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 The Witch-Cult in Western Europe, by Margaret Alice Murray, [1921], at sacred-texts.com

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MessaggioOggetto: Re: The Witch-Cult in Western Europe, by Margaret Alice Murray, [1921], at sacred-texts.com   Mar 13 Ott 2009 - 16:53

3. Anne Redferne
4. Anne Whittle
5. Elizabeth Demdike [officer]
6. Elizabeth Device
7. Isobel Robey
8. James Device
9. Jane Bulcock
10. Jennet Hargreaves
11. Jennet Preston
12. John Bulcock
13. Katherine Hewit



6.



1617. Guernsey

1. Collas Becquet
2. Collette du Mont [officer]
3. Isabel Becquet
4. Marie Becquet
5. The woman Fallaise
6. The woman Hardie
7. A woman she did not know
8-13. Six others there she did not know



7



1644. Queensferry

[Seven were executed.]

1. Catherine Logie
2. Catherine Thomson
3. Elspet Cant
4. Helen Hill
5. Helen Thomson
6. Isobel Young
7. Janet Lowrie
8. Janet Mowbray
9. Margaret Brown
10. Margaret Dauline
11. Marion Dauline
12. Marion Little
13. Marion Stein



8



1649. Herts. St. Albans

1. Anne Smith
2. John Lamen Sr.
3. John Lamen Jr.
4. John [? Joan] Lamen
5. John Palmer
6. John Salmon, Sr.
7. Joseph Salmon
8. Judeth Salmon
9. Mary Bychance
10. Mary Lamen, Sr
11. Mary Lamen, Jr
12. Sarah Smith
13. Widow Palmer



9



1658 Alloa

1. Barbara Erskin
2. Bessie Paton
3. Elspet Black
4. James Hudston
5. James Kirk
6. Jonet Millar
7. Jonet Paterson
8. Jonet Reid
9. Kathren Black
10. Kathren Renny
11. Margret Demperstoun
12. Margret Duchall
13. Margret Tailzeour
1661. Forfar

[The two Covens were led, one by Helen Guthrie, the other by Helen Cothills. I have put in the first Coven the names which occur most frequently together.]



1

1. Agnes Sparke
2. Andrew Watson
3. Elspet Alexander
4. Elspet Bruce
5. Helen Alexander
6. Helen Guthrie [officer]
7. Isobel Dorward
8. Isobel Shyrie
9. John Tailzeour
10. Jonet Howit
11. Jonet Stout
12. Katherene Portour
13. Mary Rynd



2

1. Bessie Croket
2. Christen Whyte
3. George Ellies
4. Helen Cothills [officer]
5. Isobel Smith
6. Jonet Barrie
7. Katharene Wallace
8. Margaret Nicholl
9. Marjorie Ritchie
10. . . . Finlason
11. . . . Hebrone
12, 13. Two unnamed women mentioned by Katharene Portour.



11



1662. Auldearne

1. Barbara Ronald
2. Bessie Hay
3. Bessie Wilson
4. Elspet Nishie
5. Issobell Gowdie
6. Issobell Nicoll
7. Janet Breadheid
8. Janet Burnet
9. John Taylor
10. John Young [officer]
11. Jean Marten [the Maiden]
12. Margret Brodie
13. Margret Wilson



12



1662. Kinross-shire. Crook of Devon

1. Agnes Brugh
2. Agnes Murie
3. Agnes Pittendreich
4. Bessie Henderson
5. Bessie Nell
6. Christian Grieve
7. Isabel Rutherford
8. Janet Brugh
9. Janet Paton (of Crook)
10. Janet Paton (of Kilduff)
11. Margaret Huggon
12. Margaret Litster
13. Robert Wilson



13



1662. Hartford, Conn.

[Though the published records are incomplete, the number of names surviving suggests that a Coven existed here.]

1. Andrew Sanford
2. Elizabeth Seager
3. James Walkley
4. Judith Varlet
5. Mary Sanford
6. Nathaniel Greensmith
7. Rebecca Greensmith
8. William Ayres
9. Goodwife Ayres
10. Goodwife Grant
11. Goodwife Palmer
12. Goodwife Sanford



14



1662. Bute

1. Agnes . . . in Gortenis
2. Annie Heyman [the Maiden]
3. Cirstine Ballantyne [the Maiden]
4. Donald McCartour
5. Elspet Galie
6. Elspeth Gray
7. Elspet NcWilliam
8. Elspeth Spence
9. Issobell More McKaw
10. Issobell NcNeill
11. Issobell NcNicoll
12. Jonet McConachie
13. Jonet McNeill
14. Jonet McNickell
15. Jonet Isack
16. Jonet Morison
17. Jonet Nicoll
18. John Galy
19. Kathrine Cristell
20. Kathrine Frissell
21. Kathrine McWilliam
22. Kathrine Moore
23. Kathrine Stewart
24. Margaret McNeill
25. Margaret McNickell
26. Margaret Ncilduy
27. Margaret NcLevin
28. Margaret NcWilliam
29. Margaret Smith
30. Marie McKaw
31. Marie More NcCuill
32. Marie Stewart
33. Patrick McKaw

[Besides eleven other incomplete names, of which five can be identified as being already mentioned above, leaving six to add to that number, i. e. thirty-nine in all.]



15



1664. Somerset

[In the first Coven I have put the names which occur most frequently together in the evidence.]

1

1. Alice Duke
2. Alice Green
3. Anne Bishop [officer],
4. Catharine Green
5. Christian Green
6. Dinah Warberton
7. Dorothy Warberton
8. Elizabeth Stile
9. Henry Walter
10. Jone Syms
11. Mary Green
12. Mary Penny
13. Mary Warberton

2

1. Christopher Ellen
2. James Bush
3. John Combes
4. John Vining
5. Julian Cox
6. Margaret Agar [officer?]
7. Margaret Clarke
8. Rachel King
9. Richard Dickes
10. Richard Larmen
11. Thomas Bolster
12. Thomas Dunning
13. . . . Durnford



16



1673. Northumberland

1. Anne Driden
2. Anne Foster
3. Anne Usher
4. Elizabeth Pickering
5. John Crauforth
6. Lucy Thompson
7. Margaret Aynsley
8. Margarett (whose surname she knowes not)
9. Michael Aynsley
10. William Wright
11-13. And three more, whose names she, knowes not



17



1697 Renfrewshire. Bargarran

1. Agnes Naismith
2. Alexander Anderson
3. James Lindsay
4. Janet Rodgers
5. Janet Wagh
6. Jean Fulton [officer]
7. John Lindsay
8. John Reid
9. Katherine Campbel
10. Margaret Fulton
11. Margaret Laing
12. Margaret Rodgers
13. Martha Semple



B. NAMES OF WITCHES

[Guernsey being a law unto itself in the matter of names, the following remarks refer only to England and Scotland.]

The lists of witch-names bring to light several facts as regards the women. One of these is the entire absence of Saxon names, such as Gertrude, Edith, Hilda; Old Testament names are so few in number as to be negligible; Scandinavian names are not found; the essentially Puritan names, such as Temperance, hardly occur; but the great mass of the names fall under eight heads with their dialectical differences: 1, Ann (Annis, Agnes, Annabel); 2, Alice (Alison); 3, Christian (Christen, Cirstine) 4, Elizabeth (Elspet, Isobel, Bessie); 5, Ellen (Elinor, Helen) 6, Joan (Jane, Janet, Jonet) 7, Margaret (Marget, Meg, Marjorie); 8, Marion (Mary).

At first sight the list suggests New Testament and Greek influence and though I am not prepared to dispute this, I would point out (1) that there was a British goddess called Anna, which may account not only for all the forms of Ann but also for the terminations in Alison and Marion; (2) that the name Christian clearly indicates the presence of another religion; (3) that there is at present nothing to prove that Isobel is a variant of Elizabeth--it is quite possible that Isobel was the original name and that the missionaries 'Christianized' it as Elizabeth; (4) that Helen was a pre-Christian name in Great Britain (s) that Margaret may have been originally Marget, the spelling and pronunciation being influenced by the Greek form; and as g and y are dialectically interchangeable, Marget would be the same as, or closely allied to, the Finnish Marjatta.

If Christianity had obtained the hold on the people which the ecclesiastical writers would have its believe, the name Mary should surely have been the most common, but it hardly occurs in Great Britain before 1645, while Marion is hardly used after that date. This looks as though Marion were the earlier form, and Mary may therefore be merely the contraction of the longer name.

As regards the name Joan I can offer no explanations or suggestions. I can only call attention to its overwhelming preponderance in comparison with the others.

In the lists the names are arranged without regard to local differences of spelling. The surnames are in alphabetical order.

Abre Grinset

Dunwich

1663


Agnes Allene

Crook of Devon

1662


Agnes Beveridge

Crook of Devon

1662


Agnes Brodie

Auldearne

1662


Agnes Brown

Northampton

1612


Agnes Brugh

Crook of Devon

1662


Agnes Finnie

Edinburgh

1644


Agnes Forbes

Aberdeen

1597


Agnes Frame

Aberdeen

1597


Agnes Grant

Auldearne

1662


Agnes Murie

Crook of Devon

1662


Agnes Naismith

Bargarran

1697


Agnes Pittendreich

Crook of Devon

1662


Agnes Rawsterne

Lancs

1613


Agnes Sampson

North Berwick

1590


Agnes Sharp

Crook of Devon

1662


Agnes Sparke

Forfar

1661


Agnes Stratton

North Berwick

1590


Agnes Torrie

Auldearne

1662


Agnes Williamson

Samuelston

1662


Agnes Wobster

Aberdeen

1597


Agnes . . . in Gortenis

Bute

1662


Alester McNiven

Bute

1642


Alexander Bell

Auldearne

1662


Alexander Elder

Auldearne

1662


Alexander Hamilton

Edinburgh

1630


Alexander Hunter

East Lothian

1649
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Alexander Ledy

Auldearne

1662


Alexander Quhytelaw

N. Berwick

1590


Alexander Shepheard

Auldearne

1662


Alexander Sussums

Suffolk

1646


Alice Dixon

Essex

1645


Alice Dixon

Northumberland

1673


Alice Duke

Somerset

1664


Alice Gooderidge

Burton-on-Trent

1597


Alice Gray

Lancs

1613


Alice Green

Somerset

1664


Ales Hunt

St. Osyth

1582


Alice Huson

Burton Agnes

1664


Alice Kyteler

Ireland

1324


Ales Mansfield

St. Osyth

1582


Ales Newman

St. Osyth

1582


Alice Nutter

Lancs

1613


Alice Priestley

Lancs

1613


Alse Young

Connecticut

1647


Alizon Device

Lancs

1613


Alison Dick

Kirkcaldy

1636


Alesoun Peirsoun

Fifeshire

1588


Allan McKeldowie

Orkney

1616


Amy Duny

Essex

1645


Amie Hyndman, Snr.

Bute

1662


Amie Hyndman, Jnr.

Bute

1662


Andro Man

Aberdeen

1597


Andrew Sanford

Conn.

1662


Andrew Watson

Forfar

1661


Anne Ashby

Maidstone

1652


Ann Baites

Northumberland

1673


Anne Baker

Leicester

1619


Anne Bishop

Somerset

1664


Anne Blampied

Guernsey

1629


Anne Bodenham

Salisbury

1633


Anne Cate

Much Holland, Essex

1645


Anne Cooper

Clacton Essex

1645


Annas Craigie

Crook of Devon

1662


Anne Crunkshey

Lancs

1673


Anne Desborough

Hunts

1646


Anne Driden

Northumberland

1673


Anne Foster

Northumberland

1673


Ann Foster

Northampton

1674


Annis Glascocke

St. Osyth

1582


Anne Grut

Guernsey

1614


Annis Heade

St. Osyth

1582


Annie Heyman

Bute

1662


Anne Hunnam

Scarborough

1651


Anne Leach

Misley, Essex

1645


Anne Martyn

Maidstone

1652


Anne Massq

Guernsey

1617


Anne Parker

Suffolk

1645


Anne Parteis

Northumberland

1673


Anne Pearce

Suffolk

1645


Anne Redferne

Lancs

1613


Annie Richardson

N. Berwick

1590


Anne Smith

St. Albans

1649


Annabil Stuart

Paisley

1678


Anie Tailzeour

Orkney

1633


Annaple Thomson

Borrowstowness

1679


Anne Usher

Northumberland

1673


Anne West

Lawford, Essex

1645


Anne Whitfield

Northumberland

1673


Anne Whittle

Lancs

1613


Anthony Hunter

Northumberland

1673


Archibald Man

Auldearne

1662


Arthur Bill

Northampton

1612


Barbara Erskeine

Alloa

1658


Barbara Friece

Auldearne

1662


Barbara Napier

N. Berwick

1590


Barbara Ronald

Auldearne

1662


Beak Taiss

Aberdeen

1597


Beigis Tod

N. Berwick

1598


Beatrice Laing

Pittenweem

1704


Beatrice Robbie

Aberdeen

1597


Cirstine Ballantyne

Bute

1662


Christian Carington

N. Berwick

1597


Christian Carrington

N. Berwick

1590


Christian Graham

Glasgow

1622


Christian Green

Somerset

1664


Christian Grieve

Crook of Devon

1662


Christine Harnon

Guernsey

1617


Christiane Lewingstone

Leith

1597


Christen Miller

Aberdeen

1597


Christen Mitchell

Aberdeen

1597


Christen Reid

Aberdeen

1597


Christian Saidler

Edinburgh

1597


Christian Tod

N. Berwick

1590


Christen Whyte

Forfar

1661


Christiane Wilson

Dalkeith

1661


Christian Young

Crook of Devon

1662


Christopher Dixon

Northumberland

1673


Christopher Ellen

Somerset

1664


Christopher Hargreaves

Lancs

1613


Christopher Howgate

Lancs

1613


Cysley Celles

St. Osyth

1582


Cecile Vaultier

Guernsey

1610


Collas Becquet

Guernsey

1617


Collette Becquet

Guernsey

1617


Collette de l'Estal

Guernsey

1622


Collette Dumont

Guernsey

1617


Collette Gascoing

Guernsey

1563


Collette la Gelee

Guernsey

1624


Collette Robin

Guernsey

1622


Collette Salmon

Guernsey

1563


Collette Sauvage

Guernsey

1639


Collette Tourtel

Guernsey

1576


Deliverance Hobbs

Salem

1692


Dinah Warberton

Somerset

1664


Donald McCartour

Bute

1662


Donald Robesoune

N. Berwick

1590


Doll Bilby

Burton Agnes

1664


Dorothy Green

Northumberland

1673


Dorothy Warberton

Somerset

1664


Duncan Buchquhannane

N. Berwick

1590


Bessie Aiken

Edinburgh

1597


Elspet Alexander

Forfar

1661


Elizabeth Astley

Lancs

1613


Elizabeth Atchinson

Northumberland

1673


Bessie Bathgate

Eymouth

1634


Elizabeth Bennet

St. Osyth

1582


Elspet Blak

Alloa

1658


Bessie Browne

N. Berwick

1590


Elspet Bruce

Forfar

1661


Elspet Cant

Queensferry

1644


Elizabeth Chandler

Hunts

1646


Elspet Chisholme

Auldearne

1662


Elizabeth Clark

Manningtree

1645


Elizabeth Clawson

Conn.

1692


Bessie Croket

Forfar

1661


Elizabeth Demdike

Lancs

1613


Elizabeth Dempster

Crook of Devon

1662


Elizabeth Device

Lancs

1613


Elizabeth Dickenson

Knaresborough

1621
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Bessie Dunlop

Ayrshire

1576


Elizabeth Duquenin

Guernsey

1610


Elizabeth Ewstace

St. Osyth

1582


Elspet Falconer

Auldearne

1662


Elspet Findlay

Aberdeen

1597


Elizabeth Fletcher

Knaresborough

1621


Elspett Forbes

Aberdeen

1597


Elizabeth Francis

Chelmsford

1556


Bessie Friece

Auldearne

1662


Elspet Galie

Bute

1662


Elizabeth Garlick

Conn.

1657


Elizabeth Gauvein

Guernsey

1639


Elspet Gilbert

Auldearne

1662


Elizabeth Godman

Conn.

1653


Elizabeth Gooding

Manningtree

1645


Bessie Graham

Kilwinning

1649


Elspet Graham

Dalkeith

1661


Elspet Gray

Bute

1662


Bessie Gulene

N. Berwick

1590


Elizabeth Hare

Essex

1645


Elizabeth Hargraves

Lancs

1613


Elizabeth Harvy

Ramsey, Essex

1645


Bessie Hay

Auldearne

1662


Bessie Henderson

Crook of Devon

1662


Elizabeth Howgate

Lancs

1613


Bessie Hucheons

Auldearne

1662


Elizabeth Knap

Groton

1671


Elspet Laird

Auldearne

1662


Elizabeth le Hardy

Guernsey

1631


Elspet Leyis

Aberdeen

1597


Elspet Macbeith

Auldearne

1662


Elspet Makhomie

Auldearne

1662


Bessie Moffat

Dalkeith

1661


Elspet Moinness

Aberdeen

1597


Elspet NcWilliam

Bute

1662


Bessie Neil

Crook of Devon

1662


Elspet Nishie

Auldearne

1662


Bessie Paton

Alloa

1658


Bessie Paul

Aberdeen

1597


Bessie Peterkin

Auldearne

1662


Elizabeth Pickering

Northumberland

1673


Elspeth Reoch

Orkney

1616


Bessie Robson

N. Berwick

1590


Elizabeth Sawyer

Edmonton

1621


Elizabeth Seager

Conn.

1662


Elspet Smyth

Aberdeen

1597


Elspeth Spence

Bute

1662


Elizabeth Stile

Somerset

1664


Elizabeth Stile

Windsor

1579


Elspet Strathaquhin

Aberdeen

1597


Bessie Thom

Aberdeen

1597


Bessie Thomson

N. Berwick

1590


Bessie Vickar

Borrowstowness

1679


Elizabeth Weed

Hunts

1646


Bessie Weir

Paisley

1678


Bessie Wilson

Auldearne

1662


Bessie Wright

N. Berwick

1590


Elizabeth Wright

Burton-on-Trent

1597


Bessie Young

Auldearne

1662


Ellen Bierley

Lancs

1613


Ellen Gray

Aberdeen

1597


Ellen Green

Leicester

1619


Elinor Shaw

Northampton

1705


Euphemia McCalyan

N. Berwick

1590


Frances Dicconson

Lancs

1613


Frances Moore

Hunts

1646


George Ellies

Forfar

1661


Gideon Penman

Crighton

1678


Gilbert Fidlar

Aberdeen

1597


Gilbert McGill

N. Berwick

1590


Giles Fenderlin

Leaven Heath

1652


Gellis Duncan

N. Berwick

1590


Gilles Hutton

Crook of Devon

1662


Girette le Parmentier

Guernsey

1620


Gracyenne Gousset

Guernsey

1563


Grace Hay

Lancs

1613


Grissell Gairdner

Newburgh

1610


Grissall Sinklar

Auldearne

1662


Guillemine la Bousse

Guernsey

1622


Guillemine Vaultier

Guernsey

1610


Hellen Alexander

Forfar

1661


Hellen Clark

Manningtree

1645


Helen Cothills

Forfar

1661


Helen Fraser

Aberdeen

1597


Helen Guthrie

Forfar

1661


Helen Hill

Queensferry

1644


Helen Inglis

Auldearne

1661


Hellen Jenkinson

Northampton

1612


Helen Lauder

N. Berwick

1590


Helene le Brun

Guernsey

1609


Helen Makkie

Aberdeen

1597


Hellen Pennie

Aberdeen

1597


Helen Rogie

Aberdeen

1597


Helen Thomson

Queensferry

1644


Helen White

N. Berwick

1590


Henry Graver

Knaresborough

1621


Henry Walter

Somerset

1665


Hugh Crosia

Conn.

1693


Isobel Adams

Pittenweem

1704


Issabel Andrews

Northumberland

1673


Isobel Bairdie

Edinburgh

1649


Issobell Barroun

Aberdeen

1597


Isabel Becquet

Guernsey

1617


Isobel Black

Crook of Devon

1662


Issobell Burnett

Aberdeen

1597


Issobell Coky

Aberdeen

1597


Isabel Condie

Crook of Devon

1662


Isobell Crawford

Irvine

1618


Isobel Dorward

Forfar

1661


Issobell Forbes

Aberdeen

1597


Isobel Friece

Auldearne

1662


Isobel Gairdner

Edinburgh

1649


Isabel Gibson

Crook of Devon

1662


Issobell Gowdie

Auldearne

1662


Issobell Griersoune

Edinburgh

1607


Isobell Gylour

N. Berwick

1590


Isobel Haldane

Perth

1607


Isobel Inch

Irvine

1618


Issabell Johnson

Northumberland

1673


Isobell Lauder

N. Berwick

1590


Issobell Menteithe

Aberdeen

1597


Isobel More NcKaw

Bute

1662


Isobel More

Auldearne

1662


Issobell NcNeill

Bute

1662


Issobell NcNicoll

Bute

1662


Issobell Nicoll

Auldearne

1662


Issobell Oige

Aberdeen

1597


Isobel Ramsay

Edinburgh

1661


Issobell Richie

Aberdeen

1597


Issobell Robbie

Aberdeen

1597


Isobel Robey

Lancs

1613


Isabel Rutherford

Crook of Devon

1662


Issobell Shyrie

Forfar

1661


Isabel Sidegraves

Lancs

1613


Issobell Smith

Forfar

1661


Issobell Strathaquhin

Aberdeen

1597


Issabell Thompson

Northumberland

1673


Isobel Young

Queensferry

1644


James Bush

Somerset

1664


James Device

Lancs

1613


James Hudston

Alloa

1658


James Kirk

Alloa

1658


James Og

Aberdeen

1597


James Walkley

Conn.

1662


Jonet Anderson

Edinburgh

1657


Jane Baites

Northumberland

1673


Jonet Barrie

Forfar

1661


Jeanne Bichot

Guernsey

1619


Jennet Bierley

Lancs

1613


Jannet Blandilands

Edinburgh

1590


Janet Breadheid

Auldearne

1662


Janet Brown

Edinburgh

1649


Janet Brugh

Crook of Devon

1662


Jane Bulcock

Lancs

1613


Janet Burnet

Auldearne

1662


Jonet Campbell

Edinburgh

1590


Jonet Campbell

N. Berwick

1590


Joan Cariden

Faversham

1645


Joan Carrington

Conn.

1651


Jonett Clark

Edinburgh

1590


Jonet Cleracht

Aberdeen

1597


Jennot Cooke

Dalkeith

1661


Johan Cooper

Much Holland, Essex

1645


Jonet Corset

Pittenweem

1704


Jennet Cronkshaw

Lancs

1613


Janet Cunningham

Edinburgh

1590


Jonet Davidson

Aberdeen

1597


Jeanne de Bertran

Guernsey

1626


Jenette de Garis
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Guernsey

1631


Jonet Degeddes

Aberdeen

1597


Jennet Device

Lancs

1613


Jennit Dibble

Knaresborough

1621


Jonet Drever

Orkney

1615


Jeannette Dumaresq

Guernsey

1570


Janet Finlay

Auldearne

1662


Jean Fulton

Bargarran

1697


Jonet Gaw (Gall)

N. Berwick

1590


Jonet Grant

Aberdeen

1597


Jonett Grant

Edinburgh

1590


Jeanne Guignon

Guernsey

1570


Jonet Guissett

Aberdeen

1597


Jennet Hargraves

Lancs

1613


Jonet Hird

Crook of Devon

1662


Jonet Hood

Crook of Devon

1662


Jane Hopper

Northumberland

1673


Jane Hott

Faversham

1645


Jonet Howit

Forfar

1661


Jonet Hunter

Ayrshire

1605


Jonet Isack

Bute

1662


Jonat Kaw

Perth

1607


Jean King

Innerkip

1662


Jeanne le Cornu

Guernsey

1620


Jeannette le Gallees

Guernsey

1570


Jonet Leisk

Aberdeen

1597


Jonet Leyis

Aberdeen

1597


Jonet Logan

N. Berwick

1590


Janet Lowry

Queensferry

1644


Jonet Lucas

Aberdeen

1597


Joane Lucus

Northampton

1612


Jane Makepiece

Northumberland

1673


Janet Man

Auldearne

1662


Janet Mathie

Paisley

1678


Jonet McConachie

Bute

1662


Jonet Mcilmertine

Bute

1642


Jonet McNeill

Bute

1662


Jonet McNickell

Bute

1662


Jonet Mctyre

Bute

1642


Jenot Meiklejohn

Dalkeith

1661


Jonet Millar

Alloa

1658


Jonet Morison

Bute

1662


Janet Mowbray

Queensferry

1644


Jonet Nctyre

Bute

1642


Jonet Nicholson

N. Berwick

1590


Jonet Nicoll

Bute

1662


Jonet Paiston

Dalkeith

1661


Jonet Paterson

Alloa

1659


Janet Paton

Crook of Devon

1662


Janet Paton

Kilduff

1662


Joan Pechey

St. Osyth

1582


Joan Peterson

Wapping

1652


Jennet Preston

Lancs

1613


Jonet Reid

Alloa

1658


Jonet Reid

Orkney

1633


Jonet Rendall

Orkney

1629


Joan Robinson

St. Osyth

1582


Janet Rodgers

Bargarran

1697


Janet Scot

Innerkip

1662


Janet Smith

Auldearne

1662


Jonet Smyth

Aberdeen

1597


Jane Southworth

Lancs

1613


Jonet Spaldarg

Aberdeen

1597


Jonet Stewart

Edinburgh

1597


Jonet Stout

Forfar

1661


Jonet Stratton

N. Berwick

1590


Jean Sutherland

Auldearne

1662


Jone Syms

Somerset

1664


Janet Thomson

Edinburgh

1649


Jeanne Tourgis

Guernsey

1622


Joane Vaughan

Northampton

1612


Janet Wagh

Bargarran

1697


Joan Walliford

Faversham

1645


Joane Wallis

Hunts

1646


Joan Waterhouse

Chelmsford

1556


Jonet Watson

Dalkeith

1661


Jean Weir

Edinburgh

1670


Jennet Wilkinson

Lancs

1613


Joane Willimot

Leicester

1619


Jonet Wishert

Aberdeen

1597


John Brugh

Edinburgh

1643


John Bulcock

Lancs

1613


John Carington

Conn.

1651


John Clarke

Hunts

1646


John Combes

Somerset

1664


John Couper

N. Berwick

1590


John Crauforth

Northumberland

1673


Johnne Damiet

Edinburgh

1597


John Douglas

Tranent

1659


John Fian

N. Berwick

1590


John Galie

Bute

1662


John Gordon (Gray-meill)

N. Berwick

1590


John Lamen, Snr.

St. Albans

1649


John Lamen, Jnr.

St. Albans

1649


John Leyis

Aberdeen

1597


John Lindsay

Bargarran

1697


John McGill

N. Berwick

1590


John Palmer

St. Albans

1649


John Ramsden

Lancs

1613


John Reid

Bargarran

1697


John Robertson

Auldearne

1662


John Salmon

St. Albans

1649


John McWilliam Sclater

Edinburgh

1656


John Stewart

Irving

1618


John Stuart

Paisley

1678


John Tailzeour

Forfar

1661


John Taylor

Auldearne

1662


John Vining

Somerset

1664


John Whitfield

Northumberland

1673


John Winnick

Hunts

1646


John Young

Auldearne

1662


Joseph Salmon

St. Albans

1649


Josine Deblicq

Hainault

1616


Joyce Boanes

St. Osyth

1645


Judith Moone

Thorp, Essex

1645


Judeth Salmon

St. Albans

1649


Judith Varlet

Conn.

1662


Julian Cox

Somerset

1665


Katherine Blair

Glasgow

1622


Kathren Blak

Alloa

1658


Katherine Campbell

N. Berwick

1590


Katherine Campbell

Bargarran

1697


Katherine Carruthers

N. Berwick

1590


Katherine Craige

Orkney

1633


Katherine Cristell

Bute

1662


Katherine Duncan

N. Berwick

1590


Katherine Earle

Yorks

1654


Catherine Ellot

Northumberland

1673


Katherine Eustache

Guernsey

1581


Katherine Fernsche

Aberdeen

1597


Katherine Ferris

Aberdeen

1597


Katherine Frissell

Bute

1662


Katherine Gerard

Aberdeen

1597


Kait Gray

N. Berwick

1590


Catherine Green

Somerset

1665


Catherine Halloudis

Guernsey

1622


Katherine Harrison

Conn.

1662


Katherine Heirst

Lancs

1613


Catherine Logie

Queensferry

1644


Katherine McGill

N. Berwick

1590


Katherine McTeir

Ayrshire

1605


Katherine McWilliarn

Bute

1662


Katherine Miller

Orkney

1633


Kathren Mitchell

Aberdeen

1597


Kathrin Moore

Bute

1662


Katherine Oswald

Edinburgh

1629


Katharene Portour

Forfar

1661


Catherine Prays

Guernsey

1563


Kathren Renny

Alloa

1658


Catherine Robert

Guernsey

1639


Katherine Scott

Innerkip

1662


Kathren Sowter

Auldearne

1662


Katherine Stewart

Bute

1662


Catherine Thomson

Queensferry

1644


Kait Wallace

N. Berwick

1590


Katharene Wallace

Forfar

1661


Lawrence Hay

Lancs

1613


Laurenche Jehan

Guernsey

1570


Laurence I'Eustache

Guernsey

1617


Lilias Adie

Torryburn

1704


Lillie Wallace

Pittenweem

1704


Lucy Thompson

Northumberland

1673


Lydia Gilbert

Conn.

1654


Malie Geddie

N. Berwick

1590


Manie Haliburton

Dirlton

1649


Marable Cooper

Orkney

1633


Margaret Agar

Somerset

1664


Margaret Aitchison

N. Berwick

1590


Margaret Aynsley

Northumberland

1673


Margaret Barclay

Irvine

1618


Margret Bean

Aberdeen

1597


Meg Begtoun

N. Berwick

1590


Marget Beveridge

Crook of Devon

1662


Margret Brodie

Auldearne

1662


Margaret Brown

Queensferry

1644


Margaret Clarke

Somerset

1664


Margrat Cleraucht

Aberdeen

1597


Margaret Craige

Paisley

1678


Margaret Dauline

Queensferry

1644


Margret Demperstoun

Alloa

1658


Margret Duchall

Alloa

1658


Margaret Duncane

Ayrshire

1605


Margaret Duncane

Crook of Devon

1662


Margaret Dwn

N. Berwick

1590


Margaret Fulton

Bargarran

1697


Margaret Grevell

St. Osyth

1582


Margaret Hamilton (Mitchell)
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Borrowstowness

1679


Margaret Hamilton (Pullwart)

Borrowstowness

1679


Margrat Holm

Innerkip

1662


Margret Hucheons

Auldearne

1662


Margaret Huggon

Crook of Devon

1662


Marget Hutton

Crook of Devon

1662


Margrat Innes

Aberdeen

1597


Margaret Jackson

Paisley

1678


Margaret Jennings

Conn.

1661


Margaret Johnson

Lancs

1633


Margaret Keltie

Crook of Devon

1662


Margaret Kyllie

Auldearne

1662


Margaret Laing

Bargarran

1697


Margaret Landish

St. Osyth

1645


Margaret Litster

Crook of Devon

1662


Margaret Loy

Liverpool

1667


Margaret McGuffok

Ayrshire

1605


Margret McKenzie

Innerkip

1662


Margaret McNeill

Bute

1662


Margaret McNickell

Bute

1662


Margaret McNish

Crook of Devon

1662


Margaret McWilliam

Bute

1662


Margaret Moone

Thorp, Essex

1645


Margaret Morton

Yorks

1650


Margaret Ncilduy

Bute

1662


Margaret NcLevin

Bute

1662


Margaret Nicoll

Forfar

1661


Margaret Nin-Gilbert

Thurso

1719


Margret Og

Aberdeen

1597


Margaret Pearson

Lancs

1613


Marguerite Picot

Guernsey

1629


Margaret Pringle

Borrowstowness

1679


Margrat Reauch

Aberdeen

1597


Margaret Rodgers

Bargarran

1697


Margrat Scherar

Aberdeen

1597


Margaret Simson

Hunts

1646


Margaret Smith

Bute

1662


Margrat Smyth

Aberdeen

1597


Meg Stillcart

N. Berwick

1590


Margret Tailzeour

Alloa

1658


Marguerite Tardif

Guernsey

1624


Margaret Thomson

N. Berwick

1590


Margaret Waite, Snr.

Knaresborough

1621


Margaret Waite, Jnr.

Knaresborough

1621


Margaret Wallace

Glasgow

1622


Margret Wilson

Auldearne

1662


Margaret Young

Crook of Devon

1662


Margarett (surname unknown)

Northumberland

1673


Marion Bailzie

N. Berwick

1590


Marion Congilton

N. Berwick

1590


Marion Dauline

Queensferry

1644


Marion Frissell

Bute

1642


Marrion Fyfe

Crook of Devon

1662


Marion Grant

Aberdeen

1597


Marion Hocket

Ramsey, Essex

1645


Marion Linkup

Leith

1590


Marion Little

Queensferry

1644


Marion Nicholson

N. Berwick

1590


Marion Paterson

N. Berwick

1590


Marion Richart

Orkney

1633


Marion Scheill (Shaw)

N. Berwick

1590


Marion Stein

Queensferry

1644


Marrion Thomson

Crook of Devon

1662


Marion Wod

Aberdeen

1597


Marion (Irish Marion)

N. Berwick

1590


Marjorie Dunbar

Auldearne

1662


Marjorie Man

Auldearne

1662


Marjorie Mutch

Aberdeen

1597


Marjorie Ritchie

Forfar

1661


Margery Sammon

St. Osyth

1582


Margery Stoakes

St. Osyth

1645


Marjorie Taylor

Auldearne

1662


Martha Semple

Bargarran

1697


Martin Tulouff

Guernsey

1563


Mary Barber

Northampton

1612


Mary Barnes

Conn.

1662


Marie Becquet

Guernsey

1617


Mary Bychance

St. Albans

1649


Marie Clouet

Guernsey

1631


Marie de Calais

Guernsey

1617


Marie de Calais

Guernsey

1631


Marie du Mont

Guernsey

1617


Marie Gauvein

Guernsey

1570


Mary Green

Somerset

1664


Mary Greenleife

Alresford, Essex

1645


Marie Guilbert

Guernsey

1639


Marie Guillemotte

Guernsey

1634


Mary Hunter

Northumberland

1673


Mary Johnson

Wyvenhoe, Essex

1645


Mary Johnson

Conn.

1647


Mary Lamen, Snr.

St. Albans

1649


Mary Lamen, Jnr.

St. Albans

1649


Marie Lamont

Innerkip

1662


Marie Mabille

Guernsey

1631


Marie Martin

Guernsey

1588


Marie McKaw

Bute

1662


Mary McNiven

Bute

1662


Marie Mortimer

Guernsey

1631


Marie More NcCuill

Bute

1662


Marie Paterson

N. Berwick

1590


Mary Penny

Somerset

1664


Mary Phillips

Northampton

1705


Mary Read

Lenham

1652


Marie Roland

Guernsey

1601


Marie Roland

Guernsey

1634


Mary Rynd

Forfar

1661


Mary Sanford

Conn.

1662


Marie Shuttleworth

Lancs

1613


Mary Sikes

Yorks

1649


Marie Sohier

Guernsey

1626


Marie Spencer

Lancs

1613


Marie Stewart

Bute

1662


Mary Trembles

Bideford

1682


Mary Warberton

Somerset

1665


Masie Aitchison

N. Berwick

1590


Mercy Disborough

Conn.

1692


Meslie Hirdall

Auldearne

1662


Michael Aynsley

Northumberland

1673


Michael Clark

N. Berwick

1590


Mildred Wright

Maidstone

1652


Nathaniel Greensmith

Conn.

1662


Nicholas Jennings

Conn.

1661


Patrick Lowrie

Ayrshire

1605


Patrick McKaw

Bute

1662


Patrik Watson

Dirlton

1649


Perine Marest

Guernsey

1622


Philipine le Parmentier

Guernsey

1617


Rachel King

Somerset

1665


Rebecca Greensmith

Conn.

1662


Rebecca Jones

St. Osyth

1645


Rebecca Weste

Lawford, Essex

1645


Richard Dickes

Somerset

1665


Richard Graham

Edinburgh

1590


Richard Larmen

Somerset

1665


Robert Griersoun

N. Berwick

1590


Robert Grieve

Lauder

1649


Robert Wilkinson

Lancs

1613


Robert Wilson

Crook of Devon

1662


Rose Cullender

Bury

1664


Rose Hallybread

St. Osyth

1645


Sarah Barton

Harwich

1645


Sarah Cooper

Essex

1645


Sarah Hating

Ramsey, Essex

1645


Sarah Smith

St. Albans

1649


Susan Cock

St. Osyth

1645


Susanna Edwards

Bideford

1682


Susanne Prudhomme

Guernsey

1629


Susanne Rouanne

Guernsey

1631


Temperance Lloyd

Bideford

1682


Thomas Bolster

Somerset

1665


Thomas Burnhill

N. Berwick

1590


Thomas Durning

Somerset

1665


Thomas Leyis

Aberdeen

1597


Thomas Weir

Edinburgh

1670


Thomasse de Calais

Guernsey

1617


Thomazine Ratcliffe

Suffolk

1645


Thomasse Salmon

Guernsey

1570


Thomasine Watson

Northumberland

1673


Ursley Kemp

St. Osyth

1582


Vyolett Leyis

Aberdeen

1597


Walter Ledy

Auldearne

1662


William Ayres

Conn.

1662


William Barton

Queensferry

1655


William Berry

Rutland

1619


William Coke

Kirkcaldy

1636


William Craw

Borrowstowness

1679


William Wright

Northumberland

1673




The Witch-Cult in Western Europe, by Margaret Alice Murray, [1921], at sacred-texts.com



APPENDIX IV
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: The Witch-Cult in Western Europe, by Margaret Alice Murray, [1921], at sacred-texts.com   Mar 13 Ott 2009 - 17:03

JOAN OF ARC AND GILLES DE RAIS

THESE two personages-so closely connected in life and dying similar deaths, yet as the poles asunder in character-have been minutely studied from the historical and medical. points of view, and in the case of Joan from the religious standpoint also. But hitherto the anthropological aspect has been disregarded. This is largely due to the fact that these intensive studies have been made of each person separately, whereas to obtain the true perspective the two should be taken together. This individual treatment is probably owing to the wide divergence of the two characters; the simplicity and purity of the one is in marked contrast with the repulsive attributes of the other. Yet anthropologically speaking the tie between the two is as strongly marked as the contrast of character.

The case of Joan is easily studied, as the documents are accessible.[1] Anatole France has realized that behind Joan there lay some unseen power, which Charles VII feared and from which he unwillingly accepted help. M. France sees in this power a party in the Church, and in his eyes the Church was a house divided against itself. Though agreeing with the view that Joan was the rallying-point of a great and powerful organization, I see in that organization the underlying religion which permeated the lower orders of the people in France as in England; that religion which I have set forth in the foregoing chapters. The men-at-arms, drawn from the lower orders, followed without hesitation one whom they believed to have been sent by their God, while the whole army was commanded by Marshal Gilles de Rais, who apparently tried to belong to both religions at once.



1. Joan of Arc

The questions asked by the judges at Joan's trial show that they were well aware of an underlying organization of which they stood in some dread. The judges were ecclesiastics, and the accusation against the prisoner was on points of Christian faith and doctrine and ecclesiastical observance. It was the first great trial of strength between the old and the new religions, and the political conditions gave the victory to the new, which was triumphant accordingly. 'We have caught her now', said the Bishop of Beauvais, and she was burned without even the formality of handing her over to the secular authorities. After the execution, the judges and counsellors who had sat in judgement on Joan received letters of indemnity from the Great Council; the Chancellor of England sent letters to the Emperor, to the kings and princes of Christendom, to all the nobles and towns of France, explaining that King Henry and his Counsellors had put Joan to death through zeal for the Christian Faith and the University of Paris sent similar letters to the Pope, the Emperor, and

[1. It is advisable to read the trial in the original Latin and French, as the translations have often a Christian bias, e.g. 'the King of Heaven' being rendered as 'our Lord' ' and 'my Lord' as 'our Saviour'. This is not merely inaccurate but actually misleading.]

the College of Cardinals. Such action can hardly be explained had Joan been an ordinary heretic or an ordinary political prisoner. But if she were in the eyes of the great mass of the population not merely a religious leader but actually the incarnate God, then it was only natural for the authorities who had compassed her death, to shelter themselves behind the bulwark of their zeal for the Christian religion, and to explain to the heads of that religion their reasons for the execution. On the other hand, the belief that Joan was God Incarnate will account, as nothing else can, for the extraordinary supineness of the French, who never lifted a finger to ransom or rescue Joan from the hands of either the Burgundians or the English. As God himself or his voluntary substitute she was doomed to suffer as the sacrifice for the people, and no one of those people could attempt to save her.

In comparing the facts elicited at the trial with the Dianic Cult as set out in the previous chapters, the coincidences are too numerous to be merely accidental. I do not propose to enter into a detailed discussion of the trial, I only wish to draw attention to a few points in this connexion.

The questions put to Joan on the subject of fairies appear to the modern reader to be entirely irrelevant, though much importance was evidently attached to her answers by the Court. She could not disprove, though she denied, the popular rumour that 'Joan received her mission at the tree of the Fairy-ladies' (Iohanna ceperat factum suum apud arborem Dominarum Fatalium), and she was finally forced to admit that she had first met the 'Voices' near that spot. Connexion with the fairies was as damning in the eyes of the Bishop of Beauvais and his colleagues as it was later in the eyes of the judges who tried John Walsh and Aleson Peirson.

The names of Christian saints, given to the persons whom Joan called her 'Voices', have misled modern writers; but the questions showered upon her show that the judges had shrewd suspicions as to the identity of these persons. That the 'Voices' were human beings is very clear from Joan's own testimony: 'Those of my party know well that the Voice had been sent to me from God, they have seen and known this Voice. My king and many others have also heard and seen the Voices which came to me. . . . I saw him [St. Michael] with my bodily eyes as well as I see you.' She refused to describe I St. Michael'; and bearing in mind some of the descriptions of the Devil in later trials, it is interesting to find that when the judges put the direct question to her as to whether I St. Michael' came to her naked, she did not give a direct answer. Later the following dialogue took place If the devil were to put himself in the form or likeness an angel, how would you know if it were a good or an evil angel?' asked the judges. Again Joan's reply was not direct: 'I should know quite well if it were St. Michael or a counterfeit.' She then stated that she had seen him many times before she knew him to be St. Michael; when a child she had seen him and had been afraid at first. Pressed for a description, she said he came ' in the form of a true honest man' [tres vray preudomme, forma unius verissimi probi hominis].[1] The accounts of the trial prove that Joan continually received advice from the 'saints'. The person whom she called 'St. Katherine' was obviously in the castle and able to communicate with the prisoner; this was not difficult, for the evidence shows that there was a concealed opening between Joan's room and the next. It was in the adjoining room, close to the opening, that the notaries sat to take down Joan's words when the spy Loyseleur engaged her in conversation; and it was evidently through this opening that 'St. Katherine' spoke when she awoke Joan 'without touching her', and again when Joan could not hear distinctly what she said 'on account of the noise in the castle'. A remark of Joan's that 'she often saw them [the Voices] among the Christians, they themselves unseen', is noteworthy for the use of the word Christian, suggesting that the 'Voices' were of a different religion. The remark should also be compared with the account given by Bessie Dunlop as to her recognizing Thom Reid when those about him did not know him; and with the statement by Danaeus that I among a great company of men, the Sorcerer only knoweth Satan, that is present, when other doo not know him, although they see another man, but who or what he is they know not'.

The points of mortal sin, of which Joan finally stood accused, were the following: 1, The attack on Paris on a feast day; 2, taking the Horse of the Bishop of Senlis; 3, leaping from the tower of Beaurevoir; 4, wearing male costume; 5, consenting to the death of Franquet d'Arras at Lagny.

Of these the most surprising to modern ideas is the one referring to costume, yet it was on this that the judges laid most stress. Even the severest of sumptuary laws has never made the wearing of male dress by a woman a capital crime; yet, though Joan had recanted and had been received into the Church, the moment that she put on male attire she was doomed on that account only. Whether she

[1. Compare Bessie Dunlop's more homely description of Thom Reid. An honest wele elderlie man.']

donned it by accident, by treachery, by force, or out of bravado, tile extraordinary fact remains that the mere resuming of male garments was the signal for her death without further trial. On the Sunday she wore the dress, on the Monday she was condemned, on the Tuesday the sentence was communicated to her, on the Wednesday she was burned, as an 'idolator, apostate, heretic, relapsed'. If, as I suppose, she were a member of the Dianic Cult, the wearing of male attire must have been, for her, an outward sign of that faith, and the resuming of it indicated the relapse; the inscription on the high cap, which she wore at her execution, shows that the judges at least held this opinion. Throughout the trial questions were poured upon her as to her reasons for wearing the dress, and she acknowledged that she wore it, not by the advice of a human man [per consilium hominis mundi] . . . 'Totum quod feci est per praeceptum Domimi, et si aliam praeciperet assumere ego assumerem, postquam hoc esset per praeceptum Dei.' Asked if she thought she would have been committing mortal sin by wearing women's clothes, she answered that she did better in obeying and serving her supreme Lord, who is God. She refused to wear women's dress except by command of God: 'I would rather die than revoke what God has made me do.'

On her letters were placed sometimes the words Jhesus Maria or a cross. 'Sometimes I put a cross as a sign for those of my party to whom I wrote so that they should not do as the letters said.' Though the mark was merely a code-signal to the recipient of the letter, it seems hardly probable that a Christian of that date would have used the symbol of the Faith for such a purpose. She also consistently refused to take an oath on the Gospels, and was with difficulty persuaded to do so on the Missal. When she was asked whether she had ever blasphemed [blasphemaverit] God, she replied that she had never cursed the Saints [maledixit Sanctum vel Sanctam]. When pressed whether she had not denied [denegaverit] God, she again refused a direct answer, saying that she had not denied the Saints [denegaverit Sanctum nec Sanctam].

The general feeling towards her among the Christian priesthood is shown by the action of Brother Richard. When he first entered her presence 'he made the sign of the cross and sprinkled holy water, and I said to him, Approach boldly, I shall not fly away.'

Another point to be noted is her answer that she learned the Paternoster, Ave Maria, and Credo from her mother, thus proving that she was not of a witch-family. According to Reginald Scot it was sufficient evidence to condemn a woman to death as a witch if her mother had been a witch before her. At the same time, however, Joan refused to say the Paternoster except in confession, when the priest's lips would have been sealed if she had proved herself not to be a Christian. She was very urgent to confess to the Bishop of, Beauvais, but he was too wary to be caught.

She first heard the 'Voices' at the age of thirteen, the usual time for the Devil and the witch to make 'paction'. One of her followers, Pierronne, was burnt as a witch, avowing to the last that she had spoken with God as friend with friend, and describing the costume of her Deity with a detail which shows the reality of the occurrence. If also there is any weight to be attached to certain names--as seems likely after studying the lists given above--then we have in this history four of the chief witch-names; Joan, the daughter of Isabel, and the two saints Katherine and Margaret. These coincidences may be small, but there are too many of them to be ignored.

There is evidence from Joan's own words that she felt herself divine and also that she knew her time was limited, but she never realized till the last that th end meant death; this, however, the 'Voices' knew and it was for this that they were preparing her. At the beginning of the trial, 'she said she had come from God, and had nothing to do here, asking to be sent back to God from whom she came [dixit quod venit ex parte Dei, et non habet quid negotiari quidquam, petens ut remitteretur ad Deum a quo venerat]. 'Many times she said to him [the King], I shall live a year, barely longer. During that year let as much as possible be done.' The 'Voices' told her she would be taken before the feast of St. John, and that thus it must be, and that she must not be troubled but accept willingly and God would help her. They also said it was necessary for her to be captured: 'Receive all willingly, care not for thy martyrdom, thou shalt come at last to the kingdom of paradise.' On the fatal Tuesday when she learned her doom, flesh and spirit quailed at the prospect of the agony to come, and she cried out that her 'Voices' had deceived her, for she had thought that in her imprisonment she had already suffered the promised martyrdom. Yet within twenty-four hours she went to the stake with courage unquenched, acknowledging that her 'Voices' were from God. Like John Fian nearly two centuries later, her spirit had sunk at first, and again like Fian she endured to the end, dying a martyr to the God who had exploited her confidence and simplicity and whom she had served so well. To her de Lancre's words might well apply, 'The witches are so devoted to his service that neither torture nor death can affright them, and they go to martyrdom and to death for love of him as gaily as to a festival of pleasure and public rejoicing.'

The ashes were collected and thrown into running water; a common rite, in religions of the Lower Culture, after the sacrifice of the Incarnate God. It is also worth noting that Rouen was one of the French cities in which there was still a living tradition of human sacrifice.



2. Gilles de Rais

Like Joan of Arc, Gilles de Rais was tried and executed as a witch and in the same way, much that is mysterious in this trial can also be explained by the Dianic Cult.

On the mother's side he descended from Tiphaine de Champtoce, and on the father's from Tiphaine de Husson; this latter was the niece of Bertrand du Guesclin, and called after du Guesclin's wife, who was a fairy woman.[1] The name Tiphaine appears to come from the same root as Fein, Finn, and Fian, all of which meant 'fairy' in Great Britain, and probably in Brittany as well. There is therefore a strong suggestion of a strain of fairy blood, and with that blood there may also have descended to Gilles many of the beliefs and customs of the dwarf race.

The bond between Gilles and Joan was a very close one. She obtained permission from the King to choose whom she would for her escort; her choice at once fell on Gilles, for she would naturally prefer those of her own faith. He held already a high command in the relieving, force, and added the protection of Joan as a special part of his duties. Later on, even after he had reached the high position of Marshal of France, he still continued those duties, remaining with her all day when she was wounded at the assault on Paris. It is an interesting point also that Charles VII granted permission to both these great leaders to bear the royal arms on their escutcheons. It seems incredible that a soldier of Gilles's character and standing should have made no move to rescue Joan by ransom or by force, when she was captured. She was not only a comrade, she was especially under his protection, and it is natural for us to think that his honour was involved. But if he regarded her as the destined victim, chosen and set apart for death, as required by the religion to which both he and she belonged, he could do nothing but remain inactive and let her fate be consummated. If this is so, then the 'Mystery of Orleans ', of which he was the author, would be a religious play of the same class as the mystery-plays of the Christians.

The extraordinary prodigality and extravagance of Gilles may have been due, as is usually suggested, to profligacy or to madness, but it may equally well have been that he took seriously the belief that as the Incarnate God--or at any rate as a candidate for that honour--he must give to all who asked. He rode a black horse, as also did Joan and the 'Devils' of later centuries; and on two separate occasions he attempted to enter into a compact with the 'Devil'. He could not decide to which religion he would belong, the old or the new, and his life was one long struggle. The old religion demanded human sacrifices and he gave them, the new religion regarded murder as mortal sin and he tried to offer expiation; openly he had Christian masses and prayers celebrated with the utmost pomp, secretly he followed the ancient cult; when he was about to remove the bodies of the human victims from the castle of Champtoce, he swore his accomplices to secrecy by the binding oaths of both religions; on the other hand members of the old faith, whom he consulted when in trouble, warned him that as long as he professed Christianity and practised its rites they could do nothing for him.

An infringement of the rights of the Church brought him under the ecclesiastical law, and the Church was not slow to take advantage of the position. Had he chosen to resist, his exalted position would have protected him, but he preferred to yield, and like Joan he stood his trial on the charge of heresy. The trial did not take long; he was arrested on September 14, and executed on October 26. With him were arrested eight others, of whom two were executed with him. Seeing that thirteen was always the number of witches in a Coven, it is surely more than an accidental coincidence that nine men and women, including Gilles, were arrested, two saved themselves by flight, and two more who had played a large part in the celebration of the rites of the old religion were already dead. Thus even as early as the middle of the fifteenth century the Coven of thirteen was in existence.

Gilles was charged with heresy before a Court composed of ecclesiastics only, and like Joan he was willing to be tried for his faith. He announced that he had always been a Christian, which may be taken to mean that there was some doubt as to whether he was not a heathen. He suddenly gave way to a curious outburst against the authority of the Court, saying that he would rather be hanged by the neck with a lace than submit to them as judges. This can only be understood by comparing his reference to 'hanging with a lace' with the method by which Playfair in 1597 (p. 204) John Stewart in 1618 (p. 202), and John Reid in 1697 (p. 203), met their deaths.

The sudden change of front in this haughty noble may be accounted for by the excommunication which was decreed against him, but this explains neither his passionate haste to confess all, and more than all, of which he was accused, nor his earnest and eager desire to die. How much of his confession was true cannot be determined now, but it is very evident that he was resolved to make his own death certain. His action in this may be compared with that of Major Weir in 1670, who also was executed on his own voluntary confession of witchcraft and crime. Gilles's last words, though couched in Christian phraseology, show that he had not realized the enormity of the crimes which he confessed: 'We have sinned, all three of us', he said to his two companions, 'but as soon as our souls have left our bodies we shall all see God in His glory in Paradise.' He was hanged on a gibbet above a pyre, but when the fire burned through the rope the body was snatched from the flames by several ladies of his family, who prepared it for burial with their own hands, and it was then interred
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in the Carmelite church close by. His two associates were also hanged, their bodies being burned and the ashes scattered.

On the spot where Gilles was executed his daughter erected a monument, to which came all nursing mothers to pray for an abundance of milk. Here again is a strong suggestion that he was regarded as the Incarnate God of fertility. Another suggestive fact is the length of time-nine years-which elapsed between the death of Joan and the death of Gilles. This is a usual interval when the Incarnate God is given a time-limit.

It required twenty-five years before an action of rehabilitation could be taken for Joan. In the case of Gilles, two years after the execution the King granted letters of rehabilitation for that 'the said Gilles, unduly and without cause, was condemned and put to death'.

An intensive study of this period might reveal the witch organization at the royal Court and possibly even the Grand-master to whom Joan owed allegiance, the 'God' who sent her. Giac, the King's favourite, was executed as a witch, and Joan's beau duc, the Duke d'Alencon, was also of the fraternity.


The Witch-Cult in Western Europe, by Margaret Alice Murray, [1921], at sacred-texts.com



APPENDIX V



FLYING OINTMENTS

IMPORTANT NOTE



WARNING: As noted in the text, several of the ingredients listed here are DEADLY POISONS.
Some of these ingredients can KILL YOU simply through SKIN CONTACT.
DO NOT TRY THIS.--JBH.

Here is a quote from an interview with Sharon Devlin, an experienced wiccan herbalist, from the book Drawing Down the Moon by Margot Adler:

"One day I decided to make a flying ointment. I was doing it in front of a student who I wanted to impress. Well, I made it about a thousand-fold stronger than I should have because I was using denatured alcohol instead of sprits of wine to extract it, which is what they did in the old days. And instead of lard I was using hydrophilic ointment. As a result I increased the potency about two hundred to three hundred percent, and I got enough under my fingernails just by mixing it to kill me. And I would have died if it hadn't been for a friend of mine who was a doctor and a magician, whom I called immediately. I learned a very heavy lesson. It was my first heavy experience with death, and a lot of bullshit pride went down the toilet with the rest of the flying ointment."

THE three formulae for the 'flying' ointment used by witches are as follows:

1. Du persil, de l'eau de l'Aconite, des feuilles de Peuple, et de la suye.

2. De la Berle, de l'Acorum vulgaire, de la Quintefeuille, du sang de chauuesouris, de la Morelle endormante, et de l'huyle.

3. De graisse d'enfant, de suc d'Ache, d'Aconite, de Quintefeuille, de Morelle, et de suye.

These formulae may be translated as follows -

1. Parsley, water of aconite, poplar leaves, and soot.

2. Water parsnip, sweet flag, cinquefoil, bat's blood, deadly night. shade, and oil.

3. Baby's fat, juice of water parsnip, aconite, cinquefoil, deadly nightshade, and soot.

These prescriptions show that the society of witches had a very creditable knowledge of the art of poisoning: aconite and deadly nightshade or belladonna are two of the three most poisonous plants growing freely in Europe, the third is hemlock, and in all probability 'persil' refers to hemlock and not to the harmless parsley, which it resembles closely.

The other ingredients have no marked toxic action, unless 'berle' and 'ache' refer not to the harmless water parsnip but to the poisonous water hemlock or cowbane. The baby's fat and bat's blood would of course have no action.

Aconite was one of the best-known poisons in ancient times; indeed it was so extensively used by professional poisoners in Rome during the Empire that a law was passed making its cultivation a capital offence. Aconite root contains about 0.4 percent of alkaloid and one-fifteenth of a grain of the alkaloid is a lethal dose. The drug has little effect upon the consciousness, but produces slowing, irregularity, and finally arrest of the heart.

The use of belladonna as a poison was also known in classical times; fourteen of the berries have been known to produce death; a moderate dose will produce wild excitement and delirium.

Hemlock is also a well-known and ancient poison; the fruit may contain as much as 0.9 per cent. of alkaloid, and 1/4 grain of the alkaloid may produce death. The action of hemlock usually is to produce a gradual motor paralysis, consciousness being unimpaired, and death being caused by paralysis of respiration, but sometimes hemlock may produce delirium and excitement.

There is no doubt, therefore, about the efficacy of these prescriptions and their ability to produce physiological effects. They were administered by being rubbed into the skin, which is not an efficient way of introducing most drugs into the body, indeed some have denied that alkaloids can be absorbed from the unbroken skin; but there is no doubt that alkaloids can be absorbed when rubbed into scratches or into the quick of the nails, and it must be remembered that an unbroken skin is only possessed by those who are free from vermin and who wash regularly, and neither of these conditions would be likely to apply to a mediaeval witch. Cases of poisoning associated with delirium have actually been recorded following the application of belladonna plasters to the skin.

Of the three prescriptions the first is a watery solution and would not be very efficacious when rubbed into the skin, but the second and third are ointments, and if they were rubbed into the skin in sufficient quantities definite physiological results would be produced.

The first preparation, which contains hemlock and aconite, would produce mental confusion, impaired movement, irregular action of the heart, dizziness and shortness of breath.

The belladonna in the second ointment would produce excitement which might pass into delirium.

The third ointment, containing both aconite and belladonna, would produce excitement and irregular action of the heart.

I cannot say whether any of these drugs would produce the impression of flying, but I consider the use of aconite interesting in this respect. Irregular action of the heart in a person falling asleep produces the well-known sensation of suddenly falling through space, and it seems quite possible that the combination of a delirifacient like belladonna with a drug producing irregular action of the heart like aconite might produce the sensation of flying.

A. J. CLARK.


The Witch-Cult in Western Europe, by Margaret Alice Murray, [1921], at sacred-texts.com



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The Witch-Cult in Western Europe, by Margaret Alice Murray, [1921], at sacred-texts.com



ADDENDUM



1324 Kilkenny, Ireland.

[This is the earliest record to give the names of all those who took part in the ceremonies. Two of the poorer women were burned; Dame Alice Kyteler returned to England; William Outlaw, her son, was imprisoned for a time. Nothing is known of the fate of the rest.]

1. Alice Kyteler
2. Alice, wife of Henry the Smith
3. Annota Lange
4. Eva de Brounstoun
5. Helena Galrussyn
6. John Galrussyn
7. Petronilla de Meath
8. Robert de Bristol
9. Robin, son of Artis (the Devil)
10. Sarah, daughter of Petronilla
11. Sysok Galrussyn
12. William Payn of Boly
13. William Outlaw.
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