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 Gelsomino - Jasmine

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AutoreMessaggio
Tila
Iniziato Sciamano
Iniziato Sciamano


Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Gelsomino - Jasmine   Ven 18 Mag 2012 - 7:55


QUESTA SCHEDA CONTIENE INFORMAZIONI CHE POSSONO GENERARE SITUAZIONI DI PERICOLO E DANNI. I DATI PRESENTI HANNO SOLO UN FINE ILLUSTRATIVO E IN NESSUN CASO ESORTATIVO. PRIMA DI PROSEGUIRE SI PREGA DI LEGGERE ATTENTAMENTE LE AVVERTENZE.



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Buondì a tutti,

una leggenda narra che i fiori del gelsomino sono stelle cadute dal cielo; nella seconda parte di questa scheda scopriremo la sua smbologia e le leggende legate a questa meravigliosa pianta, che pur avendo un fiore delicato e profumatissimo scopriremo essere molto resistente alle basse temperature, usata anche in aromaterapia e nella medicina popolare.

Buona lettura.

FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jasminum

Jasminum
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Jasminum L. è un genere di piante (che include varie specie del gelsomino) appartenente alla famiglia delle Oleaceae.

Comprende circa 200 specie arbustive e rampicanti alte fino a 4-6 metri, tra cui le più note e coltivate come piante ornamentali sono: il Gelsomino comune (Jasminum officinale), il Gelsomino di Spagna (Jasminum grandiflorum), il J. azoricum e il J. polyanthum; specie più rustiche a fiore giallo e fioritura a fine inverno sui rami nudi, sono il J. nudiflorum e il J. primulinum.

I fiori sono comunemente piccoli e di colore bianco, però esistono anche specie i cui fiori hanno sfumature di rosa sulla pagina inferiore dei petali.

Alcune specie

Le specie più commercializzate sono:

Il J. officinale noto come 'gelsomino comune', pianta rampicante con piccoli fiori bianchi, con un odore caratteristico, resiste bene al gelo e in alcune zone del nostro paese si trova rinselvatichito allo stato spontaneo
Il J. grandiflorum noto come 'gelsomino di Spagna' a foglie persistenti e fiori grandi che sbocciano dalla primavera all'autunno, e nelle Regioni a clima mite anche d'inverno, è una pianta rampicante poco rustica adatta a climi miti, dove viene utilizzata per ricoprire pergole, muri, recinzioni
Il J. azoricum noto come 'gelsomino trifogliato', viene utilizzato come pianta ornamentale per ricoprire pergole, muri, recinzioni
Molto interessante il J. polyanthum noto come 'gelsomino bianco', pianta rampicante vigorosa e rustica alta fino a 6 m se coltivato in piena terra, che d'inverno e in primavera produce numerosi grappoli di fiori bianchi esternamente rosati, profumati
Il J. nudiflorum e il J. primulinum originari della Cina, a fiori gialli non profumati, piante sarmentose, dalle lunghe ramificazioni pendule, fiori ascellari che sbocciano a fine inverno inizio primavera.


Uso

Oggi i Jasminum vengono utilizzati come piante ornamentali, in piena terra nei giardini, come arbusti isolati, o per rivestire muri, recinzioni, pergolati. Un tempo si credeva avessero innumerevoli virtù officinali. Il famoso olio di gelsomino, che i Persiani offrivano agli invitati nei banchetti, si arricchisce da Dioscoride a Linneo d’una quantità di potenzialità terpeutiche legate alla sessualità. Per quanto lo Jasminum officinalis d’origine persiana fosse noto anche agli antichi greci e romani, il primo a coltivarlo davvero in Italia fu Cosimo I de Medici, che naturalmente ne aveva proibito la diffusione fuori dai giardini granducali[senza fonte]; l’Inghilterra dovrà addirittura aspettare il 1730, quando riceverà una pianta dal Malabar.
Nel frattempo si era diffuso anche lo Jasminum sambac di più facile coltura, che resta tranquillamente all’aperto nelle zone temperate. Ecco dunque coltivazioni industriali in Calabria e Sicilia (se ne ricavano profumi) ed una discreta presenza in tanti altri giardini nostrani.

Secondo l’aromaterapia il profumo di gelsomino sarebbe euforizzante e stimolerebbe direttamente l'ipotalamo a produrre l'enkefalina[senza fonte], sostanza che oltre ad inibire il dolore procura uno stato di benessere e di felicità. Il gelsomino dissolve le paure e le tensioni legate alla sessualità ed è tradizionalmente usato per curare i disturbi uterini e per facilitare il parto[senza fonte]. Nell'omeopatia, il gelsomino giallo viene usato contro l'influenza, il raffreddore, la cefalea e gli stati di confusione mentale, di shock, di paura del pubblico.[1]

Le sue virtù officinali sono state smentite dalla farmacopea moderna.

Metodi di coltivazione

Pur essendo piante rustiche preferiscono posizioni soleggiate, clima fresco e devono essere coltivate in vaso nelle zone a clima sfavorevole; richiedono terreno di medio impasto, sciolto e ben concimato nella bella stagione fino all'autunno e la somministrazione mensile di un fertilizzante liquido.

Nelle regioni a clima invernale rigido le specie meno rustiche vengono coltivate in vaso con appositi sostegni circolari, assumendo la forma di piccolo cespuglio alto circa 1 m, utilizzato per decorare terrazzi o appartamenti.

Per i soggetti coltivati in vaso, bisogna rinvasare o negli esemplari più grandi reinterrare in primavera, utilizzando terriccio universale; nella bella stagione si giovano dell'esposizione all'aperto.

La moltiplicazione avviene facilmente per mezzo di talea e propaggine, grazie al rapido radicamento.

Jasminum nell'arte

Nel cinema

Persepolis (Francia, 2007) di Marjane Satrapi e Vincent Paronnaud: suggestiva pioggia di gelsomini dal reggiseno della nonna.

Memorie di una geisha (2005) diretto da Rob Marshall: essenza usata da Hatsumomo, e dalla geisha in generale.

Nella pittura

Ramo di gelsomino bianco, inchiostro su seta di pittore cinese del XII secolo.



FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:FIORE_DEL_GELSOMINO.JPG

FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jasminum_officinale

Jasminum officinale
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jasminum_officinale_-_Bot._Mag._31,_1787.jpg

Jasminum officinale, commonly known as the common jasmine, is a species of jasmine, in the family Oleaceae, famous for its scent. It is also known as poet's jasmine or jessamine.

Garden history

Jasminum officinale is so ancient in cultivation that its country of origin, though somewhere in Central Asia, is not certain.[1] H.L. Li, The Garden Flowers of China,[2] notes that in the third century CE, jasmines identifiable as J. officinale and J. sambac were recorded among "foreign" plants in Chinese texts, and that in ninth century Chinese texts J. officinale was said to come from Byzantium. Its Chinese name, Yeh-hsi-ming is a version of the Persian and Arabic name.[3]

Its entry into European gardens was most likely through the Arab-Norman culture of Sicily, but, as the garden historian John Harvey has said, "surprisingly little is known, historically or archaeologically, of the cultural life of pre-Norman Sicily".[4] In the mid-14th century the Florentine Boccaccio in his Decameron describes a walled garden in which "the sides of the alleys were all, as it were, walled in with roses white and red and jasmine; insomuch that there was no part of the garden but one might walk there not merely in the morning but at high noon in grateful shade."[5] Jasmine water also features in the story of Salabaetto in the Decameron.[6] Jasminum officinale, "of the household office" where perfumes were distilled, was so thoroughly naturalized that Linnaeus thought it was native to Switzerland.[7] As a garden plant in London it features in William Turner's Names of Herbes, 1548.

Double forms, here as among many flowers, were treasured in the 16th and 17th centuries.

Medical uses

Jasminum officinale is also used as an essential oil in aromatherapy. It is specifically used in dermatology as either an antiseptic or anti-inflammatory agent. [8] Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum is a folk medicine used for the treatment of hepatitis in south of China. It has shown anti-viral activity in vitro.[9] The effect of an aqueous extract of fresh floral buds of Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum Linn. has been studied on female fertility in rats. The extract produced a significant decrease in serum progesterone levels. [10]

Jasmine absolute is known as the 'King of Oils', and its heavy, sweet scent is loved by most people. The flowers release their perfume at dusk, so flowers are picked at night and a tiny amount of oil is obtained by solvent extraction. The result is a very expensive oil, but it can be used in low concentrations so it is not that uneconomic to use it in products.

The aroma of jasmine is described as calming and soothing without being soporific, and is indicated for depression and stress - as well as some respiratory conditions. It is indicated for sensitive skin conditions too. But mostly jasmine has a reputation as an aphrodisiac and used for all kinds of sexual problems.

Safety: This oil can cause irritation in some people if used too frequently or in high concentrations, so use with caution, preferably in low concentrations. A major component of jasmine is benzyl acetate (~25%) which is known to be absorbed through the skin and known to be an allergic sensitiser. Those who show allergies to spicy food, perfumes and cosmetics are most likely to react. However, the power of the scent is such that only tiny amounts are required anyway.

Culture

Symbolism

It is widely recognised as the National flower of Pakistan.[citation needed]


References

^ Alice M. Coats, Garden Shrubs and Their Histories (1964) 1992, s.v. "Jasminum".
^ Li, The Garden Flowers of China, 1959, noted in Coats (1964) 1992.
^ Coats (1964) 1992.
^ John Harvey, Mediaeval gardens (1981:48).
^ Boccaccio, Decameron, third day.
^ "They then took from the basket silver vases of great beauty, some of which were filled with rose water, some with orange water, some with jasmine water, and some with lemon water, which they sprinkled upon them".
^ Noted in Coats (1964) 1992.
^ Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St. Louis: Mosby. pp. 2049. ISBN 1-4160-2999-0.
^ Zhao G., Yin Z., Dong J. ,"Antiviral efficacy against hepatitis B virus replication of oleuropein isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2009 125:2 (265-268)
^ Iqbal M., Ghosh A.K.M., Saluja A.K. "Antifertility activity of the floral buds of Jasminum officinale Var. grandiflorum in rats" Phytotherapy Research 1993 7:1 (5-Cool



FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jasminum_officinale.JPG


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jasminum_sambac

Jasminum sambac
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jasminum sambac is a species of jasmine native to South and Southeast Asia.[3] It is a small shrub or vine growing up to 0.5 to 3 m (1.6 to 9.8 ft) in height. It is widely cultivated for its attractive and sweetly fragrant flowers. The flowers are also used for perfumes and for making tea. It is known as the Arabian jasmine in English. It is the national flower of the Philippines, where it is known as sampaguita. It is also one of the three national flowers of Indonesia, where it is known as melati putih.

Description

Jasminum sambac is an evergreen vine or shrub reaching up to 0.5 to 3 m (1.6 to 9.8 ft) tall.[11] The species is highly variable, possibly a result of spontaneous mutation, natural hybridization, and autopolyploidy. Only a few varieties reproduce by seed in the wild. Cultivated Jasminum sambac generally do not bear seeds and the plant is reproduced solely by cuttings, layering, marcotting, and other methods of asexual propagation.[12][13][3]

The leaves are ovate, 4 to 12.5 cm (1.6 to 4.9 in) long and 2 to 7.5 cm (0.79 to 3.0 in) wide. The phyllotaxy is opposite or in whorls of three, simple (not pinnate, like most other jasmines).[14] They are smooth (glabrous) except for a few hairs at the venation on the base of the leaf.[12]

The flowers bloom all throughout the year and are produced in clusters of 3 to 12 together at the ends of branches.[13] They are strongly scented, with a white corolla 2 to 3 cm (0.79 to 1.2 in) in diameter with 5 to 9 lobes. The flowers open at night (usually around 6 to 8 in the evening), and close in the morning, a span of 12 to 20 hours.[3] The fruit is a purple to black berry 1 cm (0.39 in) in diameter.[12]

Importance

The Philippines

Jasminum sambac was adopted by the Philippine government as its national flower in 1934 by the then Governor General of the Philippines, Frank Murphy, through Proclamation No. 652.[17][18][19] Filipinos string the flowers into leis, corsages, and crowns.[20][21] These garlands are available as loose strings of blossoms or as tight clusters of buds. They are commonly sold by vendors outside churches and near stoplights.[22]

Jasminum sambac was the subject of the danza song La Flor de Manila, composed by Dolores Paterno in 1879 at the age of 25. The song was popular during the American Commonwealth of the Philippines and is now regarded as a Philippine romantic classic.[23]

Indonesia

Jasminum sambac (Indonesian: melati putih) is one of the three national flowers in Indonesia, the other two being the moon orchid and the giant padma.[18] Although the official adoption were announced only as recent as 1990 during World Environment Day and enforced by law through Presidential Decree No. 4 in 1993,[24] the importance of Jasminum sambac in Indonesian culture long predates its official adoption. Since the formation of Indonesian republic during the reign of Sukarno, melati putih is always unofficially recognized as the national flower of Indonesia. The reverence and its elevated status mostly due to the importance of this flower in Indonesian tradition since ancient times.

It has long been considered a sacred flower in Indonesian tradition, as it symbolizes purity, sacredness, graceful simplicity and sincerity. It also represents the beauty of modesty; a small and simple white flower that can produce such sweet fragrance. It is also the most important flower in wedding ceremonies for ethnic Indonesians, especially in the island of Java.[25] Jasmine flower buds that have not fully opened are usually picked to create strings of jasmine garlands (Javanese: roncen melati). On wedding days, a traditional Javanese or Sundanese bride's hair is adorned with strings of jasmine garlands arranged as a hairnet to cover the konde (hair bun). The intricately intertwined strings of jasmine garlands are left to hang loose from the bride's head. The groom's kris is also adorned with five jasmine garlands called roncen usus-usus (intestine garlands) to refer its intestine-like form and also linked to the legend of Arya Penangsang. In Makassar and Bugis brides, the hair is also adorned with buds of jasmine that resemble pearls. Jasmine is also used as floral offerings for hyangs, spirits and deities especially among Balinese Hindu, and also often present during funerals.

The jasmine has wide spectrums in Indonesian traditions; it is the flower of life, beauty and festive wedding, yet it is also often associated with spirit and death. In Indonesian patriotic songs and poems, the fallen melati often hailed as the representation of fallen heroes that sacrificed their life and died for the country, the very similar concept with fallen sakura that represent fallen heroes in Japanese tradition. The Ismail Marzuki's patriotic song "Melati di Tapal Batas" (jasmine on the border) (1947) and Guruh Sukarnoputra's "Melati Suci"[26] (sacred jasmine) (1974) clearly refer jasmine as the representation of fallen heroes, the eternally fragrance flower that adorned Ibu Pertiwi (Indonesian national personification). The Iwan Abdurachman's "Melati dari Jayagiri" (jasmine from Jayagiri mountain) refer jasmine as the representation of the pure unspoiled beauty of a girl and also a long lost love.

Cambodia

In Cambodia, the flower is used as an offering to the Buddha. During flowering season which begins in June, Cambodians thread the flower buds onto a wooden needle to be presented to the Buddha.[27]

China

In China, the flower is processed and used as the main ingredient in jasmine tea (茉莉花茶).[6] It is also the subject of the folk song Mo Li Hua, which was censored by the People's Republic of China due to its association with the 2011 Chinese pro-democracy protests.[28]

Hawaii

In Hawaii, the flower is known as pikake, and are used to make fragrant leis.[13] The name 'pikake' is derived from the Hawaiian word for "Peacock", because the Hawaiian Princess Kaʻiulani was fond of both the flowers and the bird.[13][19]

India and Middle East

It is one of the most commonly grown ornamentals in India and Bangladesh, where it is native.[19][11] They are used to make thick garlands used as hair adornments. In Oman, Jasminum sambac features prominently on a child's first birthday. Flowers are spinkled on the child's head by other children while chanting "hol hol". The fragrant flowers are also sold packed in between large leaves of the Indian almond (Terminalia catappa) and sewn together with strips of date palm leaves.[16]


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:My_Garden_Flower_10.JPG

FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jasmine

Jasmine
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jasminum (/ˈdʒæzmɨnəm/),[5] commonly known as jasmines, is a genus of shrubs and vines in the olive family (Oleaceae). It contains around 200 species native to tropical and warm temperate regions of the Old World. Jasmines are widely cultivated for the characteristic fragrance of their flowers.

Description

Jasmines can be either deciduous (leaves falling in autumn) or evergreen (green all year round), and can be erect, spreading, or climbing shrubs and vines. Their leaves are borne opposite or alternate. They can be simple, trifoliate, or pinnate. The flowers are typically around 2.5 cm (0.98 in) in diameter. They are white or yellow in color, although in rare instances they can be slightly reddish. The flowers are borne in cymose clusters with a minimum of three flowers, though they can also be solitary on the ends of branchlets. Each flower has about four to nine petals, two locules, and one to four ovules. They have two stamens with very short filaments. The bracts are linear or ovate. The calyx is bell-shaped. They are usually very fragrant. The fruits of jasmines are berries that turn black when ripe.[6][7]

The basic chromosome number of the genus is 13, and most species are diploid (2n=26). However, natural polyploidy exists, particularly in Jasminum sambac (2n=39), Jasminum flexile (2n=52), Jasminum primulinum (2n=39), and Jasminum angustifolium (2n=52).[6]

Distribution and habitat

Jasmines are native to tropical and subtropical regions of Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australasia.[8] Their center of diversity, however, is in South and Southeast Asia.[7]

Some species have common names that do not match their region of origin. Jasminum sambac, for example, has the English common names of "Arabian jasmine" or "Tuscan jasmine". However, it is not native to the Arabian peninsula or Western India as is commonly perceived. It is native to Southeast Asia.[6] The Spanish jasmine or Catalonian jasmine (Jasminum grandiflorum), is another example. It is not native to the Iberian peninsula but was originally from Iran (Persia) and western South Asia.[6]

Jasminum fluminense (which is sometimes known by the inaccurate name "Brazilian Jasmine") and Jasminum dichotomum (Gold Coast Jasmine) are invasive species in Hawaii and Florida.[9][10] Jasminum polyanthum also known as White Jasmine is an invasive weed in Australia. [11]

Taxonomy

Species belonging to genus Jasminum are classified under the tribe Jasmineae of the olive family (Oleaceae).[6] Jasminum is divided into five sections—Alternifolia, Jasminum, Primulina, Trifoliolata, and Unifoliolata.[4]

The genus name is derived from the Persian Yasameen ("gift from God") through Arabic and Latin.[12][13][14]

Species

Species include:

Jasminum abyssinicum Hochst. ex DC. – Forest jasmine
Jasminum adenophyllum Wall. – Pinwheel Jasmine, Bluegrape jasmine, Princess jasmine, Che vang, Lai la co tuyen[15]
Jasminum angulare Vahl
Jasminum auriculatum Vahl
Jasminum dichotomum Vahl – Gold Coast Jasmine[4]
Jasminum didymum Primarily Australian, with one subspecies occurring throughout the South Pacific and Australasia[16]
Jasminum fruticans L. – distributed in South France and mediterranean region [17]
Jasminum grandiflorum L. – Spanish Jasmine,[4] Royal Jasmine,[4] Catalonian Jasmine[4]
Jasminum humile L. – Italian Yellow Jasmine[4]
Jasminum lanceolarium Roxb.
Jasminum mesnyi Hance – Japanese Jasmine,[4] Primrose Jasmine,[4] Yellow Jasmine[4]
Jasminum multiflorum Hance – Indian Jasmine, Winter Jasmine[4]
Jasminum multipartitum Hochst. – Starry Wild Jasmine
Jasminum nervosum Lour.
Jasminum nudiflorum Lindl. – Winter Jasmine
Jasminum odoratissimum L. – Yellow Jasmine[4]
Jasminum officinale L. – Common Jasmine,[4] Poet's Jasmine,[4] jasmine,[4] jessamine[4]
Jasminum parkeri Dunn – Dwarf Jasmine[18]
Jasminum polyanthum Franch.
Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton – Arabian Jasmine or Sampaguita.[4][19]
Jasminum sinense Hemsl.
Jasminum urophyllum Hemsl.

Cultivation and uses

Widely cultivated for its flowers, jasmine is enjoyed in the garden, as a house plant, and as cut flowers. The flowers are worn by women in their hair in southern and southeast Asia. The delicate jasmine flower opens only at night and may be plucked in the morning when the tiny petals are tightly closed, then stored in a cool place until night. The petals begin to open between six and eight in the evening, as the temperature lowers.

Jasmine tea

Jasmine tea is consumed in China, where it is called jasmine-flower tea (茉莉花茶; pinyin: mò lì huā chá). Jasminum sambac flowers are also used to make jasmine tea, which often has a base of green tea, but sometimes an Oolong base is used. Flowers and tea are "mated" in machines that control temperature and humidity. It takes four hours or so for the tea to absorb the fragrance and flavour of the jasmine blossoms, and for the highest grades, this process may be repeated as many as seven times. Because the tea has absorbed moisture from the flowers, it must be refired to prevent spoilage. The spent flowers may or may not be removed from the final product, as the flowers are completely dry and contain no aroma. Giant fans are used to blow away and remove the petals from the denser tea leaves. If present, they simply add visual appeal and are no indication of the quality of the tea.

In Okinawa, Japan, jasmine tea is known as sanpin cha (さんぴん茶).

Jasmine syrup

Jasmine syrup, made from jasmine flowers, is used as a flavouring.

Jasmine essential oil

Jasmine essential oil is in common use. Its flowers are either extracted by the labour-intensive method of enfleurage or through chemical extraction. It is expensive due to the large number of flowers needed to produce a small amount of oil. The flowers have to be gathered at night because the odour of jasmine is more powerful after dark. The flowers are laid out on cotton cloths soaked in olive oil for several days and then extracted leaving the true jasmine essence. Some of the countries producing jasmine essential oil are India, Egypt, China and Morocco.

Jasmine absolute used in perfume and incense

Many species also yield an absolute, which is used in perfumes and incense. Its chemical constituents include methyl anthranilate, indole, benzyl alcohol, linalool, and skatole.

Jasmonates

Jasmine gave name to the jasmonate plant hormones as methyl jasmonate isolated from the jasmine oil of Jasminum grandiflorum led to the discovery of the molecular structure of jasmonates.[20]

Cultural importance


The White Jasmine Branch, painting of ink and color on silk by Chinese artist Zhao Chang, early 12th century
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chinesischer_Maler_des_12._Jahrhunderts_%28I%29_001.jpg

Throughout India, especially in the western and southern states, including Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, jasmine (along with many other flowers, including roses) is cultivated in private homes, within gardens or as potted plants. These flowers are used in regular worship at home as well as for hair ornaments (for the girls and women of the house). Jasmine is also cultivated commercially, for both the domestic purposes discussed above and other purposes (such as use in the perfume industry). It is used in rituals like marriages, religious ceremony, and festivals. In the Chandan Yatra of lord Jagannath, the deity is bathed with water flavored in sandalwood paste and jasmine.

Jasmine flower vendors selling ready-made garlands of jasmine, or in the case of the thicker motiyaa (in Hindi) or mograa (in Marathi) varietal, bunches of jasmine, as well as flowers by weight, are a common sight on city streets in many parts of India. They may be found around entrances to temples, on major thoroughfares, and in major business areas (including bus stands). This is common as far north as Mumbai, and generally from Maharashtra southward through all of South India. Jasmine vendors may also be found in Kolkata, though roadside sales are fewer there, since in North India women and girls generally, by tradition, do not wear flowers in their hair.

A change in presidency in Tunisia in 1987[21][22] and the Tunisian Revolution of 2011 are both called "Jasmine revolutions" in reference to the flower. Jasmine flowers were also used as a symbol during the 2011 Chinese pro-democracy protests in the People's Republic of China.

In Syria, jasmine is the symbolic flower of Damascus, which is called the City of Jasmine. In Thailand, jasmine flowers are used as a symbol for motherhood.

"Jasmine" is also popular feminine given name in many countries.

Jasmine as the national flower

Several countries and states consider jasmine as a national symbol. They are the following:

Hawaii: Jasminum sambac ("pikake") is perhaps the most popular of flowers. It is often strung in leis and is the subject of many songs.
Indonesia: Jasminum sambac is the national flower, adopted in 1990. It goes by the name "melati putih" and is the most important flower in wedding ceremonies for ethnic Indonesians, especially in the island of Java.
Pakistan: Jasminum officinale is known as the "chambeli" or "yasmin", it is the national flower.
Philippines: Jasminum sambac is the national flower. Adopted in 1935, it is known as "sampaguita" in the islands. It is usually strung in garlands which are then used to adorn religious images.


References

^ "Jasminum". Index Nominum Genericorum. International Association for Plant Taxonomy. Retrieved 2008-06-03.
^ "10. Jasminum Linnaeus". Chinese Plant Names 15: 307. Retrieved 2008-06-03.
^ UniProt. "Jasminum!" (HTML). Retrieved 2008-06-03.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. "Jasminum L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607.
^ a b c d e A.K. Singh (2006). Flower Crops: Cultivation and Management. New India Publishing. pp. 193–205. ISBN 978-81-89422-35-6.
^ a b H. Panda (2005). Cultivation and Utilization of Aromatic Plants. National Institute Of Industrial Research. p. 220. ISBN 978-81-7833-027-3.
^ Ernst Schmidt, Mervyn Lötter, & Warren McCleland (2002). Trees and shrubs of Mpumalanga and Kruger National Park. Jacana Media. p. 530. ISBN 978-1-919777-30-6.
^ "Jasminum fluminense". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA.
^ "Jasminum dichotomum". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA.
^ "Weeds of the Blue Mountains Bushland - Jasminum polyanthum".
^ "jasmine, -in, jessamine, -in", OED
^ "jasmine." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
^ Metcalf, 1999, p. 123.
^ Bluegrape jasmine
^ Whistler, W. Arthur (1978). "Vegetation of the Montane Region of Savai'i, Western Samoa". Pacific Science (The University Press of Hawai'i) 32 (1): 90. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
^ http://www.tela-botanica.org/eflore/BDNFF/4.02/nn/36285/
^ "Jasminum parkeri". NC State University. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
^ Ginés López González (2006) (in Spanish). Los árboles y arbustos de la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares: especies silvestres y las principales cultivadas (2 ed.). Mundi-Prensa Libros. p. 1295. ISBN 978-84-8476-272-0.
^ Demole E; Lederer, E.; Mercier, D. (1962). "Isolement et détermination de la structure du jasmonate de méthyle, constituant odorant caractéristique de l'essence de jasmin". Helv Chim Acta 45 (2): 675–85. doi:10.1002/hlca.19620450233.
^ Michael, Ayari; Vincent Geisser (2011). "Tunisie : la Révolution des "Nouzouh"* n'a pas l'odeur du jasmin" (in French). Témoignage chrétien. Archived from the original on 2011-03-14. Retrieved 2011-03-14.
^ "La révolution par le feu et par un clic" (in French). Le Quotidien d'Oran/moofid.com. 2011-02-25. Archived from the original on 2011-03-14. Retrieved 2011-03-14.

Further reading

"Jasminum Linn". Flora of Pakistan: 12. Retrieved 2008-06-03.
Metcalf, Allan A. (1999). The World in So Many Words. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-95920-9.


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jasminum_sambac_%27Grand_Duke_of_Tuscany%27.jpg


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jasminum_officinale-IMG_3470.jpg
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