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 Il lupo: Guida e guardiano degli altri mondi

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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il lupo: Guida e guardiano degli altri mondi   Gio 8 Lug 2010 - 14:57

Un omaggio a tutti i lupacchiotti...


La storia di Cappuccetto Rosso
(raccontata dal Lupo)

"La foresta era la mia casa: ci vivevo e ne avevo cura. Cercavo di tenerla linda e pulita.
Quando un giorno di sole, mentre stavo ripulendo della spazzatura che un camper aveva lasciato dietro di sé, udii dei passi.
Con un salto mi nascosi dietro un albero e vidi una ragazzina piuttosto insignificante che scendeva lungo il sentiero portando un cestino.
Sospettai subito di lei perché vestiva in modo buffo, tutta in rosso, con la testa celata come se non volesse farsi riconoscere.
Naturalmente mi fermai per controllare chi fosse: le chiesi chi era, dove stava andando e cose del genere.
Mi raccontò che stava andando a casa di sua nonna a portarle il pranzo.
Mi sembrò una persona fondamentalmente onesta, ma si trovava nella mia foresta e certamente appariva sospetta con quello strano cappellino.
Così decisi di insegnarle semplicemente quanto era pericoloso attraversare la foresta senza farsi annunciare e vestita in modo così buffo.
La lasciai andare per la sua strada ma corsi avanti a casa di sua nonna.
Quando vidi quella simpatica vecchietta le spiegai il mio problema e lei acconsentì che sua nipote aveva immediatamente bisogno di una lezione.
Fu d'accordo di stare fuori dalla casa fino a che non l'avessi chiamata, di fatto si nascose sotto il letto.
Quando arrivò la ragazza la invitai nella camera da letto mentre io mi ero coricato vestito come sua nonna.
La ragazza, tutta bianca e rossa, entrò e disse qualcosa di poco simpatico sulle mie grosse orecchie.
Ero già stato insultato prima di allora, così feci del mio meglio suggerendole che le mie grosse orecchie mi avrebbero permesso di udirla meglio.
Ora, quello che volevo dire era che mi piaceva e volevo prestare molta attenzione a ciò che stava dicendo, ma lei fece un altro commento sui miei occhi sporgenti.
Adesso puoi immaginare quello che cominciai a provare per questa ragazza, che mostrava un aspetto così carino ma che era evidentemente una bella antipatica.
E ancora, visto che per me è ormai un atteggiamento acquisito porgere l'altra guancia, le dissi che i miei grossi occhi mi servivano per vederla meglio.
L'insulto successivo mi ferì veramente: ho infatti questo problema dei denti grossi.
E quella ragazzina fece un commento insultante riferito a loro.
Lo so che avrei dovuto controllarmi, ma saltai giù dal letto e ringhiai che i miei denti mi sarebbero serviti per mangiarla meglio!
Adesso, diciamoci la verità, nessun lupo mangerebbe mai una ragazzina, tutti lo sanno; ma quella pazza di una ragazza incominciò a correre per la casa urlando, con me che la inseguivo per cercare di calmarla.
Mi ero tolto i vestiti della nonna, ma è stato peggio.
Improvvisamente la porta si aprì di schianto ed ecco un grosso guardiacaccia con un'ascia...
Lo guardai e fu chiaro che ero nei pasticci...
C'era una finestra aperta dietro di me e scappai fuori.
Mi piacerebbe dire che è la fine di tutta la faccenda, ma quella nonna non raccontò mai la mia versione della storia.
Dopo poco cominciò a circolare la voce che io ero un tipo cattivo e antipatico e tutti incominciarono a evitarmi.
Non so più niente della ragazzina con quel buffo cappuccio rosso, ma dopo quel fatto non ho più vissuto felicemente".


"La storia di Cappuccetto Rosso raccontata dal Lupo" è di Lief Fearn; la traduzione di S. Bacciocchi;
il testo è tratto dal "Manuale per educatori" distribuito alla mostra interattiva sul pregiudizio "Gli altri siamo noi", a cura di "Tamburi di pace", Roma, 1998, su concessione di "Pace e dintorni" di Milano
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il lupo: Guida e guardiano degli altri mondi   Mer 14 Lug 2010 - 14:57

Uno stralcio dal libro che troverete recensito in questo link...... e qualche video buona visione e buona lettura Very Happy

FONTE: Animali e spiritualità. La convivenza con l'uomo. Sacrifici rituali e miti. Spiriti e simboli animali di Saunders Nicholas J. Ed. EDT

Il lupo è un animale potente e pericoloso,ma non ha gli artigli affilati né le mandibole attagliananti dei grandi felini e uccide animali più grandi di lui solo in virtù del suo spirito di cooperazione.

Il lupo vive infatti in branchi strutturati come tribù, con un capo e diversi subordinati, ed è sua abitudine rincorrere a lungo la sua preda, per poi colpirla con attacchi concertati allo scopo di confonderla e sfinirla. Forse è la concorrenza che faceva ai primi uomini - i quali cacciavano e vivevano in modo pressochè simile - che ha portato molte culture a vedere in esso un'incarnazione del male.

L'immagine del lupo predatore rapace tornò utile agli sciamani nelle società primitive di cacciatori: gli sciamani lapponi potevano "diventare" lupi, quelli tungu sono tuttora posseduti da uno spirito-lupo e altre culture sciamaniche narrano di stregoni che ricevevano la chiamata da una donna camuffata da lupo.




while i was in Montana there was a grizzly bear and wolf habitat.
i stopped to see the wolves, and got them on tape howling.


Per chi ama gli animali pucciosi...dal Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo



All'interno del territorio dell'Ente Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo Lazio e Molise sono stati avvistati 5 cuccioli di lupo, il video mostra come essi godano di ottima salute mentre svolgono attività ludiche.


Ultima modifica di Tila il Mar 28 Dic 2010 - 20:37, modificato 1 volta
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il lupo: Guida e guardiano degli altri mondi   Ven 13 Ago 2010 - 12:49

FONTE: http://asterling.typepad.com/incipit_vita_nova/science/

Dire Wolf: It Stands to Reason


The dire wolf, or canis dirus is only one of the many large animal species or "megafauna" that became extinct in North America about 11,500 years ago. One long-held belief popularly communicated, with a number of scientific adherents, is that the megafauna died out because they were hunted out of existence by the amazing Clovis people.

The dire wolf was slightly larger than today's timber wolf, with shorter legs and a more powerful jaw. Its teeth are noticably larger than the wolves of today, and it also had proportionately, a slightly smaller braincase. It's difficult to understand how hunter-gathering people could have selectively "wiped out" the dire wolf, and not the "regular" or timber wolf.

Interestingly, scientists have discovered a "black mat" comprised primarily of dead vegetation and algae that marks the extinction "barrier" in North America ca 10,900 YA. The mat is currently being studied by C. Vance Haynes at the University of Arizona, Tucson and others. Dr. Haynes first published a survey and preliminary analysis of the "black mat" in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in 2008.

Dr. Haynes wrote, "This layer or mat covers the Clovis-age landscape or surface on which the last remnants of the terminal Pleistocene megafauna are recorded. Stratigraphically and chronologically the extinction appears to have been catastrophic, seemingly too sudden and extensive for either human predation or climate change to have been the primary cause."

Dr. Haynes believes there is a possibility of an extraterrestrial extinction event (meteor, comet or "other") that may have led to the sudden, drastic changes in the numbers, types of and distribution of large animals in North America - the "event" seems to have taken place during a less-than 100 year period. And interestingly to the "human hunters killed all the big animals" hypothesis, the "black mat" (and previously, logic) should put paid to that theory. The amazing Clovis hunters do not appear above the black mat any more than dire wolves and woolly mammoths do.

Another word for the extinction event is "rancholabrean," which refers to the world-famous and ever-so-smelly La Brea tar pits in Los Angeles. The tar pits are adjacent to the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA) on Wilshire Blvd. This is a very nice area full of art galleries, parks, nice apartments and housing, and a seemingly inexhaustible supply of well-preserved bones of creatures living right up to the extinction event and beyond. Many people might not know that, not so long ago, especially in geologic terms, there was an American camel, and a species of horse that became extinct, with horses only returning to North America when brought by European explorers in the 16th century. Other less well-known extinct megafauna include an American lion, which is morphologically very similar to the African lion of today, and the short-faced bear, a whopping animal larger than both polar bears and grizzlies. Many people have probably heard of the giant ground sloth, which stood 9 feet tall and weighed up to 3,500 pounds. There are also many animals that still exist today found in the La Brea tar pits, including the gray fox, timber wolf, coyote, a larger version of the American bison, and armadillos and peccaries.

The connection between the arrival of the Clovis people in North America and the sudden mass extinction of many large animals, was automatically assumed to be "cause and effect." The hunters quickly "hunted out" these large animals, causing a mass extinction event. This hypothesis is easily disproved by showing how large and numerous animal extinctions are not closely tied to human predation in other environments -- notably, Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Europe, and the Middle East.

It is equally, and perhaps more valid to investigate the possibility that climate change enabled the Clovis people to cross into North America, and continued climate change or a sudden natural/"extraterrestrial" disaster led to the destruction of many animal species, particularly the larger ones. As the climate changed, the Clovis people fell prey to the same problem that the "megafauna" had -- whatever it may have been. One would think that it would have been instantly evident to the scientists, and others, who have been so convinced that the Clovis hunters entered north America only to immediately slaughter every large animal, that other large animals survived very successfully - animals very similar to those that did go extinct: like the dire wolf.
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il lupo: Guida e guardiano degli altri mondi   Mer 1 Set 2010 - 16:06

A proposito di licantropia e di effetti dellaluna....ho trovato questo bell'articoletto che spiega bene perché l'effetto "luna piena" non ha mai incontrato prove scientifiche.

FONTE: http://www.skeptic.com/eskeptic/10-09-01/

Myth #9: Full Moons Cause Crimes and Craziness
Once every 29.53 days on average, an event of rather trivial astronomical significance occurs. But according to some writers, it’s an event of enormous psychological significance. What is it? A full moon. Over the decades, authors have linked the full moon to a host of phenomena: strange behaviors, psychiatric hospital admissions, suicides, traffic accidents, crimes, heavy drinking, dog bites, births, crisis calls to emergency rooms, violence by hockey players…the list goes on and on.53
The word “lunatic” derives from the Latin term luna, or moon. Legends of werewolves and vampires, terrifying creatures that supposedly often emerged during full moons, date back at least to the ancient Greeks, and were popular in Europe during much of the Middle Ages.54 In 19th-century England, some lawyers used a “not guilty by reason of the full moon” defense to acquit clients of crimes committed during full moons.
Even today, the notion that the full moon is tied to strange occurrences — the “Lunar Effect” or “Transylvania Effect” — is deeply embedded in popular culture. One study revealed that up to 81% of mental health professionals believe in the lunar effect,55 and a study of nurses demonstrated that 69% believe that full moons are associated with increase in patient admissions.56 In 2007, Brighton, England instituted a policy to place more police officers on the beat during full moon nights.57
Psychiatrist Arnold Lieber popularized the idea of a correlation between the full moon and behavior.58 For Lieber, the lunar effect stems mostly from the fact that the human body is four-fifths water. Because the moon affects the tides of the earth, it’s plausible that the moon would also affect the brain, which is, after all, part of the body. Yet as astronomer George Abell noted, a mosquito sitting on your arm would exert a more powerful gravitational force on your body than would the moon.59 Furthermore, the moon’s tides are influenced not by its phase — that is, by how much of it’s visible on earth — but by its distance from earth.60 Indeed, during a “new moon,” the phase at which the moon is invisible to us on earth, it exerts just as much gravitational influence as it does during a full moon.
In 1985, two psychologists reviewed all available research evidence on the lunar effect, and found no evidence that the full moon is related to much of anything — crimes, suicides, psychiatric problems, psychiatric hospital admissions, or calls to crisis centers.61 Later investigators examined whether the full moon is linked to suicides,62 psychiatric hospital admissions,63 dog bites,64 or emergency room visits,65 and came up empty-handed.
What psychologists term the “fallacy of positive” instances may help to explain the persisting popularity of belief in the lunar effect. When an event confirms our hunches, we tend to take special note of it and recall it.66 In contrast, when an event disconfirms our hunches, we tend to ignore or reinterpret it. So, when there’s a full moon and something out of the ordinary, say, a surge of admissions to our local psychiatric hospital, happens, we’re likely to remember it and tell others about it. In contrast, when there’s a full moon and nothing unusual happens, we typically overlook or discount it. In one study, psychiatric hospital nurses who believed in the lunar effect wrote more notes about patients’ strange behavior during a full moon than did nurses who didn’t believe in the lunar effect.67 The nurses attended more to events that confirmed their hunches, which in turn probably bolstered these hunches.
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il lupo: Guida e guardiano degli altri mondi   Mer 1 Set 2010 - 16:17

Admin ha scritto:
A proposito di licantropia e di effetti dellaluna....ho trovato questo bell'articoletto che spiega bene perché l'effetto "luna piena" non ha mai incontrato prove scientifiche.

FONTE: http://www.skeptic.com/eskeptic/10-09-01/


E' veramente interessante come articolo, grazie Admin...

La parte che più mi ha fatto sorridere è stato il fatto che gli avvocati usavano la scusa del non coplevole causa luna piena... Very Happy chissà se vale anche qui in Italia...avrei giusto qualche cosa di malvagio da fare...ih ih ih

Ammetto però che la luna piena mi affascina moltissimo...e anche se non mi trasformo in lupo...mi fa fa battere forte il cuore...da vera romanticona pucciosa...
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il lupo: Guida e guardiano degli altri mondi   Mer 1 Set 2010 - 16:31

sarà che non ci sono prove scientifiche ma nei giorni di piena mi sento la testa gonfia...eh lo so sono un testone di cavolo cosi la luna mi fa gonfiare i liquidi nel cervello...lo diceva anche mia nonna...
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il lupo: Guida e guardiano degli altri mondi   Mer 1 Set 2010 - 16:38

Admin ha scritto:
sarà che non ci sono prove scientifiche ma nei giorni di piena mi sento la testa gonfia...eh lo so sono un testone di cavolo cosi la luna mi fa gonfiare i liquidi nel cervello...lo diceva anche mia nonna...

Very Happy Very Happy Very Happy scusami....ma mi hai fatto morire dal ridere...

Comunque tornando in me...per quello che può valere...oltre a quel romanticissimo faccione che ci scruta credo che "a pelle"...cioè a sensazioni qualcosa deve esserci...

e non credo che sia solo suggestione...non si spiegherebbero alcuni comportamenti degli animali selvatici che circolano dietro casa mia ad esempio...
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il lupo: Guida e guardiano degli altri mondi   Gio 18 Nov 2010 - 13:46

Sempre per ciò che riguarda la simbologia del lupo questi documenti ci ricordano che il lupo è un essere leale, forte, intelligente...

Secondo i Nativi Americani chi è nato nel segno del lupo è passionale, profondamente emotivo, compassionevole, può diventare ossessivo e vendicativo.

Questo spirito porta l'intuizione, la forza interiore.

Buona lettura...

FONTE: http://www.whats-your-sign.com/totem-wolf-symbols.html

Wolf Meaning and Totem Symbolism of the Wolf

To understand totem wolf symbols, one must first understand the heart of the Wolf. This takes time because the Wolf has had to endure many false stereotypes, misconceptions and misunderstandings.

Not at all the picture of ferocity or terror, the Wolf is a creature with a high sense of loyalty and strength. Another misconception is that of the “lone wolf.” To the contrary, the Wolf is actually a social creature, friendly, and gregarious with its counterparts.

The Wolf is an incredible communicator. By using touch, body movements, eye contact as well as many complex vocal expressions – the wolf makes his point understood. Those with totem wolf symbols are of the same inclination – they are expressive both vocally and physically. Those who have the wolf as their totem animal are naturally eloquent in speech, and also have knack for creative writing.

A quick-list of totem wolf symbolic attributes include:

* Intelligence
* Cunning
* Communication
* Friendliness
* Loyalty
* Generosity
* Compassionate

Totem wolf symbols belong to those who truly understand the depth of passion that belong to this noble creature. The Wolf is a representative of deep faith, and profound understanding.

Further, the Wolf possess a high intellect, and have been observed using strategies about hunting, habitat and migration.

In history, the totem Wolf symbol appears with the founders of Rome, Romulus and Remus. Legend has it that the two founding brothers were raised and suckled by a she-wolf.

In Norse mythology, the Wolf is a symbol for victory when ridden by Odin and the Valkyries upon the battlefield.

As a Celtic symbol, the Wolf was a source of lunar power. Celtic lore states that the Wolf would hunt down the sun and devour it at each dusk so as to allow the power of the moon to come forth.

In Asia, the wolf guards the doors that allow entrance to heavenly, celestial realms. The Wolf is also said to be among the ancestry of Genghis Khan.

When this gracious creature appears to us, and serves as a totem in our lives, the Wolf beckons us to ask these questions:

* Are you thinking about a different form of education?
* Are you being a true friend, and are your friends being true to you?
* Are you communicating yourself clearly to others?
* Are you being loyal to yourself?
* Are you incorporating strategies and planning to achieve your goals?
* Are you spending enough quality time with yourself, friends and family?

Take some time to know more about the Wolf, you will be amazed at the knowledge these regal creatures can share with you.


FONTE: http://www.whats-your-sign.com/native-american-animal-symbols.html

Wolf: Feb 19 – Mar 20
Deeply emotional, and wholly passionate, the Wolf is the lover of the zodiac in both the physical and philosophical sense of the word. The Wolf understands that all we need is love, and is fully capable of providing it. Juxtaposed with his/her fierce independence – this Native American animal symbol is a bit of a contradiction in terms. Needing his/her freedom, yet still being quite gentle and compassionate – we get the picture of the "lone wolf" with this sign. In a nurturing environment the Wolf is intensely passionate, generous, deeply affectionate, and gentle. Left to his/her own devices the Wolf can become impractical, recalcitrant, obsessive, and vindictive.



FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Howlsnow.jpg



FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Canis_lupus_lycaon_qtl1.jpg


FONTE: http://wolfs_moon.tripod.com/wolftotemmain.html

Life Paths~
Animal Totems & Earth Medicine

Spirit of the Wolf
with
Wolfs Moon
Role: ~The Teacher~
Medicine: Shapeshifting

How long has human kind looked into the golden eyes of the Wolf and wondered what inner Knowledge ignites the fire that glows from the depths of those mysterious eyes?

He walks quietly through the world, slipping like a shimmering mist through the forest of ancient trees, gathering Knowledge, attaining Wisdom forged in the fires of Experience so that he might return again to the Pack and Teach all that he has come to know.

The Wolf cries her haunting song of Life`s Refrain,
echoing across the planes of time and space.

I honor you dear Sister, and embrace the lessons that you
have come to teach. Whisper them now
to me in my sleep.

Shed your Wisdom and Amber Light, upon the dark corridors
of my human mind, so that I too might reach that shore,
the shores of Time Unbound.

Where white sands glitter like crystals captured in the moon`s
gentle rays, refracting rainbows that illuminate Souls Unchained
with Knowledge and Wisdom gained, in walking through
Experience`s Flames . . .
I honor you.
Keywords
wolfmoon
Teacher Individuality Group Consciousness
Loyalty Guardianship
Spirituality

Teacher

The Wolf is the Soul that leaves the comfort and familiarity of the Pack, to travel out into the world of the unknown.

In her Quest for Knowledge, she begins her journey by setting off South, and it is here that she is schooled in the classroom of trial and error as she dances her way through the flames of experience.

This is the Direction of the ~Personality Center,~ learning to trust herself and her own keen intuition which has been forged through confronting both external obstacles, and her own fears. Thus, a sense of self-reliance is cultivated as she puts to test the lessons she has learned.

Then, from deep within, comes the stirring recognition that there must be more, and she is once again off on her journey, headed this time toward the West. Here, she embarks on the Journey ~Within~ as this is the Direction of the ~Great Mystery,~ or the ~Spirit Center.~

In the West she finds that the labor of her actions have borne fruit as she strives to integrate the ~Personality Center~ with the ~Spirit Center.~ She contemplates here, in silent revery, on all that has gone before. This is the time of moonlight, and as she gazes at the image of herself in the shimmering water of her soul`s reflection, her whole being is awash in the glow of joy that comes from the recognition that life is magical and that, having absorbed her lessons, she has received a Spiritual Rebirth. She then arises from the ashes of the old, as a new and enlightened being.

Then, she turns her face toward the North and when she arrives there discovers a sense of new found courage gained through resolve and determination.

She reawakens to the physical state of her being in the process of integrating ~Physical~ with ~Personality~ and ~Spirit.~ The recognition is made that one is also a physical creature, though the Spirit is the force that sustains the physical life. It is here that a time of thanksgiving and celebration is had for all that the ~Great Spirit~ has given, and for the experiences which have gone before.

Yet the East now beckons her as she listens to the haunting cries of her Pack and turns her noble head toward Home.

When she returns to the Pack, the Knowledge gained from her journey, ignites her Being, as a lantern from within. The Pack draws near to her listening for the Wisdom she will impart, as her destiny is to share what she has learned with the rest of the Pack so that the leap across the planes can be made by All. This is the ~Path of the Teacher.~



Individual, Group Consciousness

Wolf Totem understands that the unity of the Pack is crucial to his survival, yet the Pack likewise recognizes the vital contribution that each Wolf makes.

Wolves live in highly complex social structures called "Packs" with a dominant Male and Female pair, or the Alpha Male and Female, leading the Pack. Every other member not only has a "ranking" within the pack, from Beta through Omega, they also have a unique role. It is this very structure which may have been behind Rudyard Kipling`s eloquent quote:

"For the strength of the Pack is the Wolf,
and the strength of the Wolf is the Pack."

***The two legged with the Wolf as his/her Totem has an inner need to be of service for the "greater good." Although the individual with Wolf Totem enjoys the company of others, there exists as well, the need for time alone. This "lone wolf" time will be spent in quiet contemplation and reflection upon the experiences of life before translating these ~thoughts to form~ and rejoining the "Pack" once more***


FONTE: http://www.linsdomain.com/totems/pages/wolf.htm

WOLF

The mournful cries rise in the night.
We are seeking!
Wolves' song greets the Moon so bright.
We are brace and wise!
Sleek, muscles bodies beneath the Moon.
We help turn the wheel of death and rebirth!
By our magic we a send a boon
Of true dreaming!

Intuition, Learning, Spirit

This totem brings faithfulness, inner strength
and intuition when he enters our lives.
But he also brings learning to live with one's self.
The wolf teaches us to learn about our inner self
and to find our inner power and strength.
But to achieve this, we must take risks
and face our deepest fears.
A wolf totem demands sincerity.

This totem demands a lot of us
but gives us much in return;
a spirit helper that is always there to help
and gives us extraordinary powers of endurance.
He reminds us to listen to our inner thoughts
and trust our insights.

They remind us not to waste resources and
to learn how to avoid trouble and confrontations.
People with Wolf totems have the capacity to make quick and firm emotional attachments.
Trust your insights about these attachments. Wolf will guide you.
Take control of your life with Wolf’s help and do so with harmony and discipline.

Some of the information on this webpage was derived from the following sources:
Sans, Jamie & Carson, David. Medicine Cards: the Discovery of Power Through the Way of Animals. Santa Fe, NM. 1988. Print.
Andrews, Ted. Animal-speak: the Spiritual & Magical Powers of Creatures Great & Small. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 1993. Print.
Andrews, Ted. Animal-Wise: the Spirit Language and Signs of Nature. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 1999. Print.
D. J. Conway. Animal Magick: the Art of Recognizing & Working with Familiars. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 2003. Print.
Farmer, Steven D. Animal Spirit Guides. Hayhouse Inc., 2006. Print.



FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Wolf_eyes_-_Scott_Flaherty.jpg


Ultima modifica di Tila il Mar 28 Dic 2010 - 20:47, modificato 1 volta
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il lupo: Guida e guardiano degli altri mondi   Ven 19 Nov 2010 - 21:39

Come sempre wikipedia regala vere perle...in questo documento vedremo insieme i miti, il folklore e le tradizioni legate a questo totem.

Buona lettura!

FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolves_in_folklore,_religion_and_mythology

Wolves in folklore, religion and mythology
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Wolves appear in folklore and mythological traditions around the world. Symbolism of the wolf varies: a hungry Shadow self, a Trickster, or a demonic presence. Some cultures believe humans descend from wolves (see below), and the wolf may have a protective quality as well.

Contents
[hide]

* 1 Mythology
o 1.1 Hindu mythology
o 1.2 Turkic and Mongolian mythology
o 1.3 Roman mythology
o 1.4 Finnish mythology
o 1.5 Norse mythology
o 1.6 Baltic mythology
o 1.7 Japanese mythology
o 1.8 Native American mythology
* 2 Religion
o 2.1 Christianity
o 2.2 Islam
o 2.3 Mormonism
* 3 Other symbolism
* 4 See also
* 5 References

[edit] Mythology
[edit] Hindu mythology

Wolves are occasionally mentioned in Hindu mythology. In the Harivamsa, Krishna, to convince the people of Vraja to migrate to Vrindavan, creates hundreds of wolves from his hairs, which frighten the inhabitants of Vraja into making the journey.[1] In the Rig Veda, Rijrsava is blinded by his father as punishment for having given 101 of his family's sheep to a she-wolf, who in turn prays to the Ashvins to restore his sight.[2] Bhima, the voracious son of the god Vayu, is described as Vrikodara, meaning "wolf-stomached".[3]

[edit] Turkic and Mongolian mythology

In Altaic mythology of the Turkic and Mongolian peoples, the wolf is a revered animal. The shamanic Turkic peoples even believed they were descendants of wolves in Turkic legends. The legend of Asena is an old Turkic myth that tells of how the Turkic people were created. In Northern China a small Turkic village was raided by Chinese soldiers, but one small baby was left behind. An old she-wolf with a sky-blue mane named Asena found the baby and nursed him, then the she-wolf gave birth to half wolf, half human cubs therefore the Turkic people were born. Also in Turkic mythology it is believed that a gray wolf showed the Turks the way out of their legendary homeland Ergenekon, which allowed them to spread and conquer their neighbours.[4][5] In modern Turkey this myth inspired extreme-right nationalist groups known as "Grey Wolves". In Mongolian folk medicine, eating the intestines of a wolf is said to alleviate chronic indigestion, while sprinkling food with powdered wolf rectum is said to cure hemorroids.[6] Some Mongolians believe that Chinggis Khan was the product of a union by a blue wolf and a deer. Mongol mythology explains the wolf's occasional habit of surplus killing by pointing to their traditional creation story. It states that when God explained to the wolf what it should and should not eat, he told it that it may eat one sheep out of 1,000. The wolf however misunderstood and thought God said kill 1,000 sheep and eat one.[7]

[edit] Roman mythology


The Capitoline Wolf with Romulus and Remus. Musei Capitolini, Palazzo dei Conservatori, Rome.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:She-wolf_suckles_Romulus_and_Remus.jpg

According to the Roman tradition, a wolf was responsible for the childhood survival of the future founders of Rome, Romulus and Remus. The twin babies were ordered to be killed by their great uncle Amulius. The servant ordered to kill them, however, relented and placed the two on the banks of the Tiber river. The river, which was in flood, rose and gently carried the cradle and the twins downstream, where under the protection of the river deity Tiberinus, they would be adopted by a she-wolf known as Lupa in Latin, an animal sacred to Mars.

The comedian Plautus used the image of wolves to ponder the cruelty of man as a wolf unto man.

[edit] Finnish mythology

Unlike fox and bear, the wolf has always been feared and hated in Finland, and wolf has been the symbol of destruction and desolation, to the extent that the very name of wolf in Finnish language, susi, means also "a useless thingie" and the by-name hukka means perdition and annihilation. While bear has been the sacred animal of Finns, wolves have always been hunted and killed mercilessly. The wolf has been represented as implacable and malicious predator, killing more than it manages to eat.

[edit] Norse mythology

Norse mythology prominently includes three malevolent wolves, in particular: the giant Fenrisulfr or Fenrir, eldest child of Loki and Angrboda who was feared and hated by the Æsir, and Fenrisulfr's children, Sköll and Hati. Fenrir is bound by the gods, but is ultimately destined to grow too large for his bonds and devour Odin during the course of Ragnarök. At that time, he will have grown so large that his upper jaw touches the sky while his lower touches the earth when he gapes. He will be slain by Odin's son, Viðarr, who will either stab him in the heart or rip his jaws asunder according to different accounts.[8] Fenrir's two offspring will according to legend, devour the sun and moon at Ragnarök. On the other hand, however, the wolves Geri and Freki were the Norse god Odin's faithful pets who were reputed to be "of good omen."[9]

In the Hervarar saga, king Heidrek is asked by Gestumblindi (Odin),

What is that lamp
which lights up men,
but flame engulfs it,
and wargs grasp after it always.

Heidrek knows the answer is the Sun, explaining

She lights up every land and shines over all men, and Skoll and Hatti are called wargs. Those are wolves, one going before the sun, the other after the moon.

But wolves also served as mounts for more or less dangerous humanoid creatures. For instance, Gunnr's horse was a kenning for "wolf" on the Rök Runestone, in the Lay of Hyndla, the völva (witch) Hyndla rides a wolf, and to Baldr's funeral, the giantess Hyrrokin arrived on a wolf.

[edit] Baltic mythology

According to legend, the establishment of the Lithuanian capital Vilnius began when the grand duke Gediminas dreamt of an iron wolf howling near the hill.

[edit] Japanese mythology

In Japan, grain farmers once worshiped wolves at shrines and left food offerings near their dens, beseeching them to protect their crops from wild boars and deer. Talismans and charms adorned with images of wolves were thought to protect against fire, disease, and other calamities and brought fertility to agrarian communities and to couples hoping to have children. The Ainu people believed that they were born from the union of a wolflike creature and a goddess.[10]

[edit] Native American mythology


Helmet and collar representing a wolf, at the Museum of the Americas in Madrid. Made of wood, shell and mane in the 18th century by tlingit indigenous people, from the North American Pacific Northwest Coast. Tlingit people admired and feared wolves because of their strength and violence.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Casco_y_collera_de_lobo_tlingit_%28M._Am%C3%A9rica,_Madrid%29_01.jpg

Wolves were generally revered by tribes that survived by hunting, but were thought little of by those that survived through agriculture. Some tribes, such as the Nunamiut of northern and northwestern Alaska and the Naskapi of Labrador respected the wolf's hunting skill and tried to emulate the wolf in order to hunt successfully. Others see the wolf as a guide. [11] The Tanaina of Alaska believed that wolves were once men, and viewed them as brothers.[12]

In the Cardinal directions of the Plains Indians, the wolf represented the west, while for the Pawnee, it represented the southeast. According to the Pawnee creation myth, the wolf was the first creature to experience death. The Wolf Star, enraged at not having been invited to attend a council on how the Earth should be made, sent a wolf to steal the whirlwind bag of The Storm that Comes out of the West, which contained the first humans. Upon being freed from the bag, the humans killed the wolf, thus bringing death into the world. The Pawnee, being both an agricultural and hunting people, associated the wolf with both corn and the bison; the "birth" and "death" of the Wolf Star (Sirius) was to them a reflection of the wolf's coming and going down the path of the Milky Way known as Wolf Road.[11]

Wolves were not always portrayed positively in Native American cultures. The Netsilik Inuit and Takanaluk-arnaluk believed that the sea-woman Nuliayuk's home was guarded by wolves. The Naskapi's believed that the caribou afterlife is guarded by giant wolves that kill careless hunters who venture too near. The Navajo people feared witches in wolf's clothing called "Mai-cob".[11] Wolves were feared by the Tsilhqot'in, who believed that contact with wolves would result in nervous illness or death.[12]

[edit] Religion

[edit] Christianity

The Bible contains 13 references to wolves, usually as metaphors for greed and destructiveness. In the New Testament, Jesus is quoted to have used wolves as illustrations to the dangers His followers would have faced should they follow him (Matthew 10:16, Acts 10:29, Matthew 7:15)[13]

The Book of Genesis was interpreted in Medieval Europe as stating that nature exists solely to support man (Genesis 1:29), who must cultivate it (Genesis 2:15), and that animals are made for his own purposes (Genesis 2:18-20). By this perspective, nature was only acceptable if controlled by man. The wolf is repeatedly mentioned in the scriptures as an enemy of flocks: a metaphor for evil men with a lust for power and dishonest gain, as well as a metaphor for Satan preying on innocent God-fearing Christians, contrasted with the shepherd Jesus who keeps his flock safe.[14] The Roman Catholic Church often used the negative imagery of wolves to create a sense of real devils prowling the real world.[citation needed] Quoting from Leviticus and Deuteronomy, the Malleus Maleficarum states that wolves are either agents of God sent to punish sinners, or agents of the Devil sent with God's blessing to harass true believers to test their faith.[11]

However, legends surrounding Saint Francis of Assisi show him befriending a wolf.[11] According to the Fioretti, the city of Gubbio was besieged by the Wolf of Gubbio, which devoured both livestock and men. Francis of Assisi, who was living in Gubbio at the time took pity on the townsfolk, and went up into the hills to find the wolf. Soon fear of the animal had caused all his companions to flee, but the saint pressed on and when he found the wolf he made the sign of the cross and commanded the wolf to come to him and hurt no one. Miraculously the wolf closed his jaws and lay down at the feet of St. Francis. “Brother Wolf, you do much harm in these parts and you have done great evil…” said Francis. “All these people accuse you and curse you… But brother wolf, I would like to make peace between you and the people.” Then Francis led the wolf into the town, and surrounded by startled citizens he made a pact between them and the wolf. Because the wolf had “done evil out of hunger” the townsfolk were to feed the wolf regularly, and in return, the wolf would no longer prey upon them or their flocks. In this manner Gubbio was freed from the menace of the predator. Francis, ever the lover of animals, even made a pact on behalf of the town dogs, that they would not bother the wolf again.

In Canto I of Dante's Inferno, the Pilgrim encounters a She-Wolf blocking the path to a hill bathed in light. The She-Wolf represents the sins of concupiscence and incontinence. She is prophecised by the shade of Virgil to one day be sent to Hell by a greyhound.

[edit] Islam

Wolves are mentioned three times in the Qur'an, specifically in the Sura Yusuf.

12.13: "He said: Surely it grieves me that you should take him off, and I fear lest the wolf devour him while you are heedless of him."

12.14: "They said: Surely if the wolf should devour him notwithstanding that we are a (strong) company, we should then certainly be losers."

12.17: "They said: O our father! Surely we went off racing and left Yusuf by our goods, so the wolf devoured him, and you will not believe us though we are truthful."

[edit] Mormonism

John 10. 12: "But he that is an hireling, and not the shepherd, whose own the sheep are not, seeth the wolf coming, and leaveth the sheep, and fleeth: and the wolf catcheth them, and scattereth the sheep."

Alma 5. 59-60: "For what shepherd is there among you having many sheep doth not watch over them, that the wolves enter not and devour his flock? And behold, if a wolf enter his aflock doth he not drive him out? Yea, and at the last, if he can, he will destroy him. And now I say unto you that the good shepherd doth call after you; and if you will hearken unto his voice he will bring you into his fold, and ye are his sheep; and he commandeth you that ye suffer no ravenous wolf to enter among you, that ye may not be destroyed."

Gen. 49. 27: "Benjamin shall ravin as a wolf: in the morning he shall devour the prey, and at night he shall divide the spoil."

Isa. 11. 6: "The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them." This is repeated in chapter 21 of the Second book of Nephi.

Isa. 65. 25: "The wolf and the lamb shall feed together, and the lion shall eat straw like the bullock: and dust shall be the serpent’s meat. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain, saith the Lord."

Jer. 5. 6: "Wherefore a lion out of the forest shall slay them, and a wolf of the bevenings shall spoil them, a leopard shall watch over their cities: every one that goeth out thence shall be torn in pieces: because their transgressions are many, and their backslidings are increased."

Ne. 30. 12: "And then shall the wolf dwell with the lamb; and the leopard shall lie down with the kid, and the calf, and the young lion, and the fatling, together; and a little child shall lead them."

[edit] Other symbolism

With the ever expanding growth of Scandinavian based heavy metal, the wolf has been commonly used throughout visual and audio imagery. Bands such as Sonata Arctica (who use the wolf as their "mascot"), Marduk, Wintersun, and Wolf, whose logo contains the image of a wolf paw, have used the wolf throughout their lyrics. The symbol of the wolf has been reputed to represent varying degrees of power as well as connections to Nordic countries (such as Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden) and their natural habitats (snow, mountains, and forests). Additionally, images of wolves can be more violent, with the focus on their potential ferocity and ability to hunt.

References

1. ^ Wilson, Horace Hayman & Hall, Fitzedward The Vishńu Puráńa: A System of Hindu Mythology and Tradition, Trubner, 1868
2. ^ Murthy, K. KrishnaMythical animals in Indian art, Abhinav Publications, 1985, ISBN 0391032879
3. ^ Wilkins, W. J. Hindu Mythology, Vedic and Puranic, Kessinger Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0766188817
4. ^ Cultural Life – Literature Turkey Interactive CD-ROM. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
5. ^ T.C. Kultur Bakanligi. Nevruz Celebrations in Turkey and Central Asia. Ministry of Culture, Republic of Turkey. Retrieved on 2007-08-11,
6. ^ Severin, Tim (2003). In Search of Genghis Khan: An Exhilarating Journey on Horseback Across the Steppes of Mongolia. p. 280. ISBN 0815412878.
7. ^ "Hunting Outlaw or Hunting Wolves". Jasper Becker. Mongolia Today. http://www.mongoliatoday.com/issue/5/wolf_jasper.html. Retrieved 2007-09-12.
8. ^ Pliny the Elder. "viii". Historia Naturalis. p. 81. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/L/Roman/Texts/Pliny_the_Elder/8*.html#81. 22/34
9. ^ Guerber, Hélène Adeline (1992) [1909]. "Odin's Personal Appearance, Greek and Northern Mythologies". Myths of the Norsemen: from the eddas and the sagas (Dover ed.). Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications. pp. 17, 347. ISBN 0-486-27348-2. "At his feet crouched two wolves or hunting hounds, Geri and Freki, animals therefore sacred to him, and of good omen if met by the way. Odin always fed these wolves with his own hands from meat set before him."
10. ^ Walker, Brett L. (2005). The Lost Wolves Of Japan. p. 331. ISBN 0295984929.
11. ^ a b c d e Lopez, Barry (1978). Of wolves and men. p. 320. ISBN 0743249364.
12. ^ a b L. David Mech & Luigi Boitani (2001). Wolves: Behaviour, Ecology and Conservation. pp. p 448. ISBN 0226516962.
13. ^ Bright, Michael (2006). Beasts of the Field: The Revealing Natural History of Animals in the Bible. p. 346. ISBN 1861058314.
14. ^ Wolf Trust - Attitudes To Wolves

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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il lupo: Guida e guardiano degli altri mondi   Dom 2 Ott 2011 - 9:24

Altra creatura leggendaria riconducibile al licantropo...

FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rugaru

Rugaru
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Il Rugaru (noto anche come Roux-Ga-Roux, Rugaroo, o Rougarou), è una creatura leggendaria presso le comunità francesi della regione Laurenziana riconducibile al licantropo europeo.

Versioni

Le storie della creatura nota come rugaru sono diverse come i diversi modi di scrivere nome, tutti comunque riconducibili alla cultura francese: derivano infatti dalle credenze nella licantropia. Rugaru è infatti una versione errata del termine francese per licantropo, "Loup-garou".[1] (da "loup", lupo, e "garou" ovvero uomo che si trasforma in un animale, dal franco "garulf").


Folklore della Louisiana

Secondo Barry Jean Ancelet, un esperto di folklore Cajun e professore all'università della Louisiana a Lafayette, la storia del rugaru è una leggenda comune in tutta la Louisiana francese. I termini ruguru e "loup-garou" sono utilizzati come sinonimi nella Louisiana meridionale.

Secondo le leggende Cajun, la creatura popolerebbe le aree attorno l'Acadiana e la zona metropolitana di New Orleans, vivendo nelle paludi e nelle foreste della regione. È spesso descritta come un essere con un corpo umano e la testa di un lupo o di un cane, similmente alle leggende sui licantropi.

Spesso la storia è utilizzata per incutere timore ed ottenere obbedienza. Storie come queste venivano raccontate presso i Cajun per convincere i bambini ad essere obbedienti. Secondo un'alyta versione, le vittime della creatura sarrebbero i cattolici che non seguono le regole della Quaresima. Questo è un ulteriore elemento in comune con il "loup-garou" francese: infatti secondo le leggende si trasformerebbe in un lupo mannaro chi non segue la Quaresima per sette anni consecutivi.

Un'altra leggenda comune afferma che il rugaru resterebbe sotto l'incantesimo per 101 giorni. Dopo questo lasso di tempo, la maledizione passerebe da persona a persona quando il rugaru succhia sangue umano. In quel giorno la creatura torna ad avere sembianze umane. Sebbene consio del proprio stato, la vittima della maledizione rifiuterebbe di parlarne con gli altri per paura di essere uccisa.[2]

Altre storie parlano del rugaru come di un cavaliere senza testa o di un essere che deriverebbe dalla stregoneria. Secondo questa versione solo una strega può eliminare la maledizione del rugaru, trasformando sè stessa in un lupo o trasferendo la licantropia ad altri.[3]

Folklore dei nativi americani

La creatura chiamata Rugaru è stata associata con le leggende dei nativi americani, anche se ci sono alcune dispute. Alcune versioni folkloristiche rendono il rugaru molto simile al bigfoot o ai wendigo, esseri cannibali della cultura nativa. Poiché la maggioranza di queste storie sono trasmesse oralmente, spesso i racconti si contraddicono fra loro. Le storie sul wndingo variano in base alla tribù e alla regione, ma il tema comune è generalmente quello del cannibalismo.

Un esempio modificato della leggenda del wendingo dice che se una persona vede un rugaru, questa persona si trasformerà in un rugaru. Ciò ricorda proprio la leggenda del wendigo descritta in un racconto di Algernon Blackwood. In questo adattamento della leggenda, l'avvistamento di un wendigo causa la trasformazione in wendigo.

È importante rilevare che "rugaru" non è una parola della lingua nativa Ojibwa, né deriva dalle lingue degli altri popoli vicini. Come già affermato, sarebbe una interpretazione erronea del termine francese che sta per licantorpo, "loup garou".[4] È possibile che gli Ojibwa o i Chippewa del Nord Dakota abbiano interpretato il termine come "essere peloso simile ad un umano" per via dell'influenza dei missionari e dei cacciatori del Canada francese, con i quali avevano intensi scambi. Spesso questo termine è stato riferito alle storie riguardanti il bigfoot.[5]

Peter Matthiessen afferma, invece, che il rugaru è una leggenda separata da quella del gigante cannibale noto come wendigo. Sottolinea come il rugaru sia visto come essere sacro ed in armonia con Madre Terra, come spesso si afferma anche nelle leggende riguardanti il bigfoot.[6]

Nella cultura popolare

La versione inglese della creatura è stata recentemente usata nella serie televisiva Supernatural. Il rugaru appare nell'episodio 4 della quarta stagione ("Metamorfosi") in cui la creatura è descritta come un essere umano che possiede abilità sovraumane ed una fame di carne umana che non può essere soddisfatta.

Lo zoo Audubon di New Orleans ha esibito un manichino a grandezza naturale di quelle che dovrebbero essere le sembianze del rugaru.

Rougarou è anche il titolo di un giornale letterario online pubblicato dall'Università della Louisiana a Lafayette.


Note

^ LSU Cajun-French Glossary
^ The Nicholls Worth; interview with Barry Ancelet
^ New Orleans Gothic legend
^ Spooner Advocate; interview with author Peter Mathiessen
^ Pre-Columbian and Early American Legends of Bigfoot-like Beings
^ Spooner Advocate; interview with author Peter Matthiessen



FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rougarou

Rougarou
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Rougarou (alternately spelled as Roux-Ga-Roux, Rugaroo, or Rugaru), is a legendary creature in Laurentian French communities linked to European notions of the werewolf.

Versions

The stories of the creature known as a rougarou are as diverse as the spelling of its name, though they are all connected to francophone cultures through a common derived belief in the Loup-garou (French pronunciation: [lu ɡaˈʁu], English: /ˈluː ɡəˈruː/). Loup is French for wolf, and garou (from Frankish garulf, cognate with English werewolf) is a man who transforms into an animal.


Attribution: Herb Roe
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Courir_de_Mardi_Gras_Savoy_Rougaroo_and_Capitane_2011.jpg

Louisiana folklore

Rougarou represents a variant pronunciation and spelling of the original French loup-garou.[1] According to Barry Jean Ancelet, an academic expert on Cajun folklore and professor at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, the tale of the rougarou is a common legend across French Louisiana. Both words are used interchangeably in southern Louisiana. Some people call the monster rougarou; others refer to it as the loup garou.

The rougarou legend has been spread for many generations, either directly from French settlers to Louisiana (New France) or via the French Canadian immigrants centuries ago.

In the Cajun legends, the creature is said to prowl the swamps around Acadiana and Greater New Orleans, and possibly the fields or forests of the regions. The rougarou most often is described as a creature with a human body and the head of a wolf or dog, similar to the werewolf legend.

Often the story-telling has been used to inspire fear and obedience. One such example is stories that have been told by elders to persuade Cajun children to behave. According to another variation, the wolf-like beast will hunt down and kill Catholics who do not follow the rules of Lent. This coincides with the French Catholic loup-garou stories, according to which the method for turning into a werewolf is to break Lent seven years in a row.

A common blood sucking legend says that the rougarou is under the spell for 101 days. After that time, the curse is transferred from person to person when the rougarou draws another human’s blood. During that day the creature returns to human form. Although acting sickly, the human refrains from telling others of the situation for fear of being killed.[2]

Other stories range from the rougarou as a headless horseman to the rougarou being derived from witchcraft. In the latter claim, only a witch can make a rougarou—either by turning into a wolf herself, or by cursing others with lycanthropy.[3]

Native American folklore

The creature, spelled Rugaru, has been associated[who?] with Native American legends, though there is some dispute. Such folklore versions of the rugaru vary from being mild bigfoot (sasquatch) creatures to cannibal-like Native American wendigos. Some dispute the connection between Native American folktales and the francophone rugaru.

As is the norm with legends transmitted by oral tradition, stories often contradict one another. The stories of the wendigo vary by tribe and region, but the most common cause of the change is typically related to cannibalism.

A modified example, not in the original wendigo legends, is that if a person sees a rugaru, that person will be transformed into one. Thereafter, the unfortunate victim will be doomed to wander in the form of this monster. That rugaru story bears some resemblance to a Native American version of the wendigo legend related in a short story by Algernon Blackwood. In Blackwood's fictional adaptation of the legend, seeing a wendigo causes one to turn into a wendigo.

It is important to note that rugaru is not a native Ojibwa word, nor is it derived from the languages of neighboring Native American peoples. However, it has a striking similarity to the French word for werewolf, loup garou.[4]

It's possible the Turtle Mountain Ojibwa or Chippewa in North Dakota picked up the French name for "hairy human-like being" from the influence of French Canadian trappers and missionaries with whom they had extensive dealings. Somehow that term also had been referenced to their neighbors' stories of bigfoot.[5]

Author Peter Matthiessen argues that the rugaru is a separate legend from that of the cannibal-like giant wendigo. While the wendigo is feared, he notes that the rugaru is seen as sacred and in tune with Mother Earth, somewhat like bigfoot legends are today.[6]

Though identified with bigfoot, there is little evidence in the indigenous folklore that it is meant to refer the same or a similar creature.

In popular culture

The English version of the creature was recently used in TV series Supernatural. In the series, it was featured for one episode (4.04, "Metamorphosis") and was a creature that was human-like but possessed superhuman abilities and a taste for human flesh that could not be satisfied. It was also mentioned in the fifth season finale (5.22, "Swan Song") in the conclusion, and in the opening scene of a sixth season episode (6.10, "Caged Heat").

A version of this creature was noted in The Dresden Files book Fool Moon describing the Loup-garou as one of three types of werewolves, very similar to the type described above.

The Audubon Zoo in New Orleans has an exhibit on the Rougarou and features a life-sized mannequin of what the Rougarou might look like.

Rougarou is also the title of an online literary journal published out of the University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

Footnotes

^ LSU Cajun-French Glossary
^ The Nicholls Worth; interview with Barry Ancelet
^ New Orleans Gothic legend
^ Spooner Advocate; interview with author Peter Mathiessen
^ Pre-Columbian and Early American Legends of Bigfoot-like Beings
^ Spooner Advocate; interview with author Peter Matthiessen

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Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il lupo: Guida e guardiano degli altri mondi   Ven 16 Mar 2012 - 9:52

Come vedremo il Warg nella mitologia norrena era una tipologia di lupo...buona lettura.


FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warg

Warg
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Il warg è una tipologia di lupo comune in molti ambiti, dalle leggende al fantasy moderno. In particolare, nella mitologia norrena designava bestie quali Fenrir e i suoi figli Sköll e Hati. Basandosi su ciò, J.R.R. Tolkien usò il termine per riferirsi a lupi di natura particolarmente malvagia. In seguito il warg è stato ripreso in molti altri ambiti, anche sotto il nome di worg.


Un cavaliere di warg raffigurato su una pietra facente parte dell'Hunnestad Monument.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Rune_stone_dr_284_of_the_hunnestad_monument_in_lund_sweden_2008.JPG


Etimologia

Nella antica lingua norrena vargr è un termine usato per definire il lupo (ulfr).[1] La parola proto-germanica wargaz significa "strangolatore" (così come würgen nel tedesco moderno significa strangolare), e di conseguenza "malfattore, criminale, fuoricasta"[1]. Varg è tuttora la parola usata in svedese per indicare il lupo. Imparentata è anche la parola dell'inglese antico warg, "grosso lupo". In olandese i ghiottoni sono occasionalmente chiamati Warg, anche se il termine Veelvraat è il più usato.

Alla riga 1514 del Beowulf, la madre di Grendel viene descritta come un grund-wyrgen, o "warg delle profondità".[2].


Mitologia nordica

Nella mitologia norrena con warg si indicavano principalmente i lupi Fenrir, Sköll e Hati. Nella saga di Hervör a re Heidrek viene domandato da Gestumblindi (cioè Odino):

Qual è quella lampada
che splende sugli uomini,
ma le fiamme la inghiottono,
e gli warg cercano sempre di afferrarla.

Heidrek risponde che si tratta del Sole, spiegando:

Lei splende sopra ogni terra e illumina tutti gli uomini, e Sköll e Hatti sono chiamati warg. Essi sono lupi, uno che va dietro al sole, l'altro alla luna.

Ma i lupi servivano anche da cavalcature per più o meno pericolose creature umanoidi. Ad esempio, il Cavallo di Gunnr è un kenning che sta per lupo sulla pietra runica di Rök. Nel poema nordico Hyndluljóð la völva (strega) Hyndla cavalca un lupo e al funerale di Baldr la gigantessa Hyrrokkin arrivò con un lupo.


Caratteristiche nella saga di Tolkien

Gli Warg o Lupi Selvaggi sono una razza di creature nei libri di Tolkien sulla Terra di Mezzo. Sono spesso alleati degli orchi da cui si fanno cavalcare in battaglia. Probabilmente discendono dai lupi mannari di Draugluin o dai cani-lupo di Carcharoth. Sono descritti come in qualche modo intelligenti, dotati di un proprio linguaggio, e il loro rapporto con gli orchi è voluto, non forzato.

Gli orchi a cavallo di worg appaiono per la prima volta nella Storia di Tinúviel , una versione primaria della storia di Beren e Lúthien scritta attorno al 1920 e pubblicata postuma come parte di The History of Middle-earth.

In Lo Hobbit gli Warg appaiono due volte, una prima lavorando con gli orchi (chiamati goblin nel libro) nel cacciare Bilbo Baggins, Gandalf e i nani a est delle Montagne Nebbiose, e un'altra nella Battaglia dei Cinque Eserciti.

In Il Signore degli Anelli sono nominati principalmente in La Compagnia dell'Anello dove una banda di Warg, accompagnati da orchi, attacca la Compagnia ad Eregion. Durante la Guerra dell'Anello negli anni 3018-19 della Terza Era gli Warg si aggiravano fuori dalla mura di Brea.

Si distingue dai lupi normali per il fatto di essere abbastanza forte da riuscire a tener testa ad una decina di orchi. Il pelo di un Warg è simile a quello di uno sciacallo, era corto, ma folto, e serviva anche a ridurre al minimo il danno prodotto da zanne e artigli. Nonostante le dimensioni, gli Warg erano molto veloci, potevano correre per lunghi tratti a andatura regolare e sullo scatto superare perfino un cavallo. Quando attaccavano, tendevano a sviluppare tutta la velocità possibile per buttarsi sulla preda.


Presenza in altri media

Il warg è presente anche in molte altre circostanze: è il caso di diversi giochi di ruolo, come le ambientazioni di Dungeons & Dragons così come in World of Warcraft. In quest'ultimo gioco sono lupi più grossi ed intelligenti, spesso addomesticati dagli orchi e usati come cavalcature. Assumono tale ruolo anche in Castlevania: Lords of Shadow per i lupi mannari, dove inoltre un grosso warg è il primo boss del gioco.

Gli worg sono presenti anche in Cronache del ghiaccio e del fuoco di George R. R. Martin, dove sono dei lupi con un legame telepatico ed empatico con gli umani: quando questo legame è attivo gli umani percepiscono le stesse emozioni dei lupi. In realtà questo deriva più che altro da difetti di traduzione nelle lingue latine, in inglese infatti i Warg delle Cronache sono Canis dirus, o direwolf, una specie di lupi giganti nord americani estinta circa 4.000 anni fa e rarissima dalla fine del Pleistocene. Nel Ciclo dell'Eredità sono invece presenti gli Shrrg, probabilmente ispirati agli warg, lupi con zampe "come scudi" e, come afferma Orik, abbastanza forti e agili per cacciare i Nagra e inseguire le Feldunost (rispettivamente cinghiali e capre giganti).

Oltre a ciò, gli warg sono presenti anche nei videogiochi EverQuest, EverQuest II, Orcs & Elves e Gothic.

Note

^ a b Jaan Puvel Who Were the Hittite hurkilas pesnes? ISBN 3110105187
^ Marijane Osborn, Gillian R. Overing Bone-Crones Have No Hearth: Some Women in the Medievel Wilderness ISBN 0816637563.



Hyrrokkin ritratta da Ludwig Pietsch (1865)
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hyrrokkin_by_Pietsch.jpg


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warg

Warg
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In Norse mythology, a vargr (often anglicised as warg or varg) is a wolf and in particular refers to the wolf Fenrir and his sons Sköll and Hati. Based on this, J. R. R. Tolkien in his fiction used the Old English form warg (other O.E. forms being wearg and wearh) to refer to a wolf-like creature of a particularly evil kind.

Etymology

In Old Norse, vargr is a term for "wolf" (ulfr). The Proto-Germanic *wargaz meant "strangler" (see modern German würgen), and hence "evildoer, criminal, outcast."[1] Varg is still the modern Swedish word for "wolf." Also cognate is Old English warg "large bear".

In line 1514 of Beowulf, Grendel's mother is described as a wh0re or "wh0re in a cave."[2]

Norse mythology

In Norse mythology, wargs are in particular the mythological wolves Fenrir, Sköll and Hati. In the Hervarar saga, King Heidrek is asked by Gestumblindi (Odin),

What is that lamp
which lights up men,
but flame engulfs it,
and wargs grasp after it always.

Heidrek knows the answer is the Sun, explaining,

She lights up every land and shines over all men, and Skoll and Hatti are called wargs. Those are wolves, one going before the sun, the other after the moon.

Wolves also served as mounts for more or less dangerous humanoid creatures. For instance, Gunnr's horse was a kenning for "wolf" on the Rök Runestone, in the Lay of Hyndla, the völva (witch) Hyndla rides a wolf, and to Baldr's funeral, the giantess Hyrrokkin arrived on a wolf.

Tolkien's wargs

Taken from the Old English warg, the wargs or wild wolves are a race of fictional wolf creatures in J. R. R. Tolkien's books about Middle-earth. They are usually in league with the goblins or Orcs whom they permitted to ride on their backs into battle. It is probable that they are descended from Draugluin's werewolves, or of the wolf-hounds of the line of Carcharoth of the First Age. They are portrayed as somewhat intelligent, with a language of sorts, and are consciously in league with the Orcs, rather than wild animals the Orcs have tamed.

The concept of wolf-riding Orcs first appears in The Tale of Tinúviel, an early version of the story of Beren and Lúthien written in the 1920s, posthumously published as part of The History of Middle-earth.

In The Hobbit, the Wargs appear twice, once by working with Orcs (called goblins in the book), in hunting Bilbo Baggins, Gandalf, and the dwarves just east of the Misty Mountains, and once at the Battle of Five Armies.

In The Lord of the Rings, they are most prominently mentioned in the middle of The Fellowship of the Ring, where a band of Wargs, unaccompanied by Orcs, attacks the Fellowship in Eregion. During the War of the Ring in T.A. 3018–19, wolves prowled outside the walls of Bree. They are here distinguished from regular wolves "looking for food."

Adaptations

In the Rankin-Bass adaptation of The Hobbit, they are portrayed as larger than average wolves with ominously glowing eyes. Although Tolkien never gave a fully complete description of the Wargs (he simply noted that they were demonic wolves), they do seem to have a regular wolf-appearance in both The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, and they are regularly called "wolves."

In Peter Jackson's Lord of the Rings movie trilogy, a hyena-like, rather than wolf-like, design was chosen due to it looking more powerful.[3]

They feature prominently in The Lord of the Rings Online, an MMO based on the works of Tolkien

In popular culture

Subsequent appearances of the creatures in popular culture often owe much to Tolkien. Similar to Tolkien's works, they are often depicted as evil, intelligent wolves that speak their own language, and are often allied with goblin tribes.

In the Dungeons & Dragons roleplaying game, wargs appear as minor enemies.

In the A Song of Ice and Fire fantasy novel series by George R. R. Martin, wargs are people who can form a telepathic-empathic bond with animals and sometimes humans. While this bond is active, the warg experiences what the other experiences and may gain control over the body. If the warg is killed while in another body, it remains there permanently.

In David Clement-Davies's books The Sight and Fell, the wolves are known as the Varg, their self-chosen name, and their god is Fenris.

Larry Correia's Monster Hunter International features giant wolf-like creatures used by orcs as mounts. However, the orcs of the MHI world are good and fight against the evil monsters. It is unclear whether these warg-like mounts are intelligent.

In Jim Butcher's Codex Alera the leader of the Canim, a race of large anthropomorphic wolves, is named Varg.

Wargs also appears often in the Castlevania video game series and are portrayed as big wolf like creatures appearing for the most part towards the beginning of the games. In the newest entry in the series Lords Of Shadow they are mounted by Lycan.

In the MMORPG Ragnarok Online Renewal, Rangers can summon a warg as a mount.

In Warcraft lore, the race Worgen are based on Wargs. Additionally, in World of Warcraft, the worg is a mob species closely related to the wolf; also, the orc racial mounts are large worgs.

The song 'Unter der Eiche' (Under the oak) of German folk metal band Equilibrium (band) describes a yearly ceremony. They sing, dance, drink and eat 'mehr noch als der größte Warg' (more than the greatest Warg).

In the 2010 comic book Thor and the Warriors Four by Alex Zalben and Girihiru, the Power Pack team encounter a group of wargs in Central Park that they use to ride to Asgard.

Notes

^ Puvel, Jaan (1986). "Who Were the Hittite hurkilas pesnes?". In Risch, Ernst; Etter, Annemarie. O-O-Pe-Ro-Si: Festschrift fur Ernst Risch Zum. de Gruyter. pp. 153. ISBN 3-11-010518-7.
^ Osborn, Marijane; Overing, Gillian R. (2001). "Bone-Crones Have No Hearth: Some Women in the Medieval Wilderness". In Adams, Paul C.; Hoelscher, Steven D., et al. Textures of Place: Exploring Humanist Geographies. University of Minnesota Press. pp. 354 note 38. ISBN 0-8166-3756-3.
^ The "Two Towers" Creatures Guide Collins (November 6, 2002) ISBN 0007144091

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