Buon pomeriggio, grazie a dei rituali gli sciamani degli Ojibway riescono ad esercitare il controllo sui fenomeni atmosferici...di seguito altre curiosità sulla loro cultura. Dei documenti di Wikipedia riporto solo qualche stralcio perciò se ne consiglia la visione anche alla fonte originale.
(altre varianti del nome: Ojibwa e Ojibwe) sono una tribù di nativi americani appartenente al gruppo linguistico algonchino, un tempo stanziata nell'odierno stato del Michigan e sulle coste settentrionali del Lago Superiore e del lago Huron, chiamati impropriamente dai bianchi Chippewa
Erano cacciatori, raccoglitori di riso selvatico, il loro cibo principale, e coltivatori di mais.
L'abitazione degli Ojibwa era il wigwam
, una casetta creata da pali di legno ripiegati ad arco e ricoperti con legno o corteccia, pellami o stuoie intrecciate. Spesso erano presenti anche dei pali esterni per aiutare a mantenere ferme le stuoie. Queste in estate potevano venire arrotolate verso l'alto in modo che l'aria potesse circolare e rinfrescare l'interno. Tutte le case avevano aperture per la porta e in alto per lasciar fuoriuscire il fumo del fuoco.
Gli Ojibway davano molta importanza agli sciamani, perché potevano fondare le società segrete, un tipo di organizzazione per loro molto importante. Gli Ojibwa usavano incidere su scorze d'albero pitture rappresentanti i fatti notevoli, le cerimonie praticate e le gesta del loro eroe culturale, Manabozho (Coniglio Grande).
Praticavano la magia omeopatica che consisteva nel procurare danni al nemico, infilzando, con una freccia o con qualche altro attrezzo puntuto, una sua immagine rappresentativa costruita con il legno, in modo da trasmettergli contemporaneamente un dolore lancinante nell'organo colpito, oppure provocare la morte della vittima, bruciando o seppellendo la statuina; tutti questi riti erano accompagnati dalla enunciazione di formule magiche
Gli sciamani esercitavano, a beneficio della tribù, il controllo sui fenomeni atmosferici e sugli astri. Gli Ojibway erano convinti che l'eclissi fosse il segnale di esaurimento della vita del sole, quindi, durante questo evento, lanciavano in cielo frecce colorate con la speranza di riaccendere la fiamma della stella.
Divennero conosciuti in Europa grazie ad alcuni scritti e racconti dei loro capi, tradotti in inglese dai giornali americani tra il 1860 e il 1875. Durante le guerre indiane furono alleati dei Francesi e barattarono con essi pelli di castoro e di altri animali contro armi da fuoco che usavano per sospingere i Sioux verso Ovest. Gli Ojibway presero parte all'insurrezione di Pontiac negli ultimi anni del XVIII secolo. Alcuni di loro si stanziarono più ad ovest dei Grandi Laghi, affiancandosi ai Cree, anch'essi di lingua algonghina, e diventando noti con il nome di Saulteaux; altri ancora si spostarono più direttamente nelle Grandi Pianure dove furono chiamati con il nome di Bungee. I circa 80.000 sopravvissuti attualmente vivono nelle riserve degli Stati del Minnesota, del Wisconsin, del Dakota, del Michigan, del Canada.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Rocky_Boy_Chippewa_chief.jpg
), or Chippewa
are one of the largest groups of Native Americans and First Nations on the North American continent. There are Ojibwe communities in both Canada and the United States. In Canada, they are the second-largest population among First Nations, surpassed only by the Cree. In the United States, they have the fourth-largest population among Native American tribes, surpassed only by the Navajo, Cherokee and Lakota.
Because many Ojibwe were formerly located around the outlet of Lake Superior, which the French colonists called Sault Ste. Marie
for its rapids, the early Canadian settlers referred to the Ojibwe as Saulteurs
. Ojibwe who subsequently moved to the prairie provinces of Canada have retained the name Saulteaux
. This is disputed, as some scholars believe only the name migrated west.
Ojibwe who were originally located along the Mississagi River and made their way to southern Ontario are known as the Mississaugas
The Ojibwe Peoples are a major component group of the Anishinaabe-speaking peoples, a branch of the Algonquian language family. The Anishinaabe peoples include the Algonquin, Nipissing, Oji-Cree, Odawa and the Potawatomi. The majority of the Ojibwe peoples live in Canada. There are 77,940 mainline Ojibwe; 76,760 Saulteaux and 8,770 Mississaugas, organized in 125 bands, and living from western Quebec to eastern British Columbia. Ojibwe in the U.S. number over 56,440, living in an area stretching across the northern tier from New York west to Montana.
They are historically known for their crafting of birch bark canoes, sacred birch bark scrolls, use of cowrie shells for trading, cultivation of wild rice, and use of copper arrow points
. In 1745 they adopted guns from the British to defeat the Dakota in the Lake Superior area, pushing them to the south and west.
The Ojibwe Nation was the first to set the agenda with European-Canadian leaders by signing detailed treaties before they allowed many European settlers into their western areas. Their Midewiwin Society is well respected as the keeper of detailed and complex scrolls of events, oral history, songs, maps, memories, stories, geometry, and mathematics.
Pre-contact and spiritual beliefs
According to their tradition, and from recordings in birch bark scrolls, many Ojibwe came from the eastern Asian areas to North America, which they called [Turtle Islands, Torres straits], from along the east Pacific Ocean. They traded widely across the continent for thousands of years as they migrated across continents, and knew of the canoe routes to move north, west to east, and then south in the Americas. The identification of the Ojibwe as a culture or people may have occurred in response to contact with Europeans. The Europeans preferred to deal with bounded groups and tried to identify those they encountered.
According to the oral history, seven great miigis
(radiant/iridescent) beings appeared to the peoples in the Waabanakiing
(Land of the Dawn, i.e., Eastern Land) to teach them the mide
way of life. One of the seven great miigis
beings was too spiritually powerful and killed the peoples in the Waabanakiing
when they were in its presence. The six great miigis
beings remained to teach, while the one returned into the ocean. The six great miigis
beings established doodem
(clans) for the peoples in the east, symbolized by animal, fish or bird species. The five original Anishinaabe doodem
were the Wawaazisii
(Echo-maker, i.e., Crane), Aan'aawenh
(Pintail Duck), Nooke
(Tender, i.e., Bear) and Moozoonsii
(Little Moose), then these six miigis
beings returned into the ocean as well. If the seventh miigis
being stayed, it would have established the Thunderbird doodem
At a later time, one of these miigis
appeared in a vision to relate a prophecy. It said that if the Anishinaabeg did not move further west, they would not be able to keep their traditional ways alive because of the many new settlements and pale-skinned peoples who would arrive soon in the east. Their migration path would be symbolized by a series of smaller Turtle Islands, which was confirmed with miigis
shells (i.e., cowry shells). After receiving assurance from their "Allied Brothers" (i.e., Mi'kmaq) and "Father" (i.e., Abenaki) of their safety to move inland, the Anishinaabeg gradually migrated west along the Saint Lawrence River to the Ottawa River to Lake Nipissing, and then to the Great Lakes.
The first of the smaller Turtle Islands was Mooniyaa
, where Mooniyaang
(present-day Montreal) developed. The "second stopping place" was in the vicinity of the Wayaanag-gakaabikaa
(Concave Waterfalls, i.e., Niagara Falls). At their "third stopping place," near the present-day city of Detroit, Michigan, the Anishinaabeg divided into six groups, of which the Ojibwe was one.
The first significant new Ojibwe culture-centre was their "fourth stopping place" on Manidoo Minising
(Manitoulin Island). Their first new political-centre was referred to as their "fifth stopping place," in their present country at Baawiting
(Sault Ste. Marie).
Continuing their westward expansion, the Ojibwe divided into the "northern branch," following the north shore of Lake Superior, and "southern branch," along its south shore.
As the peoples continued to migrate westward, the "northern branch" divided into a "westerly group" and a "southerly group". The "southern branch" and the "southerly group" of the "northern branch" came together at their "sixth stopping place" on Spirit Island (
46°41′15″N 092°11′21″W / 46.68750°N 92.18917°W / 46.68750; -92.18917) located in the Saint Louis River estuary at the western end of Lake Superior. (This has since been developed as the present-day Duluth/Superior cities.) The people were directed in a vision by the miigis
being to go to the "place where there is food (i.e., wild rice) upon the waters." Their second major settlement, referred as their "seventh stopping place", was at Shaugawaumikong (or Zhaagawaamikong
, French, Chequamegon
) on the southern shore of Lake Superior, near the present La Pointe, Wisconsin.
The "westerly group" of the "northern branch" migrated along the Rainy River, Red River of the North, and across the northern Great Plains until reaching the Pacific Northwest. Along their migration to the west, they came across many miigis
, or cowry shells, as told in the prophecy.
The Ojibwe live in groups (otherwise known as "bands"). Most Ojibwe, except for the Great Plains bands, lived a sedentary lifestyle, engaging in fishing and hunting to supplement the women's cultivation of numerous varieties of maize and squash, and the harvesting of manoomin
(wild rice). Their typical dwelling was the wiigiwaam
(wigwam), built either as a waginogaan
(domed-lodge) or as a nasawa'ogaan
(pointed-lodge), made of birch bark, juniper bark and willow saplings.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Eastman_Johnson_-_Ojibwe_Wigwam_at_Grand_Portage_-_ebj_-_fig_22_pg_41.jpg
They developed a form of pictorial writing, used in religious rites of the Midewiwin
and recorded on birch bark scrolls and possibly on rock. The many complex pictures on the sacred scrolls communicate much historical, geometrical, and mathematical knowledge. Ceremonies also used the miigis
shell (cowry shell), which is found naturally in distant coastal areas. Their use of such shells demonstrates there was a vast trade network across the continent at some time. The use and trade of copper across the continent has also been proof of a large trading network that took place for thousands of years, as far back as the Hopewell tradition. Certain types of rock used for spear and arrow heads were also traded over large distances. The use of petroforms, petroglyphs, and pictographs was common throughout the Ojibwe traditional territories. Petroforms and medicine wheels were a way to teach the important concepts of four directions and astronomical observations about the seasons, and to use as a memorizing tool for certain stories and beliefs.
During the summer months, the people attend jiingotamog
for the spiritual and niimi'idimaa
for a social gathering (pow-wows or "pau waus") at various reservations in the Anishinaabe-Aki
(Anishinaabe Country). Many people still follow the traditional ways of harvesting wild rice, picking berries, hunting, making medicines, and making maple sugar. Many of the Ojibwe take part in sun dance ceremonies across the continent. The sacred scrolls are kept hidden away until those who are worthy and respect them are given permission to see and interpret them properly.
The Ojibwe would not bury their dead in a burial mound. Many erect a jiibegamig
or a "spirit-house" over each mound. A traditional burial mound would typically have a wooden marker, inscribed with the deceased's doodem
(clan sign). Because of the distinct features of these burials, Ojibwe graves have been often looted by grave robbers. In the United States, many Ojibwe communities safe-guard their burial mounds through the enforcement of the 1990 Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act.
As with various other North American peoples, the Ojibwe culture includes a third gender. Ojibwe Two-Spirit women take on men’s roles, classified as either "Iron Woman" or "Half Sky". Generally two-spirit men practiced Shamanism and it was taboo for women to take on this role, but a two-spirit following this path was called an Iron Woman. The Half Sky two-spirit would be physically good at a man’s trade (like hunting). Also, there is an instance when a wife becomes a widow and takes on her husband’s manly deeds; this woman is called a "Woman Covered All Over". (Landes 153, 176, 178-179, and Merriam- Webster Dictionary).
Several Ojibwe bands in the United States cooperate in the Great Lakes Indian Fish & Wildlife Commission, which manages the treaty hunting and fishing rights in the Lake Superior-Lake Michigan areas. The commission follows the directives of U.S. agencies to run several wilderness areas. Some Minnesota Ojibwe tribal councils cooperate in the 1854 Treaty Authority, which manages their treaty hunting and fishing rights in the Arrowhead Region. In Michigan, the Chippewa-Ottawa Resource Authority manages the hunting, fishing and gathering rights about Sault Ste. Marie, and the resources of the waters of lakes Michigan and Huron. In Canada, the Grand Council of Treaty #3 manages the Treaty 3 hunting and fishing rights related to the area around Lake of the Woods.
The Ojibwe have a number of spiritual beliefs passed down by oral tradition under the Midewiwin teachings. These include a creation story and a recounting of the origins of ceremonies and rituals. Spiritual beliefs and rituals were very important to the Ojibwe because spirits guided them through life. Birch bark scrolls and petroforms were used to pass along knowledge and information, as well as for ceremonies. Pictographs were also used for ceremonies.
The sweatlodge is still used during important ceremonies about the four directions, when oral history is recounted. Teaching lodges are common today to teach the next generations about the language and ancient ways of the past. The traditional ways, ideas, and teachings are preserved and practiced in such living ceremonies.
The Ojibwe crafted the dreamcatcher. They believe that if one is hung above the head of a sleeper, it will catch and trap bad dreams, preventing them from reaching the dreamer. Traditional Ojibwe use dreamcatchers only for children, as they believe that adults should be able to interpret their dreams, good or bad, and use them in their lives.