QUESTA SCHEDA CONTIENE INFORMAZIONI CHE POSSONO GENERARE SITUAZIONI DI PERICOLO E DANNI. I DATI PRESENTI HANNO SOLO UN FINE ILLUSTRATIVO E IN NESSUN CASO ESORTATIVO. PRIMA DI PROSEGUIRE SI PREGA DI LEGGERE ATTENTAMENTE LE AVVERTENZE.AVVERTENZE:Tutte le informazioni, voci e documenti riportati su Shamanism&Co sono da considerare ad ESCLUSIVO SCOPO DIVULGATIVO!
Le eventuali nozioni e/o procedure mediche, erboristiche di medicina popolare, ecc. NON POSSONO SOSTITUIRE IN ALCUN CASO IL CONSIGLIO DEL MEDICO o di qualunque altro operatore sanitario. Rivolgetevi sempre al vostro medico o altro addetto del settore sanitario per qualsiasi quesito possiate avere.
Shamanism&Co non può esser ritenuto responsabile dei risultati o delle conseguenze di un qualsiasi utilizzo o tentativo di utilizzo di una qualsiasi delle informazioni pubblicate.
Nell'Ayurveda, come per la Medicina Tradizionale Cinese
, scopriamo l'importanza del simbolismo dei cinque elementi.
Grazie a questi documenti di wikipedia avremo una leggera infarinatura della storia e dell'approccio terapico di questa medicina tradizionale complessa e molto articolata.
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.
Le pratiche qui descritte non sono accettate dalla scienza medica, non sono state sottoposte alle verifiche sperimentali condotte con metodo scientifico o non le hanno superate. Potrebbero pertanto essere inefficaci o dannose per la salute. Queste informazioni hanno solo un fine illustrativo. Wikipedia non dà consigli medici: leggi le avvertenze.
L'ayurveda (in sanscrito: आयुर्वेद) è la medicina tradizionale utilizzata in India fin dall'antichità, diffusa ancora oggi nel sub-continente più della medicina occidentale. Ayurveda è una parola composta da ayur, durata della vita o longevità e veda conoscenza rivelata. Molti traducono erroneamente l'ayurveda come scienza della vita. In realtà è un sistema medico molto vasto e complesso comprendente aspetti di prevenzione, oltre che di cura, che permetterebbero, se applicati rigorosamente, di vivere più a lungo, migliorare la propria salute e rispettare il proprio corpo. Viene citata per la prima volta nel Caraka Samhita, un trattato di 500 principi medicinali compilato durante il regno dell'imperatore Kanishka
È attualmente annoverata dall'Unione Europea e dalla maggior parte degli Stati membri tra le medicine non convenzionali la cui erogazione è consentita da parte di medici qualificati.
Antico e complesso sistema, si è sviluppato nella sua forma attuale attraverso millenni di ricerche e sforzi innovativi. L'ayurveda si occupa da tutti i punti di vista del benessere dell'uomo, nel suo aspetto fisico, psichico e spirituale e si occupa delle patologie tanto quanto dello stato di salute normale. Lo scopo è quello di aiutare i malati a curarsi, e le persone sane a mantenere il proprio benessere e prevenire le malattie.
I principi medicinali utilizzati sono, in genere, minerali, metalli purificati e combinati con acidi fulvici ed erbe, in forma di polveri, pastiglie, infusi ecc. La maggior parte è di natura fitoterapica, come l'Amalaki (emblica officinalis), il Trikatu, un composto di tre erbe, zenzero, pepe e pippali (piper longum), Haridra (curcuma), Brahmi (Bacopa Monnieri), Tulasi (Ocimum sanctum), Erand (Ricinus communis), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia), Kumari (aloe), Gokshur (tribulus terrestris). Ogni medicinale ha una specifica modalità di utilizzo, perché agisca alla sua massima efficacia.
Le origini dell'ayurveda sono intrise della ricca mitologia indiana. Si ritiene infatti che l'ayurveda, la "scienza della vita", risalga a Brahma, creatore dell'universo. Costui fece dono del sistema ayurvedico a Daksa Prajapati e da questi agli Asvin, ed infine da loro ad Indra, signore degli dei vedici. Da Indra infine l'ultimo passaggio ai suoi 4 discepoli, Bharadvaja, Atreya, Kasyapa e Dhanvantari. Nella Caraka Samhita, nei primi capitoli, è narrata la storia dell'origine mitica dell'ayurveda.
Le origini storiche dell'ayurveda si perdono indietro nei secoli, addirittura in un'epoca precedente al ritrovamento di documenti scritti che certifichino la sua esistenza. Si tende a datare infatti le origini storiche dell'ayurveda a ritroso fino a 6000 anni fa, sebbene le prime versioni scritte dei Veda, alla base dell'ayurveda, risalgano a circa 1500 anni fa. È opinione condivisa infatti che come per molte altre tradizione ed opere, anche per l'ayurveda e per i Veda, ci sia stata una capillare diffusione orale prima della sistemizzazione in forma scritta.
Secondo l'Ayurveda il corpo fisico è pervaso da tre dosha (energie vitali) in proporzioni diverse. Questi determinano tramite il loro stato di equilibrio o squilibrio rispetto alla costituzione individuale (prakriti) lo stato di benessere o malattia dell'individuo. Ogni dosha è composto da due elementi (panca-mahabhutani) ed ha determinate qualità (guna) che li caratterizzano.
I tre dosha sono:
composto da spazio (akasha) e aria (vayu), è il principio del movimento, legato a tutto ciò che è movimento nel corpo (sistema nervoso, respirazione, circolazione sanguigna..). Le sue qualità sono: freddezza, secchezza, leggerezza, sottigliezza, mobilità, nitidezza, durezza, ruvidezza e fluidità. La sua sede principale è il colon ed i suoi 5 sub-dosha sono: Prana, Udana, Samana, Apana e Vyana.
composto da fuoco (tejas) e acqua (jala), è il dosha legato alla trasformazione, alla digestione intesa sia a livello fisico (stomaco, fuoco digestivo detto anche agni) che mentale (elaborazione delle emozioni). Le sue qualità sono: caldo, untuoso, leggerezza, sottigliezza, mobilità, nitidezza, morbidezza, levigatezza, chiarezza e fluidità. La sua sede principale è l'intestino tenue ed i suoi 5 sub-dosha sono: Pacaka, Ranjaka, Sadhaka, Alochaka e Bhrajaka.
composto da acqua (jala) e terra (prithvi), è il dosha legato alla coesione, al tener unito, è proprio dei fluidi corporei, lubrifica e mantiene il corpo solido ed uniforme. Le sue qualità sono: freddezza, umidità, pesantezza, grossolanità, stabilità, opacità, morbidezza, levigatezza e densità. I suoi cinque sub-dosha sono: Kledaka, Avalambaka, Bodhaka, Tarpaka e Slesaka.
I dosha consentono di classificare le tendenze psico-fisiche presenti nel corpo e le disfunzioni che ne possono derivare. Secondo l'ayurveda le patologie nascono quando si vengono a creare degli squilibri nei dosha (vikriti); l'individuazione degli squilibri in un dosha, corrispondente alla diagnosi, conducono a trovare i rimedi per ristabilirne lo stato di equilibrio individuale (prakriti) e quindi la guarigione. Le principali cause di squilibrio dei dosha sono tre:
il prajna-aparadha, ovvero l'errore dell'intelletto che si concretizza nel ripetere azioni, tenere atteggiamenti che, pur sapendo intrinsecamente sbagliati, vengono perpetuati in nome di desideri o pulsioni materiali;
il kala-parinama, ovvero le oscillazioni dei dosha all'interno del giorno, delle stagioni e della vita;
l'asatmyendriyartha-samyoga, ovvero l'errato uso dei sensi, intendendo con questo un uso improprio in eccesso o difetto dei sensi.
Per terapie ayurvediche si intendono tutte quelle tecniche volte a riequilibrare l'equilibrio dei dosha, lavorando quindi sullo stato di vikriti al fine di ripristinare la prakriti dell'individuo. Alle diverse sostanze da assumere, l'ayurveda affianca esercizi differenti secondo lo stato di salute, tipicamente posizioni yoga e tecniche di respirazione profonda.FONTE:
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ayurveda (Sanskrit: आयुर्वेद; Āyurveda, "the knowledge for long life"; /ˌaɪ.ərˈveɪdə/) or ayurvedic medicine is a system of traditional medicine native to India and a form of alternative medicine. The earliest literature on Indian medical practice appeared during the Vedic period in India, i.e., in the mid-second millennium BCE. The Suśruta Saṃhitā and the Charaka Saṃhitā, encyclopedias of medicine compiled from various sources from the mid-first millennium BCE to about 500 CE, are among the foundational works of Ayurveda. Over the following centuries, ayurvedic practitioners developed a number of medicinal preparations and surgical procedures for the treatment of various ailments. Current practices derived (or reportedly derived) from Ayurvedic medicine are regarded as part of complementary and alternative medicine.
Safety concerns have been raised about Ayurveda, with two U.S. studies finding about 20% of Ayurvedic treatments contained toxic levels of heavy metals such as lead, mercury and arsenic. Other concerns include the use of herbs containing toxic compounds and the lack of quality control in Ayurvedic facilities.
The three doṣas and the 5 elements from which they are composed.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ayurveda_humors.png
At an early period, Ayurveda adopted the physics of the "five elements" (Devanāgarī: [महा] पञ्चभूत); Pṛthvī (earth), Jala(water), Agni (fire), Vāyu (air) and Ākāśa (Sky)) — that compose the universe, including the human body. Chyle or plasma (called rasa dhātu), blood (rakta dhātu), flesh (māṃsa dhātu), fat (medha dhātu), bone (asthi dhātu), marrow (majja dhātu), and semen or female reproductive tissue (śukra dhātu) are held to be the seven primary constituent elements – saptadhātu (Devanāgarī: सप्तधातु) of the body. Ayurvedic literature deals elaborately with measures of healthful living during the entire span of life and its various phases. Ayurveda stresses a balance of three elemental energies or humors: Vāyu vāta (air & space – "wind"), pitta (fire & water – "bile") and kapha (water & earth – "phlegm"). According to ayurvedic medical theory, these three substances — doṣas (literally that which deteriorates – Devanāgarī: दोष)—are important for health, because when they exist in equal quantities, the body will be healthy, and when they are not in equal amounts, the body will be unhealthy in various ways. One ayurvedic theory asserts that each human possesses a unique combination of doṣas that define that person's temperament and characteristics. Another view, also present in the ancient literature, asserts that humoral equality is identical to health, and that persons with preponderances of humours are proportionately unhealthy, and that this is not their natural temperament. In ayurveda, unlike the Sāṅkhya philosophical system, there are 20 fundamental qualities, guṇa (Devanāgarī: गुण, meaning qualities) inherent in all substances. Surgery and surgical instruments were employed from a very early period, Ayurvedic theory asserts that building a healthy metabolic system, attaining good digestion, and proper excretion leads to vitality. Ayurveda also focuses on exercise, yoga, and meditation
The practice of panchakarma (Devanāgarī: पंचकर्म) is a therapeutic way of eliminating toxic elements from the body.
As early as the Mahābhārata, ayurveda was called "the science of eight components" (Skt. aṣṭāṅga, Devanāgarī: अष्टांग), a classification that became canonical for ayurveda. They are:
Internal medicine (Kāya-cikitsā)
Eye and ENT (Śālākya tantra)
Bhūta vidyā has been called psychiatry.
Prevention of diseases and improving immunity and rejuvenation (rasayana)
Aphrodisiacs and improving health of progeny (Vajikaranam)
In Hindu mythology, the origin of ayurvedic medicine is attributed to Dhanvantari, the physician of the gods.
Hinduism and Buddhism have been an influence on the development of many of ayurveda's central ideas — particularly its fascination with balance, known in Buddhism as Madhyamaka (Devanāgarī: माध्यात्मिक). Balance is emphasized; suppressing natural urges is seen to be unhealthy, and doing so claimed to lead to illness. However, people are cautioned to stay within the limits of reasonable balance and measure. For example, emphasis is placed on moderation of food intake, sleep, sexual intercourse.
The Charaka Samhita recommends a tenfold examination of the patient.
In addition, Chopra (2003) identifies five influential criteria for diagnosis:
origin of the disease
prodrominal (precursory) symptoms
typical symptoms of the fully developed disease
observing the effect of therapeutic procedures
the pathological process'
Ayurvedic practitioners approach diagnosis by using all five senses. Hearing is used to observe the condition of breathing and speech. The study of the lethal points or marman marma is of special importance. Ayurvedic doctors regard physical and mental existence together with personality as a unit, each element having the capacity to influence the others. One of the fundamental aspects of ayurvedic medicine is to take this into account during diagnosis and therapy.
Hygiene is an Indian cultural value and a central practice of ayurvedic medicine. Hygienic living involves regular bathing, cleansing of teeth, skin care, and eye washing. Daily anointing of the body with oil is also prescribed.
Ayurveda stresses the use of plant-based medicines and treatments. Hundreds of plant-based medicines are employed, including cardamom and cinnamon. Some animal products may also be used, for example milk, bones, and gallstones. In addition, fats are used both for consumption and for external use. Minerals, including sulfur, arsenic, lead, copper sulfate and gold are also consumed as prescribed. This practice of adding minerals to herbal medicine is known as rasa shastra.
In some cases, alcohol was used as a narcotic for the patient undergoing an operation. The advent of Islam introduced opium as a narcotic. Both oil and tar were used to stop bleeding. Traumatic bleeding was said to be stopped by four different methods ligation of the blood vessel; cauterisation by heat; using different herbal or animal preparations locally which could facilitate clotting; and different medical preparations which could constrict the bleeding or oozing vessels. Various oils could be used in a number of ways, including regular consumption as a part of food, anointing, smearing, head massage, and prescribed application to infected areas.[page needed]
Ensuring the proper functions of channels (srotas) that transport fluids from one point to another is a vital goal of ayurvedic medicine, because the lack of healthy srotas is thought to cause rheumatism, epilepsy, autism, paralysis, convulsions, and insanity. Practitioners induce sweating and prescribe steam-based treatments as a means to open up the channels and dilute the doshas that cause the blockages and lead to disease.
The mantra Om mani padme hum written on rocks. Chanting mantras has been a feature of ayurveda since the Atharvaveda, the vedic spiritual text, was compiled.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mune_wall_col.jpg
One view of the early history of ayurveda asserts that around 1500 BC, ayurveda's fundamental and applied principles got organized and enunciated. In this historical construction, Ayurveda traces its origins to the Vedas, Atharvaveda in particular, and is connected to Hindu religion. Atharvaveda (one of the four most ancient books of Indian knowledge, wisdom and culture) contains 114 hymns or formulations for the treatment of diseases. Ayurveda originated in and developed from these hymns. In this sense, ayurveda is considered by some to have divine origin. Indian medicine has a long history, and is one of the oldest organised systems of medicine. Its earliest concepts are set out in the sacred writings called the Vedas, especially in the metrical passages of the Atharvaveda, which may possibly date as far back as the 2nd millennium BC. According to a later writer, the system of medicine was received by Dhanvantari from Brahma, and Dhanvantari was deified as the god of medicine. In later times his status was gradually reduced, until he was credited with having been an earthly king named Divodasa.
Underwood & Rhodes (2008) hold that this early phase of traditional Indian medicine identified "fever (takman), cough, consumption, diarrhea, dropsy, abscesses, seizures, tumours, and skin diseases (including leprosy)". Treatment of complex ailments, including angina pectoris, diabetes, hypertension, and stones, also ensued during this period. Plastic surgery, couching (a form of cataract surgery), puncturing to release fluids in the abdomen, extraction of foreign elements, treatment of anal fistulas, treating fractures, amputations, cesarean sections, and stitching of wounds were known. The use of herbs and surgical instruments became widespread. The Charaka Samhita text is arguably the principal classic reference. It gives emphasis to the triune nature of each person: body care, mental regulation, and spiritual/consciousness refinement.
Other early works of ayurveda include the Charaka Samhita, attributed to Charaka. The earliest surviving excavated written material which contains references to the works of Sushruta is the Bower Manuscript, dated to the 6th century AD. The Bower manuscript is of special interest to historians due to the presence of Indian medicine and its concepts in Central Asia. Vagbhata, the son of a senior doctor by the name of Simhagupta, also compiled his works on traditional medicine. Early ayurveda had a school of physicians and a school of surgeons. Tradition holds that the text Agnivesh tantra, written by the sage Agnivesh, a student of the sage Bharadwaja, influenced the writings of ayurveda.
The Chinese pilgrim Fa Hsien (ca. 337–422 AD) wrote about the health care system of the Gupta empire (320–550) and described the institutional approach of Indian medicine, also visible in the works of Charaka, who mentions a clinic and how it should be equipped. Madhava (fl. 700), Sarngadhara (fl. 1300), and Bhavamisra (fl. 1500) compiled works on Indian medicine. The medical works of both Sushruta and Charaka were translated into the Arabic language during the Abbasid Caliphate (ca. 750). These Arabic works made their way into Europe via intermediaries. In Italy, the Branca family of Sicily and Gaspare Tagliacozzi (Bologna) became familiar with the techniques of Sushruta.
British physicians traveled to India to see rhinoplasty being performed by native methods. Reports on Indian rhinoplasty were published in the Gentleman's Magazine in 1794. Joseph Constantine Carpue spent 20 years in India studying local plastic surgery methods. Carpue was able to perform the first major surgery in the western world in 1815. Instruments described in the Sushruta Samhita were further modified in the Western World.
Up to 80% of people in India use either Ayurveda or other traditional medicines.
In 1970, the Indian Medical Central Council Act which aims to standardize qualifications for ayurveda and provide accredited institutions for its study and research was passed by the Parliament of India. In India, over 100 colleges offer degrees in traditional ayurvedic medicine. The Indian government supports research and teaching in ayurveda through many channels at both the national and state levels, and helps institutionalize traditional medicine so that it can be studied in major towns and cities. The state-sponsored Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS) has been set up to research the subject. To fight biopiracy and unethical patents, the Government of India, in 2001, set up the Traditional Knowledge Digital Library as repository of 1200 formulations of various systems of Indian medicine, such as ayurveda, unani and siddha. The library also has 50 traditional ayurveda books digitized and available online.
Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM) a statutory body established in 1971, under Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, monitors higher education in ayurveda. Many clinics in urban and rural areas are run by professionals who qualify from these institutes.
The Sri Lankan tradition of Ayurveda is very similar to the Indian tradition. Practitioners of Ayurveda in Sri Lanka refer to texts on the subject written in Sanskrit, which are common to both countries. However, they do differ in some aspects, particularly in the herbs used.
The Sri Lankan government has established a Ministry of Indigenous Medicine (established in 1980) to revive and regulate the practice within the country  The Institute of Indigenous Medicine (affiliated to the University of Colombo currently offers undergraduate, postgraduate, and MD degrees in the practice of Ayurveda Medicine and Surgery, and similar degrees in unani medicine. 
There are currently 62 Ayurvedic Hospitals and 208 central dispensaries in the public system, and they served almost 3 million people (approximately 11% of Sri Lanka's total population) in 2010. In total there are currently approximately 20,000 registered practitioners of Ayurveda in the country.
Many Sri Lankan hotels and resorts offer Ayurveda themed packages, where guests are treated to a wide array of Ayurveda treatments during their stay.
Outside South Asia
Due to different laws and medical regulations in the rest of the world, the unregulated practice and commercialization of ayurvedic medicine has raised ethical and legal issues; in some cases, this damages the reputation of ayurvedic medicine outside India.
There are two PubMed-indexed journals focusing on Ayurveda, the Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine (JAIM), and The International Journal for Ayurveda Research (IJAR)
As a traditional medicine, many ayurveda products have not been tested in rigorous scientific studies and clinical trials. In India, research in ayurveda is largely undertaken by the statutory body of the Central Government, the Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS), through a national network of research institutes. A systematic review of ayurveda treatments for rheumatoid arthritis concluded that there was insufficient evidence, as most of the trials were not done properly, and the one high-quality trial showed no benefits. A review of ayurveda and cardiovascular disease concluded that the evidence for ayurveda was not convincing, though some herbs seemed promising.
Two varieties of Salvia have been tested in small trials; one trial provided evidence that Salvia lavandulifolia (Spanish sage) may improve word recall in young adults, and another provided evidence that Salvia officinalis (Common sage) may improve symptoms in Alzheimer's patients. Many plants used as rasayana (rejuvenation) medications are potent antioxidants. Neem appears to have beneficial pharmacological properties.
Rasa shastra, the practice of adding metals, minerals or gems to herbs, is a source of toxic heavy metals such as lead, mercury and arsenic. Adverse reactions to herbs due to their pharmacology are described in traditional ayurvedic texts, but ayurvedic practitioners are reluctant to admit that herbs could be toxic and the reliable information on herbal toxicity is not readily available.
According to a 1990 study on ayurvedic medicines in India, 41% of the products tested contained arsenic, and 64% contained lead and mercury. A 2004 study found toxic levels of heavy metals in 20% of ayurvedic preparations made in South Asia and sold in the Boston area, and concluded that ayurvedic products posed serious health risks and should be tested for heavy-metal contamination. A 2008 study of more than 230 products found that approximately 20% of remedies (and 40% of rasa shastra medicines) purchased over the Internet from both US and Indian suppliers contained lead, mercury or arsenic.
Ayruvedic proponents believe that the toxicity of these materials is reduced through purification processes such as samskaras or shodhanas (for metals), similar to the Chinese pao zhi, although the ayurvedic technique is more complex and may involve prayers as well as physical pharmacy techniques. However, these products have nonetheless caused severe lead poisoning and other toxic effects.
Due to these concerns, the Government of India ruled that ayurvedic products must specify their metallic content directly on the labels of the product, but, writing on the subject for Current Science, a publication of the Indian Academy of Sciences, M. S. Valiathan noted that "the absence of post-market surveillance and the paucity of test laboratory facilities [in India] make the quality control of Ayurvedic medicines exceedingly difficult at this time.
^ Wells, John C. (2009). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. London: Pearson Longman.
^ a b c Chopra 2003, p. 75
^ a b c d "Ayurveda". New Delhi, India: Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India.
^ Wujastyk (2003)
^ a b Dwivedi & Dwivedi (2007)
^ (Fall 2005/Winter 2006). "A Closer Look at Ayurvedic Medicine". Focus on Complementary and Alternative Medicine (Bethesda, MD: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), US National Institutes of Health (NIH)) XII (4).[dead link]
^ a b c d Saper, R. B.; Phillips, R. S. et al (2008). "Lead, Mercury, and Arsenic in US- and Indian-manufactured ayurvedic Medicines Sold via the Internet". Journal of the American Medical Association 300 (: 915–923. doi:10.1001/jama.300.8.915. PMC 2755247. PMID 18728265.
^ a b c Valiathan, M. S. (2006). "Ayurveda: Putting the House in Order". Current Science (Indian Academy of Sciences) 90 (1): 5–6.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k Underwood & Rhodes (2008)
^ a b c d Chopra 2003, p. 76
^ a b (2008). "Ayurveda". Encarta. Redmond, WA: Microsoft. Archived from the original on October 31, 2009.
^ Sharma, A. K. (2003). "Panchkarma Therapy in Ayurvedic Medicine". In Mishra, Lakshmi Chandra. Scientific Basis for Ayurvedic Therapies. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. 43. ISBN 0-8493-1366-X.
^ a b Chopra 2003, p. 80
^ Dhanvantari. (2010). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved August 04, 2010, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/160641/Dhanvantari
^ Clifford, Terry (2003). Tibetan Buddhist Medicine and Psychiatry. 42. Motilal Banarsidass Publications. ISBN 81-208-1784-2.
^ a b c d Wujastyk, p. XVIII
^ a b c Chopra 2003, p. 79
^ Wujastyk, p. XX
^ Wujastyk, pp. XIX-XX
^ Kasulis, Thomas P.; Aimes, Roger T.; Dissanayake, Wimal (1993). Self as Body in Asian Theory and Practice. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. p. 104. ISBN 0-7914-1079-X.
^ Singh, P.B.; Pravin S. Rana (2002). Banaras Region: A Spiritual and Cultural Guide. Varanasi: Indica Books. p. 31. ISBN 81-86569-24-3.
^ Finger, p. 66
^ Lock et al., p. 836
^ a b Wujastyk, p. XXVI
^ Wujastyk, p. 224
^ Ṭhākara, Vināyaka Jayānanda (1989). Methodology of Research in Ayurveda. Jamnagar, India: Gujarat Ayurved University Press. p. 7.
^ Wujastyk, pp. XV-XVI
^ a b c Lock et al., p. 607
^ a b c Lock "et al., p. 651
^ a b Lock et al., p. 652
^ a b Paul I. Dargan, et al. (2008). "Heavy metal poisoning from Ayurvedic traditional medicines: an emerging problem?". Int. J. Environment and Health (Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.) 2 (3/4): 463–74. doi:10.1504/IJENVH.2008.020935. Retrieved 2011-10-05.
^ a b Wujastyk, p. XXII
^ Wujastyk, p. XVI
^ Traditional Knowledge Digital Library website.
^ "Know Instances of Patenting on the UES of Medicinal Plants in India". PIB, Ministry of Environment and Forests. May 6, 2010. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
^ 50 Ayurveda books online Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (Govt. of India)
^ CCIM. Ccimindia.org. Retrieved on 2011-08-29.
^ Skolnick, Andrew A. (1991). "The Maharishi Caper: Or How to Hoodwink Top Medical Journals". ScienceWriters (New York, NY: National Association of Science Writers) Fall. Archived from the original on Jul 16, 2008. Retrieved July 6, 2010.
^ Skolnick, A. A. (1991). "Maharishi Ayur-Veda: Guru's marketing scheme promises the world eternal 'perfect health'". JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association 266 (13): 1741–2. doi:10.1001/jama.266.13.1741. PMID 1817475.
^ National Policy on Traditional Medicine and Regulation of Herbal Medicines – Report of a WHO Global Survey
^ "Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine". homepage. Retrieved Aug 23, 20011.
^ "International Journal for Ayurveda Research". homepage. Retrieved May 1, 2009.
^ Moulisha Biswas, Kaushik Biswas, Tarun K Karan, Sanjib Bhattacharya, Ashoke K Ghosh, and Pallab K Haldar, Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Terminalia arjuna leaf, Journal of Phytology 2011, 3(1): 33-38.
^ "Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (Government of India)".
^ Park, J.; Ernst, E. (2005). "Ayurvedic Medicine for Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Systematic Review". Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism 34 (5): 705–713. doi:10.1016/j.semarthrit.2004.11.005. PMID 15846585.
^ Mamtani, R.; Mamtani, R. (2005). "Ayurveda and Yoga in Cardiovascular Diseases". Cardiology Review 13 (3): 155–162. doi:10.1097/01.crd.0000128730.31658.36. PMID 15834238.
^ Tildesley, N. T.; Kennedy, D. O.; Perry, E. K. et al (2003). "Salvia lavandulaefolia (Spanish Sage) Enhances Memory in Healthy Young Volunteers". Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 75 (3): 669–674. doi:10.1016/S0091-3057(03)00122-9. PMID 12895685.
^ Akhondzadeh, S.; Noroozian, M.; Mohammadi, M.; Ohadinia, S.; Jamshidi, A. H.; Khani M. (2003). "Salvia officinalis Extract in the Treatment of Patients with Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease: A Double Blind, Randomized and Placebo-controlled Trial". Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 28 (1): 53–59. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2710.2003.00463.x. PMID 12605619.
^ Govindarajan, R.; Vijayakumar, M.; Pushpangadan, P. (2005). "Antioxidant Approach to Disease Management and the Role of 'Rasayana' Herbs of Ayurveda". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 99 (2): 165–178. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.02.035. PMID 15894123.
^ Subapriya, R.; Nagini, S. (2005). "Medicinal Properties of Neem Leaves: A Review". Curr Med Chem Anticancer Agents 5 (2): 149–6. doi:10.2174/1568011053174828. PMID 15777222.
^ Urmila, T; Supriya, B. (2008). "Pharmacovigilance of Ayurvedic Medicines in India". Indian Journal of Pharmacology 40 (S1): 10–12.
^ Saper, R. B.; Kales, S. N.; Paquin, J. et al (2004). "Heavy Metal Content of Ayurveda Herbal Medicine Products". Journal of the American Medical Association 292 (23): 2868–2673. doi:10.1001/jama.292.23.2868. PMID 15598918.
^ a b Ellin, Abby (September 17, 2008). "Skin Deep: Ancient, but How Safe?". New York Times. Retrieved September 19, 2008. "A report in the August 27 issue of The Journal of the American Medical Association found that nearly 21% of 193 ayurvedic herbal supplements bought online, produced in both India and the United States, contained lead, mercury or arsenic."
^ Szabo, Liz (August 26, 2008). "Study Finds Toxins in Some Herbal Medicines". USA Today (McLean, VA: Gannett Co).
What is Ayurvedic Medicine
Chopra, Ananda S. (2003). "Āyurveda". In Selin, Helaine. Medicine Across Cultures: History and Practice of Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 75–83. ISBN 1-4020-1166-0.
Dwivedi, Girish; Dwivedi, Shridhar (2007). "History of Medicine: Sushruta – the Clinician – Teacher par Excellence". Indian Journal of Chest Diseases and Allied Sciences (Delhi, India: Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, U. of Delhi / National College of Chest Physicians) 49: 243–244. (Republished by National Informatics Centre, Government of India.)
Finger, Stanley (2001). Origins of Neuroscience: A History of Explorations into Brain Function. Oxford, England/New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514694-8.
Kutumbian, P. (1999). Ancient Indian Medicine. Andhra Pradesh, India: Orient Longman. ISBN 978-81-250-1521-5.
Lock, Stephen (2001). The Oxford Illustrated Companion to Medicine. Oxford U. Pr. ISBN 0-19-262950-6.
Underwood, E. Ashworth; Rhodes, P. (2008). "Medicine, History of". Encyclopædia Britannica (2008 ed.).
Wujastyk, D. (2003). The Roots of Ayurveda: Selections from Sanskrit Medical Writings. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-044824-1.
Drury, Col. Heber (1873). The Useful plants of India. William H Allen & Co., London. ISBN 1-4460-2372-9.
Hoernle, Rudolf August Friedrich (1907). Studies in the Medicine of Ancient India: Part I: Osteology. The Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Kishor Patwardhan 2008. Concepts of Human Physiology in Ayurveda, in Sowarigpa and Ayurveda, Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies, Sarnath, Varanasi. Samyak Vak Series-14, Editor: Pabitra Kumar Roy, pp. 53–73. ISBN 978-81-87127-76-5 Kishor Patwardhan Concepts of Human Physiology in Ayurveda