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 Cannella - Cinnamon

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AutoreMessaggio
Tila
Iniziato Sciamano
Iniziato Sciamano


Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Cannella - Cinnamon   Mar 16 Ago 2011 - 8:31


QUESTA SCHEDA CONTIENE INFORMAZIONI CHE POSSONO GENERARE SITUAZIONI DI PERICOLO E DANNI. I DATI PRESENTI HANNO SOLO UN FINE ILLUSTRATIVO E IN NESSUN CASO ESORTATIVO. PRIMA DI PROSEGUIRE SI PREGA DI LEGGERE ATTENTAMENTE LE AVVERTENZE.



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Come vedremo, già dai primi documenti di questa scheda, la cannella vanta una storia molto antica e non solo, considerata come un dono degno ad un monarca, pregiata merce di scambio, ottima antimicrobica, secondo recenti studi risulta un ottimo aiuto nel combattere il diabete...


FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinnamomum_zeylanicum

Cinnamomum zeylanicum
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

La cannella o cinnamomo è una spezia assai diffusa in occidente quanto in oriente. Vengono chiamate ugualmente cannella piante diverse. Le due più frequentemente usate come spezie sono la Cinnamomum zeylanicum, e la Cinnamomum aromaticum (Nees).


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Koeh-039.jpg

Descrizione

La cannella Cinnamomum zeylanicum, detta anche Cinnamomum verum è un piccolo albero sempreverde alto circa 10–15 m, della famiglia delle Lauraceae. La pianta è nativa dello Sri Lanka e la spezia che se ne ricava è la più fine e costosa.

La cannella Cinnamomum cassia Nees, anch'essa della famiglia delle Lauraceae, è detta anche cassia ed ha un aroma più aspro, ma è meno costosa, per cui è più raro trovare la prima o quanto meno trovarla non addizionata con la seconda. Viene prodotta in Vietnam, Sumatra e in Indonesia.


Storia

La cannella vanta una storia millenaria: era già citata nella Bibbia, nel libro dell'Esodo, era usata dagli antichi Egizi per le imbalsamazioni e citata anche nel mondo greco e latino. Importata in occidente con le carovane durante il medioevo, portò gli Olandesi a impiantare un traffico stabile con lo Sri Lanka nella prima metà del 1600, per divenirne i principali importatori d'Europa.


Organolettica


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cinnamomum_verum1.jpg


Ha un aroma secco e pungente, che ricorda quello dei chiodi di garofano con una nota pepata. La cannella dello Sri Lanka ha un aroma ugualmente profumato, ma meno aspro e più dolce.

A differenza di altre droghe da cucina, la spezia non si ricava dal seme o dal frutto, bensì dal fusto e dai ramoscelli che, un volta liberati del sughero esterno e trattati, assumono il classico aspetto di una piccola pergamena color nocciola. La cannella può essere venduta in questa forma e sbriciolata al momento dell'uso, oppure essere venduta in polvere.

Esiste anche un olio essenziale di cannella, ottenuto facendo macerare la corteccia in acqua marina e poi distillando il tutto. Il liquido ambrato che se ne ricava è più frequentemente usato come principio medicamentoso che non come spezia di cucina. È costituito per circa il 90% da aldeide cinnamica.



FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cinnamomum_verum.jpg


Gastronomia

È usata in molti modi differenti da secoli. La tradizione occidentale la preferisce impiegata nei dolci di frutta, specie di mele, nella lavorazione del cioccolato, di caramelle e praline, come aroma in creme, nella panna montata, nella meringa, nei gelati e in numerosi liquori. La tradizione orientale e creola la usa anche nel salato, in accompagnamento di carni affumicate e non. Entrambe la amano come aromatizzante del tè. I bastoncini di Cannella conservano il loro aroma se riposti in barattoli di vetro ben chiusi e lontani da fonti di calore e dalla luce. Anche la polvere di cannella si conserva allo stesso modo, sebbene perda molto delle sue caratteristiche e del suo aroma.


Salutistica
Avvertenza
Le informazioni qui riportate hanno solo un fine illustrativo: non costituiscono e non provengono da prescrizione né da consiglio medico. Wikipedia non dà consigli medici: leggi le avvertenze.

Questa spezia ha un potere antiossidante (ORAC) tra i più elevati in assoluto, un indice di valore 267536[1], circa 62 volte più potente di una mela, che notoriamente viene considerata un ottimo antiossidante. Contiene tannini, aldeide cinnamica nell'olio essenziale, eugenolo (oltre 50 composti aromatici e terpenici), canfora. Usata tradizionalmente contro le infreddature e come antibatterico e antispastico, le viene oggi riconosciuta scientificamente la capacità di abbassare il colesterolo e i trigliceridi nel sangue, contribuendo a alleviare i disturbi dell'ipertensione; inoltre esercita una funzione antisettica sui disturbi dell'apparato respiratorio.[2] La medicina Ayurvedica e quella cinese la usano per i problemi mestruali, nel trattamento delle febbri, in alcuni disturbi intestinali e per i problemi legati al freddo in quanto ha un effetto riscaldante sul corpo. L'olio essenziale di cannella ha una forte attività antimicotica e favorisce la circolazione periferica se frizionato sulla pelle.

Secondo quanto riportato dalla stampa a fine giugno 2011 alcuni ricercatori israeliani dell’Università di Tel Aviv avrebbero scoperto che un estratto di cannella può inibire lo sviluppo della malattia di Alzheimer. Lo studio sarebbe stato pubblicato su Plos One, dal dottor Michael Ovadia e colleghi del Dipartimento di Zoologia dell’UTA. L'estratto è chiamato CEppt ed è stato provato su di un gruppo di topi geneticamente modificati[3].


Note

^ http://www.phytochemicals.info/list-orac-values.php
^ "Spezie", di Chiara Verlato, pubbl. su "Sapere & Salute", anno 10, dic.2005, num.56, pag. X-XI
^ Articolo di La Stampa 30 giugno 2011



FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cinnamomum_verum_002.JPG?uselang=it


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinnamon

Cinnamon
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cinnamon (play /ˈsɪnəmən/ sin-ə-mən) is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several trees from the genus Cinnamomum that is used in both sweet and savoury foods. Cinnamon trees are native to South East Asia, and its origin was mysterious in Europe until the sixteenth century.


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Canelle_Cinnamomum_verum_Luc_Viatour_crop1.jpg


Nomenclature and taxonomy

The name cinnamon comes from Hebrew and Phoenician through the Greek kinnámōmon.

In India, where it is cultivated in the hill ranges of Kerala, it is called "karuvapatta". In Indonesia, where it is cultivated in Java and Sumatra, it is called kayu manis ("sweet wood") and sometimes cassia vera, the "real" cassia.[1] In Sri Lanka, in the original Sinhala, cinnamon is known as kurundu (කුරුඳු),[2] recorded in English in the 17th century as Korunda.[3] In Arabic it is called qerfa (قرفة). In Swahili it is called "mdalasini". In several European languages, the word for cinnamon comes from the Latin word cannella, a diminutive of canna, "cane".


History

Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity. It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BCE, but those who report that it had come from China confuse it with cassia.[4]

The Hebrew Bible makes specific mention of the spice many times: first when Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Hebrew קִנָּמוֹן, qinnāmôn) and cassia in the holy anointing oil;[5] in Proverbs where the lover's bed is perfumed with myrrh, aloes, and cinnamon;[6] and in Song of Solomon, a song describing the beauty of his beloved, cinnamon scents her garments like the smell of Lebanon.[7] Cinnamon was a component of the Ketoret which is used when referring to the consecrated incense described in the Hebrew Bible and Talmud. It was offered on the specialized incense altar in the time when the Tabernacle was located in the First and Second Jerusalem Temples. The ketoret was an important component of the Temple service in Jerusalem.

It was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god: a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus.[8] Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice trade, to protect their monopoly as suppliers, cinnamon is native to Sri Lanka.[9] It is also alluded to by Herodotus and other classical writers. It was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome, but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in A.D. 65.[10]

Before the foundation of Cairo, Alexandria was the Mediterranean shipping port of cinnamon. Europeans who knew the Latin writers who were quoting Herodotus knew that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt, but whether from Ethiopia or not was less than clear. When the Sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on crusade in 1248, he reported what he had been told—and believed—that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world. Through the Middle Ages, the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world. Marco Polo avoided precision on this score.[11] In Herodotus and other authors, Arabia was the source of cinnamon: giant Cinnamon birds collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew and used them to construct their nests; the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks. This story was current as late as 1310 in Byzantium, although in the first century, Pliny the Elder had written that the traders had made this up in order to charge more. The first mention of the spice growing in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar al-bilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") in about 1270.[12] This was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino, in a letter of about 1292.[13]

Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon (known in Indonesia as kayu manis- literally "sweet wood") on a "cinnamon route" directly from the Moluccas to East Africa, where local traders then carried it north to the Roman market.[14][15][16] See also Rhapta.

Arab traders brought the spice via overland trade routes to Alexandria in Egypt, where it was bought by Venetian traders from Italy who held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers, such as the Mamluk Sultans and the Ottoman Empire, was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia.

Portuguese traders finally landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at the beginning of the sixteenth century and restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese, who later held the monopoly for cinnamon in Ceylon. The Portuguese established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected their own monopoly for over a hundred years.

Dutch traders finally dislodged the Portuguese by allying with the inland Kingdom of Kandy. They established a trading post in 1638, took control of the factories by 1640, and expelled all remaining Portuguese by 1658. "The shores of the island are full of it", a Dutch captain reported, "and it is the best in all the Orient: when one is downwind of the island, one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea." (Braudel 1984, p. 215)

The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild and eventually began to cultivate its own trees.

In 1767 Lord Brown of East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in Cannanore (now Kannur) district of Kerala, and this estate became Asia's largest cinnamon estate.

The British took control of the island from the Dutch in 1796. However, the importance of the monopoly of Ceylon was already declining, as cultivation of the cinnamon tree spread to other areas, the more common cassia bark became more acceptable to consumers, and coffee, tea, sugar, and chocolate began to outstrip the popularity of traditional spices.


Cultivation


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:CinnamonLeaves.jpg

Cinnamon is harvested by growing the tree for two years then coppicing it. The next year, about a dozen shoots will form from the roots.

The branches harvested this way are processed by scraping off the outer bark, then beating the branch evenly with a hammer to loosen the inner bark. The inner bark is then prised out in long rolls. Only the thin (0.5 mm (0.020 in)) inner bark is used; the outer, woody portion is discarded, leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on drying. Once dry, the bark is cut into 5–10 cm (2.0–3.9 in) lengths for sale.

The bark must be processed immediately after harvesting while still wet. Once processed, the bark will dry completely in four to six hours, provided that it is in a well-ventilated and relatively warm environment. A less than ideal drying environment encourages the proliferation of pests in the bark, which may then require treatment by fumigation. Bark treated this way is not considered to be of the same premium quality as untreated bark.

Cinnamon has been cultivated from time immemorial in Sri Lanka, and the tree is also grown commercially at Kerala in southern India, Bangladesh, Java, Sumatra, the West Indies, Brazil, Vietnam, Madagascar, Zanzibar, and Egypt. Sri Lanka cinnamon has a very thin, smooth bark with a light-yellowish brown color and a highly fragrant aroma. In recent years in Sri Lanka, mechanical devices have been developed to ensure premium quality and worker safety and health, following considerable research by the Universities in that country led by the University of Ruhuna.

According to the International Herald Tribune, in 2006 Sri Lanka produced 90% of the world's cinnamon, followed by China, India, and Vietnam.[17] According to the FAO, Indonesia produces 40% of the world's Cassia genus of cinnamon.

The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups:

Alba, less than 6 mm (0.24 in) in diameter
Continental, less than 16 mm (0.63 in) in diameter
Mexican, less than 19 mm (0.75 in) in diameter
Hamburg, less than 32 mm (1.3 in) in diameter

These groups are further divided into specific grades. For example, Mexican is divided into M00 000 special, M000000, and M0000, depending on quill diameter and number of quills per kg.

Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm (4.2 in) long are categorized as quillings. Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted shoots. Chips are trimmings of quills, outer and inner bark that cannot be separated, or the bark of small twigs.

Species

A number of species are often sold as cinnamon:[18]

Cinnamomum verum ("True cinnamon", Sri Lanka cinnamon or Ceylon cinnamon)
C. burmannii (Korintje or Indonesian cinnamon)
C. loureiroi (Saigon cinnamon or Vietnamese cinnamon)
C. aromaticum (Cassia or Chinese cinnamon)

There are several different cultivars of Cinnamomum verum based on the taste of bark:[citation needed]

Type 1 Sinhala: Pani Kurundu (පැණි කුරුඳු), Pat Kurundu (පත් කුරුඳු) or Mapat Kurundu (මාපත් කුරුඳු)
Type 2 Sinhala: Naga Kurundu (නාග කුරුඳු)
Type 3 Sinhala: Pani Miris Kurundu (පැණි මිරිස් කුරුඳු)
Type 4 Sinhala: Weli Kurundu (වැලි කුරුඳු)
Type 5 Sinhala: Sewala Kurundu (සෙවල කුරුඳු)
Type 6 Sinhala: Kahata Kurundu (කහට කුරුඳු)
Type 7 Sinhala: Pieris Kurundu (පීරිස් කුරුඳු)

Ceylon cinnamon, using only the thin inner bark, has a finer, less dense, and more crumbly texture, and is considered to be less strong than cassia. Cassia has a much stronger (somewhat harsher) flavour than Ceylon cinnamon, is generally a medium to light reddish brown, hard and woody in texture, and thicker (2–3 mm (0.079–0.12 in) thick), as all of the layers of bark are used.[19]

Due to the presence of a moderately toxic component called coumarin, European health agencies have recently warned against consuming large amounts of cassia.[20] This is contained in much lower dosages in Cinnamomum burmannii due to its low essential oil content.[citation needed] Coumarin is known to cause liver and kidney damage in high concentrations. Ceylon cinnamon has negligible amounts of coumarin.[21]

The barks, when whole, are easily distinguished, and their microscopic characteristics are also quite distinct. Ceylon cinnamon sticks (or quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder, whereas cassia sticks are much harder. Indonesian cinnamon is often sold in neat quills made up of one thick layer, capable of damaging a spice or coffee grinder. Saigon cinnamon and Chinese cinnamon are always sold as broken pieces of thick bark, as the bark is not supple enough to be rolled into quills. The powdered bark is harder to distinguish, but if it is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch[22]), little effect is visible with pure Ceylon cinnamon, but when Chinese cinnamon is present, a deep-blue tint is produced.[23][24]

Cinnamon is also sometimes confused with Malabathrum (Cinnamomum tamala).

Flavor, aroma and taste

Its flavor is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0.5% to 1% of its composition. This oil is prepared by roughly pounding the bark, macerating it in seawater, and then quickly distilling the whole. It is of a golden-yellow color, with the characteristic odor of cinnamon and a very hot aromatic taste. The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (about 60 % of the bark oil) and, by the absorption of oxygen as it ages, it darkens in color and develops resinous compounds. Other chemical components of the essential oil include ethyl cinnamate, eugenol (found mostly in the leaves), beta-caryophyllene, linalool, and methyl chavicol[citation needed].


Uses

Cinnamon bark is widely used as a spice. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material. It is used in the preparation of chocolate, especially in Mexico, which is the main importer of true cinnamon.[25] It is also used in many desserts recipes, such as apple pie, donuts, and cinnamon buns as well as spicy candies, tea, hot cocoa, and liqueurs. True cinnamon, rather than cassia, is more suitable for use in sweet dishes. In the Middle East, it is often used in savory dishes of chicken and lamb. In the United States, cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavor cereals, bread-based dishes, and fruits, especially apples; a cinnamon-sugar mixture is even sold separately for such purposes. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling. Cinnamon bark is one of the few spices that can be consumed directly. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in Persian cuisine, used in a variety of thick soups, drinks, and sweets. It is often mixed with rosewater or other spices to make a cinnamon-based curry powder for stews or just sprinkled on sweet treats (most notably Shole-zard, Persian شله زرد). It is also used in Sambar powder or BisiBelebath powder in Karnataka, which gives it a rich aroma and tastes unique.

Cinnamon has been proposed for use as an insect repellent, although it remains untested.[26] Cinnamon leaf oil has been found to be very effective in killing mosquito larvae.[27] The compounds cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl acetate, eugenol, and anethole, that are contained in cinnamon leaf oil, were found to have the highest effectiveness against mosquito larvae.[27]


Medicinal value

The use of cinnamon dates back over 4,000 years and is also mentioned in the Bible. It has a broad range of historical health applications in different cultures, and over those years some of the anecdotal uses included boosting cognitive function and memory, treating rheumatism, helping with digestion and relieving certain menstrual disorders. In addition, when added to food, it inhibits bacterial growth and food spoilage, making it a natural food preservative. Cinnamon is also being recommended in a more current use: to help curb the urge for tobacco. The National Institute of Health recommends chewing cinnamon sticks when trying to quit the use of tobacco. Another effective product that people use to help with overeating and tobacco use is cinnamon toothpicks.[28]

In medicine it acts like other volatile oils and once had a reputation as a cure for colds. It has also been used to treat diarrhea and other problems of the digestive system.[29] Cinnamon is high in antioxidant activity.[30][31] The essential oil of cinnamon also has antimicrobial properties,[32] which can aid in the preservation of certain foods.[33]

Cinnamon could have some pharmacological effects in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. The plant material used in the study was mostly from Chinese cinnamon (see Chinese cinnamon's medicinal uses).[34][35] Recent studies in phytochemistry have indicated that cinnamtannin B1 isolated from C. Verum bears possible therapeutic effect on type 2 diabetes,[36] with the exception of the postmenopausal patients studied on C. Cassia.[37] Cinnamon has traditionally been used to treat toothache and fight bad breath and its regular use is believed to stave off common cold and aid digestion.[38]

Regularly drinking tea made from the bark of Sri Lanka cinnamon could be beneficial to oxidative stress related illness in humans, as the plant part contains significant antioxidant potential.[39]

In Indian traditional medicine (Ayurveda)more than 600 formulations of Cinnamon are mentioned.It is useful in conditions like Flatulence, Piles, Amenorrhea, Diarrhoea, Toothache, Amoebiasis, Heart diseases, Fever, Cough, Cold, Headache etc.[40]


Research

Pharmacological experiments suggest that the cinnamon-derived dietary factor cinnamic aldehyde (cinnamaldehyde) activates the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response in human epithelial colon cells and may therefore represent an experimental chemopreventive dietary factor targeting colorectal carcinogenesis.[41] Recent research documents anti-melanoma activity of cinnamic aldehyde observed in cell culture and a mouse model of human melanoma.[42]

A 2011 study isolated a substance (CEppt) in the cinnamon plant which inhibits development of Alzheimer in mice.[43] CEppt, an extract of cinnamon bark, seems to treat a mouse model of Alzheimers disease[44]


Notes

^ "Cassia, also known as cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon is a tree which has bark similar to that of cinnamon but with a rather pungent odour," remarks Maguelonne Toussant-Samat, Anthea Bell, tr. The History of Food, revised ed. 2009, p.437.
^ The Epicentre, Encyclopedia of Spices. "Cinnamon". Retrieved 2008-07-15
^ Knox, Robert. "An Historical Relation Of The Island Ceylon". Retrieved 2008-07-15
^ "The Indians obtained cassia from China" (Toussaint-Samat 2009, p. 437).
^ Exodus 30:22-25
^ Proverbs 7:17
^ Song of Solomon 4:11-14
^ Toussaint-Samat 2009, p. 437
^ "Cinnamon". Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2008. "(species Cinnamomum zeylanicum), bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to Bangladesh, Sri Lanka (Ceylon), the neighboring Malabar Coast of India, and Myanmar (Burma), and also cultivated in South America and the West Indies for the spice consisting of its dried inner bark. The bark is widely used as a spice due to its distinct odor."
^ Toussaint-Samat 2009, p. 437f.
^ Toussaint-Samat 2009, p. 438 discusses cinnamon's hidden origins and Joinville's report.
^ Tennent, Sir James Emerson. "Account of the Island of Ceylon". Retrieved 2008-07-15[dead link]
^ Yule, Col. Henry. "Cathay and the Way Thither". Retrieved 2008-07-15
^ "The life of spice; cloves, nutmeg, pepper, cinnamon | UNESCO Courier | Find Articles at BNET". Findarticles.com. 1984. Retrieved 2010-08-18.
^ Independent Online. "News - Discovery: Sailing the Cinnamon Route (Page 1 of 2)". Iol.co.za. Retrieved 2010-08-18.
^ http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0075-4358(1970)60%3C222%3ATSTOTR%3E2.0.CO%3B2-N
^ "Search - Global Edition - The New York Times". International Herald Tribune. 2009-03-29. Retrieved 2010-08-18.
^ Culinary Herbs and Spices, The Seasoning and Spice Association. Retrieved 2010-08-03.
^ "How to identify Real Cinnamon from Cassia". Ceylon-cinnamon.com. Retrieved 2010-08-18.
^ Harris, Emily. German Christmas Cookies Pose Health Danger. National Public Radio. Retrieved 2007-05-01
^ "Espoo daycare centre bans cinnamon as "moderately toxic to liver"". Retrieved 2010-09-05.
^ http://www.webexhibits.org/causesofcolor/6AC.html
^ "Iodine test for cassia".
^ The Elements of materia medica and therapeutics, Volume 2, page 390, By Jonathan Pereira 1854
^ "Trade and Sustainable Forest Management -Impacts and Interactions". Fao.org. 2003-09-26. Retrieved 2010-08-18.
^ Beck, Leslie. "Cinnamon — December 2006's Featured Food". Retrieved 2007-05-01
^ a b "Cinnamon Oil Kills Mosquitoes". www.sciencedaily.com. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
^ Cinnamon Curbs the Urge
^ Felter, Harvey. "Cinnamomum.—Cinnamon.". Retrieved 2007-05-01[unreliable source?]
^ Shan B, Cai YZ, Sun M, Corke H (October 2005). "Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents". J. Agric. Food Chem. 53 (20): 7749–59. doi:10.1021/jf051513y. PMID 16190627.
^ Mancini-Filho J, Van-Koiij A, Mancini DA, Cozzolino FF, Torres RP (December 1998). "Antioxidant activity of cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum, Breyne) extracts". Boll Chim Farm 137 (11): 443–7. PMID 10077878.
^ López P, Sánchez C, Batlle R, Nerín C (August 2005). "Solid- and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains". J. Agric. Food Chem. 53 (17): 6939–46. doi:10.1021/jf050709v. PMID 16104824.
^ George Mateljan Foundation, Cinnamon, ground. "Research: Thalido...". Retrieved 2007-05-01
^ Khan A, Safdar M, Ali Khan MM, Khattak KN, Anderson RA (December 2003). "Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes". Diabetes Care 26 (12): 3215–8. doi:10.2337/diacare.26.12.3215. PMID 14633804.
^ Verspohl, Eugen J. et al.; Bauer, K; Neddermann, E (2005). "Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum In vivo and In vitro". Phytotherapy Research 19 (3): 203–206. doi:10.1002/ptr.1643. PMID 15934022.
^ Taher, Muhammad et al.. "A proanthocyanidin from Cinnamomum zeylanicum stimulates phosphorylation of insullin receptor in 3T3-L1 adipocyties" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-05-11.
^ Vanschoonbeek, Kristof et al.. "Cinnamon Supplementation Does Not Improve Glycemic Control in Postmenopausal Type 2 Diabetes Patients". Retrieved 2008-05-11.
^ Alice Hart-Davis (16 January 2007). "Chillies Are the Spice of Life". Retrieved 2007-12-17.
^ Ranjbar, Akram et al.. "Antioxidative stress potential of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in humans: a comparative cross-sectional clinical study". doi:10.2217/14750708.3.1.113. Retrieved 2008-05-11.
^ Aushadhikosh, Interactive S/W of Ayurvedic medicines, Published by N.M.Publication, Pune, India
^ Wondrak GT, Villeneuve NF, Lamore SD, Bause AS, Jiang T, Zhang DD (May 2010). "The Cinnamon-Derived Dietary Factor Cinnamic Aldehyde Activates the Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Response in Human Epithelial Colon Cells". Molecules 15 (5): 3338–55. doi:10.3390/molecules15053338. PMID 20657484.
^ Cabello CM, Bair WB, Lamore SD, Ley S, Bause AS, Azimian S, Wondrak GT (January 2009). "The cinnamon-derived Michael acceptor cinnamic aldehyde impairs melanoma cell proliferation, invasiveness, and tumor growth". Free Radic. Biol. Med. 46 (2): 220–231. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2008.10.025. PMC 2650023. PMID 19000754.
^ Even, Dan. "Cinnamomum.—Cinnamon.". Retrieved 2011-06-09.
^ Orally Administrated Cinnamon Extract Reduces β-Amyloid Oligomerization and Corrects Cognitive Impairment in Alzheimer's Disease Animal Model.


References

Braudel, Fernand (1984). The Perspective of the World, Vol III of Civilization and Capitalism.
Corn, Charles (1998). The Scents of Eden: A Narrative of the Spice Trade. New York: Kodansha International.
"Cinnamon Extracts Boost Insulin Sensitivity" (2000). Agricultural Research magazine, July 2000.
Alan W. Archer (1988). "Determination of cinnamaldehyde, coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol in cinnamon and cassia by high-performance liquid chromatography". Journal of Chromatography 447: 272–276. doi:10.1016/0021-9673(88)90035-0.
Department of Export Agriculture, Sri Lanka
Weerasinghe K D N, Liyanage M D S, Silva M A T D; "Present and future trends of cinnamon industry in Sri Lanka", discussion paper, University of Ruhunu, Sri Lanka. (2006)
Weerasinghe K D N, "A way forward for poverty alleviation for socially deprived areas in the cinnamon industry", monograph, University of Ruhunu, Sri Lanka.
Pushpitha N P G, "The design and construction of appropriate cinnamon processing device", 2006, Thesis at University of Ruhunu, Sri Lanka
Wijesekera R O B, Ponnuchamy S, Jayewardene A L, "Cinnamon" (1975) monograph published by CISIR, Colombo, Sri Lanka

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.



FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cinnamomum_verum_sey_2.jpg


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinnamomum_verum

Cinnamomum verum
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cinnamomum verum, called "true cinnamon", Ceylon cinnamon or Sri Lanka cinnamon is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae, native to Sri Lanka[1]. Among other species, its inner bark is used to make cinnamon.

The old botanical synonym for the tree—Cinnamomum zeylanicum—is derived from Sri Lanka's former name, Ceylon[2].

Cinnamomum verum trees are 10–15 metres (32.8–49.2 feet) tall. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape, 7–18 cm (2.75–7.1 inches) long. The flowers, which are arranged in panicles, have a greenish color, and have a distinct odor. The fruit is a purple 1-cm berry containing a single seed.[citation needed]


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinnamomum_aromaticum

Cinnamomum aromaticum
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cinnamomum aromaticum, called cassia or Chinese cinnamon, is an evergreen tree native to southern China, Bangladesh, India, and Vietnam. Like its close relative Cinnamomum verum, also known as "Ceylon cinnamon",[1] it is used primarily for its aromatic bark, which is used as a spice. In the United States of America, cassia is often sold under the culinary name of "cinnamon", a practice banned in many[which?] other countries[citation needed]. The buds are also used as a spice, especially in India, and were once used by the ancient Romans.

The tree grows to 10–15 m tall, with greyish bark and hard elongated leaves that are 10–15 cm long and have a decidedly reddish colour when young.


Production and uses

Cinnamomum aromaticum is a close relative to Ceylon cinnamon (C. verum), Saigon cinnamon (C. loureiroi, also known as "Vietnamese cinnamon"), camphor laurel (C. camphora), malabathrum (C. tamala), and Indonesian cinnamon (C. burmannii). As with these species, the dried bark of cassia is used as a spice. Cassia cinnamon's flavour is less delicate than that of Ceylon cinnamon; for this reason, the less expensive cassia is sometimes called "bastard cinnamon".[2]

Whole branches and small trees are harvested for cassia bark, unlike the small shoots used in the production of cinnamon; this gives cassia bark a much thicker and rougher texture than that of true cinnamon.[citation needed]

Most of the spice sold as cinnamon in the United States and Canada (where Ceylon cinnamon is still generally unknown) is actually cassia. In some cases, cassia is labeled "Chinese cinnamon" to distinguish it from the more expensive Ceylon cinnamon (C. verum), which is the preferred form of the spice used in Mexico, Europe and Oceania.[3] "Indonesian cinnamon" ,also refer to C. burmannii, which is also commonly sold in the United States, labeled only as cinnamon.

Cinnamomum aromaticum is produced in both China and Vietnam. Until the 1960s, Vietnam was the world's most important producer of Saigon cinnamon (C. loureiroi), a species which has a higher oil content than cassia, and consequently has a stronger flavor. Saigon cinnamon is so closely related to cassia that it was often marketed as cassia (or, in North America, "cinnamon"). Of the three forms of cassia, it is the form which commands the highest price. Because of the disruption caused by the Vietnam War, however, production of C. burmannii, in the highlands of the Indonesia on island of Sumatra, was increased to meet demand, and Indonesia remains one of the main exporters of cassia today. Indonesian cassia has the lowest oil content of the three types of cassia and, consequently, commands the lowest price. Saigon cinnamon, only having become available again in the United States since the early 21st century, has an intense flavour and aroma and a higher percentage of essential oils than Indonesian cassia. Cassia has a stronger and sweeter flavor, similar to Saigon cinnamon, although the oil content is lower. In China (where it is produced primarily in the southern provinces of Guangxi, Guangdong, and Yunnan) cassia is known as tung hing.[4]

Cassia bark (both powdered and in whole, or "stick" form) is used as a flavouring agent for confectionery, desserts, pastries, and meat; it is specified in many curry recipes, where Ceylon cinnamon is less suitable. Cassia is sometimes added to Ceylon cinnamon, but is a much thicker, coarser product. Cassia is sold as pieces of bark (as pictured below) or as neat quills or sticks. Cassia sticks can be distinguished from Ceylon cinnamon sticks in the following manner: cinnamon sticks have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder, whereas cassia sticks are extremely hard, are usually made up of one thick layer, and can break an electric spice or coffee grinder if one attempts to grind them without first breaking them into very small pieces.[citation needed]

Cassia buds, although rare, are also occasionally used as a spice. They resemble cloves in appearance and have a mild, flowery cinnamon flavor. Cassia buds are primarily used in old-fashioned pickling recipes, marinades, and teas.[5][6]


Health benefits and risks

Cassia (called ròu gùi; 肉桂 in Chinese) is used in traditional Chinese medicine, where it is considered one of the 50 fundamental herbs.[7]

In 2006, a study reported no statistically significant additional benefit when cinnamon cassia powder was given to type 2 diabetes patients who were already being treated with metformin.[8] A systematic review of research indicates that cinnamon may reduce fasting blood sugar, but does not have an effect on hemoglobin A1C, a biological marker of long-term diabetes.[9]

Chemist Richard Anderson says that his research has shown that most, if not all, of cinnamon's antidiabetic effect is in its water-soluble fraction, not the oil (the ground cinnamon spice itself should be ingested for benefit, not the oil or a water extraction). In fact, some cinnamon oil-entrained compounds could prove toxic in high concentrations. Cassia's effects on enhancing insulin sensitivity appear to be mediated by type-A polymeric polyphenols.[10][11] Despite these findings, cassia should not be used in place of anti-diabetic drugs, unless blood glucose levels are closely monitored, and its use is combined with a strictly controlled diet and exercise program.

Due to a toxic component called coumarin, European health agencies have warned against consuming high amounts of cassia.[12]

Other possible toxins founds in the bark/powder are cinnamaldehyde and styrene.[13]


History



Cinnamomum cassia (top left) depicted by Michał Boym (1655)
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Boym-durian-Lach-and-Kley-3-4-369.png

In classical times, four types of cinnamon were distinguished (and often confused):

Cassia (Hebrew קציעה qəṣi`â), the bark of Cinnamomum iners from Arabia and Ethiopia, and literally means 'the peel of the plant' which is scraped off the tree.[14]
True Cinnamon (Hebrew qinnamon), the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum from Sri Lanka
Malabathrum or Malobathrum (from Sanskrit तमालपत्रम्, tamālapattram, literally "dark-tree leaves"), Cinnamomum malabathrum from the north of India
Serichatum, Cinnamomum aromaticum from Seres, that is, China.

In Exodus 30:23-4, Moses is ordered to use both sweet cinnamon (Kinnamon) and cassia together with myrrh, sweet calamus (qənê-bosem, literally cane of fragrance), botanically named as Acorus calamus to produce a holy oil to anoint the Ark of the Covenant. Cassia is also part of the Ketoret which is used when referring to the consecrated incense described in the Hebrew Bible and Talmud. It is also referred to as the HaKetoret (the incense). It was offered on the specialized incense altar in the time when the Tabernacle was located in the First and Second Jerusalem Temples. The ketoret was an important component of the Temple service in Jerusalem. Psalm 45:8 mentions the garments of the king (or of Torah scholars) that smell of myrrh, aloes and cassia.

An early reference to the trade of cinnamon occurs around 100 BC in Chinese literature. After the explorer Zhang Qian's return to China, the Han Dynasty pushed the Xiongnu back, and trade and cultural exchange flourished along the Northern Silk Road. Goods moving by caravan to the west included gold, rubies, jade, textiles, coral, ivory and art works. In the opposite direction moved bronze weapons, furs, ceramics and cinnamon bark.[15] The first Greek reference to kasia is found in a poem by Sappho in the 7th century B.C.

According to Herodotus, both cinnamon and cassia grow in Arabia, together with incense, myrrh, and ladanum, and are guarded by winged serpents. The phoenix builds its nest from cinnamon and cassia. But Herodotus mentions other writers that see the home of Dionysos, e.g., India, as the source of cassia. While Theophrastus gives a rather good account of the plants, a curious method for harvesting (worms eat away the wood and leave the bark behind), Dioscorides seems to confuse the plant with some kind of water-lily.

Pliny (nat. 12, 86-87) gives a fascinating account of the early spice trade across the Red Sea in "rafts without sails or oars", obviously using the trade winds, that costs Rome 100 million sesterces each year. According to Pliny, a pound (the Roman pound, 327 g) of cassia, cinnamon, or serichatum cost up to 300 denars, the wage of ten months' labour. Diocletian's Edict on Maximum Prices[16] from 301 AD gives a price of 125 denars for a pound of cassia, while an agricultural labourer earned 25 denars per day.

The Greeks used kásia or malabathron to flavour wine, together with absinth wormwood (Artemisia absinthia). Pliny mentions cassia as a flavouring agent for wine as well[17] Malabathrum leaves (folia) were used in cooking and for distilling an oil used in a caraway-sauce for oysters by the Roman gourmet Gaius Gavius Apicius.[18] Malabathrum is among the spices that, according to Apicius, any good kitchen should contain.

Egyptian recipes for kyphi, an aromatic used for burning, included cinnamon and cassia from Hellenistic times onwards. The gifts of Hellenistic rulers to temples sometimes included cassia and cinnamon as well as incense, myrrh, and Indian incense (kostos), so we can conclude that the Greeks used it in this way too.

The famous Commagenum, an unguent produced in Commagene in present-day eastern Turkey, was made from goose-fat and aromatised with cinnamon oil and spikenard (Nardostachys jatamansi). Malobrathum from Egypt (Dioscorides I, 63) was based on cattle-fat and contained cinnamon as well; one pound cost 300 denars. The Roman poet Martial (VI, 55) makes fun of Romans who drip unguents, smell of cassia and cinnamon taken from a bird's nest, and look down on him who does not smell at all.

Cinnamon, as a warm and dry substance, was believed by doctors in ancient times to cure snakebites, freckles, the common cold, and kidney troubles, among other ailments.


Notes

^ "Cinnamomum verum information from NPGS/GRIN". www.ars-grin.gov. Retrieved 2009-01-31.
^ Google Books search
^ Needs cite web
^ needs cite web
^ needs cite web
^ photo needs cite web
^ Wong, Ming (1976). La Médecine chinoise par les plantes. Le Corps a Vivre series. Éditions Tchou.
^ Suppapitiporn S, Kanpaksi N, Suppapitiporn S (September 2006). "The effect of cinnamon cassia powder in type 2 diabetes mellitus". Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. 89 Suppl 3: S200–5. PMID 17718288.
^ Dugoua JJ, Seely D, Perri D, et al. (September 2007). "From type 2 diabetes to antioxidant activity: a systematic review of the safety and efficacy of common and cassia cinnamon bark". Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 85 (9): 837–47. doi:10.1139/y07-080. PMID 18066129.
^ Isolation and Characterization of Polyphenol Type-A Polymers from Cinnamon with Insulin-like Biological Activity. Richard A. Anderson, C. Leigh Broadhurst, Marilyn M. Polansky, Walter F. Schmidt, Alam Khan, Vincent P. Flanagan, Norberta W. Schoene and Donald J. Graves, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2004, 52 (1), pp 65–70, doi:10.1021/jf034916b
^ Polyphenols from Cinnamon increase insulin sensivity: functional and clinical aspects 4th International Congress Dietary Antioxidants and trace elements Monastir, Tunisia, April 2005
^ NPR: German Christmas Cookies Pose Health Danger
^ High daily intakes of cinnamon: Health risk cannot be ruled out. BfR Health Assessment No. 044/2006, 18 August 2006 15p
^ Klein, Ernest, A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language for Readers of English, University of Haifa, Carta, Jerusalem, p.589
^ C.Michael Hogan,Silk Road, North China, The Megalithic Portal, ed. A. Burnham
^ E.R. Graser (1940) A text and translation of the Edict of Diocletian Editor: T. Frank in An Economic Survey of Ancient Rome Volume V: Rome and Italy of the Empire, first ed., Publisher: Johns Hopkins Press
^ Pliny, nat. 14, 107f.
^ De re coquinaria, I, 29, 30; IX, 7



General references

Dalby, Andrew (1996). Siren Feasts: A History of Food and Gastronomy in Greece. London: Routledge.
Faure, Paul (1987). Parfums et aromates de l'antiquité. Paris: Fayard.
Paszthoty, Emmerich (1992). Salben, Schminken und Parfüme im Altertum. Mainz, Germany: Zabern.
Paterson, Wilma (1990). A Fountain of Gardens: Plants and Herbs from the Bible. Edinburgh.




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