, Richard (2004). The Olmecs: America's First Civilization. Ancient peoples and places series. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-02119-8. OCLC 56746987.
Furst, Peter T. (1981) "Jaguar Baby or Toad Mother: A New Look at an Old Problem in Olmec Iconography". In E.P. Besnon (ed.), The Olmec and Their Neighbors. Washington D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks: 149-162. ISBN 978-0884020981.
Joralemon, Peter David (1996) "In Search of the Olmec Cosmos: Reconstructing the World View of Mexico's First Civilization". In E. P. Benson and B. de la Fuente (eds.), Olmec Art of Ancient Mexico. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art: 51-60. ISBN 0-89468-250-4.
Miller, Mary; and Karl Taube (1993). The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya: An Illustrated Dictionary of Mesoamerican Religion. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05068-6. OCLC 27667317.
Murdy, Carson N (1981) "Congenital Deformities and the Olmec Were-Jaguar Motif". American Antiquity 46(4): 861-871.
Pohorilenko, Anatole (1996) "Portable Carvings in the Olmec Style", in E. P. Benson and B. de la Fuente (eds.), Olmec Art of Ancient Mexico. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art: 119-131. ISBN 0-89468-250-4.
Pool, Christopher (2007) Olmec Archaeology and Early Mesoamerica. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-78882-3.
Tate, Carolyn E. (1999) "Patrons of Shamanic Power: La Venta's Supernatural Entities in Light of Mixe Beliefs". Ancient Mesoamerica 10: 169-188.
Saunders, N.J. (1998) "Architecture of Symbolism: The Feline Image". In N.J. Saunders (ed), Icons of Power: Feline Symbolism in the Americas. London: Routledge: 12-52.


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maya_jaguar_gods

Maya jaguar gods
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The pre-Columbian Maya civilization had various jaguar gods, in addition to jaguar demi-gods, (ancestral) protectors, and transformers. The main jaguar deities are given below. Their associated narratives (part of Maya mythology) are still largely to be reconstructed. Lacandon and Tzotzil-Tzeltal oral tradition are particularly rich in jaguar lore.


Jaguar God of Terrestrial Fire on a cinerary urn, Late-Classic period
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Urna_funeraria_maya_Kinich_Ahau_%28M._Am%C3%A9rica_Inv.91-11-12%29_02.jpg

The Jaguar God of Terrestrial Fire

The Jaguar God of Terrestrial Fire is recognizable by a 'cruller' around the eyes (making a loop over the nose), jaguar ears, and jaguar fangs. He personifies the number Seven, which is associated with the day Ak'b'al 'Night'. Usually called 'Jaguar God of the Underworld', he has traditionally been assumed to be the 'Night Sun', i.e., the shape taken by the sun (Kinich Ahau) during his nightly journey through the underworld. There is little to validate this view; what we do know is, that the so-called Jaguar God of the Underworld was identified with a star or constellation (rather than with the sun), and with terrestrial fire. He is often represented on incense burners, and is connected to fire rituals. The 'cruller' may represent a cord used in making fire with a stick. Vases in codical style show him, captured, about to be burnt with torches, perhaps initiating his stellar transformation. The god's other sphere of influence is that of war, witness for example the stereotypical presence of his face on several war shields.

God L

God L (according to the designation of codical gods), one of the oldest Mayan deities, and associated with black sorcery and riches, belongs to the jaguar deities: He has jaguar ears and a jaguar mantle and lives in a jaguar palace. Some take him to be the main ruler over the Underworld, and in that sense, god L would have to be considered the true "Jaguar God of the Underworld".

The Jaguar Goddess of Midwifery and War

The aged goddess of midwifery, curing, and war Ix Chel, belongs to the jaguar deities. She has jaguar ears and claws and can show the looped cruller element of the Jaguar God of Terrestrial Fire (Birth Vase), suggesting that she might be a spouse to this deity.

The Jaguar Patron of the month of Pax

The patron deity of the month of Pax has jaguar paws above his ears, a removed lower jaw, and vomits blood. In 16th-century Yucatan, rituals held in the month of Pax centered on the war leader and the puma deity, Cit Chac Coh. Particularly scenes on pottery show the Pax deity to be intimately associated with war and human sacrifice. He presides over the transformation of a child into a jaguar (see below) and performs a sacrificial dance around the captured Rain Deity (Chaac). Personified as a tree, he witnesses the shooting of the Principal Bird Deity and of the Vulture King by Hun-Ahpu.

The Aged Jaguar Paddler

One of two aged deities steering the canoe with the Tonsured Maize God has a jaguar headdress and is associated with Night, like the Jaguar God of Terrestrial Fire. Little else is known about him.

The Jaguar Twin Hero

The protective War Hero Twin of the Popol Vuh, Xbalanque, has patches of jaguar pelt stuck to his skin.

Jaguar Protectors and Jaguar Transformers

Less clearly classifiable as deities are jaguar protectors (perhaps ancestors) and jaguar transformers. The Water Lily Jaguar (so called because of the water lily on its head) is both a giant jaguar protector, looming large above the king (e.g., Tikal wooden lintel 3, temple I), and a transformer often shown amidst flames. A specific and as yet unexplained transformation into a jaguar involves a male child with jaguar ears and a jaguar tail (the so-called Jaguar Baby). This Jaguar Baby can assume the features of the Jaguar God of Terrestrial Fire.

References

Mary Miller and Karl Taube, The Gods of Ancient Mexico and the Maya. Thames and Hudson.
David Stuart, 'The Fire Enters His House': Architecture and Ritual in Classic Maya Texts', in Houston, Function and Meaning in Classic Maya Architecture (1998): 373-425.
Karl Taube, The Major Gods of Ancient Yucatan. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks, 1992.
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Jaguar



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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Giaguaro   Sab 6 Ago 2011 - 20:54

Grazie per questo completo e splendido contributo purtroppo il mio inglese è piuttosto elementare ma appena ho tempo mi metterò a tradurre il tutto.

Il resto delle informazioni mi sono state molto utili conoscere le caratteristiche ordinarie degli animali è molto importante secondo me oltre che affascinante.
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Giaguaro   Sab 6 Ago 2011 - 21:20

Jaguar ha scritto:
Grazie per questo completo e splendido contributo purtroppo il mio inglese è piuttosto elementare ma appena ho tempo mi metterò a tradurre il tutto.

Il resto delle informazioni mi sono state molto utili conoscere le caratteristiche ordinarie degli animali è molto importante secondo me oltre che affascinante.

Figurati, comunque sto ancora facendo ricerche sul suo simbolismo che come avrai notato è molto simile a quello della pantera.

Purtroppo la maggior parte dei documenti si trovano soltanto in inglese, non so se lo conosci ma io a volte trovo comodo usare il traduttore di google è veramente utile e versatile, soprattutto per tradurre siti interi.

Si infatti anche secondo noi è importante conoscere anche la parte delle caratteristiche appartenenti al mondo ordinario perchè in questo modo possiamo capire meglio il nostro totem o animale guida e in parte anche noi stessi.



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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Giaguaro   Mer 28 Dic 2011 - 13:40

Se può essere di aiuto io conosco alcuni siti dove se ne parla ( in italiano!); informazioni sul simbolismo, sulle abitudini e sulle caratteristiche dello sciamano che trova nel giaguaro il proprio spirito guida.
Mi è interessata molto la parte intitolata "Biologia", nel primo post di Tila, come anche i paragoni tra giaguaro e i vari felidi, informazioni che non avevo.
Grazie.
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Giaguaro   Mer 28 Dic 2011 - 13:58

Ciao Gioguar,

se ne hai voglia sentiti tranquillamente libero di inserire altre informazioni e documenti, stai solo attento alle leggi sul copyright e alle norme del regolamento interno del nostro forum.

Purtroppo non tutti i documenti (non mi riferisco solo a quelli che puoi trovare su internet) sono di libera divulgazione, anzi molti sono solo di consultazione.

Per eventuali dubbi consulta la nostra area del regolamento e delle normative sul copyright che trovi qui

http://sciamanesimo.forumattivo.com/f17-regolamento-del-forum-forum-policy

e per qualsiasi altro chiarimento chiedi tranquillamente Smile

Complimenti per il "micione" io li adoro, forse si era capito. Il giaguaro ha una simbologia molto interessante, e da quello che ho letto è molto presente nella tradizione sciamanica. Soprattutto nella cultura dei nativi americani.

Un salutone.
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Giaguaro   Mer 28 Dic 2011 - 16:44

Ciao Gioguar,

Piacere di averti nella comunità.

Il sito a cui fa riferimento ha precise regole di copyright (che credo tu abbia letto).

Non avendo noi ricevuta alcuna autorizzazione alla pubblicazione di quanto tu hai pari pari riportato, ti chiedo cortesemente di fare un riassunto di ciò che hai scritto, automoderando il precedente messaggio: in caso contrario provvederò entro la giornata a cancellare il tuo precedente post.

Ti ringrazio perla tua cortese attenzione.

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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Giaguaro   Mer 28 Dic 2011 - 17:40

Salve Admin, chiedo scusa per l'errore e per la mancanza, cercherò di essere più accorto la prossima volta.
Grazie a te per avermelo fatto notare.
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Giaguaro   Mer 28 Dic 2011 - 19:48

Gioguar ha scritto:
Salve Admin, chiedo scusa per l'errore e per la mancanza, cercherò di essere più accorto la prossima volta.
Grazie a te per avermelo fatto notare.

Mi fa piacere che la mia prima moderazione a te come Admin e moderatore ti sia gradita. In ogni caso procedo alla moderazione del messaggio. Non avendo pertanto tempo di fare per te il riassunto lo cancello. Ti ricordo inoltre che fare riferimenti a siti che trattano di sciamanesimo e di corsi a pagamento sono non solo vietati in questo forum, ma considerati peggio della peste (se leggi i nostri propositi e i regolamneto lo capirai facilmente). Quindi cancello tutto.Accade spesso che in questo forum arrivi gente che pensa di avere a che fare con persone che organizzano corsi da fine settimana, masterati di sciamanesimo e molto altro. Anche questa è una realtà pienamente attiva nella nostra società e sarebbe interessante se in >Italia qualcuno si decidesse ad iniziare una serie di studi antropologici e sociologici sule nuove mode che mimano le culture sciamaniche tradizionali. ma non è questo il nostro intento. Il marchio della qualità del lavoro di questa comunità è la totale assenza di riferimenti e di possibilità di sfruttare il forum per intenti di lucro, di ogni tipo.

Quindi se vuoi, si fa come a volte fanno gli attori nelle commedie comiche: immaginiamo ri ricominciare da capo. Ad esempio sarebbe carico capire cosa ti ha spinto a legarti cosi tanto a questo animale e cosa rappresenta per te, ovvio se vuoia parlarne in questa comunità.

Non necessariamente devi per forza elaborare articoli o interventi lunghissimi...di persone prolisse il forum è già dotato ;-)

Ti auguro una buona serata

A presto

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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Giaguaro   Mer 28 Dic 2011 - 21:28

Non c'è problema Admin, provavo solo a rendermi utile!

Farei volentieri una domanda invece:
Ricercando mi è capitato di leggere che il giaguaro come totem è molto potente e di conseguenza difficile da controllare, tanto che chi non è in grado di "padroneggiare" il suo potere si indebolisce o ne viene addirittura posseduto.
Ci sono davvero totem meno controllabili o più potenti rispetto ad altri secondo voi?
Se mi ritrovo con questa guida è perchè mi ci sento a mio agio, d'altronde lui è venuto da me, che motivo avrebbe di farmi del male?

Fatemi sapere!
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Giaguaro   Mer 28 Dic 2011 - 21:48

Gioguar ha scritto:
Non c'è problema Admin, provavo solo a rendermi utile!
Farei volentieri una domanda invece:
Ricercando mi è capitato di leggere che il giaguaro come totem è molto potente e di conseguenza difficile da controllare, tanto che chi non è in grado di "padroneggiare" il suo potere si indebolisce o ne viene addirittura posseduto.
Ci sono davvero totem meno controllabili o più potenti rispetto ad altri secondo voi?
Se mi ritrovo con questa guida è perchè mi ci sento a mio agio, d'altronde lui è venuto da me, che motivo avrebbe di farmi del male?
Fatemi sapere!

Dipende sempre da quale contesto prendiamo riferimento.

In realtà per molte culture non esistono animali più potenti di altri, se guardi ad esempio la simbologia del lombrico è molto potente.

Ora ti parlo in maniera generale e non nello specifico di ciò che hai scritto, c'è da capire cosa si intende per potere, anche lì le definizioni potrebbero essere molteplici. Se il potere è inteso come un dono o un insegnamento non esiste qualcuno più potente dell'altro ma bensì insegnamenti e doni diversi.

Se parliamo di potere inteso in maniera egoica sicuramente, a mio avviso, non stiamo parlando di sciamanesimo.

Che io sappia l'animale guida non viene da noi per farci del male, magari ci può dare qualche scossone se siamo un po' testardi Smile ma sono nostri insegnanti.

Consiglio anche a te di leggere questo articolo sugli animali totem , guida e alleati magari ti può chiarire alcuni punti che io in questo mio passaggio non ti ho saputo spiegare

http://sciamanesimo.forumattivo.com/t945-animali-di-potere-guida-totem-famiglio-alleato

Un saluto

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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Giaguaro   Gio 29 Dic 2011 - 8:05

Gioguar ha scritto:
Non c'è problema Admin, provavo solo a rendermi utile!
Farei volentieri una domanda invece:
Ricercando mi è capitato di leggere che il giaguaro come totem è molto potente e di conseguenza difficile da controllare, tanto che chi non è in grado di "padroneggiare" il suo potere si indebolisce o ne viene addirittura posseduto.
Ci sono davvero totem meno controllabili o più potenti rispetto ad altri secondo voi?
Se mi ritrovo con questa guida è perchè mi ci sento a mio agio, d'altronde lui è venuto da me, che motivo avrebbe di farmi del male?
Fatemi sapere!

Buondì Gioguar,

scusa ma ieri sera ero super impegnata e la mia risposta è stata incompleta.

Se parliamo di animale totem c'è da dire che in molte culture, tra le quali quelle della Siberia e gli Inuit, credono che l'animale totem possieda parte delle caratteristiche e il carattere dell'individuo che ha quello specifico animale.

Perciò se un totem è tranquillo o è impetuoso dipende in parte da chi lo possiede. Può essercene più di uno e può accompagnarti anche per brevi periodi, in genere si presenta in un determinato momento per insegnarti una particolare attitudine che ti sarà utile in quel periodo della tua vita.

Ti faccio un esempio, se incontro un bradipo e so che lui è il mio animale totem, posso dedurre a grosse linee che mi vuole insegnare che in questo momento della mia vita ho bisogno di riposarmi. Se il mio totem è un ape che mi devo godere il miele della vita...e così via.

Ed ora parliamo dell'animale di potere, chiamato così più che altro perchè è colui che ti insegnerà una particolare medicina, un dono. Questo animale in genere ti seguirà per l'intera vita.

C'è una pratica nello sciamanesimo chiamata shapeshifting molto rilevante, sarò brevissima anche perchè nel forum troverai diversi riferimenti, si tratta della capacità di trasformarsi nel proprio animale, significa anche diventare parte di esso e fondersi con esso.

Che sia stato usato per affrontare con coraggio le battaglie dai berserk ad esempio o un semplice volo di fantasia è pur sempre, secondo me, un modo per comunicare con una parte nascosta del nostro essere che noi rispecchiamo nel nostro animale.

Gioguar ha scritto:

Se mi ritrovo con questa guida è perchè mi ci sento a mio agio, d'altronde lui è venuto da me, che motivo avrebbe di farmi del male?
Fatemi sapere!

Beh credo che ti sia risposto da solo, se sei sicuro che interagisci con il tuo animale di potere o con la tua guida o il tuo totem (e non con un'altra entità) non c'è alcun motivo per aver timore da esso.

Per ciò che riguarda la parola potere come ti avevo accennato nel mio precedente post bisogna capire quale definizione dargli. Ci sono alcune tradizioni dei nativi americani o dei siberiani che credono che se osano dire che il loro animale è più potente di un altro lo perderanno per sempre. Per altre si avrà la stessa sorte se solo si rivela ad estranei l'identità del proprio animale.

Ora non so a quale cultura ti riferivi (riguardo la possessione) ma come avrai modo di vedere le culture, le tradizioni sono tantissime. Ognuna ha un suo modo di vedere, di interpretare anche il simbolismo.

Ad esempio per alcune culture dell'America del Sud il giaguaro è per eccellenza l'animale di potere più potente e difficile da gestire...per i Tungusi l'animale di potere più potente è l'aquila...per alcuni il cane, il lupo e il gatto sono animali di scarso potere, per altri invece ricoprono grandi ruoli...insomma Gioguar ci vorrebbe forse più di una vita per conoscere tutte queste tradizioni Smile

Secondo me dovresti porre queste domande anche al tuo animale, se sono realmente entità o spiriti guida possono risponderti meglio loro di chiunque altro.

Ed ora scusami ma apro una piccola parentesi off topic, che non ha niente a che fare con te, perchè oltre ovviamente quotare Admin nel precedente passaggio tengo ad aggiungere un mio pensiero.

Nei miei iniziali studi sullo sciamanesimo ho potuto constatare che queste pratiche o discipline venivano insegnate ai discepoli e divulgate liberamente.

Lo sciamano stesso non solo doveva prestare i suoi servigi alla comunità a titolo gratuito ma doveva provvedere da solo anche al suo sostentamento.

E' vero che questi erano gli usi di tribù e antiche popolazioni ma secondo me lo sciamanesimo è un viaggio verso la consapevolezza, un lungo percorso a beneficio di tutti non solo di pochi che possono permettersi il pedaggio di questa strada.

Lo scopo di questa agorà di studio sullo sciamanesimo è quello di cercare di dare la possibilità a tutti di leggere, documentarsi, confrontarsi di questo argomento, liberamente e gratuitamente. Questa è da considerarsi un biblioteca pubblica liberamente consultabile.
Ed è per questo che, come ti ha detto Admin, sono vietate ogni forma di pubblicità che vanno dalla vendita del libro, a manufatti o ancor peggio a corsi sullo sciamanesimo.

Ora ti saluto augurandoti nuovamente una buona giornata.

Tila



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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Giaguaro   Gio 29 Dic 2011 - 9:46

Buongiorno Tila,
sì, io mi riferivo proprio alla tradizione sciamanica dell'america del sud, avrei dovuto specificare.
Grazie mille per la risposta esaustiva, ora è tutto meno fraintendibile.
Buona giornata a te.
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Giaguaro   Gio 29 Dic 2011 - 9:59

Gioguar ha scritto:
Buongiorno Tila,
sì, io mi riferivo proprio alla tradizione sciamanica dell'america del sud, avrei dovuto specificare.
Grazie mille per la risposta esaustiva, ora è tutto meno fraintendibile.
Buona giornata a te.

Si immaginavo, da quello che so questi popoli nativi delle foreste amazzoniche ( http://sciamanesimo.forumattivo.com/f80-amazon-shamanism-sciamanesimo-delle-foreste-amazzoniche ) e più in dettaglio gli Shuar ( http://sciamanesimo.forumattivo.com/t826-jivaro-shuar ) credono anche che possono "usare" gli animali come vere e proprie armi, perciò per loro è così importante che l'animale di potere sia "potente" (scusa il gioco di parole) e solo veri sciamani eletti che possiedono questo animale possono imbrigliare la sua forza e il potere.

Come ti dicevo dipende da cultura a cultura, io purtroppo di questa in particolare ne so veramente poco, aspettiamo magari qualcun'altro ti risponderà meglio.

Quello che segue è solo un mio parere (perciò prendilo come tale), visto che il mondo dello sciamanesimo si rifà più che altro a percezioni sensazioni vibrazioni ed energie, penso che se tu in qualche modo provi un sentimento di pericolo ansia oppure comunque senti ostilità quando stai con il tuo animale cerca di usare la massima cautela.

Ma se ti senti a tuo agio, come avevi detto precedentemente, prova a chiedere a lui consiglio in maniera onesta e umile, a "loro" fa piacere.

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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Giaguaro   Gio 29 Dic 2011 - 14:37

Buon pomeriggio a tutti, visto l'interesse delle tradizioni dei nativi dell'America del Sud legate al giaguaro ho svolto altre ricerche.

Ho trovato un articolo nell'area dello Sciamanesimo delle foreste Amazzoniche che parla dell'iniziazione sciamaniche tra le tribù dove si menziona lo spirito del giaguaro.

il link interno è questo:

http://sciamanesimo.forumattivo.com/t560-l-iniziazione-sciamanica-tra-le-tribu-dell-amazzonia-peruviana

La fonte originale è un PDF che troverete al seguente link: http://www.giovanniannuzzo.it/public%5CInizSciam.pdf

Riporto un breve stralcio:

Durante la trance all'aspirante appariranno anche degli spiriti aiutanti. Egli dovrà farseli amici per poter contare su di essi ogni volta che in futuro dovrà
affrontare qualche compito difficile. Di grande rilevanza è l'identificazione del suo spirito con quello del giaguaro. Così facendo, i potentissimi poteri magici del giaguaro saranno anche i suoi. Anzi, egli stesso, in senso iniziatico, muore annullando il proprio corpo e la propria mente per trasformarsi in giaguaro. E' questo un animale che riveste un ruolo importantissimo nel mondo mitologico amazzonico essendo, unitamente al serpente boa, uno dei principali, se non il principale, spirito aiutante.


FONTE: http://www.giovanniannuzzo.it/public%5CInizSciam.pdf


Infine grazie a google libri ho trovato l'anteprima di un testo, in lingua inglese (ho già controllato non è ancora stato tradotto in italiano), che tratta attraverso l'arte dei nativi e non solo esperienze delle tribù sciamaniche, come potrete leggere la simbologia del giaguaro è molto importante.

Il libro si intitola The Jaguar Within: Shamanic Trance in Ancient Central and South American Art l'autrice è Rebecca R. Stone edito dalla University of Texas Press.

Al momento ho dato solo uno sguardo ma sembra molto interessante.

Questo il link di google libri dove troverete l'anteprima:

http://books.google.it/books?id=dJljkxOP27IC&printsec=frontcover&dq=The+Jaguar+Within:+Shamanic+Trance&hl=it&sa=X&ei=hm38TqCGJYGN4gTU6r2NCA&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=The%20Jaguar%20Within%3A%20Shamanic%20Trance&f=false
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Giaguaro   Gio 29 Dic 2011 - 14:51

"Durante la trance all'aspirante appariranno anche degli spiriti aiutanti. Egli dovrà farseli amici per poter contare su di essi ogni volta che in futuro dovrà
affrontare qualche compito difficile. Di grande rilevanza è l'identificazione del suo spirito con quello del giaguaro. Così facendo, i potentissimi poteri magici del giaguaro saranno anche i suoi. Anzi, egli stesso, in senso iniziatico, muore annullando il proprio corpo e la propria mente per trasformarsi in giaguaro. E' questo un animale che riveste un ruolo importantissimo nel mondo mitologico amazzonico essendo, unitamente al serpente boa, uno dei principali, se non il principale, spirito aiutante."

Tila, penso che questo brano mi sarà molto utile per la mia ricerca. Da giusto poche settimane un serpente ha accettato di unirsi a me, leggo subito i restanti link.
Grazie.
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Giaguaro   Mer 4 Gen 2012 - 9:23

Buondì a tutti,

oggi ho trovato altri documenti utili sul giaguaro, e di questo dobbiamo ringraziare il motore di ricerca google libri che mette a disposizione alcune pagine in anteprima.

Questi i link:

Dal libro Gli sciamani – Viaggi dell’anima – Trance, estasi e rituali di guarigione di Piers Vitebsky Ed. EDT (qui troverete una recensione: http://sciamanesimo.forumattivo.com/t1100-gli-sciamani-viaggi-dellanima-trance-estasi-e-rituali-di-guarigione )

http://books.google.it/books?id=J59dHpYH31wC&pg=PA46&dq=gli+sciamani+giaguaro&hl=it&sa=X&ei=gBgET6XML9Cg-wbmr5TtCA&ved=0CD4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=gli%20sciamani%20giaguaro&f=false

e dal libro Animali e spiritualità - La convivenza con l'uomo sacrifici, rituali e miti - Spiriti e simboli animali di Nicholas J. Saunders Ed. EDT (recensione al link: http://sciamanesimo.forumattivo.com/t641-animali-e-spiritualita )

http://books.google.it/books?id=KZ3jF0xGM9cC&pg=PA66&lpg=PA66&dq=Animali+e+Spiritualit%C3%A0+giaguaro&source=bl&ots=iUhTR3VlQH&sig=1m5KL5uFS5TeXushJeiEmN_ie0k&hl=it&sa=X&ei=NhgET8OJJIWq-gbZ0szzAw&ved=0CCIQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false

Buona lettura!

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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Giaguaro   Mar 21 Feb 2012 - 17:49

Ciao a tutti! Scusate anche se ho continuato a seguirvi non ho avuto molto tempo per scrivere, volevo chiedervi ultimamente il mio animale totem è cambiato, prima avevo il serpente ora credo che sia un giaguaro. Come si fa a sapere con precisione di che animale si tratta? Nel mio caso è un grosso felino nero, pensavo che fosse una pantera nera, ma poi sono un po' di notti in genere lo vedo nei sogni, che ho come la sensazione di essermi sbagliata e che sia invece un giaguaro. Ma come faccio ad esserne sicura?
Ringrazio anticipatamente coloro che mi risponderanno, buona serata!
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Giaguaro   Mar 21 Feb 2012 - 18:00

paperinasciamana ha scritto:
Ciao a tutti! Scusate anche se ho continuato a seguirvi non ho avuto molto tempo per scrivere, volevo chiedervi ultimamente il mio animale totem è cambiato, prima avevo il serpente ora credo che sia un giaguaro. Come si fa a sapere con precisione di che animale si tratta? Nel mio caso è un grosso felino nero, pensavo che fosse una pantera nera, ma poi sono un po' di notti in genere lo vedo nei sogni, che ho come la sensazione di essermi sbagliata e che sia invece un giaguaro. Ma come faccio ad esserne sicura?
Ringrazio anticipatamente coloro che mi risponderanno, buona serata!

Ciao paperinasciamana,

ben ritrovata, le caratteristiche simboliche sono molto simili tra di loro, perciò è già un punto di vantaggio. Poi in realtà da quello che so il giaguaro appartiene alla stessa categoria tassonomica, dove sono compresi tutta una serie di felidi che prendono poi nomi diversi. Come ad esempio puma, giaguaro e pantera.

Ti consiglio comunque di chiederglielo a lui/lei direttamente, la prossima volta che lo/la vedrai...
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Maschile Capra
Numero di messaggi : 33
Data d'iscrizione : 27.12.11
Età : 25

MessaggioOggetto: Re: Giaguaro   Mar 21 Feb 2012 - 18:01

Ciao Paperina,
non è una cosa così strana che il tuo spirito cambi, è possibile. Magari perchè in questo periodo particolare della tua vita hai bisogno di qualcosa di "diverso", o tu stessa in seguito ad un particolare evento sei cambiata ( anche solo in parte ).
Non penso ci sia un modo particolarmente complesso per capire..prova a chiederlo a lui che cos'è. oppure informati dai vari post sulle sue caratteristiche fisiche ( vedrai che pantera e giaguaro non sono così simili come sembra ).
Spero di esserti stato un minimo utile, buon proseguimento.
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paperinasciamana



Femminile Capra
Numero di messaggi : 9
Data d'iscrizione : 26.09.10
Età : 25
Località : Siena

MessaggioOggetto: Re: Giaguaro   Mar 21 Feb 2012 - 18:08

Grazie Gioguar e Tila per le tempestive risposte cheers
Farò come mi avete consigliato, vi confesso che il giaguaro mi sembra più simile al mio carattere. Avevo visto in un post, ora non ricordo quale, che l'animale totem rispecchia un po i tratti della persona.
Hai ragione Gioguar, la mia vita è cambiata negli ultimi mesi, anche le persone che avevo attorno, perci sicuramente era ora di cambiare il totem. Wink
Vi farò sapere quando mi risponderà.
Grazie ancora.
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Gioguar



Maschile Capra
Numero di messaggi : 33
Data d'iscrizione : 27.12.11
Età : 25

MessaggioOggetto: Re: Giaguaro   Mar 21 Feb 2012 - 18:10

E' un piacere esserti stato utile,
in bocca al giaguaro per il tuo cambiamento, sii positiva!
A presto
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paperinasciamana



Femminile Capra
Numero di messaggi : 9
Data d'iscrizione : 26.09.10
Età : 25
Località : Siena

MessaggioOggetto: Re: Giaguaro   Gio 15 Mar 2012 - 7:06

Volevo aggiornarvi sull'incontro con il mio nuovo animale totem, scusate se seguito in questo argomento ma volevo chiudere il discorso visto che l'avevo iniziato in un mio precedente messaggio.
Domenica ho avuto la conferma che è un giaguaro nero, femmina.
Ora leggerò bene le sue caratteristiche ma vi posso dire che è già nata una certa sintonia armoniosa tra noi due lol!
Grazie ad entrambi per i preziosi consigli.
Un abbraccio.
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Giaguaro   Oggi a 2:55

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