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 Mela - Apple

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AutoreMessaggio
Tila
Iniziato Sciamano
Iniziato Sciamano


Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Mela - Apple   Ven 30 Dic 2011 - 17:52


QUESTA SCHEDA CONTIENE INFORMAZIONI CHE POSSONO GENERARE SITUAZIONI DI PERICOLO E DANNI. I DATI PRESENTI HANNO SOLO UN FINE ILLUSTRATIVO E IN NESSUN CASO ESORTATIVO. PRIMA DI PROSEGUIRE SI PREGA DI LEGGERE ATTENTAMENTE LE AVVERTENZE.



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La mela appare in tantissime tradizioni religiose, ha una vasta simbologia. E' ricca di vitamine e oligoelementi, e poi chi non conosce il vecchio detto: chi mangia una mela al giorno toglie il medico di torno.

Grazie ai seguenti documenti di wikipedia ne conosceremo alcune curiosità. Io riporto soltanto qualche stralcio perciò per approfondimenti si consiglia la visione anche alle fonti originali.

Buona lettura!

FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mela

Mela
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

La mela è il frutto (più precisamente si tratta di un falso frutto a pomo) del melo.

Il melo ha origine in Asia centrale, l'evoluzione dei meli botanici risalirebbe al Neolitico. La specie è presente in Italia nominalmente con circa 2000 varietà, la definizione più precisa è difficile data la sovrapposizione storica delle denominazioni, e le specie estinte o irreperibili.

La mela è il frutto più destagionalizzato (lo si trova tutto l'anno), ciò richiede la presenza di impianti che provvedono alla conservazione e ne distribuiscano la disponibilità su di un ampio arco di tempo. La maturazione naturale varia da fine agosto a metà ottobre.

La disponibilità alla conservazione naturale dei frutti è drasticamente diversa nelle diverse varietà, ma dato gli elevati contenuti in acidi organici di norma la conservazione va da uno a quattro mesi.

Nella conservazione industriale sono importanti le condizioni fisiche in cui questa avviene. Dopo il raccolto, i frutti sono conservati a temperature da 1.0 a 3.5 °C con umidità relativa del 59-68%. Per conservazioni prolungate si ricorre a conservazioni in celle con atmosfera controllata (più ricca di CO2).

La mela ha un potere antiossidante (ORAC) con un indice di valore 4275[1] poiché contiene vitamine importanti come provitamina A, vitamine B1, B2, B6, E e C, niacina e acido folico, insieme a flavonoidi e carotenoidi, dall'effetto antiossidante.

Le mele sono destinate prevalentemente al consumo casalingo, per quello immediato ma anche in cucina per la preparazione di primi, secondi e diversi dolci. Inoltre si presta anche ad essere utilizzata per preparare in casa maschere di bellezza. La mela è da sempre alleata della bellezza: ha un bassissimo apporto calorico e, grazie alla pectina, aiuta ad eliminare dal corpo le sostanze tossiche. Anche per rinnovare, addolcire ed esfoliare la pelle la mela è perfetta. In Italia l'utilizzazione industriale riguarda la produzione e la rivendita di fette di mela per l'industria dolciaria per la quale sono idonee le mele delle varietà Golden Delicious, Rome Beauty, Costa's Trade, Imperatore e di Blanche Neve.

Altre destinazioni per le mele in industria sono: produzione di succhi, sidro, olio di semi di mela, (molto utilizzato nei paesi del nord Europa ed ottenuto come sottoprodotto dalla produzione del succo e del sidro), creme[1], fette di mela essiccate, produzione di alcol da distillazione da fermentati.

Gli obiettivi del miglioramento genetico riguardano l'ottenimento di piante resistenti agli insetti, in particolare ai rodilegno, difficilmente contrastabili, al colpo di fuoco batterico, alla ticchiolatura, oidio e afidi. Si punta anche all'ottenimento, per le varietà commerciali più note, di cloni autocompatibili.


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cameo_apple.jpg

FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mela_%28immaginario%29

Mela (immaginario)
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

La mela è un falso frutto che, per le sue caratteristiche, ha colpito e stimolato l'immaginario umano, entrando nel folklore e nella mitologia di vari popoli. È spesso legato al tema del peccato originale, ma anche delle gioie ultraterrene, del dominio sul mondo, assumendo talvolta anche una valenza erotica. Tra le simbologie più note, si ricordano la mela mangiata da Adamo ed Eva (sebbene l'identificazione del frutto sia controversa), il "pomo della discordia" che avrebbe dato origine alla guerra di Troia dopo il giudizio di Paride, i "pomi delle Esperidi" custodite da un drago in un giardino ai confini del mondo, le mele mistiche che danno il nome ad Avalon ("Isola delle Mele"), la mela avvelenata offerta dalla matrigna a Biancaneve e quella posta da Guglielmo Tell sulla testa del proprio figlio in base alla leggenda. La mela è anche simbolo di Desperate Housewives.

La mela tra amore e seduzione

Nell'antica Grecia, lanciare una mela equivaleva a una dichiarazione d'amore o era un chiaro invito per un convegno amoroso. Testimonianze di tale uso si trovano nelle Nuvole di Aristofane e nei Dialoghi delle cortigiane di Luciano. Nel primo caso si consiglia ai giovani di non frequentare i bordelli perché "mentre, a bocca aperta, guardano una qualche bella prostituta, lei potrebbe coinvolgerli gettando loro una mela"; nel secondo, invece, una cortigiana si lamenta perché il suo amante "getta la mela ad altre" piuttosto che pensare a lei.
Un esempio è anche nel mito di Aconzio e Cidippe, di epoca ellenistica, raccontato negli Aitia di Callimaco e poi ripreso da Ovidio nelle Heroides. Il giovane Aconzio, non sapendo come conquistare la bella Cidippe, di cui si è innamorato, fa in modo che rotoli nelle sue vicinanze una mela su cui lui ha inciso la frase "Giuro per il santuario di Artemide che sposerò Aconzio". Quando la ragazza raccoglie la mela e legge ad alta voce, il suo diviene un vero e proprio giuramento e, nonostante sia promessa a un altro uomo, dopo varie peripezie suo padre non può fare altro che concederne la mano al giovane.

Per tale usanza, di cui i precedenti sono gli esempi più noti, il pomo della discordia (ovvero la mela d'oro lanciata da Eris durante il banchetto nuziale di Peleo e Teti) viene scambiato per un dono destinato "alla più bella". In realtà, nelle intenzioni della dea, non si tratta di un oggetto di seduzione bensì di uno strumento della sua vendetta per non essere stata invitata - lei sola - al matrimonio, e il successivo giudizio di Paride sarà poi all'origine della guerra di Troia a causa del rapimento (o fuga) di Elena.

In generale, nell'antichità, la mela era simbolo di fertilità e quella rossa, nello specifico, dell'amore.[1][2][3]

La mela come premio dell'immortalità

Nell'antica ballata inglese Thomays the Rymour (Thomas the Rhymer, cioè Thomas il rimatore) la regina delle fate avverte il protagonista di non mangiare alcuna mela o pera che cresca nel suo giardino, perché mangiare il cibo dei morti gli impedirebbe di tornare nel mondo dei vivi.[4]


Il malum e il peccato originale

È attestata la rappresentazione di Gesù bambino nell'atto di tenere una mela nella mano sinistra, ovvero - simbolicamente - di prendere su di sé il peso del peccato originale salvando l'uomo. Un esempio è nella Madonna del roseto del Francia e nella Madonna dell'hortus conclusus con rose, fiordalisi, margherite, fiori di fragole ed erbe aromatiche di Martin Schongauer.

Il mondo in una mela

Nel libretto de Il pomo d'oro scritto nel 1667 da Francesco Sbarra, la "mela della Discordia", inizialmente assegnata da Paride a Venere come nel mito classico, viene infine donata da Giove a Margherita Teresa di Spagna (l'opera stessa celebra il matrimonio dell'imperatrice con Leopoldo I). In tal modo, non solo il falso frutto diviene una "mela della Concordia", ma anche simbolo stesso dell'Impero (Reichsapfel) in nome di una nuova pax romana.[5]


FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mela_d%27oro

Mela d'oro
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

La mela d'oro è un elemento che appare in alcuni miti e leggende, compare anche nei racconti fantastici della letteratura nordica. Generalmente un eroe (come Eracle o Făt-Frumos) deve recuperare la mela d'oro da un personaggio negativo come un drago o un altro mostro.

FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pomo_della_discordia

Pomo della discordia
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Il pomo della discordia o mela della discordia è, secondo il mito, la mela lanciata da Eris, dea della discordia, sul tavolo dove si stava svolgendo il banchetto in onore del matrimonio di Peleo e Teti. La dea, per vendicarsi del mancato invito alla festa, incise sul pomo la frase "Alla più bella", causando così una lite furibonda fra Era, regina degli dei, Afrodite, dea della bellezza, e Atena, figlia di Zeus.


FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giardino_delle_Esperidi

Giardino delle Esperidi
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Il Giardino delle Esperidi è un luogo leggendario della mitologia greca.

Nel Giardino cresceva un albero di pomi d'oro. Esso era custodito dal drago Ladone e dalle tre esperidi (Egle, Erizia ed Esperaretusa), figlie del titano Atlante.

Nella sua undicesima fatica, Eracle si offrì di reggere il cielo al posto di Atlante purché egli gli portasse i frutti. Successivamente Atlante tornò da Eracle, ma ora che aveva apprezzato la libertà dal dovere di sostenere il cielo, disse ad Eracle che non avrebbe più voluto riprenderlo. Ercole, essendo stato giocato, decise di usare l'astuzia: disse che, se avesse dovuto reggere il cielo per mille anni (come aveva fatto il titano), si sarebbe dovuto sistemare meglio il carico sulle spalle e chiese quindi ad Atlante di reggergli il fardello per un momento. Egli ingenuamente accettò (lasciando a terra le mele rubate) e cadendo nel tranello di Ercole il quale legò il gigante e, una volta prese le mele, fulmineo corse a consegnarle a Euristeo.



FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple

Apple
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The apple is the pomaceous fruit of the apple tree, species Malus domestica in the rose family (Rosaceae). It is one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits, and the most widely known of the many members of genus Malus that are used by humans. Apples grow on small, deciduous trees that blossom in the spring and produce fruit in the fall. The tree originated in Western Asia, where its wild ancestor, Malus sieversii, is still found today. Apples have been grown for thousands of years in Asia and Europe, and were brought to North America by European colonists. Apples have been present in the mythology and religions of many cultures, including Norse, Greek and Christian traditions. In 2010, the fruit's genome was decoded, leading to new understandings of disease control and selective breeding in apple production.

There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples, resulting in a range of desired characteristics. Different cultivars are bred for various tastes and uses, including in cooking, fresh eating and cider production. Domestic apples are generally propagated by grafting, although wild apples grow readily from seed. Trees are prone to a number of fungal, bacterial and pest problems, which can be controlled by a number of organic and non-organic means.

At least 55 million tonnes of apples were grown worldwide in 2005, with a value of about $10 billion. China produced about 35% of this total. The United States is the second-leading producer, with more than 7.5% of world production. Iran is third, followed by Turkey, Russia, Italy and India. Apples are often eaten raw, but can also be found in many foods (especially desserts) and drinks. Many beneficial health effects have been found from eating apples; however, the seeds are slightly poisonous and two forms of allergies are seen to various proteins found in the fruit.



FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Red_Apple.jpg


Botanical information

The apple forms a tree that is small and deciduous, reaching 3 to 12 metres (9.8 to 39 ft) tall, with a broad, often densely twiggy crown.[2] The leaves are alternately arranged simple ovals 5 to 12 cm long and 3–6 centimetres (1.2–2.4 in) broad on a 2 to 5 centimetres (0.79 to 2.0 in) petiole with an acute tip, serrated margin and a slightly downy underside. Blossoms are produced in spring simultaneously with the budding of the leaves. The flowers are white with a pink tinge that gradually fades, five petaled, and 2.5 to 3.5 centimetres (0.98 to 1.4 in) in diameter. The fruit matures in autumn, and is typically 5 to 9 centimetres (2.0 to 3.5 in) in diameter. The center of the fruit contains five carpels arranged in a five-point star, each carpel containing one to three seeds, called pips.[2]

History

The center of diversity of the genus Malus is in eastern Turkey. The apple tree was perhaps the earliest tree to be cultivated,[8] and its fruits have been improved through selection over thousands of years. Alexander the Great is credited with finding dwarfed apples in Kazakhstan in Asia in 328 BCE;[2] those he brought back to Macedonia might have been the progenitors of dwarfing root stocks. Winter apples, picked in late autumn and stored just above freezing, have been an important food in Asia and Europe for millennia, as well as in Argentina and in the United States since the arrival of Europeans.[8] Apples were brought to North America with colonists in the 17th century,[2] and the first apple orchard on the North American continent was said to be near Boston in 1625. In the 20th century, irrigation projects in Washington state began and allowed the development of the multibillion dollar fruit industry, of which the apple is the leading species.[2]

Until the 20th century, farmers stored apples in frostproof cellars during the winter for their own use or for sale. Improved transportation of fresh apples by train and road replaced the necessity for storage.[9][10] In the 21st century, long-term storage again came into popularity, as "controlled atmosphere" facilities were used to keep apples fresh year-round. Controlled atmosphere facilities use high humidity and low oxygen and carbon dioxide levels to maintain fruit freshness.[11]

Cultural aspects

Germanic paganism

In Norse mythology, the goddess Iðunn is portrayed in the Prose Edda (written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson) as providing apples to the gods that give them eternal youthfulness. English scholar H. R. Ellis Davidson links apples to religious practices in Germanic paganism, from which Norse paganism developed. She points out that buckets of apples were found in the Oseberg ship burial site in Norway, and that fruit and nuts (Iðunn having been described as being transformed into a nut in Skáldskaparmál) have been found in the early graves of the Germanic peoples in England and elsewhere on the continent of Europe, which may have had a symbolic meaning, and that nuts are still a recognized symbol of fertility in southwest England.[12]

Davidson notes a connection between apples and the Vanir, a tribe of gods associated with fertility in Norse mythology, citing an instance of eleven "golden apples" being given to woo the beautiful Gerðr by Skírnir, who was acting as messenger for the major Vanir god Freyr in stanzas 19 and 20 of Skírnismál. Davidson also notes a further connection between fertility and apples in Norse mythology in chapter 2 of the Völsunga saga when the major goddess Frigg sends King Rerir an apple after he prays to Odin for a child, Frigg's messenger (in the guise of a crow) drops the apple in his lap as he sits atop a mound.[13] Rerir's wife's consumption of the apple results in a six-year pregnancy and the Caesarean section birth of their son - the hero Völsung.[14]

Further, Davidson points out the "strange" phrase "Apples of Hel" used in an 11th century poem by the skald Thorbiorn Brúnarson. She states this may imply that the apple was thought of by the skald as the food of the dead. Further, Davidson notes that the potentially Germanic goddess Nehalennia is sometimes depicted with apples and that parallels exist in early Irish stories. Davidson asserts that while cultivation of the apple in Northern Europe extends back to at least the time of the Roman Empire and came to Europe from the Near East, the native varieties of apple trees growing in Northern Europe are small and bitter. Davidson concludes that in the figure of Iðunn "we must have a dim reflection of an old symbol: that of the guardian goddess of the life-giving fruit of the other world."[12]

Greek mythology

Apples appear in many religious traditions, often as a mystical or forbidden fruit. One of the problems identifying apples in religion, mythology and folktales is that the word "apple" was used as a generic term for all (foreign) fruit, other than berries, but including nuts, as late as the 17th century.[15] For instance, in Greek mythology, the Greek hero Heracles, as a part of his Twelve Labours, was required to travel to the Garden of the Hesperides and pick the golden apples off the Tree of Life growing at its center.[16][17][18]

The Greek goddess of discord, Eris, became disgruntled after she was excluded from the wedding of Peleus and Thetis.[19] In retaliation, she tossed a golden apple inscribed Καλλίστη (Kalliste, sometimes transliterated Kallisti, 'For the most beautiful one'), into the wedding party. Three goddesses claimed the apple: Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite. Paris of Troy was appointed to select the recipient. After being bribed by both Hera and Athena, Aphrodite tempted him with the most beautiful woman in the world, Helen of Sparta. He awarded the apple to Aphrodite, thus indirectly causing the Trojan War.

The apple was thus considered, in ancient Greece, to be sacred to Aphrodite, and to throw an apple at someone was to symbolically declare one's love; and similarly, to catch it was to symbolically show one's acceptance of that love.[20] An epigram claiming authorship by Plato states:

I throw the apple at you, and if you are willing to love me, take it and share your girlhood with me; but if your thoughts are what I pray they are not, even then take it, and consider how short-lived is beauty.
—Plato, Epigram VII[21]



Atalanta, also of Greek mythology, raced all her suitors in an attempt to avoid marriage. She outran all but Hippomenes (a.k.a. Melanion, a name possibly derived from melon the Greek word for both "apple" and fruit in general),[17] who defeated her by cunning, not speed. Hippomenes knew that he could not win in a fair race, so he used three golden apples (gifts of Aphrodite, the goddess of love) to distract Atalanta. It took all three apples and all of his speed, but Hippomenes was finally successful, winning the race and Atalanta's hand.[16]

The Apple in the Garden of Eden

Though the forbidden fruit in the Book of Genesis is not identified, popular Christian tradition has held that it was an apple that Eve coaxed Adam to share with her.[22] This may have been the result of Renaissance painters adding elements of Greek mythology into biblical scenes (alternative interpretations also based on Greek mythology occasionally replace the apple with a pomegranate). In this case the unnamed fruit of Eden became an apple under the influence of story of the golden apples in the Garden of Hesperides. As a result, in the story of Adam and Eve, the apple became a symbol for knowledge, immortality, temptation, the fall of man into sin, and sin itself. In Latin, the words for "apple" and for "evil" are similar (mālum "an apple", mălum "an evil, a misfortune"). This may also have influenced the apple becoming interpreted as the biblical "forbidden fruit". The larynx in the human throat has been called Adam's apple because of a notion that it was caused by the forbidden fruit sticking in the throat of Adam.[22] The apple as symbol of sexual seduction has been used to imply sexuality between men, possibly in an ironic vein.[22]

Human consumption

Apples are often eaten raw; except for the seeds, which are slightly poisonous (see below), the whole fruit including the skin is suitable for human consumption. Varieties bred for this purpose are termed dessert or table apples.

Apples can be canned or juiced. They are milled to produce apple cider (non-alcoholic, sweet cider) and filtered for apple juice. The juice can be fermented to make cider (alcoholic, hard cider), ciderkin, and vinegar. Through distillation, various alcoholic beverages can be produced, such as applejack, Calvados,[46] and apfelwein. Pectin and apple seed oil may also be produced.

Apples are an important ingredient in many desserts, such as apple pie, apple crumble, apple crisp and apple cake. They are often eaten baked or stewed, and they can also be dried and eaten or reconstituted (soaked in water, alcohol or some other liquid) for later use. Puréed apples are generally known as apple sauce. Apples are also made into apple butter and apple jelly. They are also used (cooked) in meat dishes.

In the UK, a toffee apple is a traditional confection made by coating an apple in hot toffee and allowing it to cool. Similar treats in the US are candy apples (coated in a hard shell of crystallised sugar syrup), and caramel apples, coated with cooled caramel.
Apples are eaten with honey at the Jewish New Year of Rosh Hashanah to symbolize a sweet new year.[46]
Farms with apple orchards may open them to the public, so consumers may themselves pick the apples they will buy.[46]

Sliced apples turn brown with exposure to air due to the conversion of natural phenolic substances into melanin upon exposure to oxygen.[47] Different cultivars vary in their propensity to brown after slicing.[48] Sliced fruit can be treated with acidulated water to prevent this effect.[47]

Organic apples are commonly produced in the United States.[49] Organic production is difficult in Europe, though a few orchards have done so with commercial success,[49] using disease-resistant cultivars and the very best cultural controls. The latest tool in the organic repertoire is a spray of a light coating of kaolin clay, which forms a physical barrier to some pests, and also helps prevent apple sun scald.[32][49]

Apple allergy

One form of apple allergy, often found in northern Europe, is called birch-apple syndrome, and is found in people who are also allergic to birch pollen. The allergy is caused by a protein in apples that is similar to birch pollen, and people affected by this protein can also become allergic to other fruits, nuts and vegetables. Reactions, which are called oral allergy syndrome (OAS), generally involve itching and inflammation of the mouth and throat,[50] but in rare cases can also include life-threatening anaphylaxis.[51] This reaction only occurs when raw fruit is consumed - the allergen is neutralized in the cooking process. The variety of apple, maturity and storage conditions can change the amount of allergen present in individual fruits. Long storage times can increase the amount of proteins that cause birch-apple syndrome.[50]

In other areas, such as the Mediterranean, people have adverse reactions to apples because of their similarity to peaches, including a close relationship between the allergens of the two fruits. This form of apple allergy also includes OAS, but often has more severe symptoms, such as vomiting, abdominal pain and urticaria, and can be life-threatening. Individuals with this form of allergy can also develop reactions to other fruits and nuts. Cooking does not break down the protein causing this particular reaction, so affected individuals cannot eat either raw or cooked apples. Freshly harvested, over-ripe fruits tend to have the highest levels of the protein that causes this reaction.[50]

Breeding efforts have yet to produce a hypoallergenic fruit for either of the two types of apple allergy.[50]

Nutrition

The proverb "An apple a day keeps the doctor away.", addressing the health effects of the fruit, dates from 19th century Wales.[56] Research suggests that apples may reduce the risk of colon cancer, prostate cancer and lung cancer.[52] Compared to many other fruits and vegetables, apples contain relatively low amounts of vitamin C, but are a rich source of other antioxidant compounds.[47] The fiber content, while less than in most other fruits, helps regulate bowel movements and may thus reduce the risk of colon cancer. They may also help with heart disease,[57] weight loss,[57] and controlling cholesterol. The fiber contained in apples reduces cholesterol by preventing reabsorption, and (like most fruits and vegetables) they are bulky for their caloric content.[54][57] However, apple seeds are mildly poisonous, containing a small amount of amygdalin, a cyanogenic glycoside. It usually is not enough to be dangerous to humans, but can deter birds.[58]

There is evidence from laboratory experiments that apples possess phenolic compounds which may be cancer-protective and demonstrate antioxidant activity.[59] The predominant phenolic phytochemicals in apples are quercetin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2.[60]

Apple juice concentrate has been found to increase the production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in mice, providing a potential mechanism for the "prevention of the decline in cognitive performance that accompanies dietary and genetic deficiencies and aging." Other studies have shown an "alleviation of oxidative damage and cognitive decline" in mice after the administration of apple juice.[55] Researchers at the Chinese University of Hong Kong discovered that fruit flies who were fed an apple extract lived 10% longer than other flies who were fed a normal diet.[61]



FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Apple_tree_blossom.JPG


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_%28symbolism%29

Apple (symbolism)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Apples appear in many religious traditions, often as a mystical or forbidden fruit. One of the problems identifying apples in religion, mythology and folktales is that as late as the 17th century, the word "apple" was used as a generic term for all (foreign) fruit other than berries, but including nuts.[1] This term may even have extended to plant galls, as they were thought to be of plant origin (see oak apple). For instance, when tomatoes were introduced into Europe, they were called "love apples". In one Old English work, cucumbers are called eorþæppla (lit. "earth-apples'), just as in French, Dutch, Hebrew, Persian and Swiss German, the words for potatoes mean "earth-apples" in English. In some languages, oranges are called "golden apples" or "Chinese apples". Datura is called 'thorn-apple".

Ethnobotanical and ethnomycological scholars such as R. Gordon Wasson, Carl Ruck and Clark Heinrich write that the mythological apple is a symbolic substitution for the entheogenic Amanita muscaria (or fly agaric) mushroom. Its association with knowledge is an allusion to the revelatory states described by some shamans and users of psychedelic mushrooms.[3][4][5]

At times artists would co-opt the apple, as well as other religious symbology, whether for ironic effect or as a stock element of symbolic vocabulary. Thus, secular art as well made use of the apple as symbol of love and sexuality. It is often an attribute associated with Venus who is shown holding it.

Mythology and religion


Adam and Eve: a classic depiction of the biblical tale showcasing the apple as a symbol of sin. Albrecht Dürer, 1507; oil on panel.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Durer_Adam_and_Eve.jpg

Though the forbidden fruit in the Book of Genesis is not identified, popular Christian tradition holds that a serpent coaxed Adam and Eve to eat an apple from the forbidden tree in the Eden. This may have been the result of Renaissance painters adding elements of Greek mythology into biblical scenes. In this case, the unnamed fruit of Eden became an apple under the influence of story of the golden apples in the Garden of Hesperides.
As a result, in the story of Adam and Eve, the apple became a symbol for knowledge, immortality, temptation, the fall of man into sin, and sin itself.

The Ancient Greek word "μήλον" (mēlon), now a loanword in English as melon or water melon did not mean, in Homer's time, apple, the pomaceous fruit, but sheep or goat.[6] In Latin, the words for 'apple' ("mālum") and for 'evil' ("malum") are nearly identical. This may also have influenced the apple's becoming interpreted as the biblical 'forbidden fruit' in the commonly used Latin translation called "Vulgate". The larynx in the human throat has been called Adam's apple because of the folk tale that the bulge was caused by the forbidden fruit sticking in the throat of Adam. The apple as symbol of sexual seduction has sometimes been used to imply sexuality between men, possibly in an ironic vein. (See illustration above)

The notion of the apple as a symbol of sin is reflected in artistic renderings of the fall from Eden. When held in Adam's hand, the apple symbolises sin. But, when Christ is portrayed holding an apple, he represents the Second Adam who brings life. This difference reflects the evolution of the symbol in Christianity. In the Old Testament, the apple was significant of the fall of man; in the New Testament, it is an emblem of the redemption from that fall. The apple is represented in pictures of the Madonna and Infant Jesus as another sign of that redemption.

In some versions (such as Young's Literal Translation) of the Bible, the Hebrew word for mandrakes dudaim (Genesis 30:14) is translated as "love apples" (not to be confused with the New World tomatoes). There are several instances in the Old Testament where the apple is used in a more favourable light. The phrase 'the apple of your eye' comes from verses in Deuteronomy 32:10, Psalm 17:8 Proverbs 7:2, and Zechariah 2:8, implying an object or person who is greatly valued. In Proverbs 25:11, the verse states, "a word fitly spoken is like apples of gold in settings of silver". In the love songs of the Song of Solomon, the apple is used in a sensual context. In these latter instances, the apple is used as a symbol for beauty. The apple appears again in Joel 1:12 in a verse with a sense of profound loss when the apple tree withers.

Greek mythology

Apple of Discord

The Greek hero Heracles, as a part of his Twelve Labours, was required to travel to the Garden of the Hesperides and pick the golden apples off the Tree of Life growing at its center.

The Greek goddess of discord, Eris, became disgruntled after she was excluded from the wedding of Peleus and Thetis. In retaliation, she tossed a golden apple inscribed Kallisti ('For the most beautiful one'), into the wedding party. Three goddesses claimed the apple: Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite. Paris of Troy was appointed to select the recipient. After being bribed by both Hera and Athena, Aphrodite tempted him with the most beautiful woman in the world, Helen of Sparta. He awarded the apple to Aphrodite, thus indirectly causing the Trojan War.

Atalanta, also of Greek mythology, raced all her suitors in an attempt to avoid marriage. She outran all but Hippomenes (a.k.a. Melanion, a name possibly derived from melon the Greek word for both "apple" and fruit in general), who defeated her by cunning, not speed. Hippomenes knew that he could not win in a fair race, so he used three golden apples (gifts of Aphrodite, the goddess of love) to distract Atalanta. It took all three apples and all of his speed, but Hippomenes was finally successful, winning the race and Atalanta's hand.

Norse

In Norse mythology, the goddess Iðunn was the appointed keeper of golden apples that kept the Æsir young (or immortal) forever. Iðunn was abducted by Þjazi the giant, who used Loki to lure Iðunn and her apples out of Ásgarðr. The Æsir began to age without Iðunn's apples, so they coerced Loki into rescuing her. After borrowing Freyja's falcon skin, Loki liberated Iðunn from Þjazi by transforming her into a nut for the flight back. Þjazi gave chase in the form of an eagle, whereupon reaching Ásgarðr he was set aflame by a bonfire lit by the Æsir. With the return of Iðunn's apples, the Æsir regained their lost youth. Apple trees were the symbol of rebirth and beauty; the apple tree was sacred in Norse mythology.

Celtic

Celtic mythology includes a story about Conle who receives an apple which feeds him for a year but also gives him an irresistible desire for fairyland.[citation needed]

Legends, folklore, and traditions

Apples feature frequently in fairy tales. A well-known example is "Snow White", in which a poisonous apple puts Snow White to sleep. In Le piacevoli notti (The Facetious Nights) of Giovanni Francesco Straparola, apples appear in four stories.[7]
A boatbuilder's superstition holds that it is unlucky to build a boat out of wood from an apple tree because this wood was previously used to manufacture coffins.[8]
Since 1990, Apple Day has been held across the UK and beyond, on October 21. This is a festival created by charity Common Ground to support localism: folksongs, biodiversity, buried orchards, children's games.
Swiss folklore holds that William Tell shot an apple from his son's head with his crossbow.
Irish folklore claims that if an apple is peeled into one continuous ribbon and thrown behind a woman's shoulder, it will land in the shape of the future husband's initials.
Danish folklore says that apples wither around adulterers.[citation needed]
A popular folk art involves a process to turn apples into wrinkly representations of human heads, usually be placed on dolls.[9] In 1975, Vincent Price promoted a horror-themed kit that used a similar process to create faux shrunken heads, Shrunken Head Apple Sculpture, by Whiting Crafts.
According to popular legend, upon witnessing an apple fall from its tree, Isaac Newton was inspired to conclude that a similar 'universal gravitation' attracted the moon toward the Earth. (This legend is discussed in more detail in the article on Isaac Newton).
In Arthurian legend, the mythical isle of Avalon's name is believed to mean 'isle of apples'.
In some places, apple bobbing is a traditional Halloween activity.[10]
In the 19th and early 20th century, and 21st century United States, Denmark and Sweden, a fresh, polished apple was a traditional children's gift for a teacher.
The Apple Wassail is a traditional form of wassailing practiced in cider orchards of South West England during the winter. The ceremony is said to 'bless' the apple trees to produce a good crop in the forthcoming season.
New York City is often called "The Big Apple." The term "The Big Apple" was coined by touring jazz musicians and horse racers of the 1920s who used the slang expression "apple" for any town or city. Therefore, to play New York City is to play the big time - The Big Apple.
"Comparing apples and oranges" means to examine the similarities of things that are completely different; in German the corresponding expression is "comparing apples with pears".
"An apple a day keeps the doctor away" is a popular saying, the apple obviously symbolizing health, but also the advantages of eating fresh fruit.
"Apples and Pears", Cockney rhyming slang for stairs
Johnny Appleseed is said to have wandered the early United States planting apple trees.
"One bad apple spoils the whole bunch" is a phrase used in the United States to justify group punishment.[citation needed]
The apple is symbolic for the Trinity Mathematical Society.
The design concept for the Design and Arts Arcadia of Myungseung, located in Chuncheon, Korea, is based on an apple with the top-third and the bottom-third sliced off while having the skin peeled around the circumference.'
In Kazakhstan, the ex-capital city's name "Almaty" derives from the Kazakh word for 'apple' (алма), and thus is often translated as "full of apples;" alma is also 'apple' in other Turkic languages, as well as in Hungarian.


References

^ "apple." Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper, Historian. 25 May. 2011. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/apple
^ Cam.ac.uk
^ Wasson, R. Gordon (1968). Soma: Divine Mushroom of Immortality. ISBN 0-15-683800-1.
^ Ruck, Carl; Blaise Daniel Staples, Clark Heinrich (2001). The Apples of Apollo, Pagan and Christian Mysteries of the Eucharist. Durham: Carolina Academic Press. pp. 64–70. ISBN 0-89089-924-X.
^ Heinrich, Clark (2002). Magic Mushrooms in Religion and Alchemy. Rochester: Park Street Press. pp. 64–70. ISBN 0-89281-997-9.
^ Entry μῆλον at Liddell & Scott.
^ Surlalunefairytales.com
^ Eyers, Jonathan (2011). Don't Shoot the Albatross!: Nautical Myths and Superstitions. A&C Black, London, UK. ISBN 978-1-4081-3131-2.
^ Apple dolls, how to make apple dolls, purchase dolls, witches- instructions by Pamela Matson
^ History and customs of Halloween


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