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 Palma - Arecaceae - Dattero

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Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Palma - Arecaceae - Dattero   Mer 29 Feb 2012 - 8:42

QUESTA SCHEDA CONTIENE INFORMAZIONI CHE POSSONO GENERARE SITUAZIONI DI PERICOLO E DANNI. I DATI PRESENTI HANNO SOLO UN FINE ILLUSTRATIVO E IN NESSUN CASO ESORTATIVO. PRIMA DI PROSEGUIRE SI PREGA DI LEGGERE ATTENTAMENTE LE AVVERTENZE.


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Molti sono i simbolismi legati a questa pianta, nella mitologia Assira era sacra, simboleggiava Ishtar. Nel Medio Oriente simboleggia riposo e ospitalità. Per i primi cristiani rappresentava la vittoria dei fedeli sui nemici dell'anima e l'entrata trionfale di Gesù in Gerusalemme...

Dei documenti di wikipedia riporto solo alcuni stralci perciò per approfondimenti se ne consiglia la visione anche alla fonte originale...buona lettura!


FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arecaceae

Arecaceae
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Le Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl, 1820 (comunemente note come Palme) sono una famiglia di piante monocotiledoni appartenenti all'ordine Arecales. Comprende 202 differenti generi con circa 2.600 specie, la maggior parte delle quali diffuse nelle aree a clima tropicale o subtropicale. Sono fra le poche famiglie di piante monocotiledoni che presentano specie con portamento arboreo pur essendo comunque sprovviste di un accrescimento secondario.

Si tratta di una delle più antiche famiglie vegetali: resti fossili di Arecaceae compaiono già durante il Cretaceo, circa 70-80 milioni di anni fa.

Alcune palme di questa famiglia sono utilizzate, soprattutto in Asia, per la produzione del vino di palma.

Distribuzione e habitat

Si tratta in massima parte di piante tropicali e subtropicali; solo poche specie si sono adattate a climi più freddi.

La maggior parte delle specie sono native di Africa, Asia e Australia, ma non mancano le specie native del Nuovo mondo. Esistono inoltre due specie native dell'Europa meridionale: la palma nana Chamaerops humilis, tipica specie della macchia mediterranea, diffusa in Portogallo, Spagna, Francia, Italia (soprattutto in Sicilia, Sardegna e Calabria), e Malta e la Phoenix theophrasti, nativa di Creta e della Turchia meridionale. Tra le specie adattatesi ai climi freddi merita una menzione il genere Trachycarpus, nativo dell'Asia orientale, che riesce a crescere sino alle latitudini dell'Islanda. Non sono considerate alberi da legno.


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Manila_dwarf_coconut_palm.jpg


FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palma_del_martirio

Palma del martirio
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

L'antica simbologia della palma del martirio e, in generale, la palma intesa come simbolo del Cristianesimo, si collega all'Oriente, cioè alla terra dove maggiormente si trova questo albero slanciato e vigoroso con possenti pennacchi di foglie disposti a raggio come quelli del sole. Si pensava che la pianta nel fiorire e generare i frutti (e quindi i semi) morisse: il legame con il martirio è quindi dovuto a una simbologia di sacrificio. La stessa simbologia si trova alla base nel motivo della candelabra.

Il suo significato è quello della vittoria, dell'ascesa, della rinascita e dell'immortalità. Si collega anche alla fenice e ha la funzione di albero della vita. La palma della dea Vittoria è un'iconografia nata in epoca romana. La simbologia cristiana, presente fin dall'epoca paleocristiana è legata a un passo dei Salmi, dove si dice che come fiorirà la palma così farà il giusto: la palma infatti produce un'infiorescenza quando sembra ormai morta, così come i martiri hanno la loro ricompensa in paradiso.

Nella domenica detta appunto delle Palme la simbologia rimanda all'entrata trionfale di Gesù Cristo in Gerusalemme (Vangeli, Giovanni 12,13) prefigurando in anticipo la Resurrezione dopo la morte. Ugualmente, la palma ha lo stesso valore di simbolo della resurrezione dei martiri (Apocalisse 7, 9).

Nell'antica arte cristiana la palma è raffigurata con la stessa frequenza dell'àncora e della colomba.

La palma del martirio si incontra su epigrafi sepolcrali, sarcofagi, affreschi, lastre e stemmi (vedi palma (araldica)), spesso unita al monogramma di Cristo.

I mosaici raffigurano di preferenza persone che portano in mano i rami: sono i cristiani che hanno riportato la vittoria, morendo fiduciosi per la loro fede. Si riferiscono anche al salmo il giusto fiorirà come palma (91, 13) e al tempio di Re Salomone che era ornato di ricchi motivi di palma (cfr. 1 Re 6,29-32.35; 7, 36; 2 Cr 3,5).

La pianta è anche immagine di Maria, madre di Gesù con riferimento al brano del Cantico dei Cantici:
« La tua statura rassomiglia a una palma e i tuoi seni a grappoli. »

La Legenda Aurea scritta da Jacopo da Varagine prese dal vangelo apocrifo di Matteo l'episodio, caro all'arte cristiana, della palma che, durante la fuga in Egitto, si inchinò perché Maria e Giuseppe cogliessero i suoi datteri e fece sgorgare tra le radici una sorgente di acqua fresca. La scena è un modello del paradiso ritrovato e la sorgente, ai piedi dell'albero, simboleggia nella religione cristiana la fonte della vita.

La leggenda del ramo di palma alla morte di Maria non è raffigurata di frequente: per Gerd Heinz-Mohr l'arcangelo Michele, o l'Arcangelo Gabriele secondo altri studiosi, reca dal paradiso un ramo di palma alla madre di Dio come segno della sua morte imminente. Maria lo porge a Giovanni Evangelista che a sua volta lo porta davanti alla bara il giorno della sua sepoltura.

Il ramo a volte è raffigurato con sette punte, simbologia che si evolverà nelle Sette spade dei dolori di Maria.

Bibliografia [modifica]

Gerd Heinz-Mohr, Lessico di iconografia cristiana, Milano, 1981;
La natura e i suoi simboli. Piante, fiori e animali. Dizionari dell'Arte, Electa, Milano, 2004.


FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domenica_delle_Palme

Domenica delle Palme
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Nel calendario liturgico cattolico la Domenica delle Palme è celebrata la domenica precedente alla festività della Pasqua. Con essa ha inizio la settimana santa ma non termina la Quaresima, che finirà solo con la celebrazione dell'ora nona del giovedì santo, giorno in cui, con la celebrazione vespertina si darà inizio al Sacro Triduo Pasquale.

Nella forma ordinaria del rito romano essa è detta anche domenica De Passione Domini (della Passione del Signore). Nella forma straordinaria la domenica di Passione si celebra una settimana prima, perciò la Domenica delle Palme è detta anche Seconda Domenica di Passione.

Questa festività è osservata non solo dai Cattolici, ma anche dagli Ortodossi e dai Protestanti.

In questo giorno la Chiesa ricorda il trionfale ingresso di Gesù a Gerusalemme in sella ad un asino, osannato dalla folla che lo salutava agitando rami di palma (cfr. Gv 12,12-15). La folla, radunata dalle voci dell'arrivo di Gesù, stese a terra i mantelli, mentre altri tagliavano rami dagli alberi di ulivo e di palma, abbondanti nella regione, e agitandoli festosamente gli rendevano onore.

Tradizioni

Generalmente i fedeli portano a casa i rametti di ulivo e di palma benedetti, per conservarli quali simbolo di pace, scambiandone parte con parenti ed amici. In alcune regioni, si usa che il capofamiglia utilizzi un rametto, intinto nell’acqua benedetta durante la veglia pasquale, per benedire la tavola imbandita nel giorno di Pasqua.

In molte zone d'Italia, con le foglie di palma intrecciate vengono realizzate piccole e grandi confezioni addobbate (come i parmureli di Bordighera e Sanremo in Liguria), che vengono regalate o scambiate fra i fedeli in segno di pace.

Nel vangelo di Giovanni: 12,12-15, si narra che la popolazione abbia usato solo rami di palma che, a detta di molti commentari, sono simbolo di trionfo, acclamazione e regalità. Sembra che i rami di ulivo siano stati introdotti nella tradizione popolare, a causa della scarsità di piante di palma presenti, specialmente in Italia. Ad ogni modo un'antica antifona gregoriana canta: «Pueri Hebraeorum portantes ramos olivarum obviaverunt Domino» ("Giovani ebrei andarono incontro al Signore portando rami d'ulivo").

Cenni storici

Si hanno notizie della benedizione delle palme a partire del VII secolo in concomitanza con la crescente importanza data alla processione. Questa è testimoniata a Gerusalemme dalla fine del IV secolo e quasi subito fu introdotta nella liturgia della Siria e dell'Egitto.


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Palmtreesil.jpg


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palm_(plant)

Arecaceae
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Arecaceae or Palmae (also known by the name Palmaceae, which is considered taxonomically invalid,[2] or by the common name palm tree), are a family of flowering plants, the only family in the monocot order Arecales. There are roughly 202 currently known genera with around 2600 species, most of which are restricted to tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate climates. Most palms are distinguished by their large, compound, evergreen leaves arranged at the top of an unbranched stem. However, many palms are exceptions to this statement, and palms in fact exhibit an enormous diversity in physical characteristics. As well as being morphologically diverse, palms also inhabit nearly every type of habitat within their range, from rainforests to deserts.

Palms are among the best known and most extensively cultivated plant families. They have been important to humans throughout much of history. Many common products and foods are derived from palms, and palms are also widely used in landscaping for their exotic appearance, making them one of the most economically important plants. In many historical cultures, palms were symbols for such ideas as victory, peace, and fertility. Today, palms remain a popular symbol for the tropics and vacations.[3]

Morphology

Whether as shrubs, trees, or vines, palms have two methods of growth: solitary or clusters. The common representation is that of a solitary shoot ending in a crown of leaves. This monopodial behavior may be exhibited by prostrate, trunkless, and trunk-forming members. Some common palms restricted to solitary growth include Washingtonia and Roystonea. Palms may instead grow in sparse to dense clusters. The trunk will develop an axillary bud at a leaf node, usually near the base, from which a new shoot emerges. The new shoot, in turn, produces an axillary bud and a clustering habit results. Exclusively sympodial genera include many of the rattans, Guihaia, and Rhapis. Several palm genera have both solitary and clustering members. Palms which are usually solitary may grow in clusters, and vice versa. These aberrations suggest that the habit operates on a single gene.[4]

Palms have large evergreen leaves that are either palmately ('fan-leaved') or pinnately ('feather-leaved') compound and spirally arranged at the top of the stem. The leaves have a tubular sheath at the base that usually splits open on one side at maturity.[5] The inflorescence is a panicle or spike surrounded by one or more bracts or spathes that become woody at maturity. The flowers are generally small and white, radially symmetric, and can be either uni- or bi-sexual. The sepals and petals usually number three each, and may be distinct or joined at the base. The stamens generally number six, with filaments that may be separate, attached to each other, or attached to the pistil at the base. The fruit is usually a single-seeded drupe,[6] but some genera (e.g. Salacca) may contain two or more seeds in each fruit.

Arecaceae are notable among monocots for their height and for the size of their seeds, leaves, and inflorescences. Ceroxylon quindiuense, Colombia's national tree, is the tallest monocot in the world, reaching heights of 60 meters.[7] The Coco de mer (Lodoicea maldivica) has the largest seeds of any plant, 40–50 cm in diameter and weighing 15–30 kilograms each. Raffia palms (Raphia spp.) have the largest leaves of any plant, up to 25 meters long and 3 meters wide. The Corypha species have the largest inflorescence of any plant, up to 7.5 meters tall and containing millions of small flowers. Calamus stems can reach 200 m in length.


Evolution

Arecaceae is the first modern family of monocots that is clearly represented in the fossil record.[citation needed] Palms first appear in the fossil record around 80 million years ago, during the late Cretaceous Period. The first modern species, such as Nypa fruticans and Acrocomia aculeata, appeared 69-70 million years ago, confirmed by fossil Nypa pollen dated to 70 million years ago. Palms appear to have undergone an early period of adaptive radiation.[citation needed] By 60 million years ago, many of the modern, specialized genera of palms appeared and became widespread and common, much more widespread than their range today.[citation needed] Because palms separated from the monocots earlier than other families, they developed more intrafamilial specialization and diversity.[citation needed][clarification needed]By tracing back these diverse characteristics of palms to the basic structures of monocots, palms may be valuable in studying monocot evolution.[14] Several species of palms have been identified from flowers preserved in amber including Palaeoraphe dominicana and Roystonea palaea‎.[15]

Evidence can also be found in samples of petrified palmwood.


Uses

Human use of palms is as old or older than human civilization itself, starting with the cultivation of the date palm by Mesopotamians and other Middle Eastern peoples 5000 years or more ago.[16] Date wood, pits for storing dates, and other remains of the date palm have been found in Mesopotamian sites.[17] The Date Palm had a tremendous effect on the history of the Middle East. W.H. Barreveld wrote:

"One could go as far as to say that, had the date palm not existed, the expansion of the human race into the hot and barren parts of the "old" world would have been much more restricted. The date palm not only provided a concentrated energy food, which could be easily stored and carried along on long journeys across the deserts, it also created a more amenable habitat for the people to live in by providing shade and protection from the desert winds (Fig. 1). In addition, the date palm also yielded a variety of products for use in agricultural production and for domestic utensils, and practically all parts of the palm had a useful purpose."[16]

An indication of the importance of palms in ancient times is that they are mentioned more than 30 times in the Bible,[18] and at least 22 times in the Quran.[19]

Arecaceae has great economic importance including coconut products, oils, dates, palm syrup, ivory nuts, carnauba wax, rattan cane, raffia and palm wood.

Along with dates mentioned above, members of the Palm Family with human uses are numerous.

The type member of Arecaceae is the Areca palm, the fruit of which, the betel nut, is chewed with the betel leaf for intoxicating effects (Areca catechu).
Carnuba wax is harvested from the leaves of a Brazilian palm (Copernicia).
Rattans, whose stems are used extensively in furniture and baskets are in the genus Calamus.
Palm oil is an edible vegetable oil produced by the oil palms in the genus Elaeis.
Several species are harvested for heart of palm, a vegetable eaten in salads.
Sap of the nipa palm Nypa is used to make vinegar.
Palm sap is sometimes fermented to produce palm wine or toddy, an alcoholic beverage common in parts of Africa, India, and the Philippines.
Dragon's blood, a red resin used traditionally in medicine, varnish, and dyes, may be obtained from the fruit of Daemonorops species.
Coconut is the edible fruit of the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera).
Coir is a coarse water-resistant fiber extracted from the outer shell of coconuts, used in doormats, brushes, mattresses, and ropes. In India, beekeepers use coir in their bee smokers.
Some indigenous groups living in palm-rich areas use palms to make many of their necessary items and food. Sago, for example, a starch made from the pith of the trunk of the sago palm Metroxylon sagu, is a major staple food for lowland peoples of New Guinea and the Moluccas. This is not the same plant commonly used as a house plant and called "sago palm."
Panama hats are woven from the leaves of the "Panama Hat" palm.
Palm wine is made from Jubaea also called Chilean wine palm, or coquito palm
Recently the fruit of the açaí palm Euterpe has been used for its reputed healthful benefits.
Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) is under investigation as a drug for treating enlarged prostates.
Palm leaves are also valuable to some peoples as a material for thatching, basketry, clothing, and in religious ceremonies (see "Symbolism" below).[9]

Ornamental Uses. Today, palms are valuable as ornamental plants and are often grown along streets in tropical and subtropical cities, and also along the Mediterranean coast in Europe. Farther north, palms are a common feature in botanical gardens or as indoor plants. Few palms tolerate severe cold, however, and the majority of the species are tropical or subtropical. The three most cold-tolerant species are Trachycarpus fortunei, native to eastern Asia, and Rhapidophyllum hystrix and Sabal minor, both native to the southeastern United States. For more details, see hardy palms.

The southeastern state of South Carolina is nicknamed the Palmetto State after the Cabbage Palmetto, logs from which were used to build the fort at Fort Moultrie. During the American Revolutionary War they were invaluable to those defending the fort, because their spongy wood absorbed or deflected the British cannonballs.[20] The Sabal Palmetto is also the state tree of Florida. Some palms can be grown as far north as Maryland, southern Ohio and even up along the Pacific coast to Oregon, Washington and British Columbia, where ocean winds have a warming effect. There have even been known species of transplanted palms that have survived as far north as Devon. The Chinese Trachycarpus fortunei is being grown experimentally on the Faroe Islands at 62°N, with young plants doing well so far.[21]

Symbolism

The palm branch was a symbol of triumph and victory in pre-Christian times. The Romans rewarded champions of the games and celebrated military successes with palm branches. Early Christians used the palm branch to symbolize the victory of the faithful over enemies of the soul, as in the Palm Sunday festival celebrating the triumphal entry of Jesus into Jerusalem. In Judaism, the palm represents peace and plenty, and is one of the Four Species of Sukkot; the palm may also symbolize the Tree of Life in Kabbalah. Today, the palm, especially the coconut palm, remains a symbol of the stereotypical tropical island paradise.[10] Palms appear on the flags and seals of several places where they are native, including those of Haiti, Guam, Saudi Arabia, Florida and South Carolina.


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Paravoor_beach.jpg


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palm_branch_(symbol)

Palm branch (symbol)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A palm branch (or palm frond or palm stem), usually refers to the leaves of the Arecaceae (sometimes known by the names Palmae).

The palm branch was a symbol of triumph and victory in pre-Christian times. The Romans rewarded champions of the games and celebrated military successes with palm branches. The motto of Lord Nelson is "Palmam qui meruit ferat", which means in Latin, "Let him bear the palm who has deserved it" and has been adopted by numerous other organizations including the University of Southern California. Jews follow a similar tradition of carrying palm branches during festive times.[1]

Christianity

Early Christians used the palm branch to symbolize the victory of the faithful over enemies of the soul, as in the Palm Sunday festival celebrating the triumphal entry of Jesus into Jerusalem. In Christian art, martyrs were usually shown holding a palm frond as an attribute, representing the victory of spirit over flesh, and it was widely believed that a picture of a palm on a tomb meant that a martyr was buried there.[2]

Origen calls the palm (In Joan., XXXI) the symbol of victory in that war waged by the spirit against the flesh. In this sense it was especially applicable to martyrs, the victors par excellence over the spiritual foes of mankind; hence the frequent occurrence in the Acts of the martyrs of such expressions as "he received the palm of martyrdom." On 10 April 1688 it was decided by the Congregation of Rites that the palm when found depicted on catacomb tombs was to be regarded as a proof that a martyr had been interred there. Subsequently this opinion was acknowledged by Mabillon, Muratori, Benedict XIV and others to be untenable; further investigation showed that the palm was represented not only on tombs of the post-persecution era, but even on pagan tombs.

The general significance of the palm on early Christian monuments is slightly modified according to its association with other symbols (e.g., with the monogram of Christ, the Ichthus (Fish), or the Good Shepherd). On some later monuments the palm was represented merely as an ornament separating two scenes. Palms also represented heaven, evidenced by ancient art often depicting Jesus in heaven among palms.

Judaism

In Judaism, the date palm (Lulav) is one of the Four Species used in the daily prayers on the feast of Sukkot. It is bound together with the hadass (myrtle), and aravah (willow). The Midrash[3] notes that the binding of the Four Species symbolizes our desire to unite the four "types" of Jews in service of God.

In the 1970s, Judean date palm seeds (believed to be 2000 years old) were recovered during excavations at Herod the Great's palace on Masada in Israel . In 2005, some of the seeds were planted. One grew and has been called "Methuselah". If it is female, it will bear fruit.

Islam

Muhammad is said to have built his home out of palm, and the palm symbolizes rest and hospitality in many cultures of the Middle East. The first muezzin climbed palm trees to call the faithful to prayer, from which the minaret developed.

Other religions

The sacred tree in Assyrian mythology is a palm that symbolizes Ishtar connecting heaven, the crown of the tree, and earth, the base of the trunk. Palm stems represented long life to the Ancient Egyptians, and the god Huh was often shown holding a palm stem in one or both hands. The Kingdom of Nri (Igbo) used the "omu", a tender palm frond, to sacralize and restrain. The palm tree was a sacred sign of Apollo in Ancient Greece because he had been born under one in Delos.[4] In ancient Mesopotamia, the date palm may have represented fertility in humans. The Mesopotamian goddess Inanna, who had a part in the sacred marriage ritual, considered herself the one who made the dates abundant.[5]

Modern usage

Today, the palm, especially the coconut, remains a symbol of a tropical island paradise.[6] Palms appear on the flags and seals of several places where they are native, including those of Malta, Haiti, Paraguay, Guam, Florida, Poland, Australia and South Carolina. It also appeared on the flag of the short-lived Tripolitanian Republic (1918–1923), though not followed in later Libyan flags.

The palm branch symbol is included in MUFI: ⸙ (2E19, ‘PALM BRANCH’ in Unicode).


References

^ Palm Sunday according to the Byzantine Rite Tradition
^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Palm in Christian Symbolism
^ Vayikra Rabbah 30:12.
^ Palm Tree Symbolism
^ Sex Life of the Date University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology
^ Virtual Palm Encyclopedia - Introduction



FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:MumbaiClimate.jpg
Tornare in alto Andare in basso
Tila
Iniziato Sciamano
Iniziato Sciamano


Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Re: Palma - Arecaceae - Dattero   Gio 22 Mar 2012 - 7:42

Buondì a tutti, oggi vedremo una palma in particolare la Phoenix dactylifera o comunemente nota come la Palma da Datteri.

Sin dall'antichità era considerata simbolo di fertilità, tra le sue proprietà scopriremo che il dattero è ricco di potassio e fosforo, impiegato nella medicina popolare per depurare l'organismo...

Buona lettura.

FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenix_dactylifera

Phoenix dactylifera
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

La Phoenix dactylifera, comunemente nota come palma da datteri, è una pianta della famiglia delle Arecaceae. Fu nota sin dall'antichità tra gli Egizi, i Cartaginesi, i Greci, i Romani, i Berberi per i suoi frutti eduli chiamati datteri.


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dates_on_date_palm.jpg

Morfologia

Il tronco, più slanciato della congenere Phoenix canariensis, può essere alto fino a 30 m, ma di solito non supera i 15-20 m. Spesso molti tronchi si generano da un unico sistema radicale, ma si possono avere anche esemplari isolati. Le foglie sono pennate, rigide, di colore verde-grigio, lunghe 3-5 m con picciolo spinoso e circa 150 foglioline lineari-acuminate, lunghe 30 cm e larghe 2 cm, glauche nella parte inferiore. La chioma può raggiungere un diametro di 10 m.

La palma è dioica: le piante maschili e femminili hanno entrambe piccoli fiori di colore chiaro raggruppati in grosse infiorescenze a forma di grappolo. L'impollinazione in natura avviene per mezzo del vento ma per le piante coltivate a scopo commerciale viene generalmente praticata artificialmente. Il frutto, il dattero, è una drupa di forma cilindrica lunga 3-7 cm e larga 2-3 cm, che, quando è matura, assume un colore scuro. La sua parte edule è il pericarpo molto zuccherino e carnoso. La drupa contiene un unico seme, lungo circa 2-2,5 cm e spesso 6-8 mm. Dalla linfa fermentata dell'albero si può anche ricavare il legmi, una bevanda alcolica.

Distribuzione e habitat

A causa dell'antichità delle coltivazioni, il suo areale originario non può essere determinato con certezza, basti pensare che era già coltivata nel 4000 a.C. a Babilonia: è plausibile comunque che si tratti dell'Africa settentrionale o dell'Asia sudoccidentale. Oggi è coltivata in tutto il Maghreb, in Egitto, Arabia, nel Golfo Persico, nelle Canarie, nella zona mediterranea settentrionale e nel sud degli Stati Uniti. Curiosa la situazione in Sicilia dove la palma da datteri è diffusissima (in particolar modo nei giardini della città di Palermo), ma non è sfruttata o coltivata a scopi commerciali. È menzionata ben diciassette volte nel Corano.

Le cultivar più diffuse sono 'Medjool', 'Deklet noor', 'Ameri', 'Deri', 'Halawi' e 'Zahidi', 'Berhi', 'Hiann'. Tra le varietà di dattero c'è quella definita "da amido", dalla quale si ricava il cosiddetto "pane del deserto", che rappresenta uno degli alimenti fondamentali dei beduini.[1]

Note

^ "Le piante medicinali", di Roberto Michele Suozzi, Newton&Compton, Roma, 1994, pag.56


FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dattero

Dattero
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Il dattero è il frutto della palma da datteri (Phoenix dactylifera).

Coltivazione

Frutto tipico dell'Africa mediterranea, Israele e di paesi dell'Asia occidentale, originario della zona mediorientale del delta dei fiumi Eufrate e Tigri.

La palma da dattero comincia a fruttificare a partire dal terzo anno d'età e può vivere oltre i trecento anni, arrivando a produrre, nelle annate migliori, fino a cinquanta chili di datteri.

Valori nutritivi

È ricchissimo di zucchero, la sua composizione è: acqua 20-30%, zuccheri 50-70%, proteine 2,7%, grassi 0,60%. La sua polpa è ricca di proteine, fosforo, calcio, ferro, vitamina A, vitamina B.

Utilizzo

Si consuma sia fresco che essiccato. Dal dattero si ricava un particolare tipo di miele ed alcolici derivati dalla sua fermentazione, come ad esempio l'arrak.


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Date_%28fruit%29

Phoenix dactylifera
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is a palm in the genus Phoenix, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit. Although its place of origin is unknown because of long cultivation, it probably originated from lands around the Persian Gulf.[1] It is a medium-sized plant, 15–25 m tall, growing singly or forming a clump with several stems from a single root system. The leaves are 3–5 m long, with spines on the petiole, and pinnate, with about 150 leaflets; the leaflets are 30 cm long and 2 cm wide. The full span of the crown ranges from 6 to 10 m.

Etymology

The species name dactylifera "date-bearing" comes from Ancient Greek dáktulos "date" (also "finger")[2] and the stem of the Latin verb ferō "I bear".[3]

History of dates

Dates have been a staple food of the Middle East for thousands of years. They are believed to have originated around the Persian Gulf, and have been cultivated since ancient times from Mesopotamia to prehistoric Egypt, possibly as early as 4000 BCE. The Ancient Egyptians used the fruits to be made into date wine, and ate them at harvest. There is archaeological evidence of date cultivation in eastern Arabia in 6000 BCE. (Alvarez-Mon 2006).

In later times, traders spread dates around South and South West Asia, northern Africa, and Spain and Italy. Dates were introduced into Mexico and California by the Spaniards by 1765, around Mission San Ignacio.

A date palm cultivar, known as Judean date palm is renowned for its long-lived orthodox seed, which successfully sprouted after accidental storage for 2000 years.[4] This particular seed was presently reputed to be the oldest viable seed until the sprouting of over 30,000 year old silene stenophylla seeds, but the upper survival time limit of properly stored seeds remains unknown.[5]

Dates

The fruit is known as a date.[6] The fruit's English name (through Old French), as well as the Latin species name dactylifera, both come from the Greek word for "finger," dáktulos, because of the fruit's elongated shape. Dates are oval-cylindrical, 3–7 cm long, and 2–3 cm diameter, and when unripe, range from bright red to bright yellow in colour, depending on variety. Dates contain a single seed about 2–2.5 cm long and 6–8 mm thick. Three main cultivar groups of date exist: soft (e.g. 'Barhee', 'Halawy', 'Khadrawy', 'Medjool'), semi-dry (e.g. 'Dayri', 'Deglet Noor', 'Zahdi'), and dry (e.g. 'Thoory'). The type of fruit depends on the glucose, fructose and sucrose content.

The date palm is dioecious, having separate male and female plants. They can be easily grown from seed, but only 50% of seedlings will be female and hence fruit bearing, and dates from seedling plants are often smaller and of poorer quality. Most commercial plantations thus use cuttings of heavily cropping cultivars. Plants grown from cuttings will fruit 2–3 years earlier than seedling plants.

Dates are naturally wind pollinated but in both traditional oasis horticulture and in the modern commercial orchards they are entirely pollinated manually. Natural pollination occurs with about an equal number of male and female plants. However, with assistance, one male can pollinate up to 100 females. Since the males are of value only as pollinators, this allows the growers to use their resources for many more fruit producing female plants. Some growers do not even maintain any male plants as male flowers become available at local markets at pollination time. Manual pollination is done by skilled labourers on ladders. In some areas such as Iraq the pollinator climbs the tree using a special climbing tool that wraps around the tree trunk and the climber's back to keep him attached to the trunk while climbing. Less often the pollen may be blown onto the female flowers by a wind machine.

Parthenocarpic cultivars are available but the seedless fruit is smaller and of lower quality.[citation needed]

Dates ripen in four stages, which are known throughout the world by their Arabic names kimri (unripe), khlal (full-size, crunchy), rutab (ripe, soft), tamr (ripe, sun-dried). A 100 gram portion of fresh dates is a source of vitamin C[citation needed] and supplies 230 kcal (960 kJ) of energy. Since dates contain relatively little water, they do not become much more concentrated upon drying, although the vitamin C is lost in the process.

Dates are an important traditional crop in Turkey, Iraq, Arabia, and north Africa west to Morocco and are mentioned more than 50 times in the Bible. In Islamic countries, dates and yogurt or milk are a traditional first meal when the sun sets during Ramadan. Dates (especially Medjool and Deglet Noor) are also cultivated in southern California, Arizona and southern Florida in the United States.

Date palms can take 4 to 8 years after planting before they will bear fruit, and produce viable yields for commercial harvest between 7 to 10 years. Mature date palms can produce 80–120 kilograms (176–264 lb) of dates per harvest season, although they do not all ripen at the same time so several harvests are required. In order to get fruit of marketable quality, the bunches of dates must be thinned and bagged or covered before ripening so that the remaining fruits grow larger and are protected from weather and pests such as birds.


Cultivars of dates

A large number of date cultivars are grown. The most important are:

Aabel — common in Libya.
Ajwah — from the town of Medina in Saudi Arabia, it is the subject of a famous Hadith of the Prophet Muhammad.
Al-Barakah — from Saudi Arabia.
Amir Hajj or 'Amer Hajj' — from Iraq, these are soft with a thin skin and thick flesh, sometimes called "the visitor's date" because it is a delicacy served to guests.
'Abid Rahim (Arabic: عبد رحيم‎), from Sudan. In Nigeria it is called Dabino and used by Muslims to break their fast.
Barakawi (Arabic: بركاوي‎), from Sudan.
Barhee or (barhi) (from Arabic barh, a hot wind) — these are nearly spherical, light amber to dark brown when ripe; soft, with thick flesh and rich flavour. One of the few varieties that are good in the khalal stage when they are yellow (like a fresh grape as opposed to dry, like a raisin).
Bireir (Arabic: برير‎) — from Sudan.
Datça Date - Turkey
Deglet Noor (Arabic: دڤلة النور 'date of light') — so named because the centre appears light or golden when held up to the sun. This is a leading date in Libya, Algeria, the USA, and Tunisia, and in the latter country it is grown in inland oases and is the chief export cultivar. It is semi-dry and not very sweet.
Derrie or 'Dayri' (the 'Monastery' date) — from southern Iraq — these are long, slender, nearly black, and soft.
Empress — developed by the DaVall Family in Indio California USA from a seedling of 'Thoory'. It is large, and is softer and sweeter than 'Thoory'. It generally has a light tan top half and brown bottom half.
Fardh or Fard - common in Oman, deep dark brown, tender skin, sweet flavor, small seed. Keeps well when well packed.
Ftimi or 'Alligue' — these are grown in inland oases of Tunisia.
Holwah (Halawi) (Arabic: 'sweet') — these are soft, and extremely sweet, small to medium in size.
Haleema — in Hoon, Libya (Haleema is a woman's name).
Hayany — from Egypt (Hayani) (Hayany is a man's name) — these dates are dark-red to nearly black and soft.
Iteema — common in Algeria.
Khajur — common in India / Pakistan.
Kenta — common in Tunisia.
Khadrawy (Arabic: 'green') — a cultivar favoured by many Arabs, it is a soft, very dark date.
Khalasah (Arabic: 'quintessence') — one of the most famous palm cultivars in Saudi Arabia, famous for its sweetness level that is not high nor low, thus, suits most people. Its fruit is called 'Khlas'. Its famous place is 'Huffuf' (Al-Ahsa) and 'Qatif' in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia (Al-Sharqheyah).
Khastawi (Khusatawi, Kustawy) — this is the leading soft date in Iraq; it is syrupy and small in size, prized for dessert.
Maktoom (Arabic: 'hidden') — this is a large, red-brown, thick-skinned, soft, medium-sweet date.
Manakbir — a large fruit that ripens early.
Medjool or (Mejhool) (Arabic: 'unknown') — from Morocco, also grown in the USA, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, the Palestinian territories and Israel; a large, sweet and succulent date.
Migraf (Mejraf) — very popular in Southern Yemen, these are large, golden-amber dates.
Mgmaget Ayuob — from Hoon, Libya.
Mishriq (Arabic: 'East' — مشرق)‎ — from Sudan and Saudi Arabia.
Mozafati — from Iran, where it is mainly grown in Kerman province, and often named "Bam (Mozafati) dates", after a city in that province. It is a dark, soft and sweet date of medium size. It is exceptionally well-suited for fresh consumption, because of its long shelf life. At a temperature of −5 degrees Celsius (23 °F) it can be kept for up to 2 years. It accounts for 10% of total Iranian date crop. (100,000 tons[vague], of which 30% is exported).
Nabtat-seyf — in Saudi Arabia.
Rotab — from Iran, they are dark and soft.
Sag‘ai — from Saudi Arabia.
Saidy (Saidi) — soft, very sweet, these are popular in Libya.
Sayer (Sayir) (Arabic: 'common') — these dates are dark orange-brown, of medium size, soft and syrupy.
Sekkeri — (lit. sugary) (Arabic: سكري) Dark brown skin; distinctly sweet and soft flesh, from Saudi Arabia, it is the most expensive kind.
Sellaj — (Arabic: سلّج)in Saudi Arabia.
Tagyat — common in Libya.
Tamej — in Libya.
Thoory (Thuri) — popular in Algeria, this dry date is brown-red when cured with a bluish bloom and very wrinkled skin. Its flesh is sometimes hard and brittle but the flavour described as sweet and nutty.
Umeljwary — in Libya.
Umelkhashab — Brilliant red skin; bittersweet, hard white flesh (Saudi Arabia).
Zahidi (Arabic: '[Of the] ascetic') — these medium size, cylindrical, light golden-brown semi-dry dates are very sugary, and sold as soft, medium-hard and hard.
Zaghloul (Arabic: زغلول‎) -Dark red skin, long, and very crunchy when served fresh (as they invariably are), their sugar content is so high that it desiccates the mouth. The variety is essentially exclusive to Egypt, where it is subject to an element of nationalist sentiment (Saad Zaghloul being a major Egyptian national hero).

The Gaza Strip, especially Dier al Balah, "Village of Dates", is known for its exceptionally sweet red dates. There are more than 100 known cultivars in Iraq.[clarification needed] It should be noted, however, that a cultivar can have several names depending on the locality.


Food uses


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dattes_deglet.JPG

Dry or soft dates are eaten out-of-hand, or may be pitted and stuffed with fillings such as almonds, walnuts, candied orange and lemon peel, tahini, marzipan or cream cheese. Pitted dates are also referred to as stoned dates. Partially dried pitted dates may be glazed with glucose syrup for use as a snack food. Dates can also be chopped and used in a range of sweet and savory dishes, from tajines (tagines) in Morocco to puddings, ka'ak (types of Arab cookies) and other dessert items. Date nut bread, a type of cake, is very popular in the United States, especially around holidays. Dates are also processed into cubes, paste called "'ajwa", spread, date syrup or "honey" called "dibs" or "rub" in Libya, powder (date sugar), vinegar or alcohol. Recent innovations include chocolate-covered dates and products such as sparkling date juice, used in some Islamic countries as a non-alcoholic version of champagne, for special occasions and religious times such as Ramadan.

Dates can also be dehydrated, ground and mixed with grain to form a nutritious stockfeed. Dried dates are fed to camels, horses and dogs in the Sahara. In northern Nigeria, dates and peppers added to the native beer are believed to make it less intoxicating.

Young date leaves are cooked and eaten as a vegetable, as is the terminal bud or heart, though its removal kills the palm. The finely ground seeds are mixed with flour to make bread in times of scarcity. The flowers of the date palm are also edible. Traditionally the female flowers are the most available for sale and weigh 300–400 grams. The flower buds are used in salad or ground with dried fish to make a condiment for bread.

Dates provide a wide range of essential nutrients, and are a very good source of dietary potassium. The sugar content of ripe dates is about 80%; the remainder consists of protein, fiber, and trace elements including boron, cobalt, copper, fluorine, magnesium, manganese, selenium, and zinc.[8] The glycemic index for three different varieties of dates are 35.5 (khalas), 49.7 (barhi) and 30.5 (bo ma'an).[9]

In India and Pakistan, North Africa, Ghana, and Côte d'Ivoire, date palms are tapped for the sweet sap, which is converted into palm sugar (known as jaggery or gur), molasses or alcoholic beverages. In North Africa the sap obtained from tapping palm trees is known as lāgbī. If left for a sufficient period of time (typically hours, depending on the temperature) lāgbī easily becomes an alcoholic drink. Special skill is required when tapping the palm tree so that it does not die.

In Southeast Spain (where a large date plantation exists including UNESCO protected Palmeral of Elche) dates (usually pitted with fried almond) are served wrapped in bacon and shallow fried.

It is also used to make Jallab.

Cultural reference

Represents the provincial tree of Balochistan (Pakistan) (unofficial).

Other uses of the plant

Date seeds are soaked and ground up for animal feed. Their oil is suitable for use in soap and cosmetics. They can also be processed chemically as a source of oxalic acid. The seeds are also burned to make charcoal for silversmiths, and can be strung in necklaces. Date seeds are also ground and used in the manner of coffee beans, or as an additive to coffee.

Stripped fruit clusters are used as brooms. In Pakistan, a viscous, thick syrup made from the ripe fruits is used as a coating for leather bags and pipes to prevent leaking.

Date palm sap is used to make palm syrup and numerous edible products derived from the syrup.

Date palm leaves are used for Palm Sunday in the Christian religion. In North Africa, they are commonly used for making huts. Mature leaves are also made into mats, screens, baskets and fans. Processed leaves can be used for insulating board. Dried leaf petioles are a source of cellulose pulp, used for walking sticks, brooms, fishing floats and fuel. Leaf sheaths are prized for their scent, and fibre from them is also used for rope, coarse cloth, and large hats. The leaves are also used as a lulav in the Jewish holiday of Sukkot.

Date palm wood is used for posts and rafters for huts; it is lighter than coconut and not very durable. It is also used for construction such as bridges and aqueducts, and parts of dhows. Leftover wood is burnt for fuel.

Where craft traditions still thrive, such as in Oman, the palm tree is the most versatile of all indigenous plants, and virtually every part of the tree is utilized to make functional items ranging from rope and baskets to beehives, fishing boats, and traditional dwellings.[citation needed]

When Muslims break fast in the evening meal of Ramadan, it is traditional to eat a date first.


Traditional medicinal uses

Dates have a high tannin content and are used medicinally as a detersive (having cleansing power) and astringent in intestinal troubles.[citation needed] As an infusion, decoction, syrup, or paste, dates may be administered for sore throat, colds, bronchial catarrh, and taken to relieve fever and a number of other complaints.[citation needed] One traditional belief is that it can counteract alcohol intoxication. The seed powder is also used in some traditional medicines. Because of their laxative quality, dates are considered to be good at preventing constipation.

A gum that exudes from the wounded trunk is employed in India for treating diarrhea and genito-urinary ailments.[citation needed] The roots are used against toothache. The pollen yields an estrogenic principle, estrone, and has a gonadotropic effect on young rats.

Diseases

Date Palms are susceptible to a disease called Bayoud disease, which is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. This disease, which kills many of the popular older cultivars like 'Deglet Noor', has led to a major decline in production where it is present, notably Morocco and western Algeria. However, new cultivars resistant to the disease are being developed.

Date palm genome

In 2009, a team of researchers at the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar published a draft version of the date palm genome (Khalas variety).[10][11]


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dattes-Bisr.JPG

References

^ Morton, J. 1987. Date. p. 5–11. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton. Miami, FL. — Purdue University. Center for New Crops and Plants Products.
^ δάκτυλος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at Perseus Project
^ fĕro. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project.
^ Hanson, Wendy (2008-06-13). "Date palm seed from Masada is the oldest to germinate". Los Angeles Times.
^ Bonner, Franklin T. (April 2008). "Chapter 4 Storage of Seeds" (PDF). Woody Plant Seed Manual,USDA FS Agriculture Handbook 727. National Seed Laboratory, 5675 Riggins Mill Rd, Dry Branch, GA 31020. Retrieved 2008-06-21.
^ "Date Palm." 15 October 2008. HowStuffWorks.com.
^ "Food and Agricultural commodities production". FAOSTAT. 2009. Retrieved 2011-10-20.
^ Walid Al-Shahib, Richard J. Marshall (2003). "The fruit of the date palm: its possible use as the best food for the future?". International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 54 (4): 247–259.
^ Miller, C. J.; Dunn, E. V.; Hashim, I. B. (2002). "Glycemic index of 3 varieties of dates". Saudi medical journal 23 (5): 536–538. PMID 12070575. edit
^ Date Palm Genome Drafted Science Daily, January 14, 2010, Retrieved August 30, 2010
^ Date Palm Draft Sequence Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, updated April 7, 2010, Retrieved August 30, 2010



Author: Kerina yin
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