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 N'anga - Shona

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Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
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MessaggioOggetto: N'anga - Shona   Lun 21 Nov 2011 - 12:45

Un N'anga è il guaritore tradizionale e guida spirituale del popolo Shona...


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N%27anga

N'anga
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


A n'anga, close to Great Zimbabwe
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:N%27anga.jpg

Among the Shona people of Zimbabwe, a n'anga is a traditional healer who uses a combination of herbs, medical/religious advice and spiritual guidance to heal people. In Zimbabwe, N'angas are recognized and registered under the ZINATHA (Zimbabwe National Traditional Healer's Association).[1][2]

They are believed to have religious powers to tell fortunes, and to change, heal, bless or even kill people. Traditionally N’angas were people’s main source of help in all matters of life. They have existed for decades well before the British colonial era. The liberation war leaders (Second Chimurenga) are said to have consulted with N’angas during the war for independence.[3]

Even today, N'angas are consulted by the people for advice and healing of many illnesses. Sometimes N'angas refer their patients to western medical practitioners and hospitals in case of emergency or illness they can't cure with the help of their healing spirit.[4]


References

^ "Culture of Zimbabwe".
^ "Zimbabwe National Traditional Healers Association (ZINATHA)".
^ Angus Shaw, (1993) Kandaya, Another time, Another place, Baobab Books
^ Specialization and referral among the n'anga (traditional healers) of Zimbabwe. PMID 2219419.




FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shona_people

Shona people
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Shona (play /ˈʃoʊnə/) is the name collectively given to two groups of people in the east and southwest of Zimbabwe, north eastern Botswana and southern Mozambique.

Shona Regional Classification

The Shona people are classified as Western Shona (Bakalanga) and eastern Shona. The western Shona are called the Bakalanga and is agreed that it is the oldest Shona cluster. They are found in South western Zimbabwe and Botswana. They have been assimilated by the Ndebele people.[citation needed] The bakalanga-Banyai groups are:

Badhalaunda/batalaote (they lived in Madzilogwe, Mazhoubgwe, up to Zhozhobgwe)
BaNambya (can be found in Hwange up to Gweta)
BaLilima (BaWombe; Bayela - are in the central district with Baperi)
Baperi (live together with BaLilima as mentioned above)

The eastern shona groups are:

Karanga
Korekore
Manyika
Zezuru

It should be known that Western Shona and eastern Shona languages are distinct ethnic groups who happen to have been one ethnic group hundreds of years ago. The use of the term usually neglects the western Shona which might confuse a lot of people even in historical documents. For example, it is said that Venda is a conglomeration of Shona and Sotho, it is meant western Shona. Other researchers trace the use of the term back to Mzilikazi, a zulu king who conquered some of the communities in present day Zimbabwe. According to the Zimbabwean Statistics Office the number of Shona speaking people is about nine million people, who speak a range of related dialects whose standardized form is also known as Shona (bantu). Most researchers point to the ancestors of the Shona as the creators of Great Zimbabwe, the largest pre-European stone structure south of the Equator. The origin of the ruins was once highly debated but has largely been resolved.[1]

A small group of Shona-speaking migrants of the late 19th century also live in Zambia's Zambezi valley, in Chieftainess Chiawa's area.

The Shona were traditionally agricultural, growing beans, peanuts, corn[clarification needed], pumpkins, and sweet potatoes.



Shona religious priest and healer (n'anga)
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Shona_witch_doctor_%28Zimbabwe%29.jpg

Regional groupings

The Shona-speaking people are categorized into five main ethnic groups:

Zezuru
Manyika
Karanga
Korekore
Ndau


Kingdoms

The term Shona is as recent as the 1920s. The Kalanga and or Karanga had, from the 11th century, created empires and states on the Zimbabwe plateau. These states include the Great Zimbabwe state (12-16th century), the Torwa State, and the Munhumutapa states, which succeeded the Great Zimbabwe state as well as the Rozvi state, which succeeded the Torwa State, and which with the Mutapa state existed into the 19th century. The states were based on kingship with certain dynasties being royals.[1]

The major dynasties were the Rozvi of the Moyo (Heart) Totem, the Elephant (of the Mutapa state), and the Hungwe (Fish Eagle) dynasties that ruled from Great Zimbabwe. The Kalanga who speak Tjikalanga are related to the Karanga possible through common ancestry. Some Shona groups are not very familiar with the existence of the Kalanaga hence they are frequently not recognised as Shona today. These groups had an adelphic succession system (brother succeeds brother) and this after a long time caused a number of civil wars which, after the 16th century, were taken advantage of by the Portuguese. Underneath the king were a number of chiefs who had sub-chiefs and headmen under them.

History

The kingdoms were destroyed by new groups moving onto the plateau. The Ndebele destroyed the Chaangamire's Rozvi state in the 1830s, and the Portuguese slowly eroded the Mutapa State, which had extended to the coast of Mozambique after the state's success in providing valued exports for the Swahili, Arab and East Asian traders, especially in the mining of gold, known by the pre-colonisation miners as kuchera dyutswa at the time. The British destroyed traditional power in 1890 and colonized the plateau of Rhodesia. In Mozambique, the Portuguese colonial government fought the remnants of the Mutapa state until 1902.

Language and identity

The largest groups in Zimbabwe identify themselves as Shona, others as Ndebele with the remainder falling into categories like the Tonga, Shangani, Venda , Sotho in Gwanda, Kalanga etc. Dialect groups are important in Shona although there are huge similarities among the dialects. Although 'standard' Shona is spoken throughout Zimbabwe, the dialects not only help to identify which town or village a person is from (e.g. a person who is Manyika would be from Eastern Zimbabwe, ie. towns like Mutare) but also the ethnic group which the person belongs to. Each Shona dialect is specific to a certain ethnic group, i.e. if one speaks the Manyika dialect, they are from the Manyika group/tribe and observe certain customs and norms specific to their group. As such, if one is Zezuru, they speak the Zezuru dialect and observe those customs and beliefs that are specific to them. In 1931, during the process of trying to reconcile the dialects into the single standard Shona, Professor Clement Doke [2] identified six groups, each with subdivisions: 1. The Korekore or Northern Shona, including Taυara, Shangwe, Korekore proper, Goυa, Budya, the Korekore of Urungwe, the Korekore of Sipolilo, Tande, Nyongwe of "Darwin", Pfungwe of Mrewa; 2. The Zezuru group, including Shawasha, Haraυa, another Goυa, Nohwe, Hera, Njanja, Mbire, Nobvu, Vakwachikwakwa, Vakwazvimba, Tsunga; 3. The Karanga group, including Duma, Jena, Mari, Goυera, Nogoυa, Nyubi; 4. The Manyika group, including Hungwe, Manyika themselves, Teυe, Unyama, Karombe, Nyamuka, Bunji, Domba, Nyatwe, Guta, Bvumba, Here, Jindwi, Boca; 5. The Ndau group (mostly Mozambique), including Ndau themselves, Tonga, Garwe, Danda, Shanga; 6. The Kalanga group, including Nyai, Nambzya, Rozvi, Kalanga proper, Talahundra, Lilima or Humbe, and Peri.

The above differences in dialects developed during the dispersion of tribes across the country over a long time. The influx of immigrants, into the country from bordering countries, has obviously contributed to the variety.

Totems

People of the same clan use a common set of totems. Totems are usually animals and body parts. Examples include Shiri/Hungwe-Fish Eagle , Mbizi/Tembo - Zebra, Shumba- Lion, Tsoko- Monkey, Nzou-Elephant or Gumbo (leg) Moyo (heart) Bepe lung, etc. These were further broken down into gender related names. For example Zebra group would break into Madhuve for the females and Dhuve or Mazvimbakupa for the males. People of the same totem are the descendants of one common ancestor (the founder of that totem)and thus are not allowed to marry or have an intimate relationship. The totems cross regional groupings and therefore provide a wall for development of ethnicism among the Shona groups.

This identification by totem has very important ramifications at traditional ceremonies such as the burial ceremony. A person with a different totem cannot initiate burial of the deceased. A person of the same totem, even when coming from a different tribe, can initiate burial of the deceased. For example a Ndebele of the Mpofu totem can initiate burial of a Shona of the Mhofu totem and that is perfectly acceptable in Shona tradition. But a Shona of a different totem cannot perform the ritual functions required to initiate burial of the deceased.

If a person initiates the burial of a person of a different totem, he runs the risk of being asked to pay a fine to the family of the deceased. Such fines traditionally were paid with cattle or goats but nowadays substantial amounts of money can be asked for.

Similarly Shona chiefs are required to be able to recite the history of their totem group right from the initial founder before they can be sworn in as chiefs.

References

^ a b "People of Africa: Shona". African Holocaust Society. Retrieved 2007-01-04.
^ Doke, Clement M.,A Comparative Study in Shona Phonetics. 1931. University of Witwatersrand Press, Johannesburg.


FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shona_%28popolo%29

Shona (popolo)
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Shona (pronunciato /ˈʃoʊnə/) sono gruppo etno-linguistico del gruppo bantu, diffusi in Zimbabwe e nel Mozambico meridionale. Si conta circa 9 milioni di persone che parlano una varietà di dialetti che appartengono alla forma standardizzata che è conosciuta come lingua shona (una lingua bantu).

Un piccolo gruppo di parlanti Shona è emigrato alla fine dell'Ottocento e vive in Zambia, nella Valle dello Zambesi. Gli Shona sono agricoltori, coltivatori di piselli, arachidi, mais, diversi tipi di vegetali, zucche e patate dolci.

Clan

I 5 clan principali sono:

Karanga - Solo il più grande clan, conta il 35% degli 11,5 milioni di cittadini dello Zimbabwe.
Zezuru (o Zeseru) - Sono il secondo clan più numeroso, e comprende circa un quarto della popolazione totale
Manyika - Situati nella zona di Manicaland, sono in 1,8 milioni.
Ndau
Korekore
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Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Re: N'anga - Shona   Ven 24 Feb 2012 - 10:06

Altro brevissimo documento su questo popolo...

FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Svikiro

Svikiro
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Svikiro is a spirit medium of the Shona people of Zimbabwe.

A Svikiro is primarily known to get possessed by ancestral spirits and will give advice based on that communication, an agent of the ancestors.

External links

Bodies, Capsules and Fetishes: The Transfer of Control Over Traditional Medicinal. Knowledge in Zimbabwe
Spirit Mediums of among the Shona


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