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 Verbena - Verbena officinalis

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AutoreMessaggio
Tila
Iniziato Sciamano
Iniziato Sciamano


Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Verbena - Verbena officinalis   Gio 19 Gen 2012 - 10:59

QUESTA SCHEDA CONTIENE INFORMAZIONI CHE POSSONO GENERARE SITUAZIONI DI PERICOLO E DANNI. I DATI PRESENTI HANNO SOLO UN FINE ILLUSTRATIVO E IN NESSUN CASO ESORTATIVO. PRIMA DI PROSEGUIRE SI PREGA DI LEGGERE ATTENTAMENTE LE AVVERTENZE.


AVVERTENZE:

Tutte le informazioni, voci e documenti riportati su Shamanism&Co sono da considerare ad ESCLUSIVO SCOPO DIVULGATIVO!
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Shamanism&Co non può esser ritenuto responsabile dei risultati o delle conseguenze di un qualsiasi utilizzo o tentativo di utilizzo di una qualsiasi delle informazioni pubblicate.


Buondì a tutti,

oggi conosceremo insieme alcune caratteristiche e proprietà di questa pianta, viene usata ad esempio come antidolorifico, come digestivo e depurativo.

Nella seconda parte di questa scheda vedremo invece alcune curiosità, i Greci le attribuivano soprannomi altisonanti tipo "lacrime di Iside" o "sangue di Mercurio". Secondo alcune tradizioni sembra essere velenosa per ii vampiri. Per i Romani era sacra a Giove.

Buona lettura!


FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verbena_%28genere%29

Verbena (genere)
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Il genere Verbena (verbena anche come nome volgare) comprende piante erbacee annue o perenni della famiglia delle Verbenaceae.


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Illustration_Verbena_officinalis0.jpg

Distribuzione

La maggior parte delle specie del genere sono spontanee nel Nuovo Mondo, dal Canada al Cile. Poche specie sono spontanee nel Vecchio Mondo, più che altro in Europa.

Descrizione

Il fusto è quadrangolare. Le foglie sono per lo più opposte, dentate, alterne e con nervature ben visibili. I fiori hanno un calice a quattro o cinque sepali, parzialmente fusi. La corolla (gamopetala) ha la forma di un tubo allungato con cinque petali non perfettamente uguali. L'androceo è formato da 4 stami inseriti sul tubo corollino. Si presentano dalla primavera all'autunno inoltrato. Il frutto è una capsula con quattro semi.


Specie

Fanno parte del genere circa 125 specie:

Verbena alata Cham.
Verbena andalgalensis Moldenke
Verbena atacamensis Reiche
Verbena australis Moldenke
Verbena balansae Briq.
Verbena bangiana Moldenke
Verbena berterii (Meisn.) Schauer
Verbena bonariensis L. -
Verbena bracteata Lag. & Rodr.
Verbena brasiliensis Vell.
Verbena californica Moldenke
Verbena campestris Moldenke
Verbena canescens Kunth
Verbena caniuensis Moldenke
Verbena carnea Medik.
Verbena carolina L.
Verbena carollata Briq.
Verbena catamarcensis Moldenke
Verbena catharinae Moldenke
Verbena chacensis Moldenke
Verbena clavata Ruiz & Pav.
Verbena cloverae Moldenke
Verbena cochabambensis Moldenke
Verbena concepcionis Moldenke
Verbena corymbosa Ruiz & Pav.
Verbena cumingii Moldenke
Verbena cuneifolia Ruiz & Pav.
Verbena delicatula Mart. & Zucc.
Verbena demissa Moldenke
Verbena dusenii Moldenke
Verbena ehrenbergiana Schauer
Verbena ephedroides Cham.
Verbena fasciculata Benth.
Verbena ferreyrae Moldenke
Verbena filicaulis Schauer
Verbena gentryi Moldenke
Verbena glabrata Kunth
Verbena glutinosa Kuntze
Verbena goyazensis Moldenke
Verbena gracilescens (Cham.) Herter
Verbena gracilis Desf.
Verbena grisea B.L.Rob. & Greenm.
Verbena gynobasis Wedd.
Verbena hastata L.
Verbena hatschbachi Moldenke
Verbena hayekii Moldenke
Verbena hintonii Moldenke
Verbena hirta Spreng.
Verbena hispida Ruiz & Pav.
Verbena imbricata Wooton & Standl.
Verbena inamoena Briq.
Verbena intermedia Gillies & Hook.
Verbena johnstonii (Moldenke) G.L.Nesom
Verbena jordanensis Moldenke
Verbena kuhlmannii Moldenke
Verbena landbeckii Phil.
Verbena lasiostachys Link
Verbena lindbergi Moldenke
Verbena lindmanii Briq.
Verbena litoralis Kunth
Verbena lobata Vell.
Verbena longifolia M.Martens & Galeotti
Verbena lucanensis Moldenke
Verbena macdougalii A.Heller
Verbena macrodonta L.M.Perry
Verbena malmii Moldenke
Verbena menthifolia Benth.
Verbena minutiflora Briq.
Verbena montevidensis Spreng.
Verbena monticola Moldenke
Verbena multiglandulosa Moldenke
Verbena neomexicana (A.Gray) Small
Verbena nivea Moldenke
Verbena occulta Moldenke
Verbena officinalis L.
Verbena orcuttiana L.M.Perry
Verbena ovata Cham.
Verbena paraguariensis Moldenke
Verbena paranensis Moldenke
Verbena parvula Hayek
Verbena paulensis Moldenke
Verbena paulsenii Phil.
Verbena pedicellata Moldenke
Verbena perennis Wooton
Verbena pinetorum Moldenke
Verbena plicata Greene
Verbena polycephala Turcz.
Verbena porrigens Phil.
Verbena pseudojuncea Gay
Verbena ramboi Moldenke
Verbena ramulosa Phil.
Verbena recta Kunth
Verbena rectiloba Moldenke
Verbena regnelliana Moldenke
Verbena reineckii Moldenke
Verbena reitzii Moldenke
Verbena ribifolia Walp.
Verbena rigida Spreng.
Verbena riparia Raf.exSmall & A.Heller
Verbena robusta Greene
Verbena runyonii Moldenke
Verbena russellii Moldenke
Verbena scabra Vahl
Verbena scabrella Sessé & Moc.
Verbena sedula Moldenke
Verbena simplex Lehm.
Verbena spartioides Turcz.
Verbena sphaerocarpa L.M.Perry
Verbena storeoclada Briq.
Verbena stricta Vent.
Verbena strigosa Cham.
Verbena subuligera Greene
Verbena supina L.
Verbena swiftiana Moldenke
Verbena tecticaulis Tronc.
Verbena tessmannii Moldenke
Verbena thymoides Cham.
Verbena tomophylla Briq.
Verbena townsendii Svenson
Verbena trachea Phil.
Verbena trifida Kunth
Verbena triternata Phil.
Verbena urticifolia L.
Verbena valerianoides Kunth
Verbena variabilis Moldenke
Verbena villifolia Hayek
Verbena weberbaueri Hayek
Verbena xutha Lehm.

Etimologia

Si ritiene che il nome di questa pianta derivi dal latino verbenae, che indicava genericamente rametti e sterpi. Ma anche dal Celtico ferfaen, da fer (scacciare via) e faen (pietra), infatti la pianta era usata per curare problemi delle vie urinarie, in particolare i calcoli. Veniva usata dalle tribù indiane , e da maghi e stregoni per incantesimi e sacrifici agli Dei, per questo veniva chiamata anche erba sacra. La verbena era sacra ad Iside e agli antichi romani. La pianta è anche nota per le sue proprietà magiche e afrodisiache. Una leggenda narra che fu utilizzata sul Monte del Calvario per cicatrizzare le ferite di Gesù Crocefisso ed ancora oggi, nella liturgia della festività dedicata all'Assunzione di Maria, viene utilizzata per benedire le chiese.


Altre notizie

La pianta della Verbena è presente anche in un'opera del celebre Puccini, la Madama Butterfly, il cui libretto recita: Piccinina, Mogliettina; olezzo di "Verbena"

La pianta della verbena è considerata velenosa per i vampiri.

In Spagna, la Verbena è anche una festa di carattere popolare, presente in varie città o paesi.



FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verbena_officinalis

Verbena officinalis
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Verbena officinalis L. è un'erba perenne nativa dell'Europa appartenente alla famiglia delle Verbenaceae. Cresce fino a un metro di altezza, con un portamento eretto e preferisce suoli calcarei.

Coltivazione

La verbena è una pianta adatta alla coltivazione in vaso ed in balconi, preferisce luoghi con sole battente. Il terreno va tenuto umido ma non bagnato, va innaffiata regolarmente, specialmente nel periodo della fioritura quando la pianta richiede più acqua. In inverno la pianta va tenuta in luoghi chiusi, o riparati dal freddo, e molto luminosi. Teme la pioggia forte ed il gelo. La moltiplicazione avviene per talea (in estate) o semina in primavera. Necessita di un terreno ricco di humus e non argilloso, in quanto ha bisogno di terreno che non trattenga acqua, ha bisogno invece di terreno drenante ed umido, per evitare che le radici marciscano. Quindi annaffiare spesso, senza mai che il terreno diventi troppo bagnato, facendo il modo di non farlo mai asciugare. Concimare abbondantemente durante la fioritura, anche con concimi liquidi, ogni 15 giorni.

Proprietà ed usi

Avvertenza
Le informazioni qui riportate hanno solo un fine illustrativo: non costituiscono e non provengono né da prescrizione né da consiglio medico. Wikipedia non dà consigli medici: leggi le avvertenze.

La verbena è una pianta molto utilizzata in erboristeria in quanto ha molteplici proprietà medicinali: viene usata per curare i calcoli, è spasmolitica, drenante, antinfiammatoria, analgesica, diuretica, antidolorifica, tonica, vermifuga, febbrifuga, tranquillante, ecc. Non va usata in gravidanza. Viene usata tramite infusi, decotti, impacchi. Se ne consiglia l'uso esterno, perlomeno come infusi e decotti.L'uso tradizionale è consigliato da secoli come pianta tonica amara, stomachica digestiva,deostruente splenico-biliare.La dose consigliata tradizionalmente è di una tazza di tisana con un cucchiaio di erba 2-3-volte al di.(fonte: L. Pomini "Erboristeria italiana" ed: Vitalità ii edizione 1990) Questa pianta è stata utilizzata in erboristeria per trattare problemi nervosi e insonnia. È stata anche considerata un'erba di ispirazione quindi è stata a lungo considerata come una potente alleata di poeti e scrittori. Più di recente, gli indiani Pawnee l'hanno utilizzata per migliorare i loro sogni.[senza fonte]




FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Verbena_officinalis_002.JPG


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verbena

Verbena
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Verbena (play /vərˈbiːnə/),[2] verbenas or vervains, is a genus in the family Verbenaceae. It contains about 250 species of annual and perennial herbaceous or semi-woody flowering plants. The majority of the species are native to the New World from Canada south to southern Chile, but some are also native in the Old World, mainly in Europe. These include Common Vervain (V. officinalis) and V. supina.

The leaves are usually opposite, simple, and in many species hairy, often densely so. The flowers are small, with five petals, and borne in dense spikes. Typically some shade of blue, they may also be white, pink, or purple, especially in cultivars.

The genus can be divided into a diploid North American and a polyploid South American lineage, both with a base chromosome number of 7. The European species derived from the North American lineage. It seems that Verbena as well as the related mock vervains (Glandularia) evolved from the assemblage provisionally treated under the genus name Junellia; both other genera were usually included in the Verbenaceae until the 1990s.[3] Intergeneric chloroplast gene transfer by an undetermined mechanism – though probably not hybridization – has occurred at least twice from vervains to Glandularia, between the ancestors of the present-day South American lineages and once more recently, between V. orcuttiana or Swamp Verbena (V. hastata) and G. bipinnatifida. In addition, several species of Verbena are of natural hybrid origin; the well-known Garden Vervain has an entirely muddy history. The relationships of this close-knit group are therefore hard to resolve with standard methods of computational phylogenetics.[4]


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Verbena_bonariensis1.jpg

Ecology and human uses

Some species, hybrids and cultivars of vervain are used as ornamental plants. They are valued in butterfly gardening in suitable climates, attracting Lepidoptera such as the Hummingbird Hawk-moth (Macroglossum stellatarum), Chocolate Albatross (Appias lyncida), or the Pipevine Swallowtail (Battus philenor), and also hummingbirds, especially Common Vervain (V. officinalis), which is also grown as a honey plant.

For some vervain pathogens, see List of verbena diseases. Cultivated vervains are sometimes parasitized by Sweet potato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and spread this pest to other crops.

Vervain has longstanding use in herbalism and folk medicine, usually as a herbal tea. Nicholas Culpeper's 1652 The English Physitian discusses folk uses. Among other effects, it may act as a galactagogue and possibly sex steroid analogue. The plants are also sometimes used as abortifacient.

The essential oil of various species - mainly Common Vervain - is traded as Spanish Verbena oil. Considered inferior to oil of Lemon Verbena (Aloysia citrodora) in perfumery, it is of some commercial importance for herbalism and it seems to be a promising source of medical compounds. Verveine, the famous green liqueur from the region of Le Puy-en-Velay (France) is flavored with these vervains.

Cultivation

Verbena plants are drought-resistant, tolerating full to partial sun, and enjoy well-drained, average soils. Plants are usually grown from seed. Once the plants are established, they require little care and will spread out to cover the flower bed space allotted for them.[citation needed]

Vervains in human culture

Verbena has long been associated with divine and other supernatural forces. It was called "tears of Isis" in Ancient Egypt, and later on "Juno's tears". In Ancient Greece, it was dedicated to Eos Erigineia. In the early Christian era, folk legend stated that Common Vervain (V. officinalis) was used to staunch Jesus' wounds after his removal from the cross. It was consequently called "Holy Herb" or (e.g. in Wales) "Devil's bane".

Vervain flowers are engraved on cimaruta, Italian anti-stregheria charms. In the 1870 The History and Practice of Magic by "Paul Christian" (Jean Baptiste Pitois) it is employed in the preparation of a mandragora charm[citation needed].

While Common Vervain is not native to North America, it has been introduced there and for example the Pawnee have adopted it as an entheogen enhancer and in oneiromancy, much like Calea zacatechichi is used in Mexico.

The generic name is the Latin term for a plant sacred to the Ancient Romans.[5][6] Pliny the Elder describes verbena presented on Jupiter altars; it is not entirely clear if this referred to a Verbena rather than the general term for prime sacrificial herbs.[verification needed]

The common names of Common Vervain in many Central and Eastern European languages often associate it with iron. These include for example the Dutch IJzerhard ("iron-hardener"), Danish Læge-Jernurt ("medical ironwort"), German Echtes Eisenkraut ("true ironherb"), Slovak Železník lekársky ("medical ironherb"), and Hungarian vasfű ("iron grass").

In hanakotoba (花言葉, Japanese flower-language), vervains are called bijozakura (美女桜[Note 1]) and are a symbol of cooperativeness. In Western culture, they are the birthday flower of July 29.

An indeterminate vervain[verification needed] is among the plants on the eighth panel of the New World Tapestry ("Expedition to Cape Cod"), embroidered in 1602/03.

In the William Faulkner short story "An Odor of Verbena", vervain (referred to as verbena) is used symbolically and described as "the only scent that can be smelled above the scent of horses and courage", similar to the symbolic use of honeysuckle in "The Sound and the Fury".

Hazlitt's Faiths and Folklore (1905) quotes Aubrey's Miscellanies (1721), to wit:

"Vervain and Dill / Hinder witches from their will."[7][8]

In the series of young adult novels The Vampire Diaries, author L. J. Smith uses vervain to protect humans from vampires,[9] in an extension of vervain's fabled magic-suppression powers against witches. In The Struggle, Volume II, the vampire Stefan instructs the human Elena that vervain can "protect you against bewitchment, and it can keep your mind clear if someone is using Powers against you."[10] He tells her how it is prepared and used, "Once I've extracted the oil from the seeds, you can rub it into your skin, or add it to a bath. And you can make the dried leaves into a sachet and carry it with you, or put it under your pillow at night", but gives her an unprepared sprig for protection in the meantime.[11]

In 2010 Nobel Prize in Literature winner Mario Vargas Llosa's 1977 novel "Aunt Julia and the Scriptwriter," one of the major characters, Pedro Camacho, constantly drinks "verbena-and-mint tea" instead of coffee. The character, a writer of radio soap operas, claims that it "clears the synapses."[citation needed]


Notes

^ "Pretty-lady cherryblossom". The usual contemporary Japanese name of vervains is bābena (バーベナ), a transliteration of "verbena".
^ Lippia citrodora is an obsolete name still often seen.


References

^ a b "Genus: Verbena L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2004-01-29. Retrieved 2011-08-29.
^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
^ S. M. Botta, S. Martinez & M. E. Mulguta de Romero (1995). "Novedades nomenclaturales en Verbenaceae [Nomenclatural revisions in Verbenaceae]". Hickenia 2: 127–128.
^ Yao-Wu Yuan & Richard G. Olmstead (2008). "A species-level phylogenetic study of the Verbena complex (Verbenaceae) indicates two independent intergeneric chloroplast transfers". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 48 (1): 23–33. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2008.04.004.
^ Quattrocchi, Umberto (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names. 4 R-Z. Taylor & Francis US. p. 2787. ISBN 978-0-8493-2678-3.
^ Gledhill, D. (2008). The Names of Plants (4 ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 399. ISBN 9780521866453.
^ Hazlitt, William Carew; Brand, John (1905). Faiths and folklore: a dictionary of national beliefs. 2. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 611. Retrieved September 15, 2010.
^ Aubrey, John, Esq. (1721). Miscellanies upon the following Subjects.... London: Bettesworth, Battley, Pemberton, Curll. Retrieved September 15, 2010.
^ Sheffield, Rob (April 08, 2010). Love in Vein: The Vampire Diaries. Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2010-09-15.
^ Smith, L. J. (1991). The Struggle (Volume II). Harper Collins. p. 105. ISBN 006102001-X. Retrieved 2010-09-15.
^ Smith (1991), p. 145
^ "GRIN Species Records of Verbena". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2011-08-29.


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Verbena.jpg


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verbena_officinalis

Verbena officinalis
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Verbena officinalis, the Common Vervain or Common Verbena, is a perennial herb native to Europe. It grows up to a metre/yard high, with an upright habitus. The lobed leaves are toothed, the delicate spikes hold mauve flowers.

This plant prefers limey soils; it is occasionally grown as an ornamental plant but perhaps more often for the powerful properties some herbalists ascribe to it. Propagation is by root cuttings or seed. It is widely naturalised outside its native range, for example in North America.

Common names and taxonomy

It is also known as Simpler's Joy or Holy Herb, or more ambiguously as "mosquito plant" or "wild hyssop". The common name "Blue Vervain" is also sometimes used, but properly refers to V. hastata. And of course, being the only member of its genus in much of its range, it is also simply known as "the vervain" locally.

The common names of V. officinalis in many Central and Eastern Europes languages often associate it with iron, for example:

Echtes Eisenkraut (German: "true ironherb")
IJzerhard (Dutch: "iron-hard")
Læge-Jernurt (Danish: "medical ironwort")
Železník lekársky (Slovak: ("medical ironherb")
Rohtorautayrtti (Finnish: "medical ironherb")

Common Vervain was scientifically described by Carl Linnaeus his 1753 Species Plantarum.[1] The scientific name references the Ancient Roman term verbena, used for any sacrificial herb considered very powerful (as described e.g. by Pliny the Elder). Officinalis, meanwhile, is Latin for "used in medicine or herbalism".

Systematics

One of the few species of Verbena native to regions outside the Americas, it is derived from the lineage nowadays occurring widely across North America. It might be closest to a group including such species as the White Vervain (V. urticifolia), V. lasiostachys or V. menthifolia, and perhaps the Swamp Verbena (V. hastata). As these, it is diploid with 14 chromosomes altogether.[2]

Numerous local varieties have been described, some of them as distinct species or subspecies. The following are often accepted today:[1]

Verbena officinalis var. africana (R. Fern. & Verdc.) Munir (= V. officinalis ssp. africana R.Fern. & Verdc.)
Verbena officinalis var. eremicola Munir
Verbena officinalis var. gaudichaudii Briq.
Verbena officinalis var. macrostachya (F. Muell.) Benth. (= V. macrostachya)
Verbena officinalis var. monticola Munir
Verbena officinalis var. officinalis L. (= V. domingensis)

The Texas Vervain (V. halei) is sometimes included in V. officinalis as a subspecies or variety.[1] But despite the outward similarity, biogeography alone strongly suggests there is really no justification to include this North American native here, and DNA sequence data agrees. Instead, V. halei seems to be closely related to V. macdougalii, perhaps with some interbreeding with the V. menthifolia lineage which might explain its Common Vervain-like traits.[2]

Use by humans

Common Vervain is held in high esteem since the Classical Antiquity; it has long been associated with divine and other supernatural forces, and it has an equally long-standing use as a medicinal plant.

Medical use of Common Vervain is usually as a herbal tea; Nicholas Culpeper's 1652 The English Physitian discusses folk uses. Among others effects, it may act as a galactagogue and possibly sex steroid analogue and abortifacient; it is reputed to help against nervousness and insomnia. "Vervain", presumably this species, is one of the original 38 Bach flower remedies, prescribed against "over-enthusiasm"[citation needed]. In the Modern Era, it is sometimes considered a powerful "ally" of poets and writers, as its relaxing effects can relieve writer's block. As noted above, it cannot be considered safe to use during pregnancy as it might cause miscarriages.

While Common Vervain is not native to North America, it has been introduced there and the Pawnee have adopted it as an entheogen enhancer and in oneiromancy, and is often referred to as the North American version of Calea zacatechichi.

In western Eurasia, the term "verbena" or "vervain" usually refers to this, the most widespread and common member of the mostly American genus occurring there. It was called "tears of Isis" in Ancient Egypt, and later on "Juno's tears". In Ancient Greece, it was dedicated to Eos Erigineia. In the early Christian era, folk legend stated that Common Vervain was used to staunch Jesus' wounds after his removal from the cross; hence names like "Holy Herb" or (e.g. in Wales) "Devil's bane"[verification needed].

Due to the association with the Passion of Christ, it came to be used in ointments to drive out and repel "demonic" illness. Vervain flowers are engraved on cimaruta, Italian anti-stregheria charms. In the 1870 The History and Practice of Magic by "Paul Christian" (Jean Baptiste Pitois) it is employed in the preparation of a mandragora charm[citation needed]. In the role-playing game Mage: The Ascension, the magickal group Verbena, masters of the sphere of Life, derive their name from the sacrificial herbs of Antiquity, and it is implied that this specifically means the Common Vervain in this case.

Hazlitt's Faiths and Folklore (1905) quotes Aubrey's Miscellanies (1721), to wit:

"Vervain and Dill / Hinder witches from their will."[3][4]

In the series of young adult novels The Vampire Diaries, author L. J. Smith uses vervain to protect humans from vampires,[5] in an extension of vervain's fabled magic-suppression powers against witches. In The Struggle, Volume II, the vampire Stefan instructs the human Elena that vervain can "protect you against bewitchment, and it can keep your mind clear if someone is using Powers against you."[6] He tells her how it is prepared and used, "Once I've extracted the oil from the seeds, you can rub it into your skin, or add it to a bath. And you can make the dried leaves into a sachet and carry it with you, or put it under your pillow at night", but gives her an unprepared sprig for protection in the meantime.[7]

A Royal Navy Arabis class sloop of the World War I era was named HMS Verbena, and in World War II a Group 1 Flower class corvette bore the same name; a Group 2 vessel of the latter class was called HMS Vervain. The only Verbena widely found in England in a native state is Common Vervain, though it is just as possible that the names reference the popular ornamental verbenas , such as the Garden Vervain.

Footnotes

^ a b c USDA (2007)
^ a b Yuan & Olmstead (2008)
^ Hazlitt,William Carew; Brand, John (1905). Faiths and folklore: a dictionary of national beliefs, Volume 2. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 611. Retrieved 2010-09-15.
^ Aubrey, John, Esq. (1721). Miscellanies upon the following Subjects.... London: Bettesworth, Battley, Pemberton, Curll. Retrieved 2010-09-15.
^ Sheffield, Rob (April 08, 2010). Love in Vein: The Vampire Diaries. Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2010-09-15.
^ Smith, L. J. (1991). The Struggle (Volume II). Harper Collins. p. 105. ISBN 006102001-X. Retrieved 2010-09-15.
^ Smith (1991), p. 145


References

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) (2007): Germplasm Resources Information Network - Verbena officinalis. Version of 2007-OCT-30. Retrieved 2008-AUG-07.
Yuan, Yao-Wu & Olmstead, Richard G. (2008): A species-level phylogenetic study of the Verbena complex (Verbenaceae) indicates two independent intergeneric chloroplast transfers. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 48(1): 23-33. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2008.04.004 (HTML abstract)



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