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Riporto stralci di due documenti, uno di wikipedia e a seguire quello del sito www.skepdic.com entrambi in inglese, al più presto inserirò anche una versione tradotta, che trattano delle tecniche di libertà emozionale conosciute con l'acronimo EFT. Come sempre, per approfondimenti, si consiglia la visione anche alle fonti originali.
Emotional Freedom Technique
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) is an alternative intervention technique, described by some proponents as "energy psychology". EFT has the goal of desensitization, and utilizes the tapping of acupuncture points while a client focuses on a specific issue. It was derived from Thought Field Therapy by Gary Craig, a neuro-linguistic programming practitioner who gave the technique away freely in an online manual.
As with other alternative medicines lacking a plausible mechanism, critics have described EFT as "probably nonsense" and "unfalsifiable and therefore outside the realm of science." One controlled study stated that any benefit is due to traditional cognitive components, such as the placebo effect, the distraction from negative thoughts, and the therapeutic benefit of having someone actually listen, rather than from manipulation of meridians.
Its founder says the techniques can be used to treat a range of emotional issues. The procedure consists of the participant rating the emotional intensity of their reaction on a Likert scale then repeating an orienting affirmation such as "Even though I feel this anxiety, I deeply and completely accept myself" while rubbing a specific spot on the chest. Next, a series of acupressure points are tapped or rubbed while stating a similar phrase. The third part of the sequence involves rubbing a point on the back of the hand whilst performing eye movements and diverse neural task. The emotional intensity is then rescored. Parts 2 and 3 are repeated until the emotional intensity shows no improvement.  EFT is very simple; almost exactly the same points are tapped, regardless of which illness, pain, or emotion the user wants to address.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Eft_punkte.jpg
In 2003, researchers at the University of Lethbridge and Okanagan University College published a controlled clinical study that concludes that "components shared with more traditional therapies" are responsible for the effects of EFT in reducing fear and anxiety. Tapping plays the role of distraction, and similar effects are found when tapping on a meridian point, an arbitrary point, or on a doll.
A 2011 randomized trial compared EFT with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). The study found similar improvements in both groups, although EMDR produced a slightly higher proportion of patients with substantial clinical changes compared with EFT. Due to the "speculative nature" of EFT, the authors recommend further study on what constitute the active elements of the therapy. The trial did not include a control or placebo group, and the effectiveness and scientific basis of EMDR is also an issue of ongoing debate.
Several studies reporting positive findings have been published in journals that have since disappeared, journals with an explicitly pro-alternative medicine brief, or have been funded by or carried out by proponents of EFT or "energy psychology" generally.
EFT has been labeled pseudoscience in the Skeptical Inquirer, based on what the journal identifies as its lack of falsifiability, reliance on anecdotal evidence, aggressive promotion via the Internet and word of mouth. Gary Craig, the originator of EFT, has argued that tapping on meridian points on the body will manipulate the energy flow in the meridians, thus releasing the disturbance. There are many pressure points used by acupuncturists not included in EFT methodology; it is suggested that tapping one such point may have incidental effects. Scientists have pointed out that such an argument renders EFT untestable by the scientific method and that it therefore needs to be categorized as a pseudoscience, however beneficial some may consider it. EFT's successes are also thought to stem from "characteristics it shares with more traditional therapies", rather than manipulation of supposed "energy meridians" via tapping acupuncture points. There is no known anatomical or histological basis for the existence of acupuncture points or meridians. Testing of the EFT hypothesis through the use of a placebo group produced the same positive changes in recipients as following the EFT's standard methodology. A 2007 article by Oliver Burkeman suggested that the act of tapping parts of the body in a complicated sequence acts as a distraction, and therefore can appear to alleviate the root distress.
Criticism has also been made of the creator Gary Craig, a NLP practitioner, who has no medical background and who "offers EFT as an ordained minister".
^ a b c Craig, G (nd) (pdf). EFT Manual. Retrieved 2011-05-03.
^ a b c Oliver Burkeman (2007-02-10). "Help yourself". The Guardian. Retrieved 2009-06-29.
^ a b c Brandon A. Gaudiano and James D. Herbert (2000). "Can we really tap our problems away?". Skeptical Inquirer 24 (4).[dead link]
^ a b c Waite WL & Holder MD (2003). "Assessment of the Emotional Freedom Technique: An Alternative Treatment for Fear". The Scientific Review of Mental Health Practice 2 (1).
^ Feinstein, D (2008). "Energy Psychology: A Review of the Preliminary Evidence". Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 45 (2): 199–213. ISSN 0033-3204.
^ a b House, Jeanne (2008). Peak Vitality: Raising the Threshold of Abundance in Our Material, Spiritual and Emotional Lives. Elite Books. pp. 191. ISBN 9781600700132.
^ Karatzias T, Power K, Brown K, et al. (June 2011). "A Controlled Comparison of the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Two Psychological Therapies for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing vs. Emotional Freedom Techniques". J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 199 (6): 372–8. doi:10.1097/NMD.0b013e31821cd262. PMID 21629014.
^ Kenneth Fletcher; Ricky Greenwald, PRO and CON -- Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing, retrieved 2011-03-01
^ R.H. Coetzee; Stephen Regel. "Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing: an update". Advances in Psychiatric Treatment 11: 247–354.
^ "Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing - EMDR". Retrieved 2011-03-01.
^ Herbert, J.; Lilienfeld, S.; Lohr, J.; Montgomery, R.; O'Donohue, W.; Rosen, G.; Tolin, D. (2000). "Science and pseudoscience in the development of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: implications for clinical psychology". Clinical psychology review 20 (
: 945–971. doi:10.1016/S0272-7358(99)00017-3. PMID 11098395. edit
^ Rowe, JE (2005). "The Effects of EFT on Long-Term Psychological Symptoms". Counseling and Clinical Psychology 2 (3): 104–111. ISSN 1545-4452.
^ Swingle P; Pulos; Swingle M (2005). "Psychological Neurophysiological Indicators of EFT Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress". International Society for the study of Subtle Energies & Energy Medicine Journal 15 (1).
^ Brattberg G (2008). "Self-administered EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) in Individuals With Fibromyalgia: A Randomized Trial". Integrative Medicine 7 (4).
^ Church D; Geronilla L; Dinter I (2009). "Psychological symptom change in veterans after six sessions of Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT): an observational study". The International Journal of Healing and Caring 9 (1). Note: A fee is payable for access to this paper.
^ Wells S, Polglase K, Andrews H, Carrington P, Baker A (2003). "Evaluation of a meridian-based intervention, Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT), for reducing specific phobias of small animals". J Clin Psychol 59 (9): 943–66. doi:10.1002/jclp.10189. PMID 12945061. Note: This study was funded by ACEP.
^ Daniel J. Benor, Karen Ledger, Loren Toussaint, Geoffrey Hett and Daniel Zaccaro (2009). "Pilot Study of Emotional Freedom Techniques, Wholistic Hybrid Derived From Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing and Emotional Freedom Technique, and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Treatment of Test Anxiety in University Students". EXPLORE: the Journal of Science and Healing 5 (6): 338–340. doi:10.1016/j.explore.2009.08.001. PMID 19913760. Note: This study was carried out by the originator of the technique under investigation. Subjects were not randomly assigned to treatment groups and the sample size was small. In addition, it appears that all subjects underwent all treatments, since the authors use a repeated measures statistical test. The order in which they underwent the different treatments is not clear.
^ Felix Mann: "...acupuncture points are no more real than the black spots that a drunkard sees in front of his eyes." (Mann F. Reinventing Acupuncture: A New Concept of Ancient Medicine. Butterworth Heinemann, London, 1996,14.) Quoted by Matthew Bauer in Chinese Medicine Times, Vol 1 Issue 4 - Aug 2006, "The Final Days of Traditional Beliefs? - Part One"
^ Temes, Roberta (2006). The Tapping Cure: A Revolutionary System for Rapid Relief from Phobias, Anxiety, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and More. Da Capo press. pp. 180. ISBN 9781569243244.
^ Craig, Gary (2010). EFT for Sports Performance.FONTE:
Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT)
Emotional Freedom Techniques is the creation of Gary Craig, an energy healer who would fit well in any New Age borough. Gary is always smiling and happy because he has found the cause and cure for almost everything, and he really wants to help you. He loves you and cares for you. How do I know? He says so on his website:
I hope this doesn't sound too grandiose but you just walked into the most successful health innovation in the last 100 years. Based on impressive new discoveries regarding the body's subtle energies, Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) has been astonishingly successful in thousands of clinical cases. It applies to just about every emotional and physical issue you can name and often works where nothing else will.
Subtle energies is the scientific term for chi (prana, ki, orgone), those mysterious energies that are in constant need of balancing, harmonizing, unblocking, channeling, funneling, and transferring in order to maintain perfect health. If you doubt Gary's word, you can read the testimonials from dozens of people who have been cured of everything under the sun by this fabulous therapy.
You'll feel welcome at Gary's site. He's loving and caring, as are all his staff. And you matter. He treats the person, not the disease. Let's cut to the chase. Basically, Gary's discovered what traditional healers have known for millennia: if you can relax people, they become suggestible and you can relieve their stress, ease their minds, and allow their bodies to heal themselves. Gary's discovery came when he found out he could cure people by using acupuncture without the needles. He stimulates so-called energy meridian points on the body by tapping them with his fingertips. This kind of therapy is attractive to many people because it uses no drugs. Therefore, it is unlikely that there will be any side effects. It apparently did not occur to Gary that maybe he had tapped into the placebo effect or the power of suggestion. He may even be using cold reading techniques without being aware of it. Why accept simple psychological explanations when a complex mystical one is available?
Of course, the gimmick wouldn't be complete if Gary didn't remind us that he knows about ancient wisdom (he is following a time-honored Eastern tradition that has been around for over 5,000 years, he says, though acupuncture has not been around nearly that long. It has a recorded history of about 2,000 years.*). Plus, Gary knows about modern science. He says Albert Einstein "told us back in the 1920's that everything (including our bodies) is composed of energy." (This is the golden rule for New Age quacks: when in doubt, quote Einstein and mention quantum physics.) Thirdly, Gary tells us that "these ideas have been largely ignored by Western Healing Practices." (He should have added "with good reason.") What Gary forgets to tell us is that the so-called subtle energy of acupuncture has nothing in common with the energy in E=mc2. When you unblock that kind of energy you get nuclear weapons or power, not miraculous health cures. The reason these ideas have been largely ignored by conventional Western doctors is that they are nonsensical. Both the meridians and the subtle energy that supposedly flows along them are mythical entities. If Gary's methods are helping anyone, it is because he is touching them, relaxing them, reducing their stress.
Bob Park explains very simply and clearly how the placebo effect works in contexts like EFT:
Once we are convinced of the healing power of a doctor or a treatment, something very remarkable happens: a sham treatment induces real biological improvement. This is the placebo effect. Healers have relied on the placebo effect for thousands of years, but until recently, it was usually referred to as the "mysterious" placebo effect. Scientists, however, are beginning to understand the complex interaction of the brain and the endocrine system that gives rise to the placebo effect.
People seek out a doctor when they experience discomfort or when they believe that something about their body is not right. That is, they suffer pain and fear. The response of the brain to pain and fear, however, is not to mobilize the body's healing mechanisms but to prepare it to meet some external threat. It's an evolutionary adaptation that assigns the highest priority to preventing additional injury. Stress hormones released into the bloodstream increase respiration, blood pressure, and heart rate. These changes may actually impede recovery. The brain is preparing the body for action; recovery must wait.
The first objective of a good physician, therefore, is to relieve stress. That usually involves assuring patients that there is an effective treatment for their condition and that the prospects for recovery are excellent—if they will just follow the doctor's instructions. Since we recover from most of the things that afflict us, the brain learns to associate recovery with visits to the doctor. Most of us start to feel better before we even leave the doctor's office. (Voodoo Science: The Road from Foolishness to Fraud. Oxford University Press, 2001, pp. 50-51.)
So, the metaphysical mumbo jumbo that accompanies Gary Craig's tapping with his fingers is unnecessary baggage. He could tell you to take two of these little blue pills twice a day for two weeks and probably have just as many satisfied customers as the EFT folks. One difference, however, is that we have a way to test whether those little blue pills are a placebo or not. But we cannot do a randomized, double-blind controlled experiment on subtle energy being unblocked along meridians by either the insertion of needles or the tapping of fingers. This is good because nobody can do a scientific test to prove that EFT is bunk.
In case you're wondering whether Gary Craig is another medical doctor gone astray, the answer is no. He tells us on his website that he is "a Stanford engineering graduate and an ordained minister and, although we don't pound the table for God here, I do come at this procedure from a decidedly spiritual perspective." I feel safer already. His mentor was Dr. Roger Callahan, the inventor of Thought Field Therapy (TFT). The idea behind TFT is that negative emotions cause energy blockage and if the energy is unblocked then the fears will disappear. Tapping acupressure points is thought to be the means of unblocking the energy. Allegedly, it takes only five to six minutes to elicit a cure. Dr. Callahan claims an 85% success rate. He even does cures over the phone using "Voice Technology" on infants and animals. He claims that by analyzing the voice he can determine what points on the body the patient should tap for treatment.
books and articles
Dawes, Robyn M. House of Cards - Psychology and Psychotherapy Built on Myth, (New York: The Free Press, 1994).
Park, Robert L. (2000). Voodoo Science: The Road from Foolishness to Fraud. Oxford U. Press.
Wood, James M., Teresa Nezworski, Scott O. Lilienfeld, Howard N. Garb. (2003). What's Wrong With the Rorschach?: Science Confronts the Controversial Inkblot Test. John Wiley.
Mental Help: Procedures to Avoid by Stephen Barrett, M.D.
The Rorschach Inkblot Test, Fortune Tellers, and Cold Reading by James M. Wood, M. Teresa Nezworski, Scott O. Lilienfeld, and Howard N. Garb. (Famous clinical psychologists used the Rorschach Inkblot Test to arrive at incredible insights. But were the astounding performances of these Rorschach Wizards merely a variation on astrology and palm reading?)
© Copyright 1994-2011 Robert T. Carroll * This page was designed by Cristian Popa.