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 Il Cane: la Fedeltà?

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MessaggioOggetto: Il Cane: la Fedeltà?   Lun 7 Set 2009 - 8:42

FONTE: http://animalitotem.wordpress.com/2008/02/07/gli-animali-totemdomestici-cane-e-gatto/

IL CANE
Il cane è stato il servo e il soldato che fin dai primordi ha custodito le abitazioni della tribù, facendo la guardia e proteggendo i villaggi dagli attacchi di sorpresa. Per i Greci simboleggiava ancora una volta un tutore, Cerbero, il cane a tre teste, che custodiva le porte di Ade. In India, il cane è stato un simbolo di tutti i sistemi di casta e per i primi cristiani, era un vigile custode e anche un simbolo del sacerdote, in quanto preservava il suo gregge. Il cane rappresenta la fedeltà, il servizio e l’amore incondizionato. Anche dopo essere stato picchiato o maltrattato, continua a sevirci, mostrando una compassione e una tolleranza anche superiore a quella di un essere umano. Se il cane è un tuo animale Totem, sentirai il bisogno di aiutare gli altri, prestando il tuo servizio. Favorisce le attività di volontariato, e le professioni inerenti ai servizi sociali, come ad esempio l’infermiere, l’insegnante, l’assistente sociale, il poliziotto e il soldato … Il messaggio che il cane sta cercando di darti è che devi scavare in profondità in te stesso, per scoprire in che modo puoi essere utile al tuo prossimo. Il lato ombra della medicina del cane è legato al servilismo e alla tendenza eccessiva di assecondare gli altri. Potresti permettere alle persone di approfittarsi di te a causa della tua natura troppo gentile. Il cane ti insegna anche che la lealtà va usata anche con se stessi, trovare la propria verità ed essere coerenti. A volte bisogna riuscire a dire di no.


Vedere anche a fonte: http://www.indianiamericani.it/a_totem.php/cane.html


Ultima modifica di Admin il Gio 9 Dic 2010 - 17:37, modificato 2 volte
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MessaggioOggetto: Il cane   Lun 29 Mar 2010 - 14:13

Ciao Admin, riporto uno stralcio dal libro che parla del simbolismo dei nostri amici totem...

Una breve recensione del libro la troverete in questo link.

Bona lettura!

FONTE: da "Segni e presagi del mondo animale - i poteri magici di piccole e grandi creature." di Ted Andrews Ed. Mediterranee

...La maggior parte delle tribù di nativi americani avevano cani per proteggerli o eventualmente dare l'allarme, ma l'importanza simbolica di questi animali è accertata anche in altre società. In India, il cane è un simbolo di tutti i sistemi di casta, condensando il significato del piccolo che diventa grande. Agli inizi della Cristianità, era un simbolo di vigilanza (come il cane da gregge), e allegoricamente indicava anche i sacerdoti. In Grecia era compagno e custode dei morti, oltre a essere considerato simbolo di maternità, grazie al fatto che i cani sono genitori molto affettuosi e premurosi.
Ci vuole molto per fiaccare lo spirito di un cane. La sua capacità di amare, anche se maltrattato, è enorme....


Ultima modifica di Tila il Mar 28 Dic 2010 - 13:11, modificato 1 volta
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il Cane: la Fedeltà?   Lun 29 Mar 2010 - 15:02

Tila ha scritto:
FONTE: da "Segni e presagi del mondo animale - i poteri magici di piccole e grandi creature." di Ted Andrews Ed. Mediterranee

...La maggior parte delle tribù di nativi americani avevano cani per proteggerli o eventualmente dare l'allarme, ma l'importanza simbolica di questi animali è accertata anche in altre società. In India, il cane è un simbolo di tutti i sistemi di casta, condensando il significato del piccolo che diventa grande. Agli inizi della Cristianità, era un simbolo di vigilanza (come il cane da gregge), e allegoricamente indicava anche i sacerdoti. In Grecia era compagno e custode dei morti, oltre a essere considerato simbolo di maternità, grazie al fatto che i cani sono genitori molto affettuosi e premurosi.
Ci vuole molto per fiaccare lo spirito di un cane. La sua capacità di amare, anche se maltrattato, è enorme....


Ciao Tila!

Il cane da sempre accompagna l'uomo, direi che lo si può considerare anche un lupo che ha subito forti spinte di adattamento genetico alal vita umana, traendone a sua volta dei vantaggi.

Non meraviglia quindi che sia uno degli animali che piu spesso ricorre nelel simbologie sciamaniche e tribali in molti angoli del mondo.

Aggiungo (in Inglese ma appena posso la traduco) queste parti di articoli.




Chinese symbol for dog

History

Interestingly, there has never been evidence of lions being indigenous to China; however Asiatic lions were once quite common in neighboring India. These Asiatic lions[3] found in nearby India are the ones depicted in Chinese culture. As Buddhism was spread in China by traveling Buddhist priests and monks from India, they brought with them stories about stone Asiatic or Indian lions guarding the entries to Indian Buddhist temples & monasteries and the palaces of Indian Kings. Chinese sculptors modeled lion statues after native dogs (compare the Chow Chow, Pekingese, Shi Tzu, Shar-Pei, Pug, etc., and closely related dog breeds originating in ancient China called Foo Dogs) for use outside their temples and palaces, as nobody in ancient China had ever seen a real lion before. The mythic version of the animal was known as the Lion of Fo, the word Fo 佛 being Chinese for Buddha. The Chinese word for lion is "Shi" which was adopted from their Sanskrit name "Sinh" in the neighboring India.

Lions of Fo are often created in pairs, with the male traditionally sitting on the right playing with a ball (globe) and the female sitting on the left with a cub. They occur in many types of Chinese pottery and in Western imitations[2].

The Buddhist version of the Lion was originally introduced to Han China as the protector of dharma and these lions have been found in religious art as early as 208 BC. Gradually they were incorporated as guardians of the Chinese Imperial dharm. Lions seemed appropriately regal beasts to guard the emperor's gates and have been used as such since.

The mythic Lion is sometimes associated with feng shui, and are often called Fu Lions. Fu means 'happiness' in Chinese; however, the term "Fu Lion," and its variant Foo Lion, are not used in Chinese. Instead, they are known as Rui Shi (瑞獅) ("auspicious lions") or simply Shi ("lions").

There are various styles of imperial guardian lions reflecting influences from different time periods, imperial dynasties, and regions of China. These styles vary in their artistic detail and adornment as well as in the depiction of the lions from fierce to serene.

It is believed that the Chow Chow breed of Chinese dogs is one of the native dogs used as the original model for the creation of Chinese guardian lions in ancient China when no one had ever seen a real lion before when stories reached China that Buddhist temples and monasteries in India were being guarded by the traditional stone lions found in front of Buddhist temples and palaces in India. Hearing the stories carried there by Buddhist monks traveling from India the Chinese sculptors modeled statues of Fu or Foo lions, the lions of Buddha after these native dogs and created an icon of an animal never before seen in China, the Chinese guardian lions. Chow Chow is a breed of dog that was first developed in Mongolia about 4,000 years ago and was later introduced into China,[4] where it is referred to as Songshi Quan (Pinyin: sōngshī quǎn 鬆獅犬), which literally means "puffy-lion dog."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_guardian_lions









SHISHI LION DOG
SHRINE GUARDIANS WITH MAGICAL POWERS
Jp. = Shishi 獅子, Chn. = Shíshī or Kara Shishi
Also known as Koma-inu 狛犬 in Japan

Origin = China


Shishi (or Jishi) is translated as "lion” but it can also refer to a deer or dog with magical properties and the power to repel evil spirits. A pair of shishi traditionally stand guard outside the gates of Japanese Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples, although temples are more often guarded by two Nio Protectors. The Shishi (like the Nio) are traditionally depicted in pairs, one with mouth open and one with mouth closed. The open/closed mouth relates to Ah (open mouth) and Un (closed mouth). “Ah" is the first sound in the Japanese alphabet, while "N" (pronounced "un") is the last. These two sounds symbolize beginning and end, birth and death, or all possible outcomes (from alpha to omega) in the cosmic dance of existence. The first letter in Sanskrit is "Ah" as well, but the last is "Ha." Nonetheless, the first and last sounds produced by the mouth are "Ah" and "M." The Japanese "n" and the Sanskrit "m" sound exactly the same when hummed with mouth closed. The spiritual Sanskrit terms AHAM and AUM thus encapsulate the first letter-sound (mouth open) and the final sound (mouth closed). Others say the open mouth is to scare off demons, and the closed mouth to shelter and keep in the good spirits. The circular object beneath their feet is the Tama 玉, or sacred Buddhist jewel, a symbol of Buddhist wisdom that brings light to darkness and holds the power to grant wishes.


KOMA-INU 狛犬 and KARA-SHISHI
This mythical beast was probably introduced to Japan from China via Korean in the 7th or 8th century AD, during the same period as Buddhism’s transmission to Japan, for the Japanese shishi combines elements of both the Korean "Koma-inu" (Korean dog) and Chinese "Kara-shishi" (Chinese lion). One prominent theory holds that the shishi derives from the Chinese Foo Dog (see LEARM MORE below for more). Lions, by the way, are not indigenous to Japan, China or Korea, and supposedly entered those nations in the form of imported art and sculpture, with the earliest traces of the animal appearing in China’s Han Dynasty (about 208 BC to 221 AD).

Says JAANUS: KOMAINU. Literally 'Korean dog'. A pair of lion-like guardian figures placed at each side of a shrine or temple entrance; believed to ward off evil spirits. Thought to have been brought to Japan from China via Korea, their name is derived from Koma 高麗, the Japanese term for the Korean kingdom of Koguryo 高句麗. In the early Heian period (9c) the two statues were clearly distinguished: the figure on the left, called shishi 獅子 (lion), resembled a lion with its mouth open (agyou 阿形); the figure on the right, called komainu 狛犬 (Korean dog), resembled a dog with its mouth closed (ungyou 吽形), and sometimes had a horn on its head. Gradually the term komainu came to be used for both statues, and their shapes became indistinguishable except for the open and closed mouths (a-un 阿吽). In the Heian period (9-12c) komainu were used as weights or doorstops for curtains and screens in the Seiryouden 清涼殿, Kyoto Gosho 京都御所. Other famous examples include a pair of painted wooden komainu (10-11c) at Yakushiji 薬師寺, Nara; 14 painted and lacquered wooden figures at Itsukushima Jinja 厳島神社, (12-14c) Hiroshima prefecture, and the stone figures inside the south gate of Toudaiji 東大寺, Nara, made by the 12c Chinese sculptor Chinnakei 陳和卿. <end JAANUS quote>

http://www.onmarkproductions.com/html/shishi.shtml



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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il Cane: la Fedeltà?   Mar 2 Nov 2010 - 21:49

ecco qualche documento che ci parla della simbologia del cane...

Tra il simbolismo troviamo la fedeltà, il senso di comunità, assistenza, protezione.

I cani venivano addestrati dai Celti per assisterli durante le battaglie, associato a Nodens (il Dio celtico della guarigione).

I Nativi Americani se ne servivano per l'orientamento, proprio queste tribù si servivano dei cani ancor prima dei cavalli per molte delle loro faccende quotidiane.

Come continueremo a leggere vedremo che le persone con questo totem hanno grande spirito e una grande capacità di amare.

Buona lettura...

FONTE: http://www.whats-your-sign.com/dog-meaning-and-symbolism.html

Dog Meaning and Dog Symbolism

To me, dog meaning and symbolism rings my bells in the realms of communication, and I elaborate on that the theme of communication on my "Dog Meaning and Symbolism in the Tarot" article.

I'll let you in on a little secret: Once upon a time, the sound of barking dogs put my nerves in a "tilt." Worse than scrapes down a chalkboard; barking and yapping dogs would send me in a nervous tailspin. I'm an audio-attuned person, and certain sounds just send rancor through my nerve-ranks.

Thankfully, that nerve-crushing reaction subsided when I met with an Iroquois native. Naturally perceptive, she noticed my jangled state while we were passing a group of neighborhood canines. Acting on her observations, she took the time to explain the intricacies and importance of "dog-speak." She shared with me how canine language is complex and vital to how dogs communicate their well-being (or otherwise), their views and the status of their community. Embracing her Iroquoian wisdom, I viewed (heard) dog-speak in a whole new light.

Now, every time I hear dogs baying in my awareness - I get quiet. I listen. I realize their speech is an opportunity to gain vital information on the status of my environment (and theirs). Intonation, pitch, guttural inflection, repetitious patterns....they all contribute to the overall message a dog is conveying. If you listen close, you can pick up on their language. It can be a true oracle. Try it sometime.

A short-list of dog meaning includes symbolic attributes like:

* Fidelity
* Loyalty
* Assistance
* Intelligence
* Obedience
* Protection
* Community
* Cooperation
* Resourcefulness
* Communication
* Sensory Perception

The theme of communication becomes heightened when we peer into histories and discover dog meaning and symbolism is connected to the metaphysical realms. The dog has long been considered a liaison between the physical and non-physical dimensions. Ancient Egyptian, Greek, Roman, Celtic and beyond have all prescribed the dog as a sacred guardian of the Otherworlds - those realms outside our daily/mundane experience. If you hear of dogs being symbols of death - this is the connection: Dogs are the guardians of ephemeral domains, and can even serve as spirit guides in non-physical journeys.

Consider Anubis, the Egyptian god whose charge is to insure safe transitions from common reality (physical life on Earth) into the Afterlife experience. With the head of a jackal (of canine ilk), Anubis dons the super-powerful sensory perception of the dog. Further, that dog connection represents the epitome of protection, guidance, loyalty and adherence to the flow of unseen spiritual energy. To be sure, safe passage from "life" to Afterlife will be seen to success under the governance of the dog/jackal-headed Anubis. In this ancient light, we get distinct impressions of: Security, Guardianship, Protection.

Dogs are sacred to Hecate, the Greek-Roman overseer of lots of things - but surely a matron bound to protect that which is misunderstood. It seems (to me) where there is senseless lashing out against that which is misunderstood, Hecate comes ferociously in justification - her dogs baying with equal verve at her side. Death, darkness, wild wandering, lunar moodiness, midnight journeying...Hecate defends the soul's right to wander in these little-known, oft-misunderstood alleyways. With her highly perceptive hounds guiding the way (and protecting the body as the spirit wanders), astral travel becomes eons easier.

Interestingly, Hecate and her hounds will also speak for (and protect) those who cannot do so for themselves. Newborns. Hecate and her dogs represent an "Alliance for Defense and Protection" to those who cannot defend themselves: Babies, Children, the Meek, the Mild, the Mad and the unjustly Maligned.

In Celtic symbolism, dogs are a representation of heroism. They embody heart-pounding attributes such as: Courage, Persistence, Virility. This, in large part is due to a Celtic dog's role in hunting. Dogs were even trained by the ancient Celts to assist in battle. So here we see that same thread of defense, protection and action for the good of the clan. An interesting paradox: Celtic dogs are also symbolic of healing. They are often associated with Nodens, a Celtic god of nutritive waters, hunting and healing (water is often synonymous with healing in Celtic wisdom). Dogs have also been portrayed with Sucellus, the Celtic god of protection and provision (from an agricultural view).

Native American Indian tribes have long depended upon the dog for their helpful guidance and assistance in everyday chores. Before horses, there were dogs and they were trained to help the tribe in agricultural efficiency as well as hunting. In fact, when horses were introduced to North America by the Spaniards, the term "sky dogs" was dubbed for horses because they were as helpful as their canine allies. In Native American wisdom dogs convey symbolism of: Assistance, Fidelity, Community, Protection, Friendship and Communication.

In Chinese symbolism, dogs are also considered a harbinger of friendship. The legendary Fu Dog is also a guardian of sacred spaces and embodies concepts of protection too. Dogs are considered very auspicious. In Asian wisdom dogs are symbols of: Good Luck, Loyalty, Obedience and Prosperity.

One of my favorite symbolic associations with dogs is through the field of Alchemy. The dog (and sometimes wolves) is associated with Mercury in alchemical wisdom. Why? Because Mercury is easily fused with other metals. This hints to amicable bonds (friendship) and ties that bind with ease. Mercurial dogs are also symbolic of: Transition, Intelligence, and easy flow through the processes of transmutation.

These are just a few thoughts about dog meaning and symbolism in my own view, and from a few cultural perspectives. As always, I would encourage you to keep digging for more symbolic bones the dog has to offer. Do more research online (like Dogs in Tarot), or go to your library to find out more.

Meditate, contemplate, embark on your own spirit-journey and get in touch with dog energy. Discover new canine concepts of your own. This breed of delightful expression is infinitely generous. Meaning, dogs will guide you to limitless potential if given the chance. They are actually anxious to serve! Let them.


FONTE: http://www.linsdomain.com/totems/pages/dog.htm

DOG

Goddess-company, we trail the truth.
Understand our night cries!
We guide and protect her children.
Heed our warnings!
We sing to the Moon to show you the way
To ancient Moon magics!
We stand at the gates between the worlds.
Follow us!


Faithfulness and Protection

The Dog is a symbol of the small becoming the great.
People with this totem have great spirit
and a great ability to love.
It takes a lot to break a dog spirit.

People with a Dog totem are usually helping others or serving humanity in some way.
Dog medicine embodies the loving gentleness of best friend and the fierce energy of protector.
You will have a deep understanding and compassion of human shortcomings.

Study the quality of the breed of dog that has entered your life:
is it a hunter, a protector, a companion, playful?
Each of these qualities will give you insight into the qualities needed for your own life.

A Dog totem is a great spirit booster.

Some of the information on this webpage was derived from the following sources:
Sans, Jamie & Carson, David. Medicine Cards: the Discovery of Power Through the Way of Animals. Santa Fe, NM. 1988. Print.
Andrews, Ted. Animal-speak: the Spiritual & Magical Powers of Creatures Great & Small. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 1993. Print.
Andrews, Ted. Animal-Wise: the Spirit Language and Signs of Nature. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 1999. Print.
D. J. Conway. Animal Magick: the Art of Recognizing & Working with Familiars. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 2003. Print.
Farmer, Steven D. Animal Spirit Guides. Hayhouse Inc., 2006. Print.


Ultima modifica di Tila il Mar 28 Dic 2010 - 13:33, modificato 1 volta
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il Cane: la Fedeltà?   Ven 19 Nov 2010 - 14:36

Admin ti confesso che quando ho trovato la seguente documentazione sul ruolo che il cane ha avuto nella storia e nelle tradizioni dell'uomo sono rimasta esterrefatta...positivamente naturalmente :-)

Sapevi che era considerato il messaggero di Yama (la Dea della morte) e che sempre per gli Indù ha una forte rilevanza religiosa?

Tra le sepolture Maya hanno trovato molti scheletri di animali e molto spesso di cani, questo può far pensare che il cane oltre ad accompagnare le persone in vita potessero accompagnarle anche nella morte.

buona lettura!



FONTE:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dogs_in_religion

Dogs in religion
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), which are humankind's first and most common domestic animals, have played a role in many religious traditions.

Contents
[hide]

* 1 Hinduism
* 2 Mesopotamia
* 3 Ancient Egyptian religion
* 4 Zoroastrianism
* 5 Chinese tradition
* 6 Christianity
* 7 Islam
* 8 Atheism and criticism of religion
* 9 See also
* 10 References

[edit] Hinduism

Dogs have a major religious significance among the Hindus in Nepal and some parts of India. The dogs are worshipped as a part of a five-day Tihar festival that falls roughly in November every year. In Hinduism, it is believed that the dog is a messenger of Yama, the god of death, and dogs guard the doors of Heaven.This is a day when the dog is worshipped by applying tika (the holy vermilion dot), incense sticks and garlanded generally with marigold flower.[citation needed] Sarama, the bitch of the gods, is described as the mother of all dogs.

The dog is also the vahana or mount of the Hindu god Bhairava.

[edit] Mesopotamia

There is a temple in Isin (located in Mesopotamia) that is named é-ur-gi7-ra which translates to mean “dog house” [1] Enlilbani, a king from the Old Babylonian First Dynasty of Isin, commemorated the temple to the goddess Ninisina.[2]. Although there is a small amount of detail known about it, there is enough information to confirm that a dog cult did exist in this area [3]. Usually, dogs were only associated with the Gula cult, but there is some information, like Enlilbani’s commemoration, to suggest that dogs were also important to the cult of Ninisina, as Gula was another goddess who was closely associated to Ninisina.[4] More than 30 dog burials, numerous dog sculptures, and dog drawings were discovered when the area around this Ninisina temple was excavated . In the Gula cult, the dog was used in oaths and was sometimes referred to as a divinity.

[edit] Ancient Egyptian religion

The Ancient Egyptians are often more associated with cats in the form of Bastet, yet here too dogs are found to have a sacred role and figure as an important symbol in religious iconography.[5] At the cemetery at Abydos a portion was reserved for dogs, near the graves of women, archers and dwarves.[6]

Dogs were associated with Anubis, the jackal headed god of the underworld. At times throughout its period of being in use the Anubieion catacombs at Saqqara saw the burial of dogs.[7]

[edit] Zoroastrianism

In Zoroastrianism, the dog is regarded as an especially beneficent, clean and righteous creature, which must be fed and taken care of.[8] The dog is praised for the useful work it performs in the household[9], but it is also seen as having special spiritual virtues. A dog's gaze is considered to be purifying and to drive off Daevas (demons). It is also believed to have a special connection with the afterlife: the Chinwad Bridge to Heaven is said to be guarded by dogs in Zoroastrian scripture[10], and dogs are traditionally fed in commemoration of the dead.[11] Ihtiram-i sag, "respect for the dog", is a common injunction among Iranian Zoroastrian villagers.[8]

Detailed prescriptions for the appropriate treatment of dogs are found in the Vendidad (a subdivision of the Zoroastrian holy scripture Avesta), especially in chapters 13, 14 and 15, where harsh punishments are imposed for harm inflicted upon a dog and the faithful are required to assist dogs, both domestic and stray, in various ways; often, help or harm to a dog is equated with help and harm to a human.[12] The killing of a dog ("a shepherd's dog, or a house-dog, or a Vohunazga [i.e. stray] dog, or a trained dog") is considered to lead to damnation in the afterlife.[13] A homeowner is required to take care of a pregnant bitch that lies near his home at least until the puppies are born (and in some cases until the puppies are old enough to take care of themselves, namely six months). If the homeowner does not help the bitch and the puppies come to harm as a result, "he shall pay for it the penalty for wilful murder", because "Atar (Fire), the son of Ahura Mazda, watches as well (over a pregnant bitch) as he does over a woman".[14] It is also a major sin if a man harms a dog by giving it bones that are too hard and become stuck in its throat, or food that is too hot, so that it burns its throat.[15] Giving bad food to a dog is as bad as serving bad food to a human.[16] The believers are required to take care of a dog with a damaged sense of smell, to try to heal it "in the same manner as they would do for one of the faithful" and, if they fail, to tie it lest it should fall into a hole or a body of water and be harmed.[17]

Both according to the Vendidad and in traditional Zoroastrian practice, dogs are allotted some funerary ceremonies analogous to those of humans.[11] In the Vendidad, it is stated that the spirits of a thousand deceased dogs are reincarnated in a single otter ("water dog"), hence the killing of an otter is a terrible crime that brings drought and famine upon the land and must be atoned either by the death of the killer[18] or by the killer performing a very long list of deeds considered pious, including the healing of dogs, raising of puppies, paying of fines to priests, as well as killing of animals considered noxious and unholy (cats, rats, mice and various species of reptiles, amphibians, and insects).[19]

Sagdid is a funeral ceremony in which a dog is brought into the room where the body is lying so that it can look on it. “Sagdid” means “dog sight” in the Middle Persian language of Zoroastrian theological works. There are various spiritual benefits thought to be obtained by the ceremony. It is believed that the original purpose was to make certain that the person was really dead, since the dog’s more acute senses would be able to detect signs of life that a human might miss. A “four-eyed” dog, that is one with two spots on its forehead, is preferred for sagdid.[20][21]

The traditional rites involving dogs have been under attack by reformist Zoroastrians since the mid 19th century, and they had abandoned them completely by the late 20th century. Even traditionalist Zoroastrians tend to restrict such rites to a significant extent nowadays (late 20th - early 21st century).[11]

[edit] Chinese tradition

The dog is one of the 12 animals honored in Chinese astrology. The second day of the Chinese New Year is considered to be the birthday of all dogs and Chinese people often take care to be kind to dogs on that day.

[edit] Christianity


Statue of Saint Roch with his dog, in Prague, Czech Republic.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:St_Rochus.jpg

A dog is mentioned in the deuterocanonical Book of Tobit, faithfully accompanying Tobias, Tobit's son and the angel Raphael on their journeys.

Jesus told the story of the poor man Lazarus, whose sores were licked by street dogs. This has traditionally been seen as showing Lazarus's wretched situation. However, some modern commentators have pointed out that the dogs' saliva, which contains lysozyme (an enzyme with antibacterial qualities), could have beneficial effects on the sores.[22][23]

The Catholic Church recognizes Saint Roch (also called Saint Rocco), who lived in the early 14th century in France, as the patron saint of dogs. It is said that he caught the black plague while doing charitable work and went into the forest, expecting to die. There he was befriended by a dog which licked his sores and brought him food, and he was able to recover. The feast day of Saint Roch, August 16, is celebrated in Bolivia as the "birthday of all dogs."[24]

Saint Guinefort was the name given to a dog who received local veneration as a saint at a French shrine from the thirteenth to the twentieth centuries.[25]

A black and white dog is sometimes used as an informal symbol of the Dominican order of friars, religious sisters and nuns. This stems from a Latin pun: though the order's name is actually the Friars Preachers (Ordus Praedicatorum - order of preachers), it is generally called the Dominicans (after St. Dominic, their founder): Domini canes in Latin means "the dogs/hounds of the Lord."

[edit] Islam
Main article: Islam and dogs

The majority of both Sunni and Shi'a Muslim jurists consider dogs to be ritually unclean.[26] It is uncommon for practising Muslims to have dogs as pets.[27]

There are a number of traditions concerning Muhammad's attitude towards dogs. He said that the company of dogs, except as helpers in hunting, herding, and home protection, voided a portion of a Muslim's good deeds.[28] On the other hand, he advocated kindness to dogs and other animals.

Another source that supports the kind treatment of dogs in Islam is seen with the narration by Abu Huraira Volume 3, Book 40, Number 551.[29] He narrated that the Prophet said, "While a man was walking he felt thirsty and went down a well, and drank water from it. On coming out of it, he saw a dog panting and eating mud because of excessive thirst. The man said, 'This (dog) is suffering from the same problem as that of mine.' So, he (went down the well), filled his shoe with water, caught hold of it with his teeth and climbed up and watered the dog. Allah thanked him for his (good) deed and forgave him. The people asked ``O Allah's Apostle! Is there a reward for us in serving (the) animals? He replied: ``Yes, there is a reward for serving any animate (living being). [29]

Additionally many Muslim theologians have argued[citation needed] that the dog is not an unclean animal based on the inclusion of a dog among the Seven Sleepers as recorded in the 18th verse of the 18th chapter of the Qur'an,[30] which reads:

Thou wouldst have deemed them awake, whilst they were asleep, and We turned them on their right and on their left sides: their dog stretching forth his two fore-legs on the threshold: if thou hadst come up on to them, thou wouldst have certainly turned back from them in flight, and wouldst certainly have been filled with terror of them. .

(Surah Al Kahf, Qur'an: 18)

[edit] Atheism and criticism of religion

The Ancient Greek philosopher and critic of social mores Diogenes of Sinope was recorded as living with many dogs, seeing their freedom from self-consciousness and sincere enjoyment of simple physical pleasure to be admirable role models.

In an article in the New York Times Magazine atheist Natalie Angier quoted Frans de Waal, a primatologist at Emory University:

"I've argued that many of what philosophers call moral sentiments can be seen in other species. In chimpanzees and other animals, you see examples of sympathy, empathy, reciprocity, a willingness to follow social rules. Dogs are a good example of a species that have and obey social rules; that's why we like them so much, even though they're large carnivores."[31]

In 1808 the English poet Lord Byron expressed similar thoughts in his famous poem Epitaph to a Dog:

But the poor dog, in life the firmest friend,
The first to welcome, foremost to defend,
Whose honest heart is still his master's own,
Who labors, fights, lives, breathes for him alone,
Unhonored falls, unnoticed all his worth,
Denied in heaven the soul he held on earth –
While man, vain insect! hopes to be forgiven,
And claims himself a sole exclusive heaven.[32]

References

1. ^ Livingstone, A (1988). "The Isin “Dog House” Revisited", Journal of Cuneiform Studies, 40(1), p54
2. ^ Shaffer, Aaron (1974). "Enlilbaniand the ‘DogHouse’ in Isin", Journal of Cuneifrom Studies, 26(4) p. 251-252)
3. ^ Livingstone ibid, 1988, p. 58
4. ^ Shaffer, Aaron (1974) Ibid, p. 253
5. ^ [1]
6. ^ Egypt: The Dogs of Ancient Egypt
7. ^ [2]
8. ^ a b Boyce, Mary 1989. A History of Zoroastrianism: The Early Period. P.303
9. ^ Vendidad 13:39-40
10. ^ Vendidad 13:9
11. ^ a b c Encyclopaedia Iranica:Dog. In Zoroastrianism. By Mary Boyce.
12. ^ Vendidad 13,14,15
13. ^ Vendidad 13:8-9
14. ^ Vendidad, Fargard 15, passim, e.g. 21.
15. ^ Vendidad, Fargard 15, 2-4.
16. ^ http://www.avesta.org/vendidad/vd15sbe.htm Vendidad, Fargard 13, 20-28
17. ^ Vendidad, Fargard 13:35
18. ^ Vendidad, Fargard 13:50-56
19. ^ [3]]
20. ^ Jivanji Jamshedji Modi, 1928, The Funeral Ceremonies of the Parsees, Anthropological Society of Bombay
21. ^ The Zoroastrian Faith: Tradition and Modern Research, by Solomon Alexander Nigosian, Published by McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP, 1993, ISBN 0-7735-1144-X, 9780773511446 page 102 (page can be viewed via Google books)
22. ^ Kilcommons, B. and Cappuzo, M. 1996, Mutts: America's Dogs, New York:Warner Books.
23. ^ Does dog's saliva contain germs?, answers.yahoo.com, http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20060610075920AAi4a22, retrieved 2007-12-01
24. ^ "Saint Roch"
25. ^ Stephen de Bourbon (d. 1262): De Supersticione
26. ^ Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, s.v. "Dogs in the Islamic Tradition and Nature." New York: Continuum International, forthcoming 2004. By: Dr. Khaled Abou El Fadl
27. ^ Susan J. Armstrong, Richard G. Botzler, The Animal Ethics Reader, p.237, Routledge (UK) Press
28. ^ Malik ibn Anas, al-Muwatta (Egypt: al-Babi al-Halabi, n.d.), 2:969. Reported in El Fadl
29. ^ a b http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/bukhari/040.sbt.html Compendium of Muslim Texts - Abu Huraira, Volume 3, Book 40, Number 551
30. ^ Surah Al Kahf (The Cave)
31. ^ "Confessions of a Lonely Atheist"
32. ^ Epitaph To a Dog


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam_and_dogs

Islam and dogs
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The majority of both Sunni and Shi'a Muslim jurists consider dogs to be ritually unclean.[1] Most practicing Muslims do not have dogs as pets.[2]

However, outside their ritual uncleanness, individual Islamic fatāwā, or rulings, have expressed that dogs be treated kindly or else be freed.[3]
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Religious impurity
* 2 Exceptions
* 3 Muhammad and dogs
* 4 Muslims and guide dogs
* 5 See also
* 6 References

[edit] Religious impurity

Muslims generally cast dogs in a negative light because of their ritual impurity. Muhammad didn't like dogs according to Sunni tradition.[2] It is said that angels do not enter a house which contains a dog. Though dogs are not allowed for pets, they are allowed to be kept if used for work, such as guarding the house or farm, or when used for hunting purposes.

In a tradition found in the Sunni hadith book, al-Muwatta, Muhammad states that the company of dogs voids a portion of a Muslim’s good deeds.[4]
[edit] Exceptions

Jurists from the Sunni Maliki school disagree that dogs are impure.[1] The story of the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus in the Qur'an (and also the role of the dog in early Christianity) is one of the striking exceptions.[5]

Dogs, outside the ritual legal discourse, were often portrayed in the literature as a symbol of highly esteemed virtues such as self-sacrifice and loyalty or on the other hand as an oppressive instrument in the hands of despotic and unjust rulers.[1]
[edit] Muhammad and dogs

According to a generally unaccepted Sunni tradition attributed to Muhammad, black dogs are evil, or even devils, in animal form. This report reflects the pre-Islamic Arab mythology and the vast majority of Ulema (Muslim jurists) viewed it to be falsely attributed to Muhammad.[1]

Another Sunni tradition attributed to Muhammad commands Muslims not trade or deal in dogs.[6] According to El Fadl, this shows the cultural biases against dogs as a source of moral danger.[1] However, the Hanafi scholars, the largest school of ritual law in Sunni Islam, allow all trading in dogs.

According to one story, Muhammad is said to have informed a prostitute who had seen a thirsty dog hanging about a well and given it water to drink. Allah forgave her because of that good deed.[2][7]

The historian William Montgomery Watt states that Muhammad's kindness to animals was remarkable for the social context of his upbringing. He cites an instance of Muhammed posting sentries to ensure that a female dog with newborn puppies was not disturbed by his army traveling to Mecca in the year 630.[8]
[edit] Muslims and guide dogs

Because Islam considers dogs in general to be unclean,[1] many Muslim taxi drivers and store owners have refused to accommodate customers who have guide dogs.[9][10][11] In 2003, the Sharia Council, based in the United Kingdom, ruled that the ban on dogs does not apply to those used for guide work.[12]

However, many Muslims continue to refuse access, and see the pressure to allow the dogs as a restraint upon religious liberty.[13] Sheikh Ibrahim Mogra of the Muslim Council of Britain has argued strongly that Sharia does not preclude working with guide dogs, and it is actually a duty under Sharia for a Muslim to help the visually impaired.



FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dogs_in_Mesoamerican_folklore_and_myth

Dogs in Mesoamerican folklore and myth
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



The Aztec day sign Itzcuintli (dog) from the 16th century Codex Magliabechiano.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Itzcuintli.jpg

Dogs have occupied a powerful place in Mesoamerican folklore and myth since at least the Classic Period right through to modern times.[1] A common belief across the Mesoamerican region is that a dog carries the newly deceased across a body of water in the afterlife. Dogs appear in underworld scenes painted on Maya pottery dating to the Classic Period and even earlier than this, in the Preclassic, the Chupicaro buried dogs with the dead.[2] In the great Classic Period metropolis of Teotihuacan, 14 human bodies were deposited in a cave, most of them children, together with the bodies of three dogs to guide them on their path to the underworld.[3]

In many versions of the 20-day cycle of the Mesoamerican calendar, the tenth day bears the name dog.[4] This is itzcuintli in Nahuatl, the language of the Aztecs, tz'i' in the K'iche' Maya language and oc in Yucatec Maya. Among the Mixtecs, the tenth day was taken by the coyote, ua.[5]
Contents
[hide]

* 1 The Maya
* 2 The Aztecs and their contemporaries
* 3 Modern folklore
* 4 See also
* 5 Notes
* 6 References

[edit] The Maya

Maya burials from the Classic Period are frequently found with associated animal remains, often dogs.[6] For example, in the ruins of the Classic Maya city of Kaminaljuyu in Guatemala, a dog was found interred with a sitting skeleton, along with grave goods offered to the deceased.[7] The frequent finds of dog skeletons in Classic Maya burials confirms that the belief that dogs guided the souls of the departed on their journey into the underworld already existed at this time.[8]

The dog is sometimes depicted carrying a torch in the surviving Maya codices, which may be a reference to the Maya tradition that the dog brought fire to mankind.[9]

In the Postclassic Popul Vuh of the K'iche' Maya of highland Guatemala, dogs and turkeys killed the people of the second age in retaliation for the people beating them. The people who escaped this fate were transformed into monkeys.[2]

[edit] The Aztecs and their contemporaries

In Aztec mythology, the Fourth Sun disappeared in a great flood. A man and a woman survived inside a log and were washed up upon a beach, where they promptly built a fire and roasted some fish. The smoke from the fire upset the stars Citlallatonac and Citlalicue, angering the great god Tezcatlipoca. In his fury, he severed their heads and stitched them onto their rears, creating the first dogs.[10]

Among the Aztecs, the god Xolotl was a monstrous dog.[11] During the creation of the Fifth Sun, Xolotl was hunted by Death and escaped him by transforming himself first into a sprout of maize, then into maguey leaves and finally as a salamander in a pool of water.The third time that Death found Xolotl, he trapped and killed him. Three important foodstuffs were produced from the body of this mythological dog.[10] Mictlantecuhtli, Lord of the Dead, had the bones of man in the underworld, kept over from the previous creations. Xolotl descended to the underworld to steal these bones so that man could be reborn in the new creation of the Fifth Sun. Xolotl managed to recover the bones and brought man to life by piercing his penis and bleeding upon them.[12] Xolotl was seen as an incarnation of the planet Venus as the Evening Star (the Morning Star was his twin brother Quetzalcoatl). Xolotl was the canine companion of the Sun, following its path through both the sky and the underworld.[13] Xolotl's strong connection with the underworld, death and the dead is demonstrated by the symbols he bore. In the Codex Borbonicus Xolotl is pictured with a knife in his mouth, a symbol of death, and has black wavy hair like the hair worn by the gods of death.[12]

The fourteenth 13-day period of the tonalpohualli ritual calendar started with the day ce itzcuintli (1-dog) and people, especially rulers, were fated to be especially lucky if born on this day. The tenth day of the xiuhpohualli 20-day agricultural calendar, itzcuintli (dog), was governed by Mictlantecuhtli, the grim lord of the dead.[14] In the Postclassic, when an Aztec commoner died he had to pass through each of the nine levels of Mictlan, the underworld. Mictlan was only reached after four years of wandering, accompanied by a dog that had been cremated with the deceased. The first level of Mictlan was called Apanoayan (where one crosses the river), this place was also known as Itzcuintlan (the Place of Dogs) because of the many dogs that roamed the near shore. A dog that recognised its former owner would carry him across the river on its back.[15] In some accounts, the dogs on the shore act differently according to their colour, yellow dogs would carry the soul of the deceased across the river, while white dogs refuse because they have just washed themselves and black dogs refuse because either they have just swum the river[2] or because they are dirty.[16]

In Aztec folklore, the ahuizotl was a dog-like water monster with a hand on the end of its coiled tail. It was said to dwell underwater near river banks and would drag the unwary to a watery death. The victim's soul would be carried off to Tlalocan, one of the three Aztec paradises.[17] A similar belief existed among the neighbouring Tarascans, their dog-god was called Uitzimengari and he saved the souls of drowned people by carrying them across to the Land of the Dead.[2]
[edit] Modern folklore

In modern times, the Chinantecs and Mixes of Oaxaca believe that a black dog will help the newly dead to cross a body of water, either a river or a sea, to the land of the dead.[18][19] The Huitzilan believe that a dog carries the dead across the water to reach the underworld home of the Devil.[2]

Across much of Mexico, evil sorcerers are believed to be able to transform themselves into a black dog in order to prey upon the livestock of their neighbours. In the states of central Mexico (such as Oaxaca, Tlaxcala and Veracruz) such a sorcerer is known as a nahual, in the Yucatan Peninsula they go by the name of huay chivo. Another supernatural dog in the folklore of Yucatan is the huay pek (witch-dog in Yucatec Maya), an enormous phantom black dog that attacks anybody that it meets and is said to be an incarnation of the Kakasbal, an evil spirit.[20][21][22]

A folktale from Tlaxcala tells how some hunters saw an enormous black dog one night and decided to capture and keep it. It fled at their approach, so one hunter shot at it, wounding it in one leg. Following the blood trail they came to a richly furnished peasant hut, whose owner was tending a wound in his leg. They gave up the chase and headed for the nearest village, where the locals told them that the peasant had been a nahual who could transform into a dog to steal riches.[23]

The Tzeltal and Tzotzil Maya of highland Chiapas in Mexico say that a white dog mated with Eve in the Third Creation, producing Ladinos, while a yellow dog fathered the indigenous peoples.[10]

A Jakaltek tale from the Guatemalan Highlands relates how the first dog witnessed the creation of the world and ran everywhere telling everyone the secrets of creation. Hunab' Kuh, the Creator-God, was furious and swapped the dog's head for its tail and its tail for its head. Now, whenever a dog wants to talk and give away its secrets, it cannot speak, instead it may only wag its tail.[24]


Xolotl from the 15th century Codex Fejervary-Mayer
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Xolotl_1.jpg


Ultima modifica di Tila il Mar 28 Dic 2010 - 13:40, modificato 2 volte
Tornare in alto Andare in basso
Tila
Iniziato Sciamano
Iniziato Sciamano


Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il Cane: la Fedeltà?   Ven 19 Nov 2010 - 14:42

Tra i miti conosciamo Hellhound, una presenza tutt'altro che amichevole, un cane soprannaturale dal pelo a volte nero oppure rosso come il fuoco... in genere lo troviamo come guardiano dell'ingresso verso il regno dei morti...

Buon proseguimento...


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hellhound

Hellhound
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Goddess Hel and the hound Garmr by Johannes Gehrts, 1889
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hel_%281889%29_by_Johannes_Gehrts.jpg

A hellhound is a supernatural dog, found in mythology, folklore and fiction. A wide variety of ominous or hellish supernatural dogs occur in mythologies around the world, similar to the ubiquitous dragon. Features that have been attributed to hellhounds include black fur, glowing red or sometimes glowing yellow eyes, super strength or speed, ghostly or phantom characteristics, foul odor, and sometimes even the ability to talk. Legend says that if someone is to stare into its eyes 3 times or more, the person will definitely die. In cultures that associate the afterlife with fire, hellhounds may have fire-based abilities and appearance. They are often assigned to guard the entrances to the world of the dead, such as graveyards and burial grounds, or undertake other duties related to the afterlife or the supernatural, such as hunting down lost souls or guarding a supernatural treasure. In European legends, seeing a hellhound or hearing it howl may be either an omen or a cause of imminent death.

Some supernatural dogs, such as the Welsh Cŵn Annwn, were actually believed to be benign. However, seeing them was still considered an omen of death.

Contents
[hide]

* 1 Examples from folklore
* 2 Barghest
* 3 Black Shuck
o 3.1 Appearance in Bungay and Blythburgh
* 4 Dip
* 5 Cŵn Annwn
* 6 Gwyllgi
* 7 Yeth Hound
* 8 Church Grim
o 8.1 Church Grim in Fiction
* 9 Gytrash
* 10 Fiction
* 11 See also
* 12 References
* 13 External links

[edit] Examples from folklore

The most famous hellhound is probably Cerberus from Greek mythology. Hellhounds are also famous for appearing in Northern European mythology and folklore as a part of the Wild Hunt. These hounds are given several different names in local folklore, but they display typical hellhound characteristics. The myth is common across Great Britain, and many names are given to the apparitions: Moddey Dhoo of the Isle of Man, Gwyllgi of Wales, and so on (see Black dog (ghost)). The earliest mention of these myths are in both Walter Map's De Nugis Curianium (1190) and the Welsh myth cycle of the Four Branches of the Mabinogi (ca. 10th-13th century)[citation needed].

In Southern Mexican and Central American folklore, the Cadejo is a big black dog that haunts travellers who walk late at night on rural roads. The term is also common in American blues music, such as in Robert Johnson's "Hellhound on my Trail".

It is said that once you have come into contact with a Hellhound you are "not to speak of it for one year and one day." [1] Else you shall come to death, and that if you see a Hellhound 3 times you will come to immediate death.

Legend says that one day, a son of Hades, will tame every hellhound in existance and help his father take over Olympus. It also says that part of his name describes him as mad( crazy ) and maddening. When he dies, Hades will make him the Grim Reaper.

[edit] Barghest
Main article: Barghest

Barghest, Bargtjest, Bo-guest, Bargest or Barguest is the name often given in the north of England, especially in Yorkshire, to a legendary monstrous black dog with huge teeth and claws, though in other cases the name can refer to a ghost or Household elf, especially in Northumberland and Durham (see Cauld Lad of Hylton). One is said to frequent a remote gorge named Troller's Gill. There is also a story of a Barghest entering the city of York occasionally, where, according to legend, it preys on lone travellers in the city's narrow Snickelways. Whitby is also associated with the spectre.[2] A famous Barghest was said to live near Darlington who was said to take the form of a headless man (who would vanish in flames), a headless lady, a white cat, a dog, rabbit and black dog. Another was said to live in an "uncannie-looking" dale between Darlington and Houghton, near Throstlenest.[3]

The derivation of the word barghest is disputed. Ghost in the north of England was once pronounced guest, and the name is thought to be burh-ghest: town-ghost. Others explain it as German Berg-geist (mountain spirit), or Bär-geist (bear-spirit), in allusion to its alleged appearance at times as a bear. Another mooted derivation is 'Bier-Geist', the 'spirit of the funeral bier'.

[edit] Black Shuck
Main article: Black Shuck

Black Shuck or Old Shuck is the name given to a ghostly black dog which is said to roam the Norfolk, Essex and Suffolk coastline. Black Shuck is sometimes referred to as the Doom Dog.

For centuries, inhabitants of England have told tales of a large black dog with malevolent flaming eyes (or in some variants of the legend a single eye) that are red or alternatively green. They are described as being 'like saucers'. According to reports, the beast varies in size and stature from that of simply a large dog to being the size of a horse.

There are legends of Black Shuck roaming the Anglian countryside since before Vikings. His name may derive from the Old English word scucca meaning "demon", or possibly from the local dialect word shucky meaning "shaggy" or "hairy". The legend may have been part of the inspiration for the Sherlock Holmes novel The Hound of the Baskervilles.

It is said that his appearance bodes ill to the beholder, although not always. More often than not, stories tell of Black Shuck terrifying his victims, but leaving them alone to continue living normal lives; in some cases it has supposedly happened before close relatives to the observer die or become ill. In other tales he's regarded to be relatively benign and said to accompany women on their way home in the role of protector rather than a portent of ill omen.[4]

Sometimes Black Shuck has appeared headless, and at other times he appears to float on a carpet of mist. According to folklore, the spectre often haunts graveyards, sideroads, crossroads and dark forests. Black Shuck is also said to haunt the coast road between West Runton and Overstrand.

[edit] Appearance in Bungay and Blythburgh

One of the most notable reports of Black Shuck is of his appearance at the churches of Bungay and Blythburgh in Suffolk. On 4 August 1577, at Blythburgh, Black Shuck is said to have burst in through the church doors. He ran up the nave, past a large congregation, killing a man and boy and causing the church tower to collapse through the roof. As the dog left, he left scorch marks on the north door which can be seen at the church to this day.

The encounter on the same day at Bungay was described in "A Straunge and Terrible Wunder" by the Reverend Abraham Fleming in 1577:
“ This black dog, or the divel in such a linenesse (God hee knoweth al who worketh all,) runing all along down the body of the church with great swiftnesse, and incredible haste, among the people, in a visible fourm and shape, passed between two persons, as they were kneeling uppon their knees, and occupied in prayer as it seemed, wrung the necks of them bothe at one instant clene backward, in somuch that even at a mome[n]t where they kneeled, they stra[n]gely dyed. ”

Other accounts attribute the event to lightning or the Devil. The scorch marks on the door are referred to by the locals as "the devil’s fingerprints", and the event is remembered in this verse:
“ All down the church in midst of fire, the hellish monster flew, and, passing onward to the quire, he many people slew. ”

The appearance in Chignal St James/Chignal Smealy, small villages near Chelmsford, Essex are said to have occurred many years ago. All those said to have seen the devil dog are rumoured to have met an untimely end within a year of seeing the red-eyed devil dog, matching the legend that all that see Black Shuck will perish within a year of looking into his eyes. These are of course all rumours and superstition, however, many websites exist acting as directories of sighting of Black Shuck, and these can easily be found on the popular search engines. In recent times, sightings of Black Shuck in the Chignal area have been put down to sightings of black dogs that belong to residents roaming the village, such as The Three Elms pubs large black labradoodle and the Gardening Express nursery terrier cross.

[edit] Dip

In Catalan myth, Dip is an evil, black, hairy dog, an emissary of the Devil, who sucks people's blood. Like other figures associated with demons in Catalan myth, he is lame in one leg. Dip is pictured on the escutcheon of Pratdip.

[edit] Cŵn Annwn

In Welsh mythology and folklore, Cŵn Annwn (English pronunciation: /ˌkuːn ˈænʊn/, "hounds of Annwn") were the spectral hounds of Annwn, the otherworld of Welsh myth. They were associated with a form of the Wild Hunt, presided over by Gwynn ap Nudd (rather than Arawn, king of Annwn in the First Branch of the Mabinogi). Christians came to dub these mythical creatures as "The Hounds of Hell" or "Dogs of Hell" and theorised they were therefore owned by Satan.[5][6] However, the Annwn of medieval Welsh tradition is an otherworldly paradise and not a hell or abode of dead souls.

In Wales, they were associated with migrating geese, supposedly because their honking in the night is reminiscent of barking dogs. They are supposed to hunt on specific nights (the eves of St. John, St. Martin, Saint Michael the Archangel, All Saints, Christmas, New Year, Saint Agnes, Saint David, and Good Friday), or just in the autumn and winter. Some say Arawn only hunts from Christmas to Twelfth Night.[citation needed] The Cŵn Annwn also came to be regarded as the escorts of souls on their journey to the Otherworld. The hounds are sometimes accompanied by a fearsome hag called Mallt-y-Nos, "Matilda of the Night". An alternative name in Welsh folklore is Cŵn Mamau ("Hounds of the Mothers").

In other traditions similar spectral hounds are found, e.g. Gabriel Hounds (England), Ratchets (England), Yell Hounds (Isle of Man), related to Herne the Hunter's hounds, which form part of the Wild Hunt.

Hunting grounds for the Cŵn Annwn are said to include the mountain of Cadair Idris, where it is believed "the howling of these huge dogs foretold death to anyone who heard them".[citation needed]

According to Welsh folklore, their growling is loudest when they are at a distance, and as they draw nearer, it grows softer and softer. Their coming is generally seen as a death portent.

[edit] Gwyllgi

The gwyllgi (Welsh pronunciation: [ˈɡwɪɬɡi]; compound noun of either gwyllt "wild" or gwyll "twilight" + ci "dog"[1]) is a mythical dog from Wales that appears as a frightful apparition of a mastiff with baleful breath and blazing red eyes.

It is referred to as "The Dog of Darkness" or "The Black Hound of Destiny"[citation needed], the apparition's favourite haunt being lonely roads at night. It is said to resemble a mastiff.

[edit] Yeth Hound

The yeth hound, also called the yell hound is a Black dog found in Devon folklore. According to Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, the yeth hound is a headless dog, said to be the spirit of an unbaptised child, which rambles through the woods at night making wailing noises. The yeth hound is also mentioned in The Denham Tracts.

[edit] Church Grim

The Church Grim, Kirk Grim, Kyrkogrim (Swedish) or Kirkonväki (Finnish) is a figure from English and Scandinavian folklore. They are said to be the attendant spirits of churches, overseeing the welfare of their particular church. English Church Grims are said to enjoy loudly ringing the bells. They may appear as black dogs or as small, misshapen, dark-skinned people.[7]

The Swedish Kyrkogrim are said to be the spirits of animals sacrificed by early Christians at the building of a new church.[8] In parts of Europe, including Britain and Scandinavia, a completely black dog would be buried alive on the north side of the grounds of a newly built church, creating a guardian spirit, the church grim, in order to protect the church from the devil.[7]

[edit] Church Grim in Fiction

The Church-grim by Eden Philpotts is a short story published in the September 1914 edition of The Century Magazine, New York.

In Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Sybill Trelawney, the divination teacher, associates Harry's tea leaves with the Grim, which she calls "a black dog who haunts churchyards." The Church Grim inspired the creation of the Grim, which is said in the book to be an omen of death.

[edit] Gytrash

The Gytrash (pronounced /ɡaɪˈtræʃ/), a legendary black dog known in northern England, was said to haunt lonely roads awaiting travellers.[9] Appearing in the shape of horses, mules, or dogs, the Gytrash haunt solitary ways and lead people astray. They are usually feared, but they can also be benevolent, guiding lost travelers to the right road.

In some parts of Lincolnshire and Yorkshire the gytrash was known as the 'Shagfoal' and took the form of a spectral mule or donkey with eyes that glowed like burning coals. In this form the beast was believed to be purely malevolent.

As this horse approached, and as I watched for it to appear through the dusk, I remembered certain of Bessie's tales, wherein figured a North-of-England spirit called a "Gytrash," which, in the form of horse, mule, or large dog, haunted solitary ways, and sometimes came upon belated travellers, as this horse was now coming upon me. It was very near, but not yet in sight; when, in addition to the tramp, tramp, I heard a rush under the hedge, and close down by the hazel stems glided a great dog, whose black and white colour made him a distinct object against the trees. It was exactly one form of Bessie's Gytrash -- a lion-like creature with long hair and a huge head [...], with strange pretercanine eyes [...]. The horse followed, -- a tall steed [...]. Nothing ever rode the Gytrash: it was always alone [...].

– Excerpt from Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre, chapter xii[10]

The Gytrash's emergence as Rochester's innocuous dog Pilot has been interpreted as a subtle mockery of the mysteriousness and romanticism that surrounds his character and which clouds Jane's perception.[11] Brontë's reference in 1847 is probably the earliest reference to the beast and forms the basis for subsequent citations.[12]
[edit] Fiction

Hellhounds are a common monstrous creature in fantasy fiction and horror fiction, though they sometimes appear in other genres such as detective novels, or other uses.

* Arthur Conan Doyle's The Hound of the Baskervilles
* Hellhounds feature in Rick Riordan's series, Percy Jackson and the Olympians.
* Hellhounds are called 'The Grim' in the Harry Potter series and have an important role in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban.
* Hellhounds feature in Laurell K. Hamilton's Merry Gentry series.
* Hellhounds are the pets of Harpies in Anne Bishop's Black Jewels Series.
* In Piers Anthony's 'On A Pale Horse", Satan sends hellhounds to attack Zane (Death) and bring him back to hell. The hounds are immortal but are dispatched by Death's magical scythe.
* Frank Belknap Long's Cthulhu Mythos-related 'The Hounds of Tindalos"
* Hellhounds appear in the motion picture The Omen.
* Hellhounds (called darkhounds) appear several times in Robert Jordan's fantasy series The Wheel of Time. Darkhounds are a particularly nasty form of Shadowspawn. They look like very large dogs or wolves. Their saliva is deadly poison - a single drop on the skin can kill. They are extremely difficult to kill and once they sense their prey they never give up. The only thing that stops them is rain or running water. They leave footprints in stone but none in soft ground.
* Hellhounds appear in the television show Supernatural. They are used and controlled by demons to drag souls to hell (usually after a deal for the victim's soul has accrued). Only the person being attacked can see the hellhound, and they are never seen on screen.
* Houndoom, one of the many Pokémon creatures, is based on the concept of a hellhound.
* In Call of Duty: World at War, in the 2nd and 3rd map pack of Nazi Zombie mode, Hellhounds appear and attempt to kill the players every 4-6 rounds.
* In Christopher Moore's "A Dirty Job," Charlie Asher, who becomes a soul collector, adopts two hellhounds to protect his daughter Sophie
* A Hellhound named Sammael is one of the main antagonists in the first Hellboy film.
* In the MMORPG RuneScape, there are many Hellhounds.
* Alucard of the Series Hellsing can transform into a hellhound
* In the Bersek manga, the dark side or shadow of Guts's personality is represented as a hellhound or black dog
* In League of Super Evil, the League has a pet hellhound (usually referred to as a Doom Hound) named Doomageddon who is usually chaotically evil and disobedient, sometimes becoming a cause of, though at times a solution to, their problems.
* Hellhound is also a creature of chaos in the game Master of magic.
* In the video game The Witcher the Hellhound is a boss monster.
* In Heroes of Might and Magic III, the hell hound is a recruitable 3rd-level unit from the Inferno town that can be upgraded into a cerberus.

References

1. ^ Animal Planet
2. ^ Jeffrey Shaw, Whitby Lore and Legend, (1923)
3. ^ Henderson, William (1879). "Ch. 7". Notes on the folk-lore of the northern counties of England and the borders (2nd ed.). Folk-Lore Society. p. 275. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Notes_on_the_folk-lore_of_the_northern_counties_of_England_and_the_borders/Chapter_7#275.
4. ^ The Tollesbury Midwife
5. ^ Pugh, Jane (1990). Welsh Ghostly Encounters. Gwasg Carreg Gwalch. pp. 135 Pages. ISBN 0-86381-791-2.
6. ^ Celtic Mythology. Geddes and Grosset. 1999. pp. 480 Pages. ISBN 1-85534-299-5.
7. ^ a b Arrowsmith, Nancy A Field Guide to the Little People, London:Pan 1978 ISBN 0330254251
8. ^ Scandinavian Folk Belief and Legend, Reimund Kvideland, Henning K. Sehmsdorf, p247, 1991, ISBN 0816619670 accessed 2008-10-20
9. ^ Brewer, E. Cobham (1894) [First Published in 1870]. Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable.
10. ^ Brontë, Charlotte (1847) [First Published in 1847]. "Chapter XII". Jane Eyre. London, England: Smith, Elder & Co. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1260/1260-h/1260-h.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-15.
11. ^ Dr. Sally Minogue (1999). "Introduction". Jane Eyre. p. xv. ISBN 9781853260209.
12. ^ Wood, Dr. Juliette (PDF). Gytrash. pp. 2. http://www.juliettewood.com/papers/gytrash.pdf. Retrieved 2009-01-13.


Il famoso custode delle porte degli inferi dalle molte teste (in genere ne aveva tre) è Cerbero...vi riporto i documenti di wikipedia in inglese e quello in italiano...

buona lettura!


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cerberus

Cerberus
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cerberus, (pronounced /ˈsɜrbᵊrəs/);[1] Greek form: Κέρβερος, [ˈkerberos][2] in Greek and Roman mythology, is a multi-headed hound (usually three-headed)[1][3][4] which guards the gates of Hades, to prevent those who have crossed the river Styx from ever escaping. Cerberus featured in many works of ancient Greek and Roman literature and in works of both ancient and modern art and architecture, although, the depiction and background surrounding Cerberus often differed across various works by different authors of the era. The most notable difference is the number of its heads: Most sources describe or depict three heads; others show it with two or even just one; a smaller number of sources show a variable number, sometimes as many as 50.

Contents
[hide]

* 1 Etymology
o 1.1 The Twelfth Labour of Heracles
* 2 Literature
* 3 Art
* 4 Explanations
* 5 In popular culture
* 6 References

[edit] Etymology

The name "Cereberus" is a Latinised version of the Greek Kerberos, which may be related to the Sanskrit word सर्वरा "sarvarā", used as an epithet of one of the dogs of Yama, from a Proto-Indo-European word *ḱerberos, meaning "spotted"[5] (This etymology suffers from the fact that it includes a reconstructed *b, which is extremely rare in Proto-Indo-European. Yet according to Pokorny it is well distributed, with additional apparent cognates in Slavic, British and Lithuanian).[6] The use of a dog is uncertain,[7][8] although mythologists have speculated that the association was first made in the city of Trikarenos in Phliasia.[9]

Cereberus is said to be the sibling of the Lernaean Hydra, the Nemean Lion, the Sphinx, the Ladon, and the Chimera.

"Cereberus" is generally pronounced in English with a soft C as in cell, even though the ancient pronunciation, in both Greek and Latin was with a hard C as in cat.

Cereberus was the offspring of Echidna, a hybrid half-woman and half-serpent, and Typhon, a fire-breathing giant whom even the Olympian gods feared. Its brother is Orthrus, always depicted as a two-headed hellhound.[10] The common depiction of Cereberus in Greek mythology and art is as having three heads, a mane of live serpents (similar to Medusa's hair) and a snake's tail. In most works the three-heads each respectively see and represent the past, the present, and the future, while other sources suggest the heads represent birth, youth, and old age.[11] Each of Cereberus' heads is said to have an appetite only for live meat and thus allow the spirits of the dead to freely enter the underworld, but allow none to leave.[12] Cereberus was always employed as Hades' loyal watchdog, and guarded the gates that granted access and exit to the underworld (also called Hades).[13]

[edit] The Twelfth Labour of Heracles

The task of capturing Cereberus alive, without using weapons, was the final labour assigned to Heracles by King Eurystheus, in recompense for the killing of his own children by Megara after he was driven insane by Hera, and therefore was the most dangerous and difficult. In the traditional version, Heracles would not have been required to capture Cerberus, however Eurystheus discounted the completion of two of the tasks as Heracles had received assistance.[14]

After having been given the task, Heracles went to Eleusis to be initiated in the Eleusinian Mysteries so that he could learn how to enter and exit the underworld alive, and in passing absolve himself for killing centaurs. He found the entrance to the underworld at Tanaerum, and Athena and Hermes helped him to traverse the entrance in each direction. He passed Charon with Hestia's assistance and his own heavy and fierce frowning.

Whilst in the underworld, Heracles met Theseus and Pirithous. The two companions had been imprisoned by Hades for attempting to kidnap Persephone. One tradition tells of snakes coiling around their legs then turning into stone; another that Hades feigned hospitality and prepared a feast inviting them to sit. They unknowingly sat in chairs of forgetfulness and were permanently ensnared. When Heracles had pulled Theseus first from his chair, some of his thigh stuck to it (this explains the supposedly lean thighs of Athenians), but the earth shook at the attempt to liberate Pirithous, whose desire to have the wife of a god for himself was so insulting he was doomed to stay behind.

Heracles found Hades and asked permission to bring Cereberus to the surface, which Hades agreed to if Heracles could overpower the beast without using weapons. Heracles was able to overpower Cereberus and proceeded to sling the beast over his back, dragging it out of the underworld through a cavern entrance in the Peloponnese and bringing it to Eurystheus. The king was so frightened of the beast that he jumped into a pithos, and asked Heracles to return it to the underworld in return for releasing him from his labours.

[edit] Literature

Cerberus featured in many prominent works of Greek and Roman literature, most famously in Virgil's Aeneid, Peisandros of Rhodes' epic poem the Labours of Hercules, the story of Orpheus in Plato's Symposium, and in Homer's Iliad, which is the only known reference to one of Heracles' labours which first appeared in a literary source.[15]

The depiction of Cerberus is relatively consistent between different works and authors, the common theme of the mane of serpents is kept across works, as is the serpent's tail, most literary works of the era describe Cerberus as having three heads with the only notable exception being Hesiod's Theogony in which he had 50 heads.[16]

Most occurrences in ancient literature revolve around the basis of the threat of Cerberus being overcome to allow a living being access to the underworld; in the Aeneid Cerberus was lulled to sleep after being tricked into eating drugged honeycakes and Orpheus put the creature to sleep with his music. Capturing Cerberus alive was the twelfth and final labour of Heracles. In Dante Alighieri's Inferno, Canto VI, the "great worm" Cerberus is found in the Third Circle of Hell, where he oversees and rends to pieces those who have succumbed to gluttony, one of Roman Catholicism's seven deadly sins. He still bears the marks of the chain with which Hercules captured him.

In the constellation Cerberus introduced by [[Johannes He of the golden apples" fetched by Atlas from the garden of the Hesperides.[17] This branch is the literary source of the "golden bough" in the Aeneid by Virgil.

In Paradise Lost11.65, Cerberean hounds are mentioned in Hell: "A cry of Hell Hounds never ceasing bark'd With wide Cerberean mouths full loud".

[edit] Art

Numerous references to Cerberus have appeared in ancient Greek and Roman art,[18] found in archaeological ruins and often including in statues and architecture, inspired by the mythology of the creature. Cerberus' depiction in ancient art is not as definitive as in literature; the poets and linguists of ancient Greece and Rome mostly agreed on the physical appearance (with the notable exception in Hesiod's Theogony in which he had 50 heads).[16] His depiction in classical art mostly shows the recurring motif of serpents, but the number of heads differs.[19] A statue in the Galleria Borghese depicts Cerberus with three-heads sitting by the side of Hades, while a bronze sculpture depicting Heracles' twelfth labour shows the demi-god leading a two-headed Cerberus from the underworld. The majority of vases depicting the twelfth task also show Cerberus as having two heads.[20] Classical critics have identified one of the earliest works of Cerberus as "the most imaginative," that being a Laconian vase created around 560 BC in which Cerberus is shown with three-heads and with rows of serpents covering his body and heads.[21]
[edit] Explanations

There have been many attempts to explain the depiction of Cerberus. Greek philosopher, Heraclitus, claimed Euhemeristically that Cerberus had two pups which were never away from their father, as such Cerberus was in fact a normal (however very large) dog but artists incorporating the two pups into their work made it appear as if his two children were in fact extra heads.[22] Classical historians have dismissed Heraclitus' explanation as "feeble".[9] Mythologers have speculated that if Cerberus was given his name in Trikarenos it could be interpreted as "three karenos".[9] Certain experts believe that the monster was inspired by the golden jackal.[23]


Cerberus guarding the entrance to the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:KTH_Kerberos.jpg



FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cerbero

Cerbero
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Cèrbero nella mitologia greca era uno dei mostri che erano a guardia dell'ingresso dell'Ade, il mondo degli inferi. È un cane a tre teste, le quali simboleggiano la distruzione del passato, del presente e del futuro. Tutto il suo corpo era ricoperto, anziché di peli, di velenosissimi serpenti, che ad ogni suo latrato si rizzavano, facendo sibilare le proprie orrende lingue. Il suo compito era impedire ai vivi di entrare ed ai morti di tornare indietro. In realtà nell'antichità il "nudo suolo" era definito Cerbero (o "lupo degli dei") poiché ogni cosa seppellita pareva essere divorata in breve tempo.

Il nome di Cerbero è entrato nella lingua italiana per esprimere, per antonomasia e spesso ironicamente, un guardiano arcigno e difficile da superare.

Mitologia [modifica]

Cerbero è figlio di Tifone e di Echidna e quindi fratello dell'Idra, di Ortro e della Chimera. Cerbero è un mastino sanguinario e gigantesco che emette dalle fauci dei latrati che scoppian come tuoni. Il suo compito era sorvegliare l'accesso dell'Ade o Averno affinché nessuno dei morti ne uscisse. Nessuno è mai riuscito a domarlo, tranne Eracle.

Le dodici fatiche di Ercole [modifica]

Nell'ultima e più dura delle sue dodici fatiche, Eracle è costretto a combatterlo e sconfiggerlo per portarlo a Micene da Eurìsteo. L'eroe non lo uccide, ma dimostra di averlo sconfitto in combattimento. Dopo aver ottenuto da Ade il permesso di portarlo via (a condizione di combatterlo da solo e senza armi) Eracle lo affronta e arriva quasi a strangolarlo, lottando con lui tutto il tragitto. Dopo di che, lo riporta nell'Ade perché riprenda a farne la guardia.

Araldica [modifica]

In araldica, il cérbero (nome comune) è una figura immaginaria del tutto corrispondente alla sua raffigurazione mitologica: un cane tricefalo dalle gole spalancate, la coda di drago e con teste di serpente sul dorso. Talune raffigurazioni utilizzano i serpenti come chioma.

In taluni stemmi il cerbero, guardia feroce della città infernale, allude al cognome Medico, che vigila a che nessuno entri nella città dei malati. L’eventuale collare simboleggia la sottomissione del medico alla sua missione.
Letteratura [modifica]

Amore e Psiche [modifica]

Nella fiaba di Amore e Psiche contenuta ne l'Asino d'oro di Apuleio, l'eroina (Psiche) è costretta a compiere un viaggio agli inferi e deve affrontare, all'entrata e all'uscita, Cerbero, che nel testo non viene chiamato per nome ma descritto come canis praegrandis, teriugo et satis amplo capite praeditus, immanis et formidabilis, tonantibus oblatrans faucibus mortuos, quibus iam nil mali potest facere, frustra territando ante ipsum limen et atra atria Proserpinae semper excubans servat vacuam Ditis domum ("un cane enorme, con una triplice testa in proporzione, gigantesco e terribile, che con fauci tonanti latra contro i morti, cui peraltro, non può fare alcun male; cercando terrorizzarli senza motivo, e standosene sempre tra la soglia e le oscure stanze di Proserpina, custodisce la vuota dimora di Dite").

Eneide [modifica]

"L'enorme Cerbero col suo latrato da tre fauci rintrona questi regni giacendo immane davanti all'antro. La veggente, vedendo ormai i suoi tre colli diventare irti di serpenti gli getta una focaccia soporosa con miele ed erbe affatturate. Quello, spalancando con fame rabbiosa le tre gole l'afferra e sdraiato per terra illanguidisce l'immane dorso e smisurato si stende in tutto l'antro. Enea sorpassa l'entrata essendo il custode sommerso nel sonno profondo"......

Divina Commedia [modifica]

La figura mitologica di Cérbero è presente anche nella Divina Commedia di Dante Alighieri, dove esso vigila l'accesso al terzo cerchio dell'Inferno (Divina Commedia), quello di coloro che peccarono di incontinenza riguardo alla gola. Nella rappresentazione dantesca la figura di questo mostro mitologico si fonde con l'ideologia del fantastico di stampo medievale, in cui prevalgono significati simbolici; ne viene fuori una figura nuova, i cui particolari realistici danno una straordinaria vivacità. Viene presentato attraverso tre apposizioni "fiera", "vermo" e "demonio", secondo una lettura classica, fantastica e religiosa. Gli vengono anche attribuite caratteristiche umane, traslitterando parti del corpo bestiale tra cui la barba, le mani e le facce. Viene descritto con gli occhi vermigli per l'avidità, con il ventre largo per la voracità e con le zampe artigliate per afferrare il cibo. Le interpretazioni allegoriche di questo personaggio (delle sue teste) nella Commedia sono due: le tre teste indicherebbero i tre modi del vizio di gola: secondo qualità, secondo quantità, secondo continuo (cioè mangiare in continuazione senza preoccuparsi né della qualità né della quantità); le teste sarebbero il simbolo delle lotte intestine fra fazioni appartenenti a una stessa città,oppure perché vigila nel 3 cerchio.

Altre apparizioni [modifica]

* Nel romanzo e nel film Harry Potter e la Pietra Filosofale è presente una bestia delle stesse fattezze e dimensioni, a guardia di una botola, che risponde al nome di Fuffi.

* Cerbero è anche il simbolo del gruppo rap italiano Club Dogo.

* Cerbero è parte integrante del fumetto Geppo, il diavolo buono disegnato da Giovan Battista Carpi.

* Cerbero è presente anche in Final Fantasy 8 come evocazione di supporto.

* Cerbero è anche uno dei boss del gioco Devil May Cry 3 e può controllare il ghiaccio,di cui è ricoperto.

* Cerbero è un nemico comune in God of War. In God of War II ve ne è anche uno più grande, il Cerbero originario,che è un mini-boss.

* Fa una breve comparsa anche nel film Disney Hercules.
o questa versione di Cerbero è presente in Kingdom Hearts e Kingdom Hearts 2 come avversario da battere nel mondo di Ercole. Nel primo capitolo lo si affronta in un torneo mentre nel secondo capitolo viene evocato da Ade.

* È presente anche nel cartone animato dei cavalieri dello zodiaco-Hades nella seconda prigione.

* Appare anche in One Piece come guardiano di Thriller Bark. Il questa versione, Cerbero è un mostro assemblato con vari pezzi di altri animali. Infatti una delle tre teste è di volpe, ed il mostro pare anche offendersi quando tale osservazione viene fatta dai personaggi del manga.

* Cerbero è il nome dato al "mostro" nella serie TV Lost dal Progetto DHARMA. Questo perché sembra fare la guardia al Tempio, vivere sia sulla terra sia sotto di essa e sapersi dividere in tre parti per poi tornare un unico fumo.
* Cherberos è il custode del sole in Pesca la tua carta Sakura

* Nell'espansione di Age of Mythology "The Titans" Cerbero appare in versione umanoide come titano per la civiltà greca.

* Nella serie tv Supernatural il Cerbero uccide tutti quelli che hanno stretto un patto con i demoni dopo dieci anni dal patto.

* Cerbero compare anche nel manga Devil Lady: viene incontrato da Akira Fudo e Jun Fudo nel girone dei golosi, dove è intento a torturare ferocemente i dannati.

* Nel videogioco Dante's Inferno, ispirato all'opera di Dante Alighieri, il Cerbero è il boss del girone dei golosi. Qui le sue caratteristiche animalesche e mostruose vengono notevolmente accentuate. Il mostro infatti ricorda una sorta di ibrido cane-verme, con tre teste circondate dal altre bocche più piccole, intento a masticare a vomitare tutto ciò che trova.

* Nei videogiochi della serie R-Type, Cerbero è il nome di una delle navicelle che si possono pilotare.

* Cerbero è anche fonte di ispirazione per il nome della TVR Cerbera Speed 12, probabilmente in virtù del metaforico parallelismo riguardante il carattere poco docile del mostro mitologico e il caratteristico brusco comportamento della vettura sportiva inglese.

* in Sonic the Hedgehog 2006 è presente un cane robot a tre teste ispirato a Cerbero, chiamato Egg Cerberus

* Appare in un film horror del 2007 chiamato "Cerberus - Il Guardiano dell'Inferno " dove fa la guarda alla leggendaria spada di Attila

* In una cagna per amica , film comico degli anni 70, appare un cane a tre teste che simboleggia l'ingordigia.

* Nel cartone animato Marten Maten, dove il protagonista ogni giorno che si sveglia ha un aspetto diverso, nella puntata "Patto con il diavolo", diventa appunto un diavolo e discende nell'inferno, descritto come un luogo di lavoro simile ad una fabbrica. Qui, un diavolo travestito vagamente da custode, tiene al guinzaglio un cane a tre teste.

* Il Cerbero è il logo usato dalla casa di produzione Cerberus (traduzione inglese di Cerbero), che ha prodotto, nel periodo in cui erano molto usate, valvole termoelettroniche per apparecchiature militari e di consumo.


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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il Cane: la Fedeltà?   Ven 21 Gen 2011 - 15:14



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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il Cane: la Fedeltà?   Gio 4 Ago 2011 - 8:47

Admin riporto qualche stralcio dei documenti di wikipedia...

Citazione:
« Non c'è patto che non sia stato rotto, non c'è fedeltà che non sia stata tradita, fuorché quella di un cane fedele. »
(Konrad Lorenz)


FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canis_lupus_familiaris

Canis lupus familiaris
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Il cane (Canis lupus familiaris) è un mammifero carnivoro ascritto al genere Canis (famiglia canidi). Con la domesticazione si è distinto dal suo probabile predecessore, il lupo, del quale rappresenta una forma neotenica (anche se al riguardo c'è ancora qualche divergenza[1]) e rispetto al quale ha canini meno aguzzi, intestino più lungo, ed è privo di artigli affilati.

Biologia

Il cane è estremamente variabile nelle sue caratteristiche biologiche, per la selezione operata dalla natura (dalle zone di provenienza) e soprattutto dall'uomo (suo compagno di vita fin dalle ere preistoriche), tanto secondi alcuni, da necessitare la divisione in differenti sottospecie e morfologie. Il peso può variare da 700 g ai 111 kg. Ha un ciclo mestruale ripetuto due volte l'anno (al contrario dei lupi che hanno un solo periodo d'estro) e questa caratteristica è dovuta in parte all'uomo per facilitare l'allevamento e la selezione.

Il periodo di gestazione per tutte le razze è di circa 9 settimane. Vengono alla luce da 2 a 10 piccoli, a seconda della taglia dell'animale. Notevoli sono i cambiamenti apportati nel corso dei secoli dalla selezione operata dall'uomo, sia come caratteristiche fisiche (colore, peso, qualità sensoriali), che come caratteristiche sociali. Notevole importanza è stata posta nel comportamento, ad oggi tutte le razze hanno una spiccata predisposizione al comportamento giocoso e socievole, che in natura (riferendosi al suo progenitore lupo) scomparirebbero con il sopravvenire dell'età adulta.

Il senso dell'olfatto

Principale caratteristica distintiva del cane è il senso dell'olfatto, derivato dalla sua preistorica attività di cacciatore. Parte fondamentale del suo processo di riconoscimento degli odori è la conformazione del suo naso (il tartufo) ma soprattutto la ricchissima mucosa interna, in grado di distinguere una sola molecola di una sostanza su milioni. Il tartufo nel cane rappresenta l'estremità terminale del naso dello stesso. L'impronta delle circonvoluzioni che lo contraddistinguono è specifica dell'individuo e, al pari delle impronte digitali dell'essere umano, può essere usata come efficace sistema di riconoscimento.

La mucosa che lo riveste svolge gli stessi compiti che in qualsivoglia altro mammifero: alla sua estremità ci sono le froge o cavità per aspirare l'aria e come in altri mammiferi, al confine mucosocutaneo, è dotato di "vibrisse" laterali, grossi peli con funzioni sensoriali molto importanti. Quello che la rende speciale sono varie funzioni aggiuntive. Intanto è un eccezionale organo di senso soprattutto in senso termico, dinamico (perché la mucosa che lo riveste è provvista di ghiandole sudoripare - la pelle del cane ne è quasi totalmente priva -) e tattile (è in grado di registrare anche lievissime asperità e vibrazioni che altrimenti sfuggirebbero all'animale). Il naso del cane è un naso molto sensibile, ecco perché vengono addestrati e usati per la ricerca di animali e persone.


Evoluzione

Evolutivamente, si è ritenuto (a partire dagli studi di Konrad Lorenz) che il cane potesse discendere dal lupo o dallo sciacallo, o da entrambi, che avrebbero dato origine a razze primitive diverse, dalle quali sarebbero derivate le molteplici forme attuali.

I più recenti studi basati sulla genetica, supportati dagli approfondimenti paleontologici, hanno portato a ritenere valido il riconoscimento del lupo grigio (Canis lupus lupus) come progenitore del cane domestico, riconosciuto come sottospecie (Canis lupus familiaris). Ancora incerte sono le ipotesi sul processo di domesticazione. Una delle ipotesi più accreditate è quella dei coniugi Ray e Lorna Coppinger, biologi, che propongono la teoria di un "domesticamento naturale" del lupo, una selezione naturale di soggetti meno abili nella caccia, ma al contempo meno timorosi nei confronti dell'uomo, che avrebbero cominciato a seguire i primi gruppi di cacciatori nomadi, nutrendosi dei resti dei loro pasti, ma fornendo inconsapevolmente un prezioso servizio di "sentinelle", stabilendosi in seguito nei pressi dei primi insediamenti, e dando il via ad una sorprendente coabitazione tra due specie di predatori, con reciproci vantaggi.

Alcuni di questi "cani selvatici" sarebbero poi stati avvicinati ed adottati nella comunità umana (cani del villaggio, i "cani pariah" che si trovano ancora oggi in alcune società, "di tutto il villaggio", tollerati per il loro ruolo di spazzini e di predatori di piccoli animali nocivi), dando il via ad un perfetto esempio di coevoluzione. Quasi certamente, come dimostrato anche dagli studi di Dimitri Belayev, la naturale selezione basata sulle attitudini caratteriali al domesticamento ha provocato la comparsa di mutamenti fisici (dalla riduzione del volume cranico, all'accorciamento dei denti, ma anche la comparsa di caratteri quali le chiazze bianche sul mantello e le code arrotolate).

Nei siti archeologici più antichi, numerosi sono i ritrovamenti di resti di cani (che pure testimoniano le prime differenze dall'antenato selvatico), anche se recanti per lo più evidenti segni di macellazione. La prima testimonianza di un legame nuovo, più profondo, tra uomo e cane, lo troviamo nella cultura natufiana, risalente a 12000 anni fa, in una tomba che conserva di resti di un uomo anziano che appoggia la testa ed una mano al corpo di un cucciolo.

La prima differenziazione tra le diverse "razze" locali, è da attribuirsi alle diverse sottospecie di lupo che vennero addomesticate quasi contemporaneamente in diverse parti del mondo, in situazioni geografiche e climatiche altrettanto dissimili. Possiamo farci un'idea del loro aspetto se prendiamo in considerazione le razze "moderne" riunite nel gruppo 5 della classificazione F.C.I. Federazione Cinologica Internazionale (cani di tipo spitz e primitivo, appunto). I primi cani erano certamente lavoratori versatili, in grado di assolvere molteplici compiti, dalla guardia del villaggio all'ausilio nella caccia, dal trasporto di piccoli carichi alla conduzione delle prime mandrie della nascente pastorizia.

Successivamente, i soggetti più dotati fisicamente e/o attitudinalmente per i diversi impieghi, cominciarono ad essere selezionati dall'uomo, in modo dapprima "istintivo" (privilegiando i preferiti con una migliore alimentazione), poi con metodi sempre più efficaci. Può essere interessante osservare come le grandi variazioni morfologiche che hanno permesso al lupo di "trasformarsi" in alano, chihuahua oppure bassotto, si sono presentate nel corso dei secoli in forma involontaria, vere e proprie mutazioni spontanee che l'uomo ha saputo sfruttare e valorizzare; la struttura del levriero non era certo "progettabile" da parte di un cacciatore del deserto, ma lui ha saputo osservare come i suoi cani più validi nel raggiungere la preda fossero quelli dotati di arti lunghi e sottili, sterno carenato e coda portata in modo da bilanciarne il movimento in velocità: ecco nascere nella sua mente una sorta di "standard di razza", da ricercare nella scelta dei cani dai quali farsi accompagnare nella caccia.


Si sono talvolta sfruttate quelle che potevano apparire assurde bizzarrie genetiche, quali il nanismo acondroplasico (arti corti su corpi normali), utili in cani adibiti a seguire la selvaggina nel folto dei cespugli, o dentro le tane: ecco la comparsa delle forme "bassotte" in molte razze da caccia. Molto interessante, poi, lo ricostruzione dell'evoluzione delle razze attraverso il fenomeno del pedomorfismo neotenico, la conservazione cioè nei cani adulti di alcuni tratti morfologici e caratteriali tipici di diverse fasi giovanili dello sviluppo del lupo. In base a tale teoria, si possono raccogliere le razze in 4 gruppi:

cani primitivi-con proporzioni della testa e struttura generale fortemente lupine, orecchie erette. Esempi: groenlandese, laika, pharaon hound, basenji, vastgotaspets
pedomorfi di primo grado-teste allungate, stop accentuato, orecchie semi erette. Sono segugi e cani paratori, con spiccato istinto all'inseguimento. Esempi: wolfhound, bloodhound, bracchi, collies, terrier, bassotti
pedomorfi di secondo grado-teste più larghe, musi più quadrati, stop marcato, orecchie pendenti, pelle più spessa. Cani giocatori con gli oggetti, buoni riportatori. Esempi: terranova, retrievers, barbet, spaniels, bichon
pedomorfi di terzo grado-accentuati diametri trasversali, musi corti o cortissimi, occhi frontali, orecchie piccole e cadenti, cute abbondante che forma rughe, molto predisposti all'accumulo di grassi. Cani "lottatori" (anche nella forma giocosa), fortemente territoriali e diffidenti. Esempi: mastini, cani da montagna, cani da presa, bulldog, carlino, pechinese.

Nel tempo, l'uomo ha selezionato molte diverse razze e varietà di cani, per avere un aiuto nelle sue molte attività: esistono quindi oggi razze di cani da pastore, da caccia, da guardia, da compagnia, da corsa e altre ancora.

Cibi vietati al cane

Il fegato canino non scinde la teobromina rendendo tossico il cacao ed il cioccolato. Un cane di taglia gigante può morire con 24 grammi di cacao amaro.[6][7].

Curiosità

Sulla prestigiosa rivista scientifica GUT[1], nel novembre 2010, ricercatori giapponesi provano la capacità del fiuto del cane di individuare e riconoscere i soggetti portatori di tumore al colon ed altre forme tumorali. Ciò perché questi soggetti emetterebbero sostanze volatili, individuati dal fiuto del cane, che sono possibili indicatori della patologia sin dalle prima fasi di sviluppo della stessa.[8][9]


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dog

Dog
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris[3] and Canis lupus dingo[1][2]) is a domesticated form of the gray wolf, a member of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. The term is used for both feral and pet varieties. The dog may have been the first animal to be domesticated, and has been the most widely kept working, hunting, and companion animal in human history. The word "dog" may also mean the male of a canine species,[4] as opposed to the word "bitch" for the female of the species.[5]

Dogs were domesticated from gray wolves about 15,000 years ago.[6] They must have been very valuable to early human settlements, for they quickly became ubiquitous across world cultures. Dogs perform many roles for people, such as hunting, herding, pulling loads, protection, assisting police and military, companionship, and, more recently, aiding handicapped individuals. This impact on human society has given them the nickname "Man's Best Friend" in the western world. In 2001, there were estimated to be 400 million dogs in the world.[7]

Over the 15,000 year span the dog had been domesticated, it diverged into only a handful of landraces, groups of similar animals whose morphology and behavior have been shaped by environmental factors and functional roles. Through selective breeding by humans, the dog has developed into hundreds of varied breeds, and shows more behavioral and morphological variation than any other land mammal.[8] For example, height measured to the withers ranges from a few inches in the Chihuahua to a few feet in the Irish Wolfhound; color varies from white through grays (usually called "blue'") to black, and browns from light (tan) to dark ("red" or "chocolate") in a wide variation of patterns; coats can be short or long, coarse-haired to wool-like, straight, curly, or smooth.[9] It is common for most breeds to shed this coat.


Etymology and related terminology

Dog is the common use term that refers to members of the subspecies Canis lupus familiaris (canis, "dog"; lupus, "wolf"; familiaris, "of a household" or "domestic"). The term can also be used to refer to a wider range of related species, such as the members of the genus Canis, or "true dogs", including the wolf, coyote, and jackals; or it can refer to the members of the subfamily Caninae, which would also include the African wild dog; or it can be used to refer to any member of the family Canidae, which would also include the foxes, bush dog, raccoon dog, and others.[10] Some members of the family have "dog" in their common names, such as the raccoon dog and the African wild dog. A few animals have "dog" in their common names but are not canids, such as the prairie dog.

The English word dog comes from Middle English dogge, from Old English docga, a "powerful dog breed".[11] The term may derive from Proto-Germanic *dukkōn, represented in Old English finger-docce ("finger-muscle").[12] The word also shows the familiar petname diminutive -ga also seen in frogga "frog", picga "pig", stagga "stag", wicga "beetle, worm", among others.[13] Due to the archaic structure of the word, the term dog may ultimately derive from the earliest layer of Proto-Indo-European vocabulary, reflecting the role of the dog as the earliest domesticated animal.[14]

Mbabaram is famous in linguistic circles for a striking coincidence in its vocabulary to English. When linguist R. M. W. Dixon began his study of the language by eliciting a few basic nouns among the first of these was the word for "dog" which coincidentally in Mbabaram is dog. The Mbabaram word for "dog" really is pronounced almost identically to the English word (compare true cognates such as Yidiny gudaga, Dyirbal guda, Djabugay gurraa and Guugu Yimidhirr gudaa, for example). The similarity is a complete coincidence: there is no discernible relationship between English and Mbabaram. This and other false cognates are often cited as a caution against deciding that languages are related based on a small number of comparisons.

In 14th-century England, hound (from Old English: hund) was the general word for all domestic canines, and dog referred to a subtype of hound, a group including the mastiff. It is believed this "dog" type of "hound" was so common it eventually became the prototype of the category “hound”.[15] By the 16th century, dog had become the general word, and hound had begun to refer only to types used for hunting.[16] Hound, cognate to German Hund, Dutch hond, common Scandinavian hund, and Icelandic hundur, is ultimately derived from the Proto-Indo-European *kwon- "dog", found in Welsh ci (plural cwn), Latin canis, Greek kýōn, Lithuanian šuõ.[17]

In breeding circles, a male canine is referred to as a dog, while a female is called a bitch (Middle English bicche, from Old English bicce, ultimately from Old Norse bikkja). A group of offspring is a litter. The father of a litter is called the sire, and the mother is called the dam. Offspring are, in general, called pups or puppies, from French poupée, until they are about a year old. The process of birth is whelping, from the Old English word hwelp (cf. German Welpe, Dutch welp, Swedish valpa, Icelandic hvelpur).[18]


History and evolution

Domestic dogs inherited complex behaviors from their wolf ancestors, being pack hunters with complex body language. These sophisticated forms of social cognition and communication may account for their trainability, playfulness, and ability to fit into human households and social situations, and these attributes have given dogs a relationship with humans that has enabled them to become one of the most successful species on the planet today.[21]

Although experts largely disagree over the details of dog domestication, it is agreed that human interaction played a significant role in shaping the subspecies.[24] Shortly after domestication, dogs became ubiquitous in human populations, and spread throughout the world. Emigrants from Siberia likely crossed the Bering Strait with dogs in their company, and some experts[who?] suggest the use of sled dogs may have been critical to the success of the waves that entered North America roughly 12,000 years ago,[citation needed] although the earliest archaeological evidence of dog-like canids in North America dates from about 9,000 years ago.[25] Dogs were an important part of life for the Athabascan population in North America, and were their only domesticated animal. Dogs also carried much of the load in the migration of the Apache and Navajo tribes 1,400 years ago. Use of dogs as pack animals in these cultures often persisted after the introduction of the horse to North America.[26][page needed]

The current consensus among biologists and archaeologists is that the dating of first domestication is indeterminate.[24][26] There is conclusive evidence dogs genetically diverged from their wolf ancestors at least 15,000 years ago,[6][27][28] but some believe domestication to have occurred earlier.[24] It is not known whether humans domesticated the wolf as such to initiate dog's divergence from its ancestors, or whether dog's evolutionary path had already taken a different course prior to domestication. For example, it is hypothesized that some wolves gathered around the campsites of paleolithic camps to scavenge refuse, and associated evolutionary pressure developed that favored those who were less frightened by, and keener in approaching, humans.

The bulk of the scientific evidence for the evolution of the domestic dog stems from archaeological findings and mitochondrial DNA studies. The divergence date of roughly 15,000 years ago is based in part on archaeological evidence that demonstrates the domestication of dogs occurred more than 15,000 years ago,[21][26] and some genetic evidence indicates the domestication of dogs from their wolf ancestors began in the late Upper Paleolithic close to the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary, between 17,000 and 14,000 years ago.[29] But there is a wide range of other, contradictory findings that make this issue controversial.

Archaeological evidence suggests the latest dogs could have diverged from wolves was roughly 15,000 years ago, although it is possible they diverged much earlier.[21] In 2008, a team of international scientists released findings from an excavation at Goyet Cave in Belgium declaring a large, toothy canine existed 31,700 years ago and ate a diet of horse, musk ox and reindeer.[30]

Prior to this Belgium discovery, the earliest dog fossils were two large skulls from Russia and a mandible from Germany dated from roughly 14,000 years ago.[6][21] Remains of smaller dogs from Natufian cave deposits in the Middle East, including the earliest burial of a human being with a domestic dog, have been dated to around 10,000 to 12,000 years ago.[6][31] There is a great deal of archaeological evidence for dogs throughout Europe and Asia around this period and through the next two thousand years (roughly 8,000 to 10,000 years ago), with fossils uncovered in Germany, the French Alps, and Iraq, and cave paintings in Turkey.[21] The oldest remains of a domesticated dog in the Americas were found in Texas and have been dated to about 9,400 years ago.[32]


DNA studies

DNA studies have provided a wide range of possible divergence dates, from 15,000 to 40,000 years ago,[6] to as much as 100,000 to 140,000 years ago.[33] These results depend on a number of assumptions.[21] Genetic studies are based on comparisons of genetic diversity between species, and depend on a calibration date. Some estimates of divergence dates from DNA evidence use an estimated wolf-coyote divergence date of roughly 700,000 years ago as a calibration.[34] If this estimate is incorrect, and the actual wolf-coyote divergence is closer to one or two million years ago, or more,[35] then the DNA evidence that supports specific dog-wolf divergence dates would be interpreted very differently.

Furthermore, it is believed the genetic diversity of wolves has been in decline for the last 200 years, and that the genetic diversity of dogs has been reduced by selective breeding. This could significantly bias DNA analyses to support an earlier divergence date. The genetic evidence for the domestication event occurring in East Asia is also subject to violations of assumptions. These conclusions are based on the location of maximal genetic divergence, and assume hybridization does not occur, and that breeds remain geographically localized. Although these assumptions hold for many species, there is good reason to believe that they do not hold for canines.[21]

Genetic analyses indicate all dogs are likely descended from a handful of domestication events with a small number of founding females,[21][29] although there is evidence domesticated dogs interbred with local populations of wild wolves on several occasions.[6] Data suggest dogs first diverged from wolves in East Asia, and these domesticated dogs then quickly migrated throughout the world, reaching the North American continent around 8000 BC.[6] The oldest groups of dogs, which show the greatest genetic variability and are the most similar to their wolf ancestors, are primarily Asian and African breeds, including the Basenji, Lhasa Apso, and Siberian Husky.[36] Some breeds thought to be very old, such as the Pharaoh Hound, Ibizan Hound, and Norwegian Elkhound, are now known to have been created more recently.[36]

There is a great deal of controversy surrounding the evolutionary framework for the domestication of dogs.[21] Although it is widely claimed that "man domesticated the wolf,"[37] man may not have taken such a proactive role in the process.[21] The nature of the interaction between man and wolf that led to domestication is unknown and controversial. At least three early species of the Homo genus began spreading out of Africa roughly 400,000 years ago, and thus lived for a considerable time in contact with canine species. Despite this, there is no evidence of any adaptation of canine species to the presence of the close relatives of modern man. If dogs were domesticated, as believed, roughly 15,000 years ago, the event (or events) would have coincided with a large expansion in human territory and the development of agriculture. This has led some biologists to suggest one of the forces that led to the domestication of dogs was a shift in human lifestyle in the form of established human settlements. Permanent settlements would have coincided with a greater amount of disposable food and would have created a barrier between wild and anthropogenic canine populations.[21]

Mythology

In mythology, dogs often serve as pets or as watchdogs.[171]

In Greek mythology, Cerberus is a three-headed watchdog who guards the gates of Hades.[171] In Norse mythology, a bloody, four-eyed dog called Garmr guards Helheim.[171] In Persian mythology, two four-eyed dogs guard the Chinvat Bridge.[171] In Philippine mythology, Kimat who is the pet of Tadaklan, god of thunder, is responsible for lightning. In Welsh mythology, Annwn is guarded by Cŵn Annwn[171]

In Judaism and Islam, dogs are viewed as unclean scavengers.[171] In Christianity, dogs represent faithfulness.[171] In Asian countries such as China, Korea, and Japan, dogs are viewed as kind protectors.[171]



FONTE IMMAGINE: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/de/Beagle_puppy_lying_on_back.jpg


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fox_Terrier_Alex.jpg


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Onni_from_Helsinki.jpg



Si consiglia la visione anche dei seguenti link:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Origin_of_the_domestic_dog

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dog_intelligence

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dog_behavior

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dog_king
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Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il Cane: la Fedeltà?   Ven 7 Ott 2011 - 7:38

Buondì a tutti, oggi riporto altri documenti sulle leggende legate a questo totem, tra queste quella che sembra aver ispirato il famoso "Il mastino dei Baskerville" di Arthur Conan Doyle...Buona lettura!


FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cane_nero

Cane nero
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Il Cane nero (traduzione dell'inglese "Black Dog") è una creatura notturna ricorrente nel folclore della Gran Bretagna. Le storie relative a questi fantasmi mostruosi sono diffuse in tutto il territorio, dalla Scozia al Galles, dall'Inghilterra alle Isole.

I Cani Neri sono descritti come esseri soprannaturali dalla forma di grossi cani, con occhi fiammeggianti e pelo irsuto, dal colore nero o verde fosforescente.

Sono fantasmi ritenuti messaggeri dell'oltretomba, quindi di cattivo augurio.

Secondo le descrizioni, si muovono compiendo lunghi balzi sui sentieri di campagna, durante la notte. Gli occhi, che rosseggiano nel buio, indicano la ferocia della bestia.

Chi incontra questa creatura, anche solo di sfuggita, o sente l'odioso scalpiccio delle sue zampe, sa che la sua fine è vicina.

L'idea di questi cani mostruosi deriva dalla demonologia medievale, che aveva spesso visto nei gatti, nei cani e nei caproni neri i famigli delle streghe, nonché le forme tipiche in cui spesso si rappresentava il Demonio.

La superstizione riguardo a queste creature notturne è diffusa in molte zone rurali della Gran Bretagna. Forieri di morte, sono conosciuti con nomi differenti a seconda delle zone.

Nell'Anglia Orientale sono noti come Black Shucks.

Nel Lancashire il cane fantasma è chiamato Skriker, oppure Gytrash.

Nello Yorkshire prende il nome di Padfoot.

I Cani Neri sono una leggenda molto diffusa anche in Cornovaglia, nelle Isole Britanniche e in Galles.


Il mostruoso black dog che terrorizza, secondo la leggenda, Bouley Bay nel Jersey, ritratto nell'insegna di un pub
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Black_Dog_Pub_Sign,_Bouley,_Jersey.jpg

Il Cane nero nella letteratura

In letteratura, l'opera più celebre basata sulle leggende dei Cani Neri è senza dubbio Il mastino dei Baskerville, di Arthur Conan Doyle.

Il passo seguente riporta una delle numerose descrizioni della creatura spettrale:
« ...accanto al corpo di Hugo, con le zanne ancora affondate nella gola sbranata, c'era un essere orrendo, un'enorme bestia nera, simile a un mastino ma assai più grande di qualsiasi mastino si sia mai visto al mondo. E mentre lo guardavano sbigottiti, quella creatura dilaniò con uno strappo la gola di Hugo Baskerville volgendo verso di loro gli occhi fiammeggianti e le fauci grondanti di sangue. »

(tratto da Il mastino dei Baskerville, secondo capitolo)

La leggenda del Cane Nero (nello specifico si tratta di un Gytrash) è citata anche nel dodicesimo capitolo di Jane Eyre, un romanzo di Charlotte Brontë.

Invece nel terzo libro della saga di Harry Potter, Harry Potter e il prigioniero di Azkaban, parte della trama ruota attorno alla figura del gramo, presagio di morte fortemente ispirato alla leggenda del cane nero. Inoltre, il padrino di Harry Potter, che muta nel cane nero scambiato dal protagonista per un gramo (infatti è un animagus, ossia un mago capace di trasformarsi in un animale), era soprannominato dagli amici Felpato, che nel romanzo L'isola del tesoro di Robert Louis Stevenson è il nome di un pirata, ma nell'originale inglese si chiama proprio Padfoot.

Nel manga Hellsing, il potente vampiro Alucard è capace di evocare enormi cani neri con occhi fiammeggianti.

Nel manga Bleach di Tite Kubo, il Cane Nero viene citato nelle formule di alcuni kido


Nella serie televisiva Supernatural, il Black Dog viene usato da alcuni demoni come esattore del pagamento per i patti stretti con gli umani. Anche il protagonista Dean Winchester, per aver venduto la propria anima al demone Lilith in cambio della vita del fratello Sam, viene attaccato e ucciso da un Black Dog, animale demoniaco che solo lui, in quanto condannato a morte, poteva vedere.

Nell'universo fantastico della serie di giochi di ruolo Dungeons & Dragons è presente un mostro chiamato Mastino Ombra, che presenta molte punti in comune con i cani neri, dalla taglia, al colore del pelo fino ai poteri e alle sue origini sovrannaturali (è difatti una creatura nativa del mondo noto come il Piano delle Ombre).


Nei testi delle canzoni: infatti una canzone intitolata proprio "Black Dog" del noto gruppo inglese Led Zeppelin parla proprio di questi "mostri".

Nella tradizione popolare del meridione (folkloristico), nella fattispecie per quanto riguarda il dialetto pugliese, con l'appellativo di "cane nero" viene indicato un soggetto scostante, fastidioso, che tenta sempre di imporre il proprio carattere e le proprie decisioni.

Bibliografia

Arthur Conan Doyle, Il mastino dei Baskerville, Roma 1993.
Charlotte Brontë, "Jane Eyre", Roma 1997.
Hobby & Work Italiana Editrice, Miti e leggende. Fantasmi, 1998.
Massimo Izzi, Dizionario dei mostri, Roma 1997.



FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barghest

Barghest
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Il Barghest è una creatura mitologica medievale, citato le prime volte nelle leggende dei popoli germanici. Si presenta come una versione spettrale di un lupo. La particolarità della creatura è di perseguitare chi in vita ha commesso crimini di varie e gravi entità, come le Erinni greche.

È famoso soprattutto nella coscienza popolare dello Yorkshire.



FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_dog_%28ghost%29

Black dog (ghost)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A black dog is the name given to a being found primarily in the folklores of the British Isles. The black dog is essentially a nocturnal apparition, often said to be associated with the Devil, and its appearance was regarded as a portent of death. It is generally supposed to be larger than a normal dog, and often has large, glowing eyes.[1]

It is often associated with electrical storms (such as Black Shuck's appearance at Bungay, Suffolk),[2] and also with crossroads, places of execution and ancient pathways.[1][3][4]

The origins of the black dog are difficult to discern. It is impossible to ascertain whether the creature originated in the Celtic or Germanic elements in British culture. Throughout European mythology, dogs have been associated with death. Examples of this are the Cŵn Annwn,[5] Garmr[6] and Cerberus,[7] all of whom were in some way guardians of the underworld. This association seems to be due to the scavenging habits of dogs.[8] It is possible that the black dog is a survival of these beliefs.

Black dogs are almost universally regarded as malevolent, and a few (such as the Barghest) are said to be directly harmful. Some, however, like the Gurt Dog in Somerset and the Black Dog of the Hanging Hills in Connecticut, are said to behave benevolently.


Black dogs by locale

Some of the better-known black dogs are the Barghest of Yorkshire and Black Shuck of East Anglia.

Various other forms are recorded in folklore in Britain and elsewhere. Other names are Hairy Jack,[9] Skriker, Padfoot,[9] Churchyard Beast,[citation needed] Shug Monkey, Cu Sith, Galleytrot, Capelthwaite, Mauthe Doog, Hateful Thing,[citation needed] Swooning Shadow,[citation needed] Bogey Beast (Lancashire), Gytrash, Gurt Dog, Oude Rode Ogen, Tibicena (Canary Islands), and Dip (Catalonia).

England

Black Dogs have been reported from almost all the counties of England, the exceptions being Middlesex and Rutland.[10]

On Dartmoor, the notorious squire Cabell was said to have been a huntsman who sold his soul to the Devil. When he died in 1677, black hounds are said to have appeared around his burial chamber. The ghostly huntsman is said to ride with black dogs; this tale inspired Arthur Conan Doyle to write his well-known story The Hound of the Baskervilles.[11] The Devon Wishthounds ('Wisht' is a dialect word for "Ghostly/Haunted"[12]) are a related traditional folklore phenomenon apparently related to the Germanic dogs of the Wild Hunt.

In Lancashire the black hound is called Barguist, Gytrash, Padfoot, Shag, Trash, Striker or Skriker.[13][14][15]

In Tring, Hertfordshire, a fierce-looking black hound with red eyes is said to haunt the middle of the road in the area where the gibbet once stood. Locally it is known as Lean Dog, and is the spirit of a chimney sweep executed for murder. When approached, the lean dog sinks into the ground.

The Gurt Dog ("Great Dog") of Somerset is an example of a benevolent dog. It was said that mothers would allow their children to play unsupervised on the Quantock Hills because they believed that the Gurt Dog would protect them. It would also accompany lone travellers in the area, acting as a protector and guide.

Stories are told of a Black Dog in Twyford, near Winchester.[16]

In Wakefield,[9] Leeds, Pudsey, and some areas of Bradford the local version of the legend is known as "Padfoot".[citation needed]

There are many tales of ghostly black dogs in Lincolnshire collected by Ethel Rudkin for her 1938 publication Folklore. Such a creature, known locally as "Hairy Jack", is said to haunt the fields and village lanes around Hemswell, and there have been reported sightings throughout the county, from Brigg to Spalding. Rudkin, who claimed to have seen Hairy Jack herself, formed the impression that black dogs in Lincolnshire were mainly of a gentle nature, and looked upon as a spiritual protector.[17]

A black dog has been said to haunt the Newgate Prison for over 400 years, appearing before executions. According to legend, in 1596, a scholar was sent to the prison for witchcraft, but was killed and eaten by starving prisoners before he was given a trial. The dog was said to appear soon after, and although the terrified men killed their guards and escaped, the beast is said to have haunted them wherever they fled.[18]

Galley Hill in Luton, Bedfordshire, is said to have been haunted by a black dog ever since a storm set the gibbet alight sometime in the 18th century.[19]

Betchworth Castle in Surrey is said to be haunted by a black dog that prowls the ruins at night.[20][21]

In Norfolk, Suffolk and the northern parts of Essex a black dog, known as Black Shuck or Shug is regarded to be relatively benign and said to accompany women on their way home in the role of protector rather than a portent of ill omen.[22] But in mid Essex Black Shuck is most commonly regarded as a bringer of death.

Black Dog Hill, and Black Dog Halt railway station in Wiltshire are named after a dog which is said to be found in the area.



FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Blackdog.jpg


Devon's Yeth Hound

The yeth hound, also called the yell hound is a Black dog found in Devon folklore. According to Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, the yeth hound is a headless dog, said to be the spirit of an unbaptised child, which rambles through the woods at night making wailing noises. The yeth hound is also mentioned in The Denham Tracts. It is the inspiration for the ghost dog in The Hound of the Baskervilles by Arthur Conan Doyle. In this story it was described as "an enormous coal-black hound, but not such a hound as mortal eyes have ever seen" - with fire in his eyes and breath (Hausman 1997:47).[23]

Channel Islands and Isle of Man

In the Isle of Man it is styled Mawtha Doo (double 'D' pronounced 'th'), or Moddey Dhoo (black dog in Manx). It is said to haunt the environs of Peel Castle.[24] People believe that anyone who sees the dog will die soon after the encounter with the dog. It is mentioned by Sir Walter Scott in The Lay of the Last Minstrel:

"For he was speechless, ghastly, wan
Like him of whom the Story ran
Who spoke the spectre hound in Man."

In the Channel Island of Guernsey, there are two named dogs. One, Tchico (Tchi-coh two Norman words for dog, whence cur), is headless, and is supposed to be the phantom of a past Bailiff of Guernsey, Gaultier de la Salle, who was hanged for falsely accusing one of his vassals. The other dog is known as Bodu or tchen Bodu (tchen being dog in Dgèrnésiais). His appearance, usually in the Clos du Valle, foretells death of the viewer or someone close to him. There are also numerous other unnamed apparitions, usually associated with placenames derived from bête (beast).

In Jersey folklore, the Black Dog of Death is also called the Tchico, but a related belief in the Tchian d'Bouôlé (Black Dog of Bouley) tells of a phantom dog whose appearance presages storms.[25] The story is believed to have been encouraged by smugglers who wanted to discourage nocturnal movements by people who might witness the movement of contraband.

On mainland Normandy, the dog is referred to as the Rongeur d'Os (bone-gnawer).

Wales

In Wales its counterpart was the gwyllgi, the "Dog of Darkness", a frightful apparition of a mastiff with baleful breath and blazing red eyes. Also related are the spectral Cŵn Annwn, connected with the otherworld realm of Annwn referred to in the Four Branches of the Mabinogi and elsewhere; however they are described as being dazzling white rather than black in the medieval text.[5][26][27]
There was even another black dog ghosts in St Donat's Castle along it was with a hag.

Cornwall

A black dog is said to have appeared to wrestlers at Whiteborough, a tumulus near Launceston.[28]

A black dog was once said to haunt the main road between Bodmin and Launceston near Linkinhorne.[29]

Mainland Europe

Oude Rode Ogen ("Old Red Eyes") or "The Beast of Flanders" was a spirit reported in Flanders, Belgium in the 18th century who would take the form of a large black dog with fiery red eyes. In Germany it was said that the devil would appear in the form of a large black dog.[30]

Latin America

Black dogs with fiery eyes are reported throughout Latin America from Mexico to Argentina under a variety of names including the Perro Negro (Spanish for Black Dog), Nahual (Mexico), Huay Chivo and Huay Pek (Mexico) - alternatively spelled Uay/Way/Waay Chivo/Pek, Cadejo (Central America), the dog Familiar (Argentina) and the Lobizon (Paraguay and Argentina). They are usually said to be either incarnations of the Devil or a shape-changing sorcerer.[31]

Notes

^ a b Simpson & Roud 2000, 2003, p.25.
^ Westwood & Simpson 2005, pp.687-688.
^ Stone, Alby Infernal Watchdogs, Soul Hunters and Corpse Eaters in Trubshaw 2005, pp.36-37.
^ McEwan 1986, p.147.
^ a b Stone, Alby Infernal Watchdogs, Soul Hunters and Corpse Eaters in Trubshaw 2005, p.53.
^ Stone, Alby Infernal Watchdogs, Soul Hunters and Corpse Eaters in Trubshaw 2005, pp.44-45.
^ Stone, Alby Infernal Watchdogs, Soul Hunters and Corpse Eaters in Trubshaw 2005, p.38.
^ Stone, Alby Infernal Watchdogs, Soul Hunters and Corpse Eaters in Trubshaw 2005, pp.54-55.
^ a b c Bord & Bord 1980, 1981, p.78.
^ Trubshaw 2005, p.2.
^ Barber & Barber 1988, 1990, p.3.
^ http://www.legendarydartmoor.co.uk/dark_huntsman.htm
^ Fields 1998, p.37.
^ Simpson & Roud 2000, 2003, p.366.
^ Crosby 2000, pp.14, 19, 26, 165.
^ Feldwick 2006, 2007, pp89-90
^ Codd, Daniel. Haunted Lincolnshire. Tempus Publishing Ltd (2006) pp. 75-78. ISBN 0 7524 3817 4
^ Clark 2007, pp.86-87.
^ Matthews 2004, p.35-36.
^ Janaway 2005, p.10.
^ Stewart 1990, pp49-50.
^ The Tollesbury Midwife
^ Brewer. Hausemen & Hausemen 1997.
^ Evans-Wentz 1966, 1990, p.129.
^ Bord & Bord 1980, 1981, p.95.
^ Gantz 1976, pp.46-47.
^ Pugh 1990, pp.19, 67
^ Deane & Shaw 2003, p.82.
^ Deane & Shaw 2003, p.44; also Semmens, Jason. ‘“Whyler Pystry”: A Breviate of the Life and Folklore-Collecting Practices of William Henry Paynter (1901–1976) of Callington, Cornwall.” Folklore 116, No. 1 (2005) pp. 75–94.
^ Varner, Gary R. Creatures in the mist: little people, wild men and spirit beings around the world : a study in comparative mythology in Algora Publishing 2007, pp.114-115.
^ Burchell 2007, pp.1, 24.

References

Barber, Sally and Barber, Chips (1988, 1990) Dark and Dastardly Dartmoor, Obelisk Publications, ISBN 0-946651-26-4.
Bord, Colin and Bord, Janet (1980, 1981) Alien Animals, Book Club Associates.
Brewer. Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, Brewer.
Burchell, Simon (2007) Phantom Black Dogs in Latin America, Heart of Albion Press, ISBN 978-1-905646-01-2
Clark, James (2007) Haunted London, Tempus Publishing, ISBN 978-0-7524-4459-8
Crosby, Alan (2000) The Lancashire Dictionary of Dialect, Tradition and Folklore, Smith Settle, ISBN 1-85825-122-2
Crossley-Holland, Kevin (1980) The Norse Myths, Andre Deutsch, ISBN 0-233-97271-4
de Garis, Marie (1986) Folklore of Guernsey , The Guernsey Press, ASIN B0000EE6P8
Deane, Tony and Shaw, Tony (2003) Folklore of Cornwall, Tempus Publishing, ISBN 0-7524-2929-9,
Evans-Wentz (1966, 1990) The Fairy Faith in Celtic Countries, Citadel Press, ISBN 0-8065-1160-5
Feldwick, Matthew (2006, 2007) Haunted Winchester, Tempus Publishing, ISBN 978-0-7524-3846-7
Fields, Kenneth (1998) Lancashire Magic & Mystery, Sigma Leisure, ISBN 1-85058-606-3
Gantz, Jeffrey (trans) (1976) The Mabinogion, Penguin Classics, ISBN 0-14-044322-3
Hausmen, Gerald and Loretta. The Mythology of Dogs: Canine Legend. St. Martin's Press 1997 ISBN 0-312-18139-6, p. 47.
Janaway, John (2005) Haunted Places of Surrey, Countryside Books, ISBN 1-85306-932-9
Matthews, Rupert (2004) Haunted Places of Bedfordshire & Buckinghamshire, Countryside Books, ISBN 1-85306-886-1.
McEwan, Graham J. (1986) Mystery Animals of Britain and Ireland, Robert Hale Ltd.
Michell, John F. and Rickard, Robert J.M. (1977) Phenomena: a book of wonders, Thames Hudson Ltd, ISBN 0-500-01182-6 (hardback), ISBN 0-500-27094-5 (paperback)
Paynter, William. & Semmens, Jason. (2008) The Cornish Witch-finder: William Henry Paynter and the Witchery, Ghosts, Charms and Folklore of Cornwall Federation of Old Cornwall Societies, ISBN 978-0902660397
Pugh, Jane (1990) Welsh Ghostly Encounters, Gwasg Carreg Gwalch, ISBN 0-86381-152-3
Readers Digest (1977) Folklore, Myths and Legends of Britain, Readers Digest Association, p. 45
Joseph, Ritson (1831) Fairy Tales, Now First Collected: To which are prefixed two dissertations: 1. On Pygmies. 2. On Fairies, Elibron Classics [facsimile], 2007, ISBN 1-4021-4753-8. See pp. 137–139 (The Mauthe Dogg).
Simpson, Jacqueline and Roud, Steve (2000, 2003) Oxford Dictionary of English Folklore, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-860766-0
Stewart, Frances D. (1990) Surrey Ghosts Old and New, AMCD, ISBN 0-9515066-8-4.
Trubshaw, Robert Nigel (ed) (2005) Explore Phantom Black Dogs, Heart of Albion Press, ISBN 1-872883-78-8
Waldron, David and Reeve, Chris. (2010) "Shock! The Black Dog of Bungay: A Case Study in Local Folklore" Hidden Publishing, ISBN 978-0-9555237-7-9
Westwood, Jennifer and Simpson, Jacqueline (2005) The Lore of the Land: A Guide to England's Legends, from Spring-heeled Jack to the Witches of Warboys, Penguin, ISBN 0-14-100711-7


Further reading

Burchell, Simon (2008) Phantom Black Dogs in Prehispanic Mexico PDF, Heart of Albion.
Sherwood, Simon J. (2010) Apparitons of Black Dogs in Smith, Matthew D. (ed.) Anomalous Experiences: Essays from Parapsychological and Psychological Perspectives, McFarland, ISBN 978-0-7864-4398-7



FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barghest

Barghest
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Barghest, Bargtjest, Bo-guest, Bargheist, Bargeist, Barguist, Bargest or Barguest is the name often given in the north of England, especially in Yorkshire, to a legendary monstrous black dog with huge teeth and claws, though in other cases the name can refer to a ghost or Household elf, especially in Northumberland and Durham (see Cauld Lad of Hylton). One is said to frequent a remote gorge named Troller's Gill. There is also a story of a Barghest entering the city of York occasionally, where, according to legend, it preys on lone travellers in the city's narrow Snickelways. Whitby is also associated with the spectre.[1] A famous Barghest was said to live near Darlington who was said to take the form of a headless man (who would vanish in flames), a headless lady, a white cat, a dog, rabbit and black dog. Another was said to live in an "uncannie-looking" dale between Darlington and Houghton, near Throstlenest.[2]

The derivation of the word barghest is disputed. Ghost in the north of England was once pronounced guest, and the name is thought to be burh-ghest: town-ghost. Others explain it as German Berg-geist (mountain spirit), or Bär-geist (bear-spirit), in allusion to its alleged appearance at times as a bear. Another mooted derivation is 'Bier-Geist', the 'spirit of the funeral bier'.


The Barghest in popular culture

Many stories, perhaps most notably The Hound of the Baskervilles, feature ghostly black dogs. See Black dog (ghost) for further details. Dogs specifically named as barghests appear in the following:

Literature

In the novel by Bram Stoker, when arriving at Whitby aboard the ship Demeter, Dracula takes the form of a big and ferocious dark dog. The barghest is part of Whitby folklore, and may well have been Stoker's inspiration.

In the Harry Potter series written by J. K. Rowling, the character Sirius Black is an Animagus (a wizard that can take the form of an animal) that transforms into a big black dog, the other characters fear it because he resembles a "Grim" (a black dog that is an omen of death).

Also inspired by this legend, the barghest also appears in the children's book The Whitby Witches by Robin Jarvis.

The barghest is depicted as a shapeshifting beast in Sojourn, written by R.A. Salvatore. Most of R.A. Salvatore's literary inspiration comes from the pen and paper RPG Dungeons and Dragons.

In Roald Dahl's The Witches, it is mentioned as always being male.

Nicole Peeler's "Tempest Rising" series references Dahl's the Witches, and features a Barghest who takes on human or demon dog form.

In the novel Forge of the Mindslayers by Tim Waggoner, a Barghest is described as a lupine beast with blue tinged fur, a 'goblin-ish' face, and human hands. It can shapeshift into a goblin.

In Chapter 63 of Theodore Dreiser's classic novel, An American Tragedy, he references the spectre adjectivally, saying, "And at one point it was that a wier-wier, one of the solitary water-birds of this region, uttered its ouphe and barghest cry, flying from somewhere near into some darker recess within the woods. And at this sound it was that Clyde had stirred nervously and then sat up in the car. It was so very different to any bird-cry he had ever heard anywhere."

Steven Erikson's epic fantasy series, the Malazan Book of the Fallen, features a nomadic warrior people called the Barghast. Any possible relation to the mythological canine, aside from the name, is unclear.

In Brom's novel The Child Thief barghest were creatures that lived in the "witch's wood" and served her when needed.

In the Japanese light novel series Magician's Academy, one of the professors has a familiar/maid, Eineus the Varghest- a black dog-demon.

Film and TV

The Barghest is the main villain in the children's TV series Roger and the Rottentrolls, which is set in Troller's Ghyll.

The 1978 made-for-TV movie Devil Dog: The Hound of Hell features a barghest named Lucky.

In an episode of the BBC drama series Dalziel and Pascoe, a public house situated on the North York Moors which the episode's plot revolves around is named 'The Barguest', and features a large black dog on its sign.

References

^ Jeffrey Shaw, Whitby Lore and Legend, (1923)
^ Henderson, William (1879). "Ch. 7". Notes on the folk-lore of the northern counties of England and the borders (2nd ed.). Folk-Lore Society. p. 275.

Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). "Barghest". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. which in turn cites:
Wirt Sikes, British Goblins (1880)
Notes and Queries, first series, ii. 51.
Joseph Ritson, Fairy Tales (Lond. 1831), p. 58.
Lancashire Folklore (1867)
Joseph Lucas, Studies in Nidderdale (Pateley Bridge, 1882)

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