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 Picchio - Woodpecker

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AutoreMessaggio
Tila
Iniziato Sciamano
Iniziato Sciamano


Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Picchio - Woodpecker   Gio 28 Lug 2011 - 10:31

Vi sono vari tipi di esemplari del picchio, ne riporto solo alcuni perciò per approfondimenti vi consiglio di visionare anche le fonti originali.

Buona lettura!


FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Picidae

Picidae
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

I picchi (Picidae, Vigors 1825) costituiscono la principale famiglia dell'ordine dei piciformi (Piciformes), ricca di oltre duecento specie ripartite su 28 generi.

Etologia

I picchi sono ben conosciuti per la loro tecnica di martellare con il becco il tronco degli alberi, sia per alimentarsi con larve di insetti che per creare cavità dove nidificare. Il martellamento ha anche una funzione territoriale, per segnalare la propria presenza a possibili rivali.


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Picoides-villosus-001.jpg

Generi presenti o accidentali in Italia

Torcicollo (Jynx torquilla)
Picchio verde (Picus viridis)
Picchio cenerino (Picus canus)
Picchio nero (Dryocopus martius)
Picchio rosso maggiore (Dendrocopos major)
Picchio tridattilo (Picoides tridactylus)
Picchio rosso minore (Dendrocopos minor)
Picchio dorsobianco (Dendrocopos leucotos)
Picchio rosso mezzano (Dendrocopos medius)


FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Picus_viridis

Picus viridis
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Il Picchio verde (Picus viridis, Linneo 1758), è un uccello della famiglia dei Picidae.


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gr%C3%BCnspecht_Picus_viridis.jpg

Miti, leggende e simbolismi

Secondo Ovidio[1] il Picchio verde era originariamente un uomo affascinante di nome Pico, re dell'Ausonia e fondatore di Albalonga, che aveva sposato la ninfa Canens, figlia di Giano e della ninfa Venilia. Durante una battuta di caccia, vestito con un mantello di porpora fermato sulla sommità da una borchia dorata, lo vide Circe, figlia di Elio e di Perseide, che scendeva dal monte a lei intitolato (il monte Circeo) e se ne invaghì. Isolatolo dai compagni di caccia grazie al ricorso alle sue arti magiche, Circe gli apparve e gli dichiarò il suo amore, ma Pico la rifiutò dichiarandosi fedele alla moglie Canens. Infuriata, la maga lo trasformò in un uccello, appunto il picchio, che mantenne i colori del mantello (la testa del Picchio verde è rossa) e della borchia (il collo dell'uccello è giallo).

Pico era stato anche un augure e quindi era considerato uccello molto importante per gli auspici. Per gli Umbri era considerato uccello beneaugurante.[2] Plutarco sostiene che il Picchio era uccello sacro a Marte.[3] Secondo una leggenda appartenente alla cultura cristiana, allorché Dio, durante la Creazione del mondo, volle creare fonti, fiumi e ruscelli, chiese aiuto a tutti gli uccelli dal becco robusto e l'unico che non rispose all'appello fu il picchio, per cui Iddio lo punì dicendogli che non avrebbe più potuto bere una goccia d'acqua che avesse toccato terra. Per questo, quando è assetato, il picchio si rivolgerebbe a Dio con un grido ripetuto, chiedendogli di far cadere acqua su foglie e rami degli alberi e Dio, misericordioso, gli manderebbe la pioggia. Da questa leggenda nacque la credenza che il picchio che grida ripetutamente annuncia pioggia.[4]

La determinazione con cui il picchio verde caccia ostinatamente larve e vermi penetrando con il becco nella corteccia degli alberi ne ha fatto il simbolo del Cristo, che stana senza tregua il Demonio dalle anime.[4]

Il Picchio è anche rappresentato in araldica.

Note

^ Ovidio, Metamorfosi, XIV, 372-376; 378-381; 388-396; 428-432
^ Alfredo Cattabiani, Volario, p. 288
^ Plutarco, Vita di Romolo, 4
^ a b Louis Charbonneau-Lassay, Il bestiario del Cristo, vol I, pp.83, 84

FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dendrocopos_major


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dendrocopos_major_4_%28Marek_Szczepanek%29.jpg

Dendrocopos major
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Il Picchio rosso maggiore (Dendrocopos major) è un uccello appartenente alla famiglia dei picchi.

È una specie molto adattabile, è presente nei boschi sia di conifere sia di latifoglie, nelle campagne alberate e perfino nei parchi cittadini; può nidificare dal fondovalle sino al limite superiore delle foreste e scava i nidi su un'ampia gamma di essenze: particolarmente frequente è l'utilizzazione di grandi castagni da frutto, larici ai margini dei pascoli, pioppi e ciliegi. In Italia è una specie protetta.

Specie simili

Il picchio verde (picus viridis) è quasi altrettanto comune e diffuso sulle Alpi. Popola anch'esso sia le foreste sia la campagna alberata, ma evita solitamente le foreste fitte ed in particolare le pinete; si nutre spesso al suolo, predando i formicai come il picchio nero. Grande quanto una tortora, è agevolmente identificabile per il colorito delle parti dorsali verde oliva con vistoso sopraccoda giallo oro; la testa è ornata da un mustacchio nero (rosso al centro nel maschio) e da una vivace calotta scarlatta.
Tre piccoli passeriformi sono in grado di arrampicarsi sui tronchi verticali come i picchi: il rampichino (certhia brachydactyla), il rampichino alpestre (certhia familiaris) e il picchio muratore (sitta europaea). Quest'ultimo, grande come un passero e di colore grigio azzurro superiormente, può procedere anche dall'alto verso il basso aggrappato alla corteccia e deve il suo nome all'abitudine di utilizzare i nidi dei picchi restringendone il foro d'ingresso con un muro di fango.

Curiosità

Nel Febbraio del 2005 lo scienziato canadese Dr. Louis Lefevre ha presentato un metodo per misurare il quoziente intellettivo degli uccelli, in termini di strategie alimentari. Il Picchio è stato classificato come uno degli uccelli più intelligenti, su questo parametro.
Il Picchio ha ispirato Walter Lantz a creare il personaggio a cartoni animati Picchiarello (Woody Woodpecker).
Ha ispirato un personaggio dei racconti de Il libro della giungla e del secondo libro della giungla di Rudyard Kipling con il nome di Ferao (personaggio secondario), compare per annunciare la parlata nuova che rappresenta la primavera nella giungla.
Se si vuole osservare questa specie, il periodo migliore è quello invernale, quando gli alberi nei boschi sono privi di foglie. In particolare, in febbraio-marzo la specie inizia a difendere il proprio territorio in maniera vivace. Ne risulta un concerto fatto da richiami e un acceso tambureggiare. I picchi maggiori intrusi vengono invitati a sloggiare con vere e proprie aggressioni.


Picchio muratore
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sitta_europaea_wildlife_2_1.jpg



Picchio nero
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:BlackWoods.jpg


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woodpecker

Woodpecker
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The woodpeckers, piculets and wrynecks are a family, Picidae, of near-passerine birds. Members of this family are found worldwide, except for Australia and New Zealand, Madagascar, and the extreme polar regions. Most species live in forests or woodland habitats, although a few species are known to live in treeless areas such as rocky hillsides and deserts.

The Picidae are just one of the eight living families in the order Piciformes. Members of the order Piciformes, such as the jacamars, puffbirds, barbets, toucans and honeyguides, have traditionally been thought to be very closely related to the woodpeckers, piculets and wrynecks. More recently, DNA sequence analyses have confirmed this view.[1]

There are about 200 species and about 30 genera in this family. Many species are threatened or endangered due to loss of habitat or habitat fragmentation. Two species of woodpeckers, the Ivory-billed Woodpecker and the Imperial Woodpecker, have been considered extinct for about 30 years (there has been some controversy recently whether these species still exist).


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Melanerpes_striatus001.jpg

General characteristics

The stiffened tails of woodpeckers are crucial for their climbing and foraging techniques. The tail is used as a prop. The smallest woodpecker is the Bar-breasted Piculet, at 7 g and 8 cm (3¼ inches). The largest woodpecker was the Imperial Woodpecker, at an average of 58 cm (23 inches) and probably over 600 g (1.3 lb). The Ivory-billed Woodpecker is (or was) slightly smaller at 50 cm (20 inches) and a weight of 500 g (1.1 lb). If both the Ivory-billed and Imperial Woodpeckers are indeed extinct, the largest extant woodpecker is the Great Slaty Woodpecker of Southeast Asia, at about 50 cm (20 inches) and 450 g (1 lb). A number of species exhibit sexual dimorphism in size, bill length and weight. In the piculets it is often the females that are larger, amongst the woodpeckers that show sexual dimorphism it is usually the males that are larger.

Most species possess predominantly white, black and brown, green and red plumage, although many piculets show a certain amount of grey and olive green. In woodpeckers, many species exhibit patches of red and yellow on their heads and bellies, and these bright areas are important in signalling. The dark areas of plumage are often iridescent. Although the sexes of Picidae species tend to look alike, many woodpecker species have more prominent red or yellow head markings in males than in females.

Members of the family Picidae have strong bills for drilling and drumming on trees and long sticky tongues for extracting food.[2] Woodpecker bills are typically longer, sharper and stronger than the bills of piculets and wrynecks; however their morphology is very similar. The bill's chisel-like tip is kept sharp by the pecking action in birds that regularly use it on wood. Species of woodpecker and flicker that use their bills in soil or for probing as opposed to regular hammering tend to have longer and more decurved bills. Due to their smaller bill size, many piculets and wrynecks will forage in decaying wood more often than woodpeckers. The long sticky tongues, which possess bristles, aid these birds in grabbing and extracting insects deep within a hole of a tree. It had been reported that the tongue was used to spear grubs, but more detailed studies published in 2004 have shown that the tongue instead wraps around the prey before being pulled out.[3]

Many of the foraging, breeding and signaling behaviors of woodpeckers involve drumming and hammering using the bill.[4] To prevent brain damage from the rapid and repeated decelerations, woodpeckers have evolved a number of adaptations to protect the brain. These include small brain size, the orientation of the brain within the skull (which maximises the area of contact between the brain and the skull) and the short duration of contact. The millisecond before contact with wood a thickened nictitating membrane closes, protecting the eye from flying debris.[5] The nostrils are also protected; they are often slit-like and have special feathers to cover them.

Woodpeckers, piculets and wrynecks all possess zygodactyl feet. Zygodactyl feet consist of four toes, the first (hallux) and the fourth facing backward and the second and third facing forward. This foot arrangement is good for grasping the limbs and trunks of trees. Members of this family can walk vertically up a tree trunk, which is beneficial for activities such as foraging for food or nest excavation. In addition to the strong claws and feet woodpeckers have short strong legs, this is typical of birds that regularly forage on trunks. The tails of all woodpeckers except the piculets and wrynecks are stiffened, and when the bird perches on vertical surfaces, the tail and feet work together to support it.[2]

Distribution, habitat and movements

The woodpeckers have a mostly cosmopolitan distribution, although they are absent from Australasia, Madagascar and Antarctica. They are also absent from the world's oceanic islands, although many insular species are found on continental islands. The true woodpeckers, subfamily Picinae, are distributed across the entire range of the woodpeckers. The Picumninae piculets have a pantropical distribution, with species in Southeast Asia, Africa and the Neotropics, with South America holding the majority of piculet species. The second piculet subfamily, Nesoctitinae, has a single species, the Antillean Piculet, which is restricted to the Caribbean island of Hispaniola. The wrynecks (Jynginae) have an exclusively Old World distribution, with the two species occurring in Europe, Asia and Africa.

Overall the woodpeckers are arboreal birds of wooded habitats. They reach their greatest diversity in tropical rainforests, but occur in almost all suitable habitats including woodlands, savannahs, scrublands, bamboo forests. Even grasslands and deserts have been colonised by various species. These habitats are more easily occupied where a small number of trees exist, or, in the case of desert species like the Gila Woodpecker, tall cacti are available for nesting in.[6] A number of species are adapted to spending a portion of their time feeding on the ground, and a very small minority of species have abandoned trees entirely and nest in holes in the ground. The Ground Woodpecker is one such species, inhabiting the rocky and grassy hills of South Africa.

Picidae species can either be sedentary or migratory. Many species are known to stay in the same area year-round while others travel great distances from their breeding grounds to their wintering grounds. For example, the Eurasian Wryneck breeds in Europe and west Asia and migrates to the Sahel in Africa in the winter.[7]

Results from the monitoring programs of the Swiss Ornithological Institute show that the breeding populations of several forest species for which deadwood is an important habitat element (black woodpecker, great spotted woodpecker, middle spotted woodpecker, lesser spotted woodpecker, green woodpecker, three-toed woodpecker as well as crested tit, willow tit and Eurasian tree creeper) have increased in the period 1990 to 2008, although not to the same extent in all species. At the same time the white-backed woodpecker extended its range in eastern Switzerland. The Swiss National Forest Inventory shows an increase in the amount of deadwood in forests for the same period. For all the mentioned species, with the exception of green and middle spotted woodpecker, the growing availability of deadwood is likely to be the most important factor explaining this population increase.

Behavior

The woodpeckers range from highly antisocial solitary species that are aggressive to other members of their species, to species that live in groups. Group-living species tend to be communal group breeders. In addition to these species, a number of species may join mixed-species feeding flocks with other insectivorous birds, although they tend to stay at the edges of these groups. Joining these flocks allows woodpeckers to decrease anti-predator vigilance and increase their feeding rate.[8] Woodpeckers are diurnal, roosting at night inside holes. In most species the roost will become the nest during the breeding season.


Diet and feeding

The diet of woodpeckers consists mainly of insects and their grubs taken from living and dead trees, and other arthropods, along with fruit from live trees, nuts and sap both from live trees. Their role ecologically is thereby keeping trees healthy by keeping them from suffering mass infestations. The family is noted for its ability to acquire wood-boring grubs using their bills for hammering, but overall the family is characterized by its dietary flexibility, with many species being both highly omnivorous and opportunistic. The insect prey most commonly taken are insects found inside tree trunks, whether they are alive or rotten wood and in crevices in bark on trees. These include beetles and their grubs, ants, termites, spiders, and caterpillars. These may be obtained either by gleaning or more famously by excavating wood. Having hammered a hole into the wood the prey is excavated by a long barbed tongue. The ability to excavate allows woodpeckers to obtain tree sap, an important source of food for some species. Most famously the sapsuckers, (genus Sphyrapicus ) feed in this fashion, but the technique is not restricted to these and others such as the Acorn Woodpecker and White-headed Woodpecker also feed in this way. It was once thought that the technique was restricted to the New World, but Old World species such as the Arabian Woodpecker and Great Spotted Woodpecker also feed in this way.[2]

Breeding

All members of the family Picidae nest in cavities. Almost every species nests in tree cavities, although in deserts some species nest inside holes in cactus and a few species nest in holes dug into the earth. Woodpeckers and piculets will excavate their own nests, but wrynecks will not. The excavated nest is usually only lined from the wood chips produced as the hole was made. Many species of woodpeckers excavate one hole per breeding season, sometimes after multiple attempts. It takes around a month to finish the job. Abandoned holes are used by other birds and mammals that are secondary cavity nesters.[9] Because nesting holes are in great demand by other cavity nesters, woodpeckers face competition for the nesting sites they excavate from the moment the hole becomes usable. This may come from other species of woodpecker, or other cavity nesting birds like swallows and starlings. Woodpeckers may aggressively harass potential competitors, and also use other strategies to reduce the chance of being usurped from their nesting site; for example the Red-crowned Woodpecker digs its nest in the underside of a small branch, which reduces the chance that a larger species will take it over and expand it.[10]

Members of Picidae are typically monogamous, with a few species breeding cooperatively and some polygamy reported in a few species.[11] Polyandry, where a female raises two broods with two separate males, has also been reported in the West Indian Woodpecker.[12] A pair will work together to help build the nest, incubate the eggs and raise their altricial young. However, in most species the male does most of the nest excavation and takes the night shift while incubating the eggs. A nest will usually consist of 2-5 round white eggs. Since these birds are cavity nesters, their eggs do not need to be camouflaged and the white color helps the parents to see them in dim light. The eggs are incubated for about 11–14 days before the chicks are born. It takes about 18–30 days before the young are ready to leave the nest.


Systematics and evolution

The phylogeny has been updated according to new knowledge about convergence patterns and evolutionary history.[13] Most notably, the relationship of the picine genera has been largely clarified, and it was determined that the Antillean Piculet is a surviving offshoot of proto-woodpeckers.

The evolutionary history of this group is not well documented, but the known fossils allow some preliminary conclusions: the earliest known modern picids were piculet-like forms of the Late Oligocene, about 25 million years ago (mya). By that time, however, the group was already present in the Americas and Europe, and it is hypothesized that they actually evolved much earlier, maybe as early as the Early Eocene (50 mya). The modern subfamilies appear to be rather young by comparison; until the mid-Miocene (10-15 mya), all picids seem to have been small or mid-sized birds similar to a mixture between a piculet and a wryneck. On the other hand, there exists a feather enclosed in fossil amber from the Dominican Republic, dated to about 25 mya, which seems to indicate that the Nesoctitinae were already a distinct lineage by then.[14]

Prehistoric representatives of the extant Picidae genera are treated in the genus articles. An enigmatic form based on a coracoid found in Pliocene deposits of New Providence, Bahamas, has been described as Bathoceleus hyphalus and probably also is a woodpecker.[15]

List of genera

FAMILY: PICIDAE

Basal
Genus: Palaeopicus (Late Oligocene of France)
Incertae sedis
Picidae gen. et sp. indet. (Middle Miocene of New Mexico, USA)
Picidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Miocene of Gargano Peninsula, Italy)
Subfamily: Jynginae - Wrynecks
Genus: Jynx (2 species)
Subfamily: Picumninae - Typical piculets
Genus: Picumnus - American Piculets (c.27 species)
Genus: Verreauxia - African Piculet (sometimes included in Sasia)
Genus: Sasia - Asian Piculets (2 species)
Subfamily: Nesoctitinae
Genus Nesoctites - Antillean Piculet
Subfamily: Picinae - Woodpeckers
Incertae sedis
Genus: Palaeonerpes (Ogalalla Early Pliocene of Hitchcock County, USA) - possibly dendropicine
Genus: Pliopicus (Early Pliocene of Kansas, USA) - possibly dendropicine
cf. Colaptes DMNH 1262 (Early Pliocene of Ainsworth, USA) - malarpicine?
Tribe: Dendropicini
Genus: Melanerpes (some 22 species)
Genus: Sphyrapicus - sapsuckers (4 species)
Genus: Xiphidiopicus - Cuban Woodpecker (Placement in Dendropicini tentative)
Genus: Dendropicos (15 species)
Genus: Mesopicos (3 species)
Genus: Dendrocopos (21 species)
Genus: Picoides (presently 12 species; maybe only 3 belong here) - this genus is in need of revision.[16] See the genus article for more.
Genus: Veniliornis (14 species)
Tribe: Malarpicini
Genus: Campethera (12 species)
Genus: Geocolaptes - Ground Woodpecker
Genus: Dinopium - malarpicine flamebacks (4 species)
Genus: Meiglyptes (3 species)
Genus: Hemicircus (2 species; placement in Malarpicini tentative)
Genus: Micropternus - Rufous Woodpecker (formerly in Celeus)
Tribe: Picini (sometimes included in Malarpicini)
Genus: Picus (c.15 species)
Genus: Mulleripicus (3 species)
Genus: Dryocopus (7 species)
Genus: Celeus (11 species)
Genus: Piculus (7 species)
Genus: Colaptes - flickers (about 12 species)
Tribe: Megapicini
Genus: Campephilus (11 species, 2 possibly recently extinct)
Genus: Chrysocolaptes - megapicine flamebacks (2 species)
Genus: Reinwardtipicus - Orange-backed Woodpecker
Genus: Blythipicus (2 species)
Genus: Gecinulus (2 species; placement in Megapicini tentative)
Genus: Sapheopipo - Okinawa Woodpecker (Placement in Megapicini tentative)


Footnotes

^ Johansson & Ericson (2003)
^ a b c Winkler, Hans & Christie, David A. (2002), "Family Picidae (Woodpeckers)" in del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A. & Sargatal, J. (editors). (2002). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 7: Jacamars to Woodpeckers. Lynx Edicions. ISBN 8487334377
^ Villard, Pascal; Jacques Cuisin (2004). "How do woodpeckers extract grubs with their tongues? A study of the Guadeloupe woodpecker (Melanerpes herminieri) in the French Indies". Auk 121 (2): 509–514. doi:10.1642/0004-8038(2004)121[0509:HDWEGW]2.0.CO;2.
^ Gibson L. (2006) "Woodpecker pecking: how woodpeckers avoid brain injury" Journal of Zoology 270: 462–465 doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00166.x
^ Schwab I (2002) "Cure for a headache" British Journal of Ophthalmology 86 : 843 doi:10.1136/bjo.86.8.843
^ Korol, Jerome; Richard Hutto (1984). "Factors Affecting Nest Site Location in Gila Woodpeckers". Condor 86 (1): 73–78. doi:10.2307/1367350. JSTOR 1367350.
^ Reichlin, Thomas; Michael Schaub, Myles H. M. Menz, Murielle Mermod, Patricia Portner, Raphaël Arlettaz & Lukas Jenni (2008). "Migration patterns of Hoopoe Upupa epops and Wryneck Jynx torquilla : an analysis of European ring recoveries". Journal of Ornithology 150: 393. doi:10.1007/s10336-008-0361-3.
^ Kimberly, Sullivan (1984). "Information Exploitation By Downy Woodpeckers in Mixed-Species Flocks". Behavior 91 (4): 294–311. doi:10.1163/156853984X00128.
^ Kotaka N & S Matsuoka (2002) "Secondary users of Great Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) nest cavities in urban and suburban forests in Sapporo City, northern Japan". Ornithological Science 1 (2): 117-122
^ Short, Lester L. (1979). "Burdens of the Picid Hole-Excavating Habit". Wilson Bulletin 91 (1): 16–28.
^ Wiktander, Ulf; Ola Olsson & Sven G. Nilsson, (2000). "Parental care and social mating system in the Lesser Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopos minor". Journal of Avian Biology 31 (4): 447–456. doi:10.1034/j.1600-048X.2000.310003.x.
^ Willimont, LA; Jackson, JA and Jackson, BJS (1991). "Classical polyandry in the West Indian woodpecker on Abaco, Bahamas". Willson Bulletin 103: 124–125.
^ Benz et al. (2006), Moore et al. (2006)
^ Grimaldi & Case (1995)
^ Cracraft & Morony (1969)
^ Moore et al. (2006)


References

Benz, Brett W.; Robbins, Mark B. & Peterson, A. Townsend (2006): Evolutionary history of woodpeckers and allies (Aves: Picidae): Placing key taxa on the phylogenetic tree. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 40(2): 389–399. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.02.021 (HTML abstract)
Cracraft, Joel & Morony, John J. Jr. (1969): A new Pliocene woodpecker, with comments on the fossil Picidae. American Museum Novitates 2400: 1-8. PDF fulltext
Gorman, Gerard (2004): Woodpeckers of Europe: A Study of the European Picidae. Bruce Coleman, UK. ISBN 1 872842 05 4.
Grimaldi, David A. & Case, Gerard Ramon (1995): A feather in amber from the Upper Cretaceous of New Jersey. American Museum Novitates 3126: 1-6. PDF fulltext
Johansson, U.S. & Ericson, G.P. (2003): Molecular support for a sister group relationship between Pici and Galbulae (Piciformes sensu Wetmore 1960). J. Avian Biol. 34(2): 185-197. doi:10.1034/j.1600-048X.2003.03103.x PDF fulltext
Koenig, W.D. & Haydock, J. (1999): Oaks, acorns, and the geographical ecology of acorn woodpeckers. J. Biogeogr. 26(1): 159-165. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2699.1999.00256.x (HTML abstract)
Lemaitre, J. & Villard, M.A. (2005): Foraging patterns of pileated woodpeckers in a managed Acadian forest: a resource selection function. Can. J. Forest Res. 35(10): 2387–2393. doi:10.1139/x05-148 (HTML abstract)
Michalek, K.G. & Winkler, H. (2001): Parental care and parentage in monogamous great spotted woodpeckers (Picoides major) and middle spotted woodpeckers (Picoides medius). Behaviour 138(10): 1259–1285. doi:10.1163/15685390152822210 (HTML abstract)
Moore, William S.; Weibel, Amy C. & Agius, Andrea (2006): Mitochondrial DNA phylogeny of the woodpecker genus Veniliornis (Picidae, Picinae) and related genera implies convergent evolution of plumage patterns. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 87(4): 611–624. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2006.00586.x PDF fulltext
Stark, R.D.; Dodenhoff, D.J. & Johnson, E.V. (1998): A quantitative analysis of woodpecker drumming. Condor 100(2): 350-356. DjVu fulltext PDF fulltext
Villard, P.; Cuisin, J. & Karasov, W.H. (2004). How do woodpeckers extract grubs with their tongues? A study of the Guadeloupe woodpecker (Melanerpes herminieri) in the French Indies. Auk 121: 509-514. DOI:10.1642/0004-8038(2004)121[0509:HDWEGW]2.0.CO;2 HTML abstract
Webb, Daniel Matthew & Moore, William S. (2005): A phylogenetic analysis of woodpeckers and their allies using 12S, Cyt b, and COI nucleotide sequences (class Aves; order Piciformes). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 36(2): 233-248. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.03.015 PDF fulltext
Wiebe, K.L. & Swift, T.L. (2001): Clutch size relative to tree cavity size in northern flickers. J. Avian Biol. 32(2): 167. doi:10.1034/j.1600-048X.2001.320210.x (HTML abstract)
Wiktander, U.; Olsson, O. & Nilsson, S.F. (2000): Parental care and social mating system in the lesser spotted woodpecker Dendrocopos minor. J. Avian Biol. 31(4): 447. doi:10.1034/j.1600-048X.2000.310003.x (HTML abstract)
Yom-Tov, Y. & Ar, A. (1993): Incubation and fledging durations of woodpeckers. Condor 95(2): 282-287. DjVu fulltext PDF fulltext



Lewis's Woodpecker
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lewis%27s_Woodpecker.jpg
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Phantom



Maschile Dragone
Numero di messaggi : 31
Data d'iscrizione : 15.11.11
Età : 40

MessaggioOggetto: Re: Picchio - Woodpecker   Mer 30 Nov 2011 - 9:22

Nel leggere questi articoli mi sono ricordato di una ricorrenza rituale che si usava celebrare, in antichità, in caso di calamità.
Da questo rituale nasce lo stemma delle marche: il picchio verde. Inserisco l'articolo che ne parla dal sito di wikipedia.
Phantom

La Primavera Sacra (Ver Sacrum in latino) era una ricorrenza rituale di origine italica, praticata poi da diversi popoli dell'Italia antica.

Veniva celebrata in occasione di calamità o momenti difficili, e consisteva nell'offerta agli Dei dei primogeniti nati dal 1º marzo al 1º giugno (o nel caso dei Sabini quelli nati dal 1º marzo al 30 aprile) della seguente primavera.

Gli animali venivano effettivamente sacrificati, mentre i bambini, giunti all'età dell'adolescenza, venivano fatti migrare per formare una nuova comunità, godendo di una "protezione divina"; in questa maniera nasceva un nuovo popolo. La migrazione era guidata da un totem, o animale-guida, del quale si interpretavano i movimenti ed il comportamento per trarne auspici e direzione del viaggio.

Con il voto della Primavera Sacra nacquero nell'Età del Ferro varie popolazioni italiche. Tra le più importanti ci sono i Sabini, originati direttamente dagli Umbri, che migrarono verso sud, restando sulla dorsale appenninica; i Piceni, che ebbero come totem il picchio verde, sacro al dio poi identificato dai Romani con Marte. Essi partirono dalla Sabina e, popolarono tutto il territorio compreso tra il fiume Foglia e il fiume Salino, giungendo quindi a dare unità etnica a tutte le attuali Marche. Per questo motivo lo stemma della regione Marche è il picchio verde. Con simile voto nacque, sempre dai Sabini, il popolo dei Sanniti, il cui totem fu il toro selvaggio e che occuparono aree comprese nelle odierne regioni dell'Abruzzo e del Molise. Dai Sanniti, poi, con una nuova primavera sacra, nacque il popolo dei Lucani, il cui totem fu il lupo, e che occuparono l'attuale Basilicata. Come si vede questo rito fu responsabile del popolamento dell'Italia dell'Età del Ferro e della divisione dell'Italia in regioni. Si può inoltre facilmente evincere che, a seguito dell'istituto del Ver Sacrum, gli Umbri sono da considerarsi la popolazione madre di quasi tutti i popoli pre-romani costituenti l'Italia mediana ad eccezione dei Latini, degli Etruschi e dei Galli Senoni.

I racconti mitologici legati alla pratica rituale e le modalità con le quali venivano effettuati i sacrifici sono diversi tra le varie popolazioni.


fonte: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primavera_sacra
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Femminile Serpente
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Picchio - Woodpecker   Gio 1 Dic 2011 - 9:28

Phantom ha scritto:
Nel leggere questi articoli mi sono ricordato di una ricorrenza rituale...
Phantom

Buondì a tutti,

grazie Phantom per l'ottimo contributo.

Oggi vedremo due articoli che parlano della simbologia legata a questo totem, vedremo ad esempio che ci insegnerà ad usare la testa, a prestare attenzione, ad essere creativi, ad essere comunicativi... ma forse la frase che più mi ha colpita di questi due articoli è: The drumming song of the Woodpecker is the heartbeat of the Earth.

Buona lettura!

FONTE: http://www.linsdomain.com/totems/pages/woodpecker.htm

Power of Rhythm

The drumming song of the Woodpecker
is the heartbeat of the Earth.

When a Woodpecker totem enters your life,
it indicates that the foundation is there and it is safe to follow through.
It will stimulate new rhythms.
It reflects a wakening of new mental faculties.

You may be so wrapped up in mental and spiritual activities
that you've neglected the physical.
Listen to your body's rhythms and sounds and heed what it is telling you.

The Woodpecker is sacred to Zeus, God of Thunder,
and the oracle of Mars (Ares), God of War.
Shamans can ride the drumbeats of the Woodpecker's rhythm
into another dimension, space and time.

All images are public domain.

Some of the information on this webpage was derived from the following sources:
Sans, Jamie & Carson, David. Medicine Cards: the Discovery of Power Through the Way of Animals. Santa Fe, NM. 1988. Print.
Andrews, Ted. Animal-speak: the Spiritual & Magical Powers of Creatures Great & Small. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 1993. Print.
Andrews, Ted. Animal-Wise: the Spirit Language and Signs of Nature. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 1999. Print.
D. J. Conway. Animal Magick: the Art of Recognizing & Working with Familiars. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 2003. Print.
Farmer, Steven D. Animal Spirit Guides. Hayhouse Inc., 2006. Print.



FONTE: http://www.whats-your-sign.com/symbolic-meaning-of-woodpecker.html

Symbolic Meaning of Woodpecker

Symbolic Meaning of Woodpeckers

To be sure, the woodpecker is an attention-grabber, and those who claim this amazing bird as their totem will attest to its ability to shake up awareness.

Nothing breaks the silence of a hiking in the woods like the urgent, rapid-fire percussion of a woodpecker's rapping against a tree.

A Quick-List of woodpecker symbolic meaning:

Balance
Progress
Signaling
Returning
Protection
Initiation
Attention
Prophesy
Listening
Opportunity
Discernment
Communication
Determination

When I hear the woodpecker knocking, I think of opportunity. You know the old saying "when opportunity knocks, answer the door." That's precisely what I'm driving at here.

Woodpeckers are extremely opportunistic themselves. Each tree is a door, revealing tender morsels of food (grubs and ants are their favorites). Other trees will yield against their beak-hammering to provide great mansions for their young.

When the woodpecker comes tapping into our awareness, it's also a signal to use our heads. Just as the woodpecker uses its head (beak) to hammer out solutions (food, shelter), we too can use our intellect in finding solutions to our own barriers.

The symbolic meaning of woodpeckers also point to a need for creative vision. Being opportunistic, woodpeckers can see value everywhere, even in dead trees. Have you ditched an idea or given up on a project? The woodpecker may be trying to tell you to breathe new life into your project, just as they build new homes into dead trees.

Further, the symbolic meaning of woodpecker indicates a return to our roots, or having trust in our basic (gut) feelings. Dr. Carl Jung observed the woodpecker as a symbol of a return to the womb of creativity. In this observation the tree is symbolic of a womb; earthy, grounded, sturdy and secure. The woodpecker's home within the tree is analogous of a fierce determination to return and protect that which is sacred to us.

When this bird comes pecking, it is a call for us to return to our roots, back to the womb of our ideas and use our intellect and discernment to follow through with our plans.

This analogy is doubly profound in the case of red-headed woodpeckers as the color red is associated with the root chakra. Prime, protective energy. Another clear sign for being aware of our core impulses, and our basic beliefs.

Native North American wisdom recognized the protective home-based themes of the woodpecker too. Prairie tribes had a myth that the title of protector of humankind was once vied for by the turkey and the woodpecker. The woodpecker won the title because of her ability to make such marvelous nests wherein the spiritual seed of humankind would always be sheltered from predatory threat.

The woodpecker may also remind us to be mindful of our words. It has a narrow tongue, extremely effective for picking up food in narrow places. This is symbolic for using a narrow route to get the most profound effect. The woodpecker asks us to use fewer words to make a stronger impact in our statement.

As we continue to explore the symbolic meaning of woodpecker, we see communication is a strong theme. In fact, when I hear the woodpecker, I think of Morse code, and I try to figure out what kind of rhythmical message the woodpecker is sending me.

It wasn't until years later I did some research on the bird that I discovered, indeed, the woodpecker actually does peck out signals to their kin as communication!



Drumming has historically marked the beginning of events such as processions, honorable ceremonies, even war. Perhaps this is why the woodpecker (and its beak-drumming ways) was often associated with Roman battle, war and victory.

Native North American wisdom also prescribes drumming as a means to journeying (transcendentalism), and so many tribes considered the woodpecker as an other-worldly messenger, and a prophet.

In Roman mythology, the woodpecker is associated with Mars, which is a planet of energy, and initiative. The zodiac sign of Aries might be drawn to the woodpecker as a totem animal because of its association with Mars too (Mars is the ruling planet for Aries).

These two (woodpecker and the Ram which is the zodiac animal for Aries) have the propensity of initiation (trail blazers, starting new projects) in common. The woodpecker is the first to initiate communication. Consider the silence of a winter day cracked wide open by the echoing beat of a woodpeckers beak.

Also, the symbolic meaning of woodpecker deals with progress because she doggedly hammers at her purpose until she sees to the other side of the obstacle. Aries are equally determined in their purpose, often ramming through astounding odds to obtain their goals.

Concepts of determination and drive in the symbolic meaning of woodpecker can be stretched further when we consider the woodpecker's love for the oak tree. Oak trees are symbolic of stability and strength of character, read more about their meanings here.

Also in Roman myth the woodpecker was noted as befriending the founders of Rome, Romulus and Remus (who, interestingly were fathered by Mars, the god of war). Legend states the both the wolf and the woodpecker fed the twin boys in their infancy while they were sequestered in the wild to avoid demise (as typical Roman myth, it's a long story, you can read it here).

And so, when the woodpecker comes calling, it may be a sign to:

Fly back to our roots.
Nurture our ideas in the womb of our core passions.
Shelter our wisdom from predatory threat.
Use our heads (intellect) to think up innovative solutions to overcome barriers.
Communicate our ideas in more creative or non-traditional ways.
Stop and consider the opportunities available to us at this time.
Look at projects in unique creative ways to bring new life to a project.
Listen more clearly to subtle energies, there is a message that only our intuition can interpret.
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Femminile Serpente
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Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Re: Picchio - Woodpecker   Lun 30 Gen 2012 - 13:13

Buondì a tutti,

ho trovato questo mito romano dove Picus (antico re) venne trasformato dalla maga Circe in un picchio...buona lettura.


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Picus

Picus
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In Roman mythology, Picus was the first king of Latium. He was known for his skill at augury and horsemanship. The witch Circe turned him into a woodpecker for scorning her love. Picus' wife was Canens, a nymph who killed herself after his transformation. They had one son, Faunus.

According to grammarian Servius, Picus's love for Pomona was itself scorned. He is featured in one of the Metamorphoses of Ovid. Virgil says that he was the son of Saturnus and the grandfather of Latinus, the king of the Laurentines whom Aeneas and his Trojans fought upon reaching Italy.

Italic people believed Picus was the son of the god of war Mars and attributed his avine transformation to his skills at interpreting bird omens.

One of the function he performed was to lead the deduction of colonies (made up of younger generation folk) with his flight, which traditionally took place in spring and was performed according to a religious ritual known as ver sacrum. The people of the Piceni derived their name from the memory of this ritual.

Sources

Ovid Metamorphoses 14.320-434
Virgil Aeneid 7.45-49, 170-191
Servius on Aeneid 7.190
Diodorus Siculus 6, frag. 5




In quest'altro stralcio di articolo di wikipedia vedremo che il picchio era sacro a Marte, per approfondimenti si consiglia la visione anche al link originale.

FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mars_%28mythology%29

The two wild animals most sacred to Mars were the woodpecker and the wolf, which in the natural lore of the Romans were said always to inhabit the same foothills and woodlands.[24]

Plutarch notes that the woodpecker (picus) is sacred to Mars because "it is a courageous and spirited bird and has a beak so strong that it can overturn oaks by pecking them until it has reached the inmost part of the tree."[25] As the beak of the picus Martius contained the god's power to ward off harm, it was carried as a magic charm to prevent bee stings and leech bites.[26] The bird of Mars also guarded a woodland herb (paeonia) used for treatment of the digestive or female reproductive systems; those who sought to harvest it were advised to do so by night, lest the woodpecker jab out their eyes.[27] The picus Martius seems to have been a particular species, but authorities differ on which one: perhaps Picus viridis[28] or Dryocopus martius.[29]

The woodpecker was revered by the Latin peoples, who abstained from eating its flesh.[30] It was one of the most important birds in Roman and Italic augury, the practice of reading the will of the gods through watching the sky for signs.[31] The mythological figure named Picus had powers of augury that he retained when he was transformed into a woodpecker; in one tradition, Picus was the son of Mars.[32] The Umbrian cognate peiqu also means "woodpecker," and the Italic Picenes were supposed to have derived their name from the picus who served as their guide animal during a ritual migration undertaken as a rite of Mars.[33] In the territory of the Aequi, another Italic people, Mars had an oracle of great antiquity where the prophecies were supposed to be spoken by a woodpecker perched on a wooden column.[34]
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