Forum di sciamanesimo, antropologia e spirito critico
Nei momenti più bui, ricorda sempre di fare un passo alla volta.
Voler ottenere tutto e subito è sciocco
Nei momenti più difficili, ricorda sempre che le abitudini stabiliscono un destino.
Stabilisci quelle che ti danno energia e crescita.
È solo nell’ora più profonda del Duat, nella Notte oscura dell’anima che possiamo vedere noi stessi.
E capire come superare la notte.
Non rifuggire l’oscurità, impara a vederci attraverso.
Tutto passa e scorre, il giorno diviene notte e la notte giorno.
Ciò che è bene per te ora domani diverrà un ostacolo e un impedimento, o un danno, e viceversa.
Tutto finisce e muta, come la pelle di un serpente.
Impara ad essere la volontà pura di vivere e non la pelle morta di un intento esaurito.
Tutto ciò che non supera l’alba del tuo nuovo giorno, non deve essere portato con te.
Il mondo è infinito, non giudicare perdite e guadagni come il piccolo pescatore che non ha mai visto l’Oceano.
Sconfinate sono le possibilità della Ruota.
Impara a fluire e solo allora senza occhi, senza orecchie né pensiero, vedrai, sentirai e capirai il Tao.
(Admin - Shamanism & Co. © 2011 - All rights reserved)


Forum di sciamanesimo, antropologia e spirito critico

forum di sciamanesimo, antropologia, spirito critico, terapie alternative, esoterismo. Forum of shamanism, anthropology, criticism, alternative therapies and esoterism
 
IndicePortaleFAQCercaRegistrarsiAccedi

Condividere | 
 

 Sambucus - Sambucus nigra

Vedere l'argomento precedente Vedere l'argomento seguente Andare in basso 
AutoreMessaggio
Tila
Iniziato Sciamano
Iniziato Sciamano


Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Sambucus - Sambucus nigra   Sab 17 Dic 2011 - 9:30


QUESTA SCHEDA CONTIENE INFORMAZIONI CHE POSSONO GENERARE SITUAZIONI DI PERICOLO E DANNI. I DATI PRESENTI HANNO SOLO UN FINE ILLUSTRATIVO E IN NESSUN CASO ESORTATIVO. PRIMA DI PROSEGUIRE SI PREGA DI LEGGERE ATTENTAMENTE LE AVVERTENZE.


AVVERTENZE:

Tutte le informazioni, voci e documenti riportati su Shamanism&Co sono da considerare ad ESCLUSIVO SCOPO DIVULGATIVO!
Le eventuali nozioni e/o procedure mediche, erboristiche di medicina popolare, ecc. NON POSSONO SOSTITUIRE IN ALCUN CASO IL CONSIGLIO DEL MEDICO o di qualunque altro operatore sanitario. Rivolgetevi sempre al vostro medico o altro addetto del settore sanitario per qualsiasi quesito possiate avere.
Shamanism&Co non può esser ritenuto responsabile dei risultati o delle conseguenze di un qualsiasi utilizzo o tentativo di utilizzo di una qualsiasi delle informazioni pubblicate.


Il sambuco ha una ricca tradizione popolare, per alcune di esse era il protettore delle streghe e allontanava gli spiriti malvagi.

Il suo succo ha proprietà lassative, grazie al suo aroma è usato ancora oggi in pasticceria e per la produzione di vini e liquori. In fitoterapia viene impiegato in caso si deficit del sistema immunitario e per curare stati di stanchezza grave.


FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sambucus

Sambucus
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Sambucus è un genere appartenente alla famiglia delle Caprifoliacee che comprende specie arbustive di medio-grandi dimensioni talvolta in forma di piccolo albero, comunissimo lungo le siepi campestri, nei boschi planiziari e submontani e presso i casolari di campagna, nonché alla periferia delle città, dove rappresenta un relitto della vegetazione spontanea.



FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sambucus_nigra_2004_c.jpg

Descrizione

La pianta presenta rami con midollo molto grosso, bianco, leggerissimo e compatto, che viene raccolto ed usato per includere e poi sezionare parti vegetali da osservare al microscopio. Inoltre questo tipo di legno viene utilizzato per costruire le palline formanti un pendolo di Canton; oppure viene impiegato per costruire giochi popolari di origine contadina come lo "scioparolo" (dialetto veneto "schioppo/fucile") dove tagliandone un ramo di diametro 4-5 cm e di lunghezza 20-25 cm viene tolto il midollo ed inserito al posto di esso un ramo poco più lungo e di pari diametro del midollo appena tolto.

Facendo scorrere velocemente al suo interno il rametto fa partire una pallina di canapa arrotolata precedentemente inserita e posta estremità dello "scioparolo". Era un gioco povero e antico di cui oramai se ne sono quasi perse le tracce. Viene scelto questo tipo di legno per la sue estrema leggerezza. La corteccia dei rami stessi presenta rade e grosse lenticelle.

Le foglie sono opposte, imparipennate, di solito con 5 foglioline ovato-lanceolate ed appuntite, seghettate ai margini.
I fiori sbocciano in primavera-estate, sono piccoli, odorosi, biancastri, a 5 lobi petaliformi, riuniti numerosissimi in infiorescenze ombrelliformi molto ampie. Essi maturano numerose piccole bacche globose nero-violacee (S. nigra e S. ebulus) o rosse (S. racemosa) che contengono un succo di colore viola-porporino scuro che viene impiegato per colorare vini e come esca per la pesca dei cavedani.

Usi

I fiori del sambuco trovano impiego in erboristeria per la loro azione diaforetica.
Con i fiori è possibile fare uno sciroppo, da diluire poi con acqua, ottenendo una bevanda dissetante, che era molto usata in Tirolo e nei paesi nordici.
Con i frutti del S. nigra e del S. racemosa, (ma non con quelli del S. ebulus che sono tossici), si può fare una marmellata ottima, ma di cui non abusare, per le sue proprietà lassative.


Tossicità

Tutte le parti della pianta sono tossiche per la presenza di cianuro e vari alcaloidi. Fanno eccezione i fiori e le bacche mature (ma non i semi al loro interno). [1]

Specie principali

Sambucus ebulus, detto ebbio o nibbio (pianta)
Sambucus nigra
Sambucus racemosa, detto sambuco rosso

Note

^ (EN)Nova Scotia Museum Website, Poison plant section, Nova Scotia Museum - Poisonous plants



FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sambucus_nigra0.jpg


FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sambucus_nigra

Sambucus nigra
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Sambucus nigra L. è una pianta angiosperma dicotiledone legnosa a foglie decidue. È una specie molto diffusa in Italia soprattutto negli ambienti ruderali (lungo le linee ferroviarie, parchi, ecc.), boschi umidi e rive di corsi d'acqua.


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sambucus_nigra_004.jpg

Descrizione

Il sambuco è un arbusto alto 4-6 m. I rami portano delle foglie composte, di colore verde scuro, lunghe 10-30 cm. Le foglie sono imparipennate con margine dentato-seghettato; la forma delle foglioline è lanceolata con apice acuminato, la fillotassi è opposta. I fiori sono ermafroditi e portati in infiorescenze (corimbi) molto vistose, larghe 10-23 cm. I singoli fiori sono formati da 5 petali fusi alla base (fiori gamopetali), calice anch'esso gamesepalo, ovario infero, 4 stami sporgenti. Fiorisce tra aprile e giugno. I frutti sono delle bacche nerastre, lucide.


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sambucus_nigra4_ies.jpg

Usi

Medicinale

Avvertenza
Le informazioni qui riportate hanno solo un fine illustrativo: non costituiscono e non provengono da prescrizione né da consiglio medico. Wikipedia non dà consigli medici: leggi le avvertenze.

Il sambuco presenta proprietà medicinali-erboristiche riscontrabili nei frutti e nei fiori. Tutto il resto della pianta (semi compresi) è velenoso poiché contiene il glicoside sambunigrina (C14H17NO6, Numero CAS 99-19-4)[1]). Estratti da corteccia, foglie, fiori, frutti e radici erano usati nel trattamento di bronchiti, tosse, infezioni del sistema respiratorio superiore e febbre. Un piccolo (N=60) trial clinico pubblicato nel 2004 ha mostrato una riduzione della durata e della gravità dei sintomi para-influenzali in pazienti che assumevano un estratto di sambuco[2].

Altro

Con i fiori è possibile fare uno sciroppo, da diluire poi con acqua, ottenendo una bevanda dissetante, che era molto usata in Tirolo e nei paesi nordici. La si può anche far fermentare, ottenendo così una specie di spumante.[senza fonte]
Le bacche sono eduli solo dopo cottura e vengono impiegate per gelatine e marmellate, di cui non abusare, a causa delle proprietà lassative.
La pianta viene utilizzata anche a scopo ornamentale, mentre dal legno del tronco si ricava un legno duro e compatto, utilizzato come combustibile e per lavori al tornio; il legno dei giovani rami al contrario è tenero e fragile e non trova applicazioni pratiche.

Note

^ Campa, C. et al. (2000): Analysis of cyanogenic glycosides by micellar capillary electrophoresis. In: J. Chromatogr. B. Biomed. Sci. Appl. 739:95–100. PMID 10744317
^ (EN)Randomized study of the efficacy and safety of oral elderberry extract in the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections [1]

Bibliografia

Sandro Pignatti, Flora d'Italia, Bologna, Edagricole, 1982. ISBN 88-506-2449-2


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sambucus_nigra2.jpg


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sambucus

Sambucus
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sambucus (elder or elderberry) is a genus of between 5 and 30 species of shrubs or small trees in the moschatel family, Adoxaceae. It was formerly placed in the honeysuckle family, Caprifoliaceae, but was reclassified due to genetic evidence. Two of its species are herbaceous.

The genus is native in temperate-to-subtropical regions of both the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere. It is more widespread in the Northern Hemisphere; its Southern Hemisphere occurrence is restricted to parts of Australasia and South America.

The leaves are pinnate with 5–9 leaflets (rarely 3 or 11). Each leaf is 5–30 cm (2.0–12 in) long, and the leaflets have serrated margins. They bear large clusters of small white or cream-colored flowers in late spring; these are followed by clusters of small black, blue-black, or red berries (rarely yellow or white).


Species groups

The black-berried elder complex is variously treated as a single species Sambucus nigra found in the warmer parts of Europe and North America with several regional varieties or subspecies, or else as a group of several similar species. The flowers are in flat corymbs, and the berries are black to glaucous blue; they are larger shrubs, reaching 3–8 m (9.8–26 ft) tall, occasionally small trees up to 15 m (49 ft) tall and with a stem diameter of up to 30–60 cm (12–24 in).
Sambucus australis (Southern Elder; temperate eastern South America)
Sambucus canadensis (syn. S. nigra ssp canadensis; American Elder; eastern North America; with blue-black berries)
Sambucus cerulea (syn. S. caerulea, S. glauca; Blue Elderberry; western North America; dark blue-black berries with glaucous bloom on surface, giving them a sky-blue appearance)
Sambucus javanica (Chinese Elder; southeastern Asia)
Sambucus nigra (Elder or Black Elder; Europe and western Asia; with black berries) This is the species most often used medicinally.
Sambucus lanceolata (Madeira Elder; Madeira Island; with black berries)
Sambucus mexicana (Mexican Elder; Sonoran Desert; with black berries)
Sambucus palmensis (Canary Islands Elder; Canary Islands; with black berries)
Sambucus peruviana (Peruvian Elder; northwest South America; with black berries)
Sambucus simpsonii (Florida Elder; southeastern United States; with blue-black berries)
Sambucus velutina (Velvet Elder; southwestern North America; with blue-black berries)

The Blackberry Elder Sambucus melanocarpa of western North America is intermediate between the preceding and next groups. The flowers are in rounded panicles, but the berries are black; it is a small shrub, rarely exceeding 3–4 m (9.8–13 ft) tall. Some botanists include it in the red-berried elder group.

The red-berried elder complex is variously treated as a single species Sambucus racemosa found throughout the colder parts of the Northern Hemisphere with several regional varieties or subspecies, or else as a group of several similar species. The flowers are in rounded panicles, and the berries are bright red; they are smaller shrubs, rarely exceeding 3–4 m (9.8–13 ft) tall.
Sambucus callicarpa (Pacific Coast Red Elderberry; west coast of North America)
Sambucus chinensis (Chinese Red Elder; eastern Asia, in mountains)
Sambucus latipinna (Korean Red Elder; Korea, southeast Siberia)
Sambucus microbotrys (Mountain Red Elder; southwest North America, in mountains)
Sambucus pubens (American Red Elder; northern North America)
Sambucus racemosa (European Red Elder or Red-berried Elder; northern Europe, northwest Asia)
Sambucus sieboldiana (Japanese Red Elder; Japan and Korea)
Sambucus tigranii (Caucasus Red Elder; southwest Asia, in mountains)
Sambucus williamsii (North China Red Elder; northeast Asia)

The Australian elder group comprises two species from Australasia. The flowers are in rounded panicles, and the berries white or yellow; they are shrubs growing to 3 m (9.8 ft) high.
Sambucus australasica (Yellow Elder; New Guinea, eastern Australia)
Sambucus gaudichaudiana (Australian Elder or White Elder; shady areas of south eastern Australia)

The dwarf elders are, by contrast to the other species, herbaceous plants, producing new stems each year from a perennial root system; they grow to 1.5–2 m (4.9–6.6 ft) tall, each stem terminating in a large flat umbel which matures into a dense cluster of glossy berries.
Sambucus adnata (Asian Dwarf Elder; Himalaya and eastern Asia; berries red)
Sambucus ebulus (European Dwarf Elder; central and southern Europe, northwest Africa and southwest Asia; berries black)

Other species:

Sambucus melanocarpa Gray (western elder)[2]

Sambucus neomexicana Wooton (New Mexico elder)[2]

Sambucus mexicana Presl. (Mexican elderberry; western Texas to southern California and adjacent Mexico (tapiro in Spanish))[2]

Sambucus velutina Dur. & Hilg. (velvet elder; mountains of western Arizona)[2]

Sambucus coerula Raf.(western elder; British Columbia to Arizona and California)[2]


Uses

Food

The flowers of Sambucus nigra are used to produce elderflower cordial. The French, Austrians and Central Europeans produce elderflower syrup, commonly made from an extract of elderflower blossoms, which is added to pancake (Palatschinken) mixes instead of blueberries. People throughout much of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe use a similar method to make a syrup which is diluted with water and used as a drink. Based on this syrup, Fanta markets a soft drink variety called "Shokata"[3] which is sold in 15 countries worldwide. In the United States, this French elderflower syrup is used to make elderflower marshmallows. St-Germain, a French liqueur, is made from elderflowers. Hallands Fläder, a Swedish akvavit, is flavoured with elderflowers.

The Italian liqueur Sambuca is flavoured with oil obtained from the elderflower.

Wines, cordials and marmalade have been produced from the berries or flowers. Fruit pies and relishes are produced with berries. In Italy (especially in Piedmont) and Germany, the umbels of the elderberry are batter coated, fried and then served as a dessert or a sweet lunch with a sugar and cinnamon topping.

Hollowed elderberry twigs have traditionally been used as spiles to tap maple trees for syrup.[4]

Cultivation

Ornamental varieties of Sambucus are grown in gardens for their showy flowers, fruits and lacy foliage.

Native species of elderberry are often planted by people wishing to support native butterfly and bird species.


Medicine

Black elderberry has been used medicinally for hundreds of years.[5][6] Sambucus nigra may be an effective treatment for H1N1 flu.[7] A 1995 study found: "A complete cure was achieved within 2 to 3 days in nearly 90% of the SAM-treated group and within at least 6 days in the placebo group (p < 0.001). No satisfactory medication to cure influenza type A and B is available. Considering the efficacy of the extract in vitro on all strains of influenza virus tested, the clinical results, its low cost, and absence of side-effects, this preparation could offer a possibility for safe treatment for influenza A and B."[8] A small study published in 2004 showed that 93% of flu patients given elderberry extract were completely symptom-free within two days; those taking a placebo recovered in about six days.[9][10] A 2009 study found that the H1N1 inhibition activities of the elderberry flavonoids compare favorably to the known anti-influenza activities of Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and Amantadine.[11] A 2004 study found that symptoms of influenza A and B virus infections were relieved on average 4 days earlier and use of rescue medication was significantly less in those receiving elderberry extract compared with placebo. The study stated, "Elderberry extract seems to offer an efficient, safe and cost-effective treatment for influenza. These findings need to be confirmed in a larger study".[12] Elderberries were well known to Native American medicine people, who described the fruit as "strengthening the inner warrior".

A 2001 study entitled "The effect of Sambucol, a black elderberry-based, natural product, on the production of human cytokines: I. Inflammatory cytokines" concluded: "We conclude from this study that, in addition to its antiviral properties, Sambucol Elderberry Extract and its formulations activate the healthy immune system by increasing inflammatory cytokine production. Sambucol might therefore be beneficial to the immune system activation and in the inflammatory process in healthy individuals or in patients with various diseases. Sambucol could also have an immunoprotective or immunostimulatory effect when administered to cancer or AIDS patients, in conjunction with chemotherapeutic or other treatments. In view of the increasing popularity of botanical supplements, such studies and investigations in vitro, in vivo and in clinical trials need to be developed."[10]

A Modern Herbal by Mrs. M. Grieve suggests several elderberry syrup recipes:[6]

To make Elderberry Rob [syrup], 5 lb. of fresh ripe, crushed berries are simmered with 1 lb. of loaf sugar and the juice evaporated to the thickness of honey. It is cordial, aperient and diuretic. One or two tablespoonsful mixed with a tumblerful of hot water, taken at night, promotes perspiration and is demulcent to the chest. The Rob when made can be bottled and stored for the winter. Herbalists sell it ready for use.

'Syrup of Elderberries' is made as follows: Pick the berries when throughly ripe from the stalks and stew with a little water in a jar in the oven or pan. After straining, allow 1/2 oz. of whole ginger and 18 cloves to each gallon. Boil the ingredients an hour, strain again and bottle. The syrup is an excellent cure for a cold. To about a wineglassful of Elderberry syrup, add hot water, and if liked, sugar.

Music

Branches from the Elder are also used to make the Fujara, Koncovka and other uniquely Slovakian flutes. [1]


Toxicity

The leaves, twigs, branches, seeds and roots contain a cyanide-inducing glycoside (a glycoside which gives rise to cyanide as the metabolism processes it). Ingesting any of these parts in sufficient quantity can cause a toxic build up of cyanide in the body.

Due to the possibility of cyanide poisoning, children should be discouraged from making whistles, slingshots or other toys from elderberry wood. In addition, "herbal teas" made with elderberry leaves (which contain cyanogenic glycosides) should be treated with high caution. However, ripe berries (pulp and skin) are safe to eat.[13]

Ecology

The berries are a very valuable food resource for many birds. In Northern California elderberries are a favorite food for migrating Band-Tailed Pigeons. Flocks can strip an entire bush in less than an hour. Elders are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Brown-tail, Buff Ermine, Dot Moth, Emperor Moth, the Engrailed, Swallow-tailed Moth and the V-pug. The crushed foliage and immature fruit have a strong fetid smell.

Valley elderberry longhorn beetle in California are very often found around red or blue elderberry bushes. Females lay their eggs on the bark. Larvae hatch and burrow into the stems.

Dead elder wood is the preferred habitat of the mushroom Auricularia auricula-judae, also known as "Judas' ear fungus".[14]

The pith of elder has been used by watchmakers for cleaning tools before intricate work.[15]


Folklore

Folklore is extensive and can be wildly conflicting depending on region.

In some areas, the "elder tree" was supposed to ward off evil influence and give protection from witches, while other beliefs say that witches often congregate under the plant, especially when it is full of fruit.

In some regions, superstition, religious belief, or tradition prohibits the cutting of certain trees for bonfires, most notably in witchcraft customs the elderberry tree; "Elder be ye Lady's tree, burn it not or cursed ye'll be" – A rhyme from the Wiccan rede.

If an elder tree was cut down, a spirit known as the Elder Mother would be released and take her revenge. The tree could only safely be cut while chanting a rhyme to the Elder Mother.[16]


In popular culture

The most powerful wand in the Wizarding World of Harry Potter is a wand made of sambucus known as the "Elder Wand".[17]

In Monty Python and the Holy Grail, the keeper of the French castle taunts King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table by telling them that "[their] Father smelt of elderberries."


References

^ "Sambucus L.". Germplasm Resource Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2005-10-13. Retrieved 2009-07-23.
^ a b c d e Kearney, T.H. & R. H. Peebles. 1960. Arizona Flora. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA.
^ Harghitei, Perla. (2009-09-09) Fanta Shokata 1.5L Imported Europe: Amazon.com: Grocery & Gourmet Food. Amazon.com. Retrieved on 2011-03-06.
^ Medve, Richard J. et al. Edible Wild Plants of Pennsylvania and Neighboring States Penn State Press, 1990, ISBN 9780271006901, p.161
^ Thole, Julie M.; Kraft, Tristan F. Burns; Sueiro, Lilly Ann; Kang, Young-Hwa; Gills, Joell J.; Cuendet, Muriel; Pezzuto, John M.; Seigler, David S. et al. (2006). "A Comparative Evaluation of the Anticancer Properties of European and American Elderberry Fruits". Journal of Medicinal Food 9 (4): 498–504. doi:10.1089/jmf.2006.9.498. PMID 17201636.
^ a b A Modern Herbal | Elder. Botanical.com (1923-01-06). Retrieved on 2011-03-06.
^ Search results for elderberry, Herb Research Foundation
^ Zakay-Rones, Zichria; Varsano, Noemi; Zlotnik, Moshe; Manor, Orly; Regev, Liora; Schlesinger, Miriam; Mumcuoglu, Madeleine (1995). "Inhibition of Several Strains of Influenza Virus in Vitro and Reduction of Symptoms by an Elderberry Extract (Sambucus nigra L.) during an Outbreak of Influenza B Panama". The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 1 (4): 361–9. doi:10.1089/acm.1995.1.361. PMID 9395631.
^ Zakay-Rones, Z; Thom, E; Wollan, T; Wadstein, J (2004). "Randomized study of the efficacy and safety of oral elderberry extract in the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections.". The Journal of international medical research 32 (2): 132–40. PMID 15080016.
^ a b Barak, V; Halperin, T; Kalickman, I (2001). "The effect of Sambucol, a black elderberry-based, natural product, on the production of human cytokines: I. Inflammatory cytokines". European cytokine network 12 (2): 290–6. PMID 11399518.
^ Roschek Jr., Bill; Fink, Ryan C.; McMichael, Matthew D.; Li, Dan; Alberte, Randall S. (2009). "Elderberry flavonoids bind to and prevent H1N1 infection in vitro". Phytochemistry 70 (10): 1255–61. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2009.06.003. PMID 19682714.
^ Zakay-Rones, Z; Thom, E; Wollan, T; Wadstein, J (2004). "Randomized study of the efficacy and safety of oral elderberry extract in the treatment of influenza a and B virus infections". The Journal of international medical research 32 (2): 132–40. PMID 15080016.
^ Nova Scotia Museum Website, Poison plant section, Nova Scotia Museum – Poisonous plants
^ Roger's Mushrooms: A. auricula-judae
^ Materials used in construction and repair of watches
^ Howard, Michael. Traditional Folk Remedies (Century, 1987); pp. 134–5
^ Interview with J.K. Rowling


Further reading

Vedel, H., & Lange, J. (1960). Trees and Bushes in Wood and Hedgerow. Methuen & Co Ltd.


FONTE. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sambucus_nigra

Sambucus nigra
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sambucus nigra is a species complex of elder native to most of Europe.[1]

It is most commonly called Elder, Elderberry, Black Elder, European Elder, European Elderberry, European Black Elderberry,[2][3] Common Elder, or Elder Bush when distinction from other species of Sambucus is needed. It grows in a variety of conditions including both wet and dry fertile soils, primarily in sunny locations.

Description

It is a deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 4–6 m (rarely to 10 m) tall. The bark, light grey when young, changes to a coarse grey outer bark with lengthwise furrowing. The leaves are arranged in opposite pairs, 10–30 cm long, pinnate with five to seven (rarely nine) leaflets, the leaflets 5–12 cm long and 3–5 cm broad, with a serrated margin.

The hermaphrodite flowers are borne in large corymbs 10–25 cm diameter in mid summer, the individual flowers white, 5–6 mm diameter, with five petals; they are pollinated by flies.

The fruit is a dark purple to black berry 3–5 mm diameter, produced in drooping clusters in the late autumn; they are an important food for many fruit-eating birds, notably Blackcaps.

Culinary

The dark blue/purple berries can be eaten when fully ripe but are mildly poisonous in their unripe state.[6] All green parts of the plant are poisonous, containing cyanogenic glycosides (Vedel & Lange 1960). The berries are edible after cooking and can be used to make jam, jelly, chutney and Pontack sauce. Also when cooked they go well with blackberries and with apples in pies.

The flowerheads are commonly used in infusions, giving a very common refreshing drink in Northern Europe and Balkans. Commercially these are sold as elderflower cordial, etc. In Europe, the flowers are made into a syrup or cordial (in Romanian: Socată, in Swedish: fläder(blom)saft), which is diluted with water before drinking. The popularity of this traditional drink has recently encouraged some commercial soft drink producers to introduce elderflower-flavoured drinks (Fanta Shokata, Freaky Fläder). The flowers can also be dipped into a light batter and then fried to make elderflower fritters. In Scandinavia and Germany, soup made from the elder berry (e.g. the German Fliederbeersuppe) is a traditional meal.

Both flowers and berries can be made into elderberry wine, and in Hungary an elderberry brandy is made that requires 50 kg of fruit to produce 1 litre of brandy. In south-western Sweden, it is traditional to make a snaps liqueur flavored with elderflower. Elderflowers are also used in liqueurs such as St. Germain and a mildly alcoholic sparkling elderflower 'champagne'.

In Beerse, Belgium, a variety of Jenever called Beers Vlierke is made from the berries.

Cultivation

Some selections and cultivars have variegated or coloured leaves and other distinctive qualities, and are grown as ornamental plants.

Medicinal

This plant is traditionally used as a medicinal plant by many native peoples and herbalists alike.[7][8]

Stembark, leaves, flowers, fruits, root extracts are used to treat bronchitis, cough, upper respiratory cold infections, fever. A small (N=60) double blind clinical trial published in 2004 showed reduction in both duration and severity of flu-like symptoms for patients receiving elderberry syrup versus placebo.[1]

In a placebo-controlled, double-blind study, black elderberry (Sambucus nigra) was shown to be effective for treating Influenza B.[9] People using the elderberry extract recovered much faster than those only on a placebo. The study was published in the Journal of Alternative Complementary Medicine.

A small study published in 2004 showed that 93% of flu patients given extract were completely symptom-free within two days; those taking a placebo recovered in about six days. This current study shows that, indeed, it works for type A flu, reports lead researcher Erling Thom, with the University of Oslo in Norway.[10] However, the study that showed these results was sponsored by an Israeli company that produces various black elderberry extracts.

Elderberry flowers are sold in Ukrainian and Russian drugstores for relief of congestion, specifically as an expectorant to relieve dry cough and make it productive. The dried flowers are simmered for 15 minutes, the resulting flavorful and aromatic tea is poured through a coffee filter. Some individuals find it better hot, others cold, and some may experience an allergic reaction.

The flowers can be used to make an herbal tea as a remedy for inflammation caused by colds and fever.[11]

Diseases

Like other elderberries, Sambucus nigra is subject to Elder whitewash fungus.

Wildlife value

Elder rates as fair to good forage for wild game such as mule deer, elk, sheep, and small non-game birds. It is classified as nesting habitat for many birds, including hummingbirds, warblers, and vireos. Elderberries are a favorite food for migrating Band-Tailed pigeons in Northern California, sometimes stripping an entire bush in short amount of time.

It is also good cover for large and small mammals alike.[12]

Elder is cited as a poisonous plant to mammals and as a weed in certain habitats.[13] All parts of the plant except for the flowers and ripe berries (but including the ripe seeds) are poisonous, containing the cyanogenic glycoside sambunigrin (C14H17NO6, CAS number 99-19-4).[14] The bark contains calcium oxalate crystals.

Other uses

The strong-smelling foliage was used in the past, tied to a horse's mane, to keep flies away while riding. The stem can be used to make a whistle, after the pith has been removed.[15]


Notes

^ Sambucus nigra at Flora Europaea
^ "Sambucus nigra". Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
^ Sambucus nigra at USDA PLANTS Database
^ http://www.calflora.org/cgi-bin/species_query.cgi?where-calrecnum=7320
^ http://www.calflora.org/cgi-bin/species_query.cgi?where-calrecnum=10348
^ Professor Julia Morton, University of Miami
^ http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Sambucus+nigra
^ http://offroadinghome.djmed.net/resources/plants2.htm
^ Zakay-Rones, Zichria; Noemi Varsano, Moshe Zlotnik, Orly Manor, Liora Regev, Miriam Schlesinger, Madeleine Mumcuoglu (1995). "Inhibition of Several Strains of Influenza Virus in Vitro and Reduction of Symptoms by an Elderberry Extract (Sambucus nigra L.) during an Outbreak of Influenza B Panama" (PDF). J Altern Complement Med 1 (4): 361–9. doi:10.1089/acm.1995.1.361. PMID 9395631. Retrieved September 8, 2009.
^ Z Zakay-Rones, E Thom, T Wollan and J Wadstein. "Randomized Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Oral Elderberry Extract in the Treatment of Influenza A and B Virus Infections", Journal of International Medical Research (pdf)
^ http://www.joponline.org/doi/abs/10.1902/jop.2006.050232?journalCode=jop
^ http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/samnigc/all.html#MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS
^ Sambucus nigra at Germplasm Resources Information Network
^ Campa, C. et al. (2000): Analysis of cyanogenic glycosides by micellar capillary electrophoresis. In: J. Chromatogr. B. Biomed. Sci. Appl. 739:95–100. PMID 10744317
^ http://www.bushcraft.ridgeonnet.com/elderwhistle.htm


References

Blanchan, Neltje (1900). Wild Flowers: An Aid to Knowledge of our Wild Flowers and their Insect Visitors. New York City: Doubleday. OCLC 16950204.
Rushforth, K. (1999). Trees of Britain and Europe. HarperCollins ISBN 0-00-220013-9.



FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Reife_Fr%C3%BCchte_des_Schwarzen_Holunder.JPG


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sambucus_nigra1_ies.jpg
Tornare in alto Andare in basso
 
Sambucus - Sambucus nigra
Vedere l'argomento precedente Vedere l'argomento seguente Tornare in alto 
Pagina 1 di 1

Permesso di questo forum:Non puoi rispondere agli argomenti in questo forum
Forum di sciamanesimo, antropologia e spirito critico :: SCIAMANESIMO :: I TEMI DELLO SCIAMANESIMO - THEMES OF SHAMANSIM :: Sciamanesimo e Mondo vegetale - Shamanism and Plants :: Plants P - Z-
Andare verso: