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 Il dolore degli animali - Pain in animals

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Tila
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Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
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Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Il dolore degli animali - Pain in animals   Sab 10 Dic 2011 - 11:34

Buondì,

vi anticipo che ciò che segue non vuole essere un incitamento a prendere parte a qualche movimento ideologico, è solo un invito a riflettere insieme.

Era da molto tempo che volevo inserire questi documenti di wikipedia inglese, degli articoli originali riporto solo qualche stralcio perciò vi invito a visionare i documenti direttamente dalle fonti, vi consiglio inoltre la visione del bellissimo articolo che ha redatto Admin, che troverete nel seguente link interno:

http://sciamanesimo.forumattivo.com/t1274-earthlings-terrestri

In fondo a questo post inserisco altri link come guida per avere altri spunti di riflessione.

Credo che la lettura che vi propongo oggi sia molto importante soprattutto per chi vuole ampliare la propria conoscenza e prendere coscienza di ciò che accade intorno a noi, deve essere visto come un momento di riflessione, un momento per fermarsi ed ascoltare...



FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pain_in_animals

Pain is a sensory and emotional experience often caused by intense or damaging stimuli. The International Association for the Study of Pain says pain is a conscious experience involving unpleasantness, i.e. suffering. For a creature to experience pain, by that definition, it must be capable of consciousness and suffering.



History

The idea that animals might not experience pain or suffering as humans do traces back at least to the 17th-century French philosopher, René Descartes, who argued that animals lack consciousness.[1][2][3]Researchers remained unsure into the 1980s as to whether animals experience pain, and veterinarians trained in the U.S. before 1989 were simply taught to ignore animal pain.[4] In his interactions with scientists and other veterinarians, Bernard Rollin was regularly asked to "prove" that animals are conscious, and to provide "scientifically acceptable" grounds for claiming that they feel pain.[4] Some authors say that the view that animals feel pain differently is now a minority view.[1] Academic reviews of the topic are more equivocal, noting that, although it is likely that some animals have at least simple conscious thoughts and feelings,[5] some authors continue to question how reliably animal mental states can be determined.[2][6]


In different species

The ability to experience pain in an animal, or another human for that matter, cannot be determined directly but it may be inferred through physiological and behavioral reactions.[7]

Some criteria that may indicate the potential to feel pain include:[8]

Has a suitable nervous system and sensory receptors
Physiological changes to noxious stimuli
Displays protective motor reactions that might include reduced use of an affected area such as limping, rubbing, holding or autotomy
Has opioid receptors and shows reduced responses to noxious stimuli when given analgesics and local anaesthetics
Shows trade-offs between stimulus avoidance and other motivational requirements
Shows avoidance learning
High cognitive ability and sentience





Da questi primi stralci abbiamo visto che ciò che si pensava un tempo è mutato, per chi ha avuto la fortuna di avere l'esperienza di convivere con un animale sa bene che loro sentono e percepiscono alcune volte molto più di noi.

Magari non sanno esprimerlo con parole, non sono in grado di scrivere poesie come l'uomo, ma dai loro occhi e dai loro comportamenti è evidente.

Tempo fa cercavo il simbolismo di alcuni crostacei e da allora ho fatto ricerche su questo argomento, se vi immergessero in un pentolone di acqua bollente voi sareste felici?

E' vero che gli animali, ma anche le piante, sono diversi da noi, ma non sono anche loro degli esseri che respirano, si nutrono, si riproducono come noi? E allora perchè il loro dolore e la loro esistenza deve essere meno importante della nostra?





FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pain_in_crustaceans

The question of whether or not crustaceans can experience pain is unresolved. Because of the ambiguous nature of pain, most people who contend that crustaceans do have this capacity approach the issue using 'argument by analogy' – that is, they hold that certain similarities between crustacean and human biology or behaviour warrant an assumption that crustaceans can feel pain.[1]

In vertebrates, endogenous opioids are neurochemicals that moderate pain by interacting with opioid receptors. Opioid peptides and opioid receptors occur naturally in crustaceans, and although "at present no certain conclusion can be drawn",[2] some have interpreted their presence as an indication that crustaceans may be able to experience pain.[1][2] Lobsters' opioids may "mediate pain in the same way" as in vertebrates.[1]


Research findings

In February 2005, a review of the literature by the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety tentatively concluded that "it is unlikely that [lobsters] can feel pain," though they note that "there is apparently a paucity of exact knowledge on sentience in crustaceans, and more research is needed." This conclusion is based on the lobster's simple nervous system. The report assumes that the violent reaction of lobsters to boiling water is a reflex to noxious stimuli.[2]

However, review by the Scottish animal rights group Advocate for Animals released in the same year reported that "scientific evidence ... strongly suggests that there is a potential for [lobsters] to experience pain and suffering," primarily because lobsters (and other decapod crustaceans) "have opioid receptors and respond to opioids (analgesics such as morphine) in a similar way to vertebrates," indicating that lobsters' reaction to injury changes when painkillers are applied. The similarities in lobsters' and vertebrates' stress systems and behavioral responses to noxious stimuli were given as additional evidence for their capacity for pain.[1]

A 2007 study at Queen's University, Belfast, suggested that crustaceans do feel pain.[16] In the experiment, when the antennae of prawns were rubbed with sodium hydroxide or acetic acid, the animals showed increased grooming of the afflicted area and rubbed it more against the side of the tank. Moreover, this reaction was inhibited by a local anesthetic, even though control prawns treated with only anesthetic did not show reduced activity. Robert Elwood, who headed the study, argues that sensing pain is crucial to prawn survival, because it encourages them to avoid damaging behaviors. Some scientists responded, saying the rubbing may reflect an attempt to clean the affected area.[17]

In a subsequent 2009 study, Elwood and Mirjam Appel showed that hermit crabs make motivational tradeoffs between electric shocks and the quality of the shells they inhabit.[18] In particular, as hermit crabs are shocked more intensely, they become increasingly willing to leave their current shells for new shells, and they spend less time deciding whether to enter those new shells. Moreover, because the researchers did not offer the new shells until after the electrical stimulation had ended, the change in motivational behavior was the result of memory of the noxious event, not an immediate reflex.

Morphine, an analgesic, and naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, may affect the estuarine crab Neohelice granulata in much the same way they affect vertebrates: injections of morphine into crabs produced a dose-dependent reduction of their defensive response to an electric shock.[19] (However, the attenuated defensive response could originate from either the analgesic or sedative properties of morphine, or both.)[20] These findings have been replicated for other invertebrate species,[20] but similar data is not yet available for lobsters.




FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pain_in_animals

Laboratory animals

Animals are kept in laboratories for a wide range of reasons, some of which may involve pain, suffering or distress, whilst others (e.g. many of those involved in breeding) will not. The extent to which animal testing causes pain and suffering in laboratory animals is the subject of much debate.[35] Marian Stamp Dawkins defines "suffering" in laboratory animals as the experience of one of "a wide range of extremely unpleasant subjective (mental) states."[36] The United States Department of Agriculture defines a "painful procedure" in an animal study as one that would "reasonably be expected to cause more than slight or momentary pain or distress in a human being to which that procedure was applied."[37] Some critics argue that, paradoxically, researchers raised in the era of increased awareness of animal welfare may be inclined to deny that animals are in pain simply because they do not want to see themselves as people who inflict it.[38] Animal research with the potential to cause pain is regulated by the Animal Welfare Act of 1966 in the US, and research likely to cause "pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm" is regulated by the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 in the UK.

To date (2011), eleven countries have national severity classification systems relating to pain and suffering experienced by animals used in research: Australia, Canada, Finland, Germany, The Republic of Ireland, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, and the UK. The US also has a mandated national scientific animal-use classification system, but it is markedly different from other countries in that it reports on whether pain-relieving drugs were required and/or used.[39] The first severity scales were implemented in 1986 by Finland and the UK. The number of severity categories ranges between 3 (Sweden and Finland) and 9 (Australia). In the UK, research projects are classified as "mild", "moderate", and "substantial" in terms of the suffering the researchers conducting the study say they may cause; a fourth category of "unclassified" means the animal was anesthetized and killed without recovering consciousness. It should be remembered that in the UK system, many research projects (e.g. transgenic breeding, feeding distasteful food) will require a license under the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986, but may cause little or no pain or suffering. In December 2001, 39 percent (1,296) of project licenses in force were classified as "mild", 55 percent (1,811) as "moderate", two percent (63) as "substantial", and 4 percent (139) as "unclassified".[40] In 2009, of the project licenses issued, 35 percent (187) were classified as "mild", 61 percent (330) as "moderate", 2 percent (13) as "severe" and 2 percent (11) as unclassified.[41]

In the US, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals defines the parameters for animal testing regulations. It states, "The ability to experience and respond to pain is widespread in the animal kingdom...Pain is a stressor and, if not relieved, can lead to unacceptable levels of stress and distress in animals."[42] The Guide states that the ability to recognize the symptoms of pain in different species is essential for the people caring for and using animals. Accordingly, all issues of animal pain and distress, and their potential treatment with analgesia and anesthesia, are required regulatory issues for animal protocol approval.



A voi le vostre conclusioni, vi ricordo nuovamente che con questo mio post non voglio incitare nessuno a seguire correnti o movimenti ideologici, vuole essere soltanto spunto di riflessioni e studi su questo argomento.

Tila

Si consiglia di leggere inoltre i seguenti link:

http://sciamanesimo.forumattivo.com/t1274-earthlings-terrestri

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pain_in_animals

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pain_in_crustaceans

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pain_in_fish

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pain_in_invertebrates

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emotion_in_animals

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