Buondì a tutti,
oggi conosceremo un animale molto forte, energico, che si adatta alle avversità, che non si da per vinto, che ci insegnerà ad assorbire con passione tutte le lezioni che si presentano lungo il nostro cammino.FONTE:
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.
Il Gulo gulo, chiamato comunemente volverina o ghiottone, è un carnivoro del genere Gulo, appartenente alla famiglia dei Mustelidi, diffuso nelle zone artiche di Europa, Asia ed America.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gulo_gulo_01.jpg
Distribuzione e habitat
I ghiottoni si trovano nelle zone nordiche dell'America, in Scandinavia e nelle regioni settentrionali della Russia, Groenlandia e Alaska.
Lunghezza del corpo: da 90 cm a 1,20 m,
Lunghezza della coda: 20 cm
Peso: tra 15 e 30 kg
È il più grande mustelide vivente. L'ampia bocca è armata di una potente dentatura da vero carnivoro, composta di 38 elementi, con la seguente formula dentaria: I 3/3; C 1/1; Pm 4/4; M 1/2, i canini sono lunghi ed affilati.
Nomade, solitamente riposa indifferentemente in un rifugio naturale o in una semplice buca scavata nella neve o nel terreno ma non nella sua tana. Riesce ad uccidere anche animali di grosse dimensioni, come giovani alci e renne.
Il territorio che percorre e sorveglia il ghiottone conta anche 2.000 chilometri quadrati.
Il ghiottone è un animale che non esita ad attaccare animali più grossi di lui.
La stagione degli amori va da aprile a giugno, la femmina partorisce 2-3 esemplari dopo circa 2 mesi di gestazione.
Onnivoro, si nutre di bacche, uova, uccelli, lepri, alci, renne e carogne. È solito conservare avanzi del pasto per possibili periodi di difficoltà, si è visto anche attaccare pollai e greggi.
Stato di conservazione
Per via della sua pelliccia è stato oggetto di caccia, e visto le sue scorribande in città si sono utilizzate molte trappole per eliminarli.
Il nome del personaggio dei fumetti Wolverine deriva proprio da questo animale.
^ (EN) Abramov, A., Belant, J. & Wozencraft, C.. Gulo gulo. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Versione 2010.1
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Wolverine.jpg?uselang=it
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Wolverine_display_at_Arctic_Interagency_Visitor_Center_at_Coldfoot.jpg?uselang=itFONTE:
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The wolverine, pronounced /ˈwʊlvəriːn/, Gulo gulo (Gulo is Latin for "glutton"), also referred to as glutton, carcajou, skunk bear, quickhatch, or gulon, is the largest land-dwelling species of the family Mustelidae (weasels). It is a stocky and muscular carnivore, more closely resembling a small bear than other mustelids. The wolverine has a reputation for ferocity and strength out of proportion to its size, with the documented ability to kill prey many times its size.
The wolverine can be found primarily in remote reaches of the Northern boreal forests and subarctic and alpine tundra of the Northern hemisphere, with the greatest numbers in the U.S. state of Alaska, northern Canada, the Nordic countries of Europe, and throughout western Russia and Siberia. Their populations have experienced a steady decline since the 19th century in the face of trapping, range reduction and habitat fragmentation, such that they are essentially absent in the southern end of their European range. It is, however, estimated that large populations remain in North America and northern Asia.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gulo_gulo_2.jpg
Genetic evidence suggests that the wolverine is most closely related to the tayra and martens (scientific names Eira and Martes respectively), all of which shared a Eurasian ancestor.
Within the Gulo genus, there is a clear separation between two subspecies: the Old World form Gulo gulo gulo and the New World form G. g. luscus. Some authors had described as many as four additional North American subspecies, including ones limited to Vancouver Island (G. g. vancouverensis) and the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska (G. g. katschemakensis). However, the most currently accepted taxonomy recognizes either the two continental subspecies or recognize G. gulo as a single Holarctic taxon.
Recently compiled genetic evidence suggests that most of North America's wolverines are descended from a single source, likely originating from Beringia during the last glaciation and rapidly expanding thereafter, though there is considerable uncertainty to this conclusion due to the difficulty of collecting samples in the extremely depleted southern extent of the range.
Anatomically, the wolverine is a stocky and muscular animal. With short legs, broad and rounded head, and small eyes with short rounded ears, it resembles a bear more than other mustelids. Its legs are short, while its large five-toed paws and plantigrade posture facilitate movement through deep snow.
The adult wolverine is about the size of a medium dog, with a length usually ranging from 65–87 cm (25–34 inches), a tail of 17–26 cm (7–10 inches), and a weight of 10–25 kg (22–55 lb), though exceptionally large males can weigh over 31 kg (70 lb). The males are as much as 30 percent larger than the females. It is the largest of terrestrial mustelids; only the marine-dwelling sea otter and giant otter of the Amazon basin are larger.
Wolverines have thick, dark, oily fur which is highly hydrophobic, making it resistant to frost. This has led to its traditional popularity among hunters and trappers as a lining in jackets and parkas in Arctic conditions. A light silvery facial mask is distinct in some individuals, and a pale buff stripe runs laterally from the shoulders along the side and crossing the rump just above a 25–35 cm bushy tail. Some individuals display prominent white hair patches on the throat or chest.
Like many other mustelids, it has potent anal scent glands used for marking territory and sexual signaling. The pungent odor has given rise to the nicknames "skunk bear" and "nasty cat." Wolverines, like other mustelids, possess a special upper molar in the back of the mouth that is rotated 90 degrees, towards the inside of the mouth. This special characteristic allows wolverines to tear off meat from prey or carrion that has been frozen solid.
The wolverine is, like most mustelids, remarkably strong for its size. Armed with powerful jaws, sharp claws, and a thick hide, wolverines may defend kills against larger or more numerous predators. There is at least one published account of a 12-kg (27-pound) wolverine's apparent attempt to steal a kill from a black bear (adult males weigh 400 to 500 pounds, around 200 kg). Unfortunately for the mustelid, the bear won what was ultimately a fatal contest. Another account placed a polar bear of unknown age and weight together with a similar wolverine where the smaller, tenacious predator came out the victor.
Wolverines inhabiting the Old World (specifically, Fennoscandia) are more active hunters than their North American cousins. This may be because competing predator populations in Eurasia are not as dense, making it more practical for the wolverine to hunt for itself than to wait for another animal to make a kill and then try to snatch it. They often feed on carrion left by wolves, so changes in the population of wolves may affect the population of wolverines. Wolverines are also known on occasion to eat plant material.
Successful males will form lifetime relationships with 2–3 females which they will visit occasionally, while other males are left without a mate. Mating season is in the summer, but the actual implantation of the embryo (blastocyst) in the uterus is stayed until early winter, delaying the development of the fetus. Females will often not produce young if food is scarce. The wolverine gestation period is 30–50 days. Litters of typically two or three young ("kits") are born in the spring. Kits develop rapidly, reaching adult size within the first year of a lifespan that may reach anywhere from five to (in exceptional individuals) thirteen years. Fathers make visits to their offspring until they are weaned at 10 weeks of age; also, once the young are about 6 months old, some reconnect with their fathers and travel together for a time.
Adult wolverines have no natural predators, though they do come into conflict with (and may be killed by) other large predators over territory and food. Juveniles are more vulnerable; infants (kits) have been known on occasion to be taken by predatory birds such as eagles.
The wolverine's questionable reputation as an insatiable glutton (reflected in the Latin genus name Gulo) may be in part due to a false etymology. The animal's name in Old Swedish, fjellfräs, meaning "mountain cat", worked its way into German as Vielfraß, which means roughly "devours much". Its name in other West Germanic languages is similar (e.g. Dutch: veelvraat).
The Finnish name is ahma, derived from ahmatti, which is translated as "glutton". Similarly, the Estonian name is ahm, with the equivalent meaning to the Finnish name. In Lithuanian is ernis, in Latvian—tinis.
The Eastern Slavic росомаха (rosomakha) and the Polish and Czech name rosomak seem to be borrowed from the Finnish rasva-maha (fat belly). Similarly, the Hungarian name is rozsomák or torkosborz which means "gluttonous badger".
In French-speaking parts of Canada, the wolverine is referred to as carcajou, borrowed from the Innu-aimun or Montagnais kuàkuàtsheu.
Purported gluttony is reflected neither in English nor in North Germanic languages. The English word wolverine (alteration of the earlier form wolvering of uncertain origin) probably implies "a little wolf". The name in Proto-Norse, erafaz and Old Norse, jarfr, lives on in the regular Icelandic name jarfi, regular Norwegian name jerv, regular Swedish name järv and regular Danish name jærv.
Many cities, teams, and organizations use the wolverine as a mascot. For example, the U.S. state of Michigan is, by tradition, known as "The Wolverine State", and the University of Michigan takes the wolverine as its mascot. The association is well and long established: for example, many Detroiters volunteered to fight during the American Civil War and George Armstrong Custer, who led the Michigan Brigade, called them the "Wolverines". The origins of this association are obscure; it may derive from a busy trade in wolverine furs in Sault Ste. Marie in the 18th century or may recall a disparagement intended to compare early settlers in Michigan with the vicious mammal. Wolverines are, however, extremely rare in Michigan. A sighting in February 2004 near Ubly was the first confirmed sighting in Michigan in 200 years. The animal was found dead in 2010.
The wolverine figures prominently in the mythology of the Innu people of eastern Québec and Labrador. In at least one Innu myth, it is the creator of the world.
Wolverine is the name of a popular fictional character by Marvel Comics—named for his highly individualistic and aggressive behavior, as well his great ferocity despite his small stature.
The 91-minute motion picture Running Free (also known as One Paw) is about a young boy and his friendship with an Alaskan wolverine. The wolverines seen in the film were born in captivity and directed by U.S.D.A.-licensed filmmaker, Steve Kroschel. Many of the wolverine scenes are documentary footage of trained wolverines that are being filmed in their natural habitat. The movie was screened on October 5, 1994. The American Humane Society was involved before the start of filming and during some of the filming.
The PBS series "Nature" released a documentary, "Wolverine: Chasing the Phantom" as episode #166 on 14 November 2010.. This 53 minute documentary  focuses on the efforts of a number of naturalists in the United States to track wolverines, collect genetic data, and learn more about wolverine populations, individual behavior and social behavior. It also tracks the raising of two male wolverines in captivity at an Alaska nature reserve from birth to maturity, and profiles the naturalists making these efforts.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wolverine_on_rock.jpg