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MessaggioOggetto: Lucid Dream - Sogni Lucidi   Gio 24 Dic 2009 - 9:22

FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucid_dream


Lucid dream
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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For the song by Franz Ferdinand, see Lucid Dreams.

Hypnos and Thanatos, Sleep and His Half-Brother Death by John William WaterhouseA lucid dream is a dream in which the sleeper is aware that he or she is dreaming. When the dreamer is lucid, he or she can actively participate in and often manipulate the imaginary experiences in the dream environment. Lucid dreams can seem extremely real and vivid depending on a person's level of self-awareness during the lucid dream.[1]

The term was coined by the Dutch Psychiatrist and writer Frederik van Eeden (1860-1932).[2]

A lucid dream can begin in one of three ways. A dream-initiated lucid dream (DILD) starts as a normal dream, and the dreamer eventually concludes that he or she is dreaming, while a wake-initiated lucid dream (WILD) occurs when the dreamer goes from a normal waking state directly into a dream state with no apparent lapse in consciousness. A mnemonic-initiated lucid dream (MILD) can happen when the dreamer intentionally affirms to himself or herself that he or she will become lucid during the upcoming sleep. Reaching lucidity can sometimes occur due to dream-signs or spontaneously upon remembrance.

Lucid dreaming has been researched scientifically, and its existence is well established.[3][4] Scientists such as Allan Hobson, with his neurophysiological approach to dream research, have helped to push the understanding of lucid dreaming into a less speculative realm.


Scientific history
The first book to recognize the scientific potential of lucid dreams was Celia Green's 1968 study Lucid Dreams.[5] Green analyzed the main characteristics of such dreams. She reviewed previously published literature on the subject, and incorporated new data from subjects of her own. She concluded that they were a category of experience quite distinct from ordinary dreams, and predicted that they would turn out to be associated with rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep). Green was also the first to link lucid dreams to the phenomenon of false awakenings.

In the early 1970s, Daniel Oldis of the University of South Dakota leveraged the scientific principle of external sensory incorporation in an attempt to influence dream content and evoke lucidity. Three psychological techniques were employed: subconscious suggestion using a tape played before and during sleep; associative signaling using a muffled bell alarm timed to go off during REM sleep; and classical conditioning using a REM detection circuit and a bright eye-light. The results indicated that lucid dreaming can be facilitated using external cues and psychological methods.[6]

Philosopher Norman Malcolm's 1959 text Dreaming[7] had argued against the possibility of checking the accuracy of dream reports. However, the realization that eye movements performed in dreams affected the dreamer's physical eyes provided a way to prove that actions agreed upon during waking life could be recalled and performed once lucid in a dream. The first evidence of this type was produced in the late 1970s by British parapsychologist Keith Hearne. A volunteer named Alan Worsley used eye movement to signal the onset of lucidity, which were recorded by a polysomnograph machine.

Hearne's results were not widely distributed. The first peer-reviewed article was published some years later by Stephen LaBerge at Stanford University, who had independently developed a similar technique as part of his doctoral dissertation.[8] During the 1980s, further scientific evidence to confirm the existence of lucid dreaming was produced as lucid dreamers were able to demonstrate to researchers that they were consciously aware of being in a dream state (again, primarily using eye movement signals).[9] Additionally, techniques were developed which have been experimentally proven to enhance the likelihood of achieving this state.[10] Research on techniques and effects of lucid dreaming continues at a number of universities and other centers, including LaBerge's Lucidity Institute.

[edit] Research and clinical applications
[edit] Neurobiological model
Neuroscientist J. Allan Hobson has hypothesized what might be occurring in the brain while lucid. The first step to lucid dreaming is recognizing that one is dreaming. This recognition might occur in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which is one of the few areas deactivated during REM sleep and where non sleeping memory occurs. Once this area is activated and the recognition of dreaming occurs, the dreamer must be cautious to let the dream delusions continue but be conscious enough to recognize them. This process might be seen as the balance between reason and emotion. While maintaining this balance, the amygdala and parahippocampal cortex might be less intensely activated.[11] To continue the intensity of the dream hallucinations, it is expected the pons and the parieto-occipital junction stay active.[12]

[edit] Treatment for nightmares
It has been suggested that people who suffer from nightmares could benefit from the ability to be aware they are indeed dreaming. A pilot study was performed in 2006 that showed that lucid dreaming treatment was successful in reducing nightmare frequency. This treatment consisted of exposure to the idea, mastery of the technique, and lucidity exercises. It was not clear what aspects of the treatment were responsible for the success of overcoming nightmares, though the treatment as a whole was successful.[13]

Australian psychologist Milan Colic has explored the application of principles from narrative therapy with clients' lucid dreams, to reduce the impact not only of nightmares during sleep, but also depression, self-mutilation, and other problems in waking life. Colic found that clients' preferred direction for their lives, as identified during therapeutic conversations, could lessen the distressing content of dreams, while understandings about life—and even characters—from lucid dreams could be invoked in "real" life with marked therapeutic benefits.[14]

[edit] Perception of time
The rate at which time passes while lucid dreaming has been shown to be about the same as while waking. However, a 1995 study in Germany indicated that lucid dreaming can also have varied time spans, in which the dreamer can control the length. The study took place during sleep and upon awakening, and required the participants to record their dreams in a log and how long the dreams lasted. In 1985, LaBerge performed a pilot study where lucid dreamers counted out ten seconds while dreaming, signaling the end of counting with a pre-arranged eye signal measured with electrooculogram recording.[15] LaBerge's results were confirmed by German researchers in 2004. The German study, by D. Erlacher and M. Schredl, also studied motor activity and found that deep knee bends took 44% longer to perform while lucid dreaming.[16]

[edit] Awareness and reasoning
While dream control and dream awareness are correlated, neither requires the other—LaBerge has found dreams which exhibit one clearly without the capacity for the other; also, in some dreams where the dreamer is lucid and aware they could exercise control, they choose simply to observe.[17] A 1992 study examining four forms of lucidity (knowing that dreamt people are indeed dreamt, that objects won't persist beyond waking, that physical laws need not apply, and having clear memory of the waking world) found less than a quarter of lucidity accounts exhibited all four, with scores increasing with experience.[18]

[edit] Near-death and out-of-body experiences
In a study of fourteen lucid dreamers performed in 1991, people who perform wake-initiated lucid dreams operation (WILD) reported experiences consistent with aspects of out-of-body experiences such as floating above their beds and the feeling of leaving their bodies.[19] Due to the phenomenological overlap between lucid dreams, near death experiences, and out-of-body experiences, researchers say they believe a protocol could be developed to induce a lucid dream similar to a near-death experience in the laboratory.[20]

[edit] Cultural history
Even though it has only come to the attention of the general public in the last few decades, lucid dreaming is not a modern discovery. A letter written by St. Augustine of Hippo in 415 AD refers to lucid dreaming.[21] In the eighth century, Tibetan Buddhists and Bonpo were practicing a form of Dream Yoga held to maintain full waking consciousness while in the dream state.[22] This system is extensively discussed and explained in the book Dream Yoga and the Practice of Natural Light.[23] One of the important messages of the book is the distinction between the Dzogchen meditation of Awareness and Dream Yoga. The Dzogchen Awareness meditation has also been referred to by the terms Rigpa Awareness, Contemplation, and Presence. Awareness during the sleep and dream states is associated with the Dzogchen practice of natural light. This practice only achieves lucid dreams as a secondary effect—in contrast to Dream yoga which is aimed primarily at lucid dreaming. According to Buddhist teachers, the experience of lucidity helps us to understand the unreality of phenomena, which would otherwise be overwhelming during dream or the death experience.

An early recorded lucid dreamer was the philosopher and physician Sir Thomas Browne (1605–1682). Browne was fascinated by the world of dreams and stated of his own ability to lucid dream in his Religio Medici: "... yet in one dream I can compose a whole Comedy, behold the action, apprehend the jests and laugh my self awake at the conceits thereof;".[24] Similarly, Samuel Pepys in his diary entry for 15 August 1665 records a dream "that I had my Lady Castlemayne in my arms and was admitted to use all the dalliance I desired with her, and then dreamt that this could not be awake, but that it was only a dream". Marquis d'Hervey de Saint-Denys was probably the first person to argue that it is possible for anyone to learn to dream consciously. In 1867, he published his book Les Reves et les moyens de les diriger; observations pratiques (Dreams and How to Guide them; Practical Observations), in which he documented more than twenty years of his own research into dreams.

The term lucid dreaming was coined by Dutch author and psychiatrist Frederik van Eeden in his 1913 article "A Study of Dreams".[2] This paper was highly anecdotal and not embraced by the scientific community. Some consider this a misnomer because it means much more than just "clear or vivid" dreaming.[25] The alternative term conscious dreaming avoids this confusion. However, the term lucid was used by van Eeden in its sense of "having insight", as in the phrase a lucid interval applied to someone in temporary remission from a psychosis, rather than as a reference to the perceptual quality of the experience which may or may not be clear and vivid.

In the 1950s, the Senoi hunter-gatherers of Malaysia were reported to make extensive use of lucid dreaming to ensure mental health, although later studies refuted these claims.[26]

The anthropologic studies in 1968 by Carlos Castaneda, for what later became the new age novel, The Teachings of Don Juan, reveals that ancient Mexican natives knew about and encouraged lucid dreaming.

[edit] Induction methods
Many people report having experienced a lucid dream during their lives, often in childhood. Children seem to have lucid dreams more easily than adults. Over time, several techniques have been developed to achieve a lucid dreaming state intentionally. The following are common factors that influence lucid dreaming and techniques that people use to help achieve a lucid dream:

[edit] Dream recall
Dream recall is simply the ability to remember dreams. Good dream recall is often described as the first step towards lucid dreaming. Better recall increases awareness of dreams in general; with limited dream recall, any lucid dreams one has can be forgotten entirely. To improve dream recall, some people keep a dream journal, writing down any dreams remembered the moment one awakes. An audio recorder can also be very helpful.[27] It is important to record the dreams as quickly as possible as there is a strong tendency to forget what one has dreamt.[28] For best recall, the waking dreamer should keep eyes closed while trying to remember the dream, and that one's dream journal be recorded in the present tense.[27] Describing an experience as if still in it can help the writer to recall more accurately the events of their dream.[citation needed] Dream recall can also be improved by staying still after waking up.[28] This may have something to do with REM atonia (the condition of REM sleep in which the motor neurons are not stimulated and thus the body's muscles do not move). If one purposely prevents motor neurons from firing immediately after waking from a dream, recalling the dream becomes easier. Similarly, if the dreamer changes positions in the night, they may be able to recall certain events of their dream by testing different sleeping positions.[citation needed] Another easy technique to help improve dream recall is to simply repeat (in thoughts or out loud) "I will remember my dreams," before falling asleep. Stephen LaBerge recommends that you remember at least one dream per night before attempting any induction methods.

[edit] Mnemonic induction of lucid dreams operation (MILD)
The MILD technique is a common technique developed by Stephen LaBerge used to induce a lucid dream at will by setting an intention, while falling asleep, to remember to recognize that one is dreaming or to remember to look for dream signs when one is in a dream.

One easy-to-apply method is to count yours or other people's fingers during the day, making sure it is done diligently and reaches the expected number. If this is done frequently when awake, similar behavior may continue into the dream, where by some discrepancy from reality, the dreamer would realize he or she is dreaming and the dream could become lucid.

Another method is to look at text (such as a digital clock, or a road sign), turn away, and then look back. If the person is dreaming, the text may change to something else. The dreamer would then realize he or she is dreaming and the dream could become lucid.

A third method is to pull out a purse or wallet, then attempt to count the money inside. Strange denominations of currency are often present during a dream, such as seven dollar bills rather than a five and two ones. The dreamer would know such denominations are not real and could become lucid. (This method is based on original unpublished research. credit Travis George)

A key element in MILD is reviewing in memory the dream from which one has just awoken. When a point is reached in the dream at which an obvious dream sign occurred (e.g., a man with two heads walks past) individuals performing this technique depart from actual memory and instead imagine they became aware they were dreaming. Upon returning to sleep, these individuals will often find themselves back in the same or similar dreams, sometimes even encountering similar dream signs—a situation that can improve the odds they will remember their intention to question whether or not they are dreaming, and thereby achieve lucidity.

[edit] Wake-back-to-bed (WBTB)
The wake-back-to-bed technique is often the easiest way to encourage a lucid dream. The method involves going to sleep and waking up five to six hours later, focusing all thoughts on lucid dreaming while staying awake for an hour, and going back to sleep while practicing the MILD method. This technique has had a 60% success rate in research.[29] This is because the REM cycles get longer as the night goes on, and this technique takes advantage of the best REM cycle of the night. Because this REM cycle is longer and deeper, gaining lucidity during this time may result in a lengthier lucid dream.[29]

[edit] Wake-initiation of lucid dreams (WILD)
The wake-initiated lucid dream "occurs when the sleeper enters REM sleep with unbroken self-awareness directly from the waking state".[30] There are many techniques aimed at entering a WILD. The key to these techniques is recognizing the hypnagogic stage, which is within the border of being awake and being asleep. If a person is successful in staying aware while this stage occurs, they will eventually enter the dream state while being fully aware that it is a dream.

There are key times at which this state is best entered; while success at normal bedtime after having been awake all day is very difficult, it is relatively easy after sleeping for 3–7 hours or in the afternoon during a nap. Techniques for inducing WILDs abound. Dreamers may count, envision themselves climbing or descending stairs, chant to themselves, control their breathing, count their breaths to keep their thoughts from drifting, concentrate on relaxing their body from their toes to their head, or allow images to flow through their "mind's eye" and envision themselves jumping into the image to maintain concentration and keep their mind awake, while still being calm enough to let their bodies sleep.

During the actual transition into the dream state, dreamers are likely to experience sleep paralysis, including rapid vibrations,[19] a sequence of loud sounds, and a feeling of twirling into another state of body awareness, or of "drifting off into another dimension", or like passing the interface between water into air, face front, body first, or the gradual sharpening and becoming "real" of images or scenes they are thinking of and trying to visualize gradually, which they can actually "see", instead of the indefinite sensations they feel when trying to imagine something while wide awake.

[edit] Cycle adjustment technique (CAT)
The cycle adjustment technique, developed by Daniel Love, is an effective way to induce lucid dreaming. It involves adjusting one's sleep cycle to encourage awareness during the latter part of the sleep. First, the person spends one week waking up 90 minutes before normal wake time until their sleep cycle begins to adjust. After this cycle adjustment phase, the normal wake times and early wake times alternate daily. On the days with the normal wake times, the body is ready to wake up, and this increases alertness, making lucidity more likely.

A variation on this method is WILD-CAT. Identical in virtually all respects to the original Cycle Adjustment Technique, differing only in such that on the days in which one is allowed to sleep-in (normal wake times), the subject wakes briefly at the earlier wake time then returns immediately to sleep until the normal wake time. This allows the subject to return to sleep in the hope of inducing a Wake Initiated Lucid Dream. One advantage to WILD-CAT is that it can be combined with other WILD induction methods. The WILD-CAT variation was also developed by Daniel Love.

[edit] Lucid Dream Supplements (LDS)
The Lucid Dream Supplement (LDS) technique was developed primarily by LaBerge with others following his lead. LaBerge filed for a patent application in December 2004 [31] that outlined the basic technique of boosting Acetylcholine levels to promote lucid dreaming. The application included misleading details however; such as repeated references of ingesting the supplements at bedtime. It is now known that taking the right balance of supplements after several hours of sleep is far more effective[citation needed]. LaBerge did not name the method nor has he publicly discussed his research. The term LDS was coined by researcher/practitioner Scot Stride[citation needed] who worked with a small group of pioneers, including Thomas Yuschak, to optimize the LDS approach. The LDS method uses primarily non-prescription supplements that are ingested to produce favorable conditions for the brain's neurotransmitters and receptor sites during REM sleep. By increasing or balancing the levels of Acetylcholine, Serotonin, Dopamine and Noradrenaline the person can significantly influence dream vividness, memory, clarity, awareness and mood. Enhancing these mental states during REM sleep significantly increases the odds of becoming lucid. The LDS technique can be combined with other techniques (like WBTB or WILD) to complement or amplify them to produce even better results. Thomas Yuschak describes the details of the technique in his book[32] and is widely credited with popularizing the method. Based on anecdotal accounts from various website forums, many people who have experienced difficulties with the other techniques, for whatever reason, are using LDS as an aid in overcoming their obstacles. Some people use LDS to jump start their LD practice and then move on to one of the other traditional methods. Other people use it recreationally to experience more memorable and vivid dreams than they normally would. As well as the Lucid Dream Supplement some have reported increase in dream vividness using other vitamin supplements such as B6/B12. Vitamin B5(pantothenic Acide) taken right before going to sleep will enhance vividness of dreams. Vitamin B6 will cause frightening dreams.[citation needed]

[edit] Lucid-dream–induction device (LDID)
Various tools have been brought to market to assist in the goal of having a lucid dream. The first widely distributed dream-induction device is the NovaDreamer, designed in 1993 by Craig Webb.[33] The general principle of all devices works by taking advantage of the natural phenomenon of incorporating external stimuli into one's dreams. Usually a device is worn while sleeping that can detect when the sleeper's eyes move rapidly and they have entered REM sleep and are likely dreaming. The device detects the movements and triggers a set of flashing lights that can be incorporated into a dream. For example, flashing lights from the device in your dream may be a flashing light in the sky or flashing headlights, and the dreamer can recognize them and enter a lucid state. The NOVADREAMER was discontinued in 2003 but the NOVADREAMER2 will be available late 2009.

[edit] Lucid dream mask models
The Lucidity Institute produced the original Dreamlight and NovaDreamer models which were originally on sale for over $1000 and $2450 respectively, the former being only produced in limited quantities due to the high price and complicated design. Funds raised from these devices were used to help fund further research by the Lucidity Institute. A similar device called the NovaDreamer II has been "coming soon" since at least 2004. A similar device known as the Dream Mask has also been produced. Some individuals have created their own devices using foam and simple electronics.[34]

[edit] Reality testing
Reality testing (or reality checking) is a common method used by people to determine whether or not they are dreaming. It involves performing an action and observing if the results are consistent with results which would be expected in a state of wakefulness. By practicing these tests during waking life, one may eventually decide to perform such a test while dreaming, which may fail and let the dreamer realize that they are dreaming.

The hand reality check: The dreamer looks at their hands and they may appear to have more or less than five fingers.
The nose reality check: The dreamer pinches their nose shut and if they are able to breathe without using their nose, it is a dream.[35]
Sticking one's finger through the palm of one's hand.[35]
Looking at one's digital watch (remembering the time), looking away, and looking back. As with text, the time will probably have changed randomly and radically at the second glance or contain strange letters and characters. (Analog watches do not usually change in dreams, while digital watches and clocks have a great tendency to do so.)[36] A digital watch or clock may feature strange characters or the numbers all out of order.
Flipping a light switch. Light levels rarely change as a result of the switch flipping in dreams.[37]
Looking into a mirror; in dreams, reflections from a mirror often appear to be blurred, distorted, incorrect, or frightening.[37]
Looking at the ground beneath one's feet or at one's hands. If one does this within a dream the difference in appearance of the ground or one's hands from the normal waking state is often enough to alert the conscious to the dream state.[38]
If you listen to music while you sleep, listen to see if the lyrics are changed or if the tempo (or speed) of the song changes.[citation needed]
A more precise form of reality testing involves examining the properties of dream objects to judge their apparent reality. Some lucid dreamers report that dream objects when examined closely have all the sensory properties, stability, and detail of objects in the physical world. Such detailed observation relates to whether mental objects and environments could effectively act as substitutes for the physical environments with the dreamer unable to see significant differences between the two. This has implications for those who claim there is a spiritual or supernatural world that might be accessible through out of body experience or after death.[citation needed]

[edit] Prolongation
One problem faced by people wishing to experience lucid dreams is awakening prematurely. This premature awakening can be frustrating after investing considerable time into achieving lucidity in the first place. Stephen LaBerge proposed two ways to prolong a lucid dream. The first technique involves spinning one's dream body. He proposed that when spinning, the dreamer is engaging parts of the brain that may also be involved in REM activity, helping to prolong REM sleep. The second technique is rubbing one's hands. This technique is intended to engage the dreamer's brain in producing the sensation of rubbing hands, preventing the sensation of lying in bed from creeping into awareness. LaBerge tested his hypothesis by asking 34 volunteers to either spin, rub their hands, or do nothing. Results showed 90% of dreams were prolonged by hand rubbing and 96% prolonged by spinning. Only 33% of lucid dreams were prolonged with taking no action.[39]

Once the initial barrier of lucidity is broken, the dreamer’s next obstacle is the excitement of being conscious within a dream. It is key that the dreamer immediately relax upon becoming lucid. There are many methods that work, but in general saturating any of the senses with stimuli from the dream is important. Vision is usually the first sense to fade away, with touch commonly being the last. If the dream starts to fade, grabbing hold of anything close by, making sure to feel the tactile sensation, can prevent the dream from fading. Other techniques include shouting in a loud and clear voice, “INCREASE LUCIDITY!” inside the dream. People are often reluctant to do this, but it significantly stabilizes the dream and increases its vividness. The well-known author, Carlos Castaneda, suggests that the dreamer touch their tongue to the roof of their mouth, an action that greatly increases the realness of the dream.[40]

The experience of losing lucidity and waking up has been described as similar to using a camera to unfocus on a distant object while refocusing on a much closer one. The distant object (the dream body) blurs out at first and eventually disappears completely as the closer object (the physical body) comes into focus. Using a different analogy to describe the transition, the mental or dream body image slowly evaporates like water on hot pavement, as the normal physical body image coalesces and takes its place.

[edit] Other associated phenomena
[edit] Rapid eye movement (REM)
When a person is dreaming, the eyes move rapidly up and down and vibrate. Scientific research has found that these eye movements correspond to the direction in which the dreamer is "looking" in his/her dreamscape; this has enabled trained lucid dreamers to communicate whilst dreaming to researchers by using eye movement signals.[15]


REM Sleep. EEG highlighted by red box. Eye movements highlighted by red line.[edit] False awakening
In a false awakening, one suddenly dreams of having been awakened. Commonly in a false awakening, the room is similar to the room in which the person fell asleep. If the person was lucid, they often believe that they are no longer dreaming and may start exiting the room and start going through a daily routine. This can be a nemesis in the art of lucid dreaming, because it usually causes people to give up their awareness of being in a dream, but it can also cause someone to become lucid if the person does a reality check whenever he/she awakens. People who keep a dream journal and write down their dreams upon awakening sometimes report having to write down the same dream multiple times because of this phenomenon. It has also been known to cause bed wetting as one may dream that they have awoken to go to the lavatory, but in reality are still dreaming. The makers of induction devices such as the NovaDreamer and the REM Dreamer recommend doing a reality check every time you awake so that when a false awakening occurs you will become lucid. People using these devices have most of their lucid dreams triggered through reality checks upon a false awakening.[41]

[edit] Sleep paralysis
During REM sleep the body paralyses itself as a protection mechanism in order to prevent the movements which occur in the dream from causing the physical body to move. However, it is possible for this mechanism to be triggered before, during, or after normal sleep while the brain awakens. This can lead to a state where a person is lying in his or her bed and they feel paralyzed. Hypnagogic hallucination may occur in this state, especially auditory ones. Effects of sleep paralysis include heaviness or inability to move the muscles, rushing or pulsating noises, and brief hypnogogic imagery. Experiencing sleep paralysis is a necessary part of WILD, in which the dreamer essentially detaches his "dream" body from the paralyzed one. Also see OBE or Out-Of-Body-Experience, opposing the scientific theory of these occurrences stating that the paralysis is actually an occurrence to one who is already "separated" from their physical body meaning that "physical action potentials" have no effect here but "mental actions" do - a hint given that those who are finding difficulty moving are using the wrong "mechanism".

[edit] Out-of-body experience
An out-of-body experience (OBE or sometimes OOBE) is an experience that typically involves a sensation of floating outside of one's body and, in some cases, perceiving one's physical body from a place outside one's body (autoscopy). About one in ten people think they have had an out-of-body experience at some time in their lives.[42] Scientists are starting to learn about the phenomenon.[43]

Wake-induced OBEs, including those intended to achieve Astral Projection, and waking induced lucid dreams cover such similar ground that common misinterpretation of one as the other (or even equivalence) can be hypothesized. Realistic-seeming yet physically impossible impressions of flying, time-traveling or walking through the walls of an environment matching one's bedroom are equally hallmarks of either. (As those who have experienced them will attest, neither "feels" like ordinary dreams at all.) Their induction techniques are similar, and both are easier to perform at times typical for afternoon naps and late morning REM cycles.

[edit] Rarity
During most dreams, sleepers are not aware that they are dreaming. The reason why this is the case has not been discovered, and does not appear to have an obvious answer. There have been attempts by various fields of psychology to provide an explanation. For example, some proponents of Depth psychology suggest that mental processes inhibit the critical evaluation of reality within dreams. [44]

Physiology suggests that “seeing is believing” to the brain during any mental state. This being said, if the brain actually believes something so much, it will actually believe that it is real. Even waking consciousness is liable to accept discontinuous or illogical experience as real if presented as such to the brain.[45] Dream consciousness is similar to that of a hallucinating awake subject. Dream or hallucinatory images triggered by the brain stem are considered to be real, even if fantastic.[46] The impulse to accept the evident is so strong the dreamer will often invent a memory or story to cover up an incongruous or unrealistic event in the dream. “That man has two heads!” is usually followed not with “I must be dreaming!” but with “Yes, I read in the paper about these famous Siamese twins.” Or other times there will be an explanation that, in the dream, makes sense and seems very logical, but when the dreamer awakes, he/she will realize that it is rather far fetched or even complete gibberish.[47]

Developmental psychology suggests that the dream world is not bizarre at all when viewed developmentally, since we were dreaming as children before we learned all of the physical and social laws that train the mind to a “reality.” Fluid imaginative constructions may have preceded the more rigid, logical waking rules and continue on as a normative lifeworld alongside the acquired, waking life world. Dreaming and waking consciousness differ only in their respective level of expectations, the waking “I” expecting a stricter set of “reality rules” as the child matures. The experience of “waking up” normally establishes the boundary between the two lifeworlds and cues the consciousness to adapt to waking “I” expectations. At times, however, this cue is false—a false awakening. Here the waking “I” (with its level of expectations) is activated even though the experience is still hallucinatory. Incongruous images or illogical events during this type of dream can result in lucidity as the dream is being judged by waking “standards.”[48]

Another theory presented by transpersonal psychology and some Eastern religions is that it is the individual's state of consciousness (or awareness) that determines their ability to discriminate and differentiate between what is real, and what is false or illusory. In the dream state, many experiences are accepted as real by the dreamer that would not be accepted as real in the waking state. Some religions such as Buddhism and Hinduism describe states of consciousness (i.e., Nirvana or Moksha) where individuals "wake up", and discover a new or altered state of consciousness that reveals their normal waking experience to be unreal, dream-like, or maya (illusion). The assumption is that there are degrees of wakefulness or awareness, and that both lucid dreaming and normal waking experience lie somewhere towards the middle of this continuum (or hierarchy) of awareness. In this context, there must therefore be states of wakefulness that are superior to normal waking awareness. Just as when the dreamer awakens to realize that a nightmare was illusory, the individual can, like the Buddha, undergo a spiritual awakening and realize that what is called normal waking awareness is, in fact, a dream.

It has been hypothesized that Meditation before sleep can also improve the occurrence of a lucid dream as it potentially minimizes the time taken for a person to fall asleep therefore increasing the chances of maintaining awareness to induce a lucid dream.

[edit] See also
Astral projection
Dream argument
Dream question
Hemi-Sync
List of dream diaries
Pre-lucid dream
Sleep paralysis
Psychedelic
The Art of Dreaming
[edit] Notes
^ Lucid Dreaming FAQ LaBerge, S. & Lly paralizedevitan, L. (2004). Version 2.3
^ a b Frederik van Eeden (1913). "A study of Dreams". Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research 26. http://www.lucidity.com/vanEeden.html.
^ Watanabe Tsuneo (March 2003). "Lucid Dreaming: Its Experimental Proof and Psychological Conditions". Journal of International Society of Life Information Science (Japan) 21 (1): 159–162.
^ LaBerge, Stephen (1990). Bootzen, R. R., Kihlstrom, J.F. & Schacter, D.L., (Eds.). ed. Lucid Dreaming: Psychophysiological Studies of Consciousness during REM Sleep Sleep and Cognition. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. pp. 109 – 126. http://www.lucidity.com/SleepAndCognition.html Lucid Dreaming: Psychophysiological Studies of Consciousness during REM Sleep.
^ Green, C., Lucid Dreams, London: Hamish Hamilton, 1968.
^ Oldis, Daniel (1974). The Lucid Dream Manifesto. pp. 52–53. ISBN 0-595-39539-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=cv-CbDbCng8C&printsec=frontcover#PPA52,M1.
^ Malcolm, N., Dreaming, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1959.
^ Laberge, S. (1980). Lucid dreaming: An exploratory study of consciousness during sleep. (Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University, 1980), (University Microfilms No. 80-24, 691)
^ LaBerge, Stephen (1990). in Bootzen, R. R., Kihlstrom, J.F. & Schacter, D.L., (Eds.): Lucid Dreaming: Psychophysiological Studies of Consciousness during REM Sleep Sleep and Cognition. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, pp. 109 – 126.
^ LaBerge, Stephen; Levitan, Lynne (1995). "Validity Established of DreamLight Cues for Eliciting Lucid Dreaming". Dreaming 5 (3). International Association for the Study of Dreams.
^ Muzur A, Pace-Schott EF; Allan Hobson (November 2002). "The prefrontal cortex in sleep" (PDF). Trends Cogn Sci 1;2(11): 475–481. doi:10.1016/S1364-6613(02)01992-7. http://www.bostonneuropsa.org/PDF%20Files/Pace-Schott/MUZUR_ET_AL.__02.pdf.
^ Hobson, J. Allan (2001). The Dream Drugstore: Chemically Altered States of Consciousness. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. pp. 96–98. ISBN 978-0262582209.
^ Spoormaker,-Victor-I; van-den-Bout,-Jan (October 2006). "Lucid Dreaming Treatment for Nightmares: A Pilot Study". Psychotherapy-and-Psychosomatics. 75 (6): 389–394. doi:10.1159/000095446. http://content.karger.com/produktedb/produkte.asp?typ=fulltext&file=PPS2006075006389.
^ Colic, M. (2007). 'Kanna's lucid dreams and the use of narrative practices to explore their meaning.' The International Journal of Narrative Therapy and Community Work (4): 19-26.
^ a b LaBerge, S. (2000). "Lucid dreaming: Evidence and methodology". Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6): 962–3. doi:10.1017/S0140525X00574020. http://www.lucidity.com/slbbs/index.html.
^ Erlacher, D.; Schredl, M. (2004). "Required time for motor activities in lucid dreams" ([dead link] – Scholar search). Perceptual and Motor Skills 99: 1239–1242. doi:10.2466/PMS.99.7.1239-1242. http://daniel.erlacher.de/index.php/Time_required_for_motor_activity_in_lucid_dreams.
^ Kahan, T., & LaBerge, S. (1994). Lucid dreaming as metacognition: Implications for cognitive science. Consciousness and Cognition 3, 246-264.
^ Barrett, Deirdre. Just how lucid are lucid dreams? Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams, Vol 2(4) 221-228, Dec 1992
^ a b Lynne Levitan; Stephen LaBerge (1991). "Other Worlds: Out-of-Body Experiences and Lucid Dreams". Nightlight (The Lucidity Institute) 3 (2-3). http://www.lucidity.com/NL32.OBEandLD.html.
^ Green, J. Timothy (1995). "Lucid dreams as one method of replicating components of the near-death experience in a laboratory setting.". Journal-of-Near-Death-Studies 14: 49-.
^ "Letter from St. Augustine of Hippo". Newadvent.org. http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/1102159.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-20.
^ (March 2005). The Best Sleep Posture for Lucid Dreaming: A Revised Experiment Testing a Method of Tibetan Dream Yoga. The Lucidity Institute.
^ Dream Yoga and the Practice of Natural Light, 2nd edition, Snowlion Publications; authored by Chogyal Namkhai Norbu, an eminent Tibetan Lama, and his student Michael Katz, a Psychologist and lucid dream trainer.
^ Religio Medici, part 2:11. Text available at http://penelope.uchicago.edu/relmed/relmed.html
^ Blackmore, Susan (1991). "Lucid Dreaming: Awake in Your Sleep?" ([dead link] – Scholar search). Skeptical Inquirer 15: 362 – 370. http://www.susanblackmore.co.uk/Articles/si91ld.html.
^ G. William Domhoff (2003). Senoi Dream Theory: Myth, Scientific Method, and the Dreamwork Movement. Retrieved July 10, 2006.
^ a b Webb, Craig (1995). "Dream Recall Techniques: Remember more Dreams". The DREAMS Foundation. http://www.dreams.ca/recall.htm.
^ a b Stephen LaBerge (1989). "How to Remember Your Dreams". Nightlight (The Lucidity Institute) 1 (1). http://www.lucidity.com/NL11.DreamRecall.html.
^ a b Stephen LaBerge; Leslie Phillips, Lynne Levitan (1994). "An Hour of Wakefulness Before Morning Naps Makes Lucidity More Likely". NightLight (The Lucidity Institute) 6 (3). http://www.lucidity.com/NL63.RU.Naps.html.
^ Stephen LaBerge; Lynne Levitan (1995). "Validity Established of Dreamlight Cues for Eliciting Lucid Dreaming". Dreaming (The Lucidity Institute) 5 (3): 159–168. http://lucidity.com/DreamLight_Validity.txt.
^ Stephen P. LaBerge (2004). "Substances that enhance recall and lucidity during dreaming". US patent application 20040266659.
^ Thomas Yuschak (2006). Advanced Lucid Dreaming (1st ed.). Lulu Enterprises. ISBN 978-1-4303-0542-2.
^ Foremski, Tom (1994-05-01). "Getting into your Dreams". San Francisco Examiner.
^ Ations.net
^ a b Lucidnet.co.uk, Reality Check
^ Reality testing, Lucid Dreaming FAQ at The Lucidity Institute. (October 2006)
^ a b Lynne Levitan, Stephen LaBerge (Summer 1993). "The Light and Mirror Experiment". Nightlight (The Lucidity Institute) 5 (10). http://www.lucidity.com/NL52.LightandMirror.html.
^ H. von Moers-Messmer, "Traume mit der gleichzeitigen Erkenntnis des Traumzustandes," Archiv Fuer Psychologie 102 (1938): 291-318.
^ Stephen LaBerge (1995). "Prolonging Lucid Dreams". NightLight (The Lucidity Institute) 7 (3-4). http://www.lucidity.com/NL7.34.RU.SpinFlowRub.html.
^ Carlos Castaneda, "The Art of Dreaming"
^ Lucidity.com, NovaDreamer Operation Manual
^ First Out-of-body Experience Induced In Laboratory Setting. ScienceDaily (August 24, 2007)
^ Out-of-body or all in the mind? BBC news (2005).
^ Sparrow, Gregory Scott (1976). Lucid Dreaming: Dawning of the Clear Light. A.R.E Press. pp. 52–53. ISBN 87604-086-5.
^ LaBerge, Stephen (2004). Lucid Dreaming: A Concise Guide to awakening in Your Dreams and in Your Life. Sounds True. p. 15. ISBN 1-59179-150-2.
^ Jouvet, Michel (1999). The Paradox of Sleep: The Story of Dreaming. MIT. p. 75. ISBN 0-262-10080-0.
^ McLeester, #### Ed. (1976). Welcome to the Magic Theater: A Handbook for Exploring Dreams. Food for Thought. p. 99. OCLC 76-29541.
^ Oldis, Daniel (1974). Lucid Dreams, Dreams and Sleep. USD Press. pp. 173–178, 191. ISBN 978-1-60303-496-8. http://books.google.com/books?id=Vex2v68fVAYC&pg=PA48&dq=160303496X&sig=pC0fAyC2BsknYQ2KsuxBW3YPCy0#PPA173,M1.
[edit] Further reading
Barton, Mary E. (2008). Soul Sight: Projections of Consciousness and Out of Body Epiphanies. ISBN 978-0-557-02163-5.
Brooks, Janice; Vogelsong, Jay (2000). The Conscious Exploration of Dreaming. Bloomington, IN: 1st Books Library. ISBN 1-58500-539-8.
Castaneda, Carlos. The Art of Dreaming. New York: HarperCollins, 1993.
Conesa-Sevilla, Jorge (2004). Amazon.com, Wrestling With Ghosts: A Personal and Scientific Account of Sleep Paralysis--and Lucid Dreaming. Philadelphia, PA: Xlibris. ISBN 978-1413446685.
Conesa-Sevilla, Jorge (2003). Sleep Paralysis Signaling (SPS) As A Natural Cueing Method for the Generation and Maintenance of Lucid Dreaming. Presented at The 83rd Annual Convention of the Western Psychological Association, May 1-4, 2003, in Vancouver, BC, Canada..
Conesa-Sevilla, Jorge (2002). [1]Isolated Sleep Paralysis and Lucid Dreaming: Ten-year longitudinal case study and related dream frequencies, types, and categories. Sleep and Hypnosis, 4, (4), 132-143..
de Saint-Denys, Hervey (1982). Dreams and How to Guide Them. London: Duckworth. ISBN 0-7156-1584-X.
Gackenbach, Jayne; Laberge, Stephen (1988). Conscious Mind, Sleeping Brain. New York: Plenum Press. ISBN 0-306-42849-0.
Garfield, Patricia L. (1974). Creative Dreaming. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-671-21903-0.
Godwin, Malcom (1994). The Lucid Dreamer. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-87248-6.
Green, Celia (1968). Lucid Dreams. Oxford: Institute of Psychophysical Research. ISBN 0-900076-00-3.
Green, Celia; McCreery, Charles (1994). Lucid Dreaming: The Paradox of Consciousness During Sleep. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-11239-7.
LaBerge, Stephen (1985). Lucid Dreaming. Los Angeles: J.P. Tarcher. ISBN 0-87477-342-3.
LaBerge, Stephen (1991). Exploring the World of Lucid Dreaming. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-37410-X.
McElroy, Mark (2007). Lucid Dreaming for Beginners: Simple Techniques for Creating Interactive Dreams. Woodbury, Minn.: Llewellyn Publications. ISBN 978-0-7387-0887-4.
Robert Waggoner (2008). Lucid Dreaming Gateway to the Inner Self. Needham, Mass.: Moment Point Press. ISBN 978-1-930491-14-4.
Wangyal Rinpoche, Tenzin (1998). Tibetan Yoga Of Dream And Sleep. Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion Publ.. ISBN 1-55939-101-4.
Warren, Jeff (2007). "The Lucid Dream". The Head Trip: Adventures on the Wheel of Consciousness. Toronto: Random House Canada. ISBN 978-0679314080.
Yuschak, Thomas (2006). Advanced Lucid Dreaming - The Power of Supplements. United States?: Lulu Enterprises. ISBN 978-1-4303-0542-2.
[edit] External links
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
Lucid Dreaming
Lucid dreaming, an external wiki
Lucid Dreams at the Open Directory Project
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Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Lucid Dream - Sogni Lucidi   Mer 7 Lug 2010 - 17:12

FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onironautica

Onironautica
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

L'onironautica, o sogno lucido (dall'inglese lucid dream), è un'esperienza durante la quale si può prendere coscienza del fatto di stare sognando. Il sognatore in questione, detto onironauta, può quindi, con la pratica, esplorare e modificare a piacere il proprio sogno.

Stephen LaBerge, scienziato all'università di Stanford e fondatore del Lucidity Institute, un centro di ricerca sul fenomeno dei sogni lucidi, descrive l'esperienza come "il sognare sapendo di stare sognando".

I sogni lucidi sono argomento di interesse per una larga cerchia di gruppi tra cui psicologi, aderenti alla cultura new age, occultisti e artisti. Inoltre, secondo LaBerge, l'esperienza dei sogni lucidi può essere d'aiuto negli ambiti più disparati, come il Problem solving, lo sviluppo della creatività, il rafforzamento dell'autostima, la capacità di affrontare paure e inibizioni e, più in generale, il raggiungimento di un senso di liberazione e armonia nella propria vita[1].

Coloro che hanno avuto esperienze di sogno lucido le descrivono come eccitanti e realistiche.

Da svegli condividiamo il mondo fenomenologico con regole uguali per tutti (descritto, in generale, dalla scienza). Nel sogno le percezioni non sono legate ai fenomeni e, per questo motivo, possono anche non presentare alcuna linearità.

Tuttavia, alcune proprietà delle percezioni sono dovute alla formazione dei pensieri nella mente dell'uomo e quindi sempre uguali, indipendentemente dal sogno o dal sognatore. Tutte le attività interne ai sogni (racconti di sogni lucidi, test di realtà, tecniche di stabilizzazione, ecc.) vanno quindi lette con cognizione critica. Si deve distinguere ciò che può essere astratto (diventare una regola generale) da ciò che è legato al caso particolare, privo di valore generale.

È stata proposta la distinzione tra "sintassi del sogno" (sulla quale basare i test di realtà) e "semantica del sogno" (di valore puramente personale ed impossibile da adoperare per i test di realtà).

Indice


* 1 Riconoscere un sogno lucido
o 1.1 Test di realtà
o 1.2 Falsi risvegli
* 2 Tecniche per ottenere un sogno lucido
o 2.1 RCT, Metodo del controllo sulla realtà
o 2.2 CAT, tecnica di adeguamento del ciclo
o 2.3 MILD, induzione mnemonica del sogno lucido
o 2.4 WBTB, induzione per risveglio e riaddormentamento
o 2.5 WILD, sogni lucidi iniziati da sveglio
o 2.6 Induzione tramite stimoli esterni
* 3 Bibliografia
* 4 Note
* 5 Voci correlate
* 6 Collegamenti esterni
* 7 Altri progetti

Riconoscere un sogno lucido

Il punto focale dell'esperienza del sogno lucido è rendersi conto del fatto di stare sognando. A tal proposito, è necessario ricercare nel proprio sogno dei segni che indichino chiaramente una situazione bizzarra o irrealizzabile nel mondo reale (ad esempio assistere ad una sfilata di elefanti rosa, oppure avere la capacità di attraversare i muri). Prerequisito necessario per poter sperimentare il sogno lucido è quello di riuscire a ricordare i propri sogni. Il metodo più usuale utilizzato per potenziare tale abilità è quello di tenere un registro (o diario) dei sogni da compilare al risveglio. Perché ciò risulti efficace è importante svolgere tale operazione il più presto possibile poiché il ricordo dei sogni tende a svanire molto rapidamente (in particolare è da sapere che i sogni che si ricordano sono in realtà i sogni che si fanno negli ultimi minuti di sonno prima del risveglio). Inoltre il sogno lucido viene descritto come un'esperienza di notevole qualità percettiva durante l'attività onirica, tanto che persone seppur con problemi fisiologici riescono a percepire in modo chiaro e distinto. L'ambientazione varia spesso; da qui nasce la disputa tra viaggio astrale e sogno lucido (ci sono coloro che sostengono infatti che il viaggio astrale altro non sia che un sogno lucido con tema diverso, altri credono in tale distinzione). Nel caso del viaggio astrale si percepisce l'ambiente reale ed alcuni che testimoniano di averne avuto esperienza dicono che si vive la sensazione di distacco dell'anima dal corpo; nel caso del sogno lucido ci si può anche trovare nell'ambiente circostante, ma più frequentemente in ambienti surreali.

La reale difficoltà ad uscire fuori da tale disputa consiste nella dialettica riguardo l'affidabilità dei testimoni e soprattutto la possibilità di isolare tutti i fattori concomitanti a tale fenomeno; a ciò si è per esempio dedicato Stephen LaBerge, studioso di tali fenomeni, tanto che ha fondato un istituto a suo nome per approfondire tali studi.

L'opposto del sogno lucido potrebbe essere descritto come un "sogno a occhi aperti", ma in realtà è più calzante dire "perdere la concentrazione" (o attenzione, se non lucidità). Un esempio dell'opposto di un sogno lucido è "tornare a casa a notte tarda, guidando la macchina come se fosse inserito l'autopilota e senza esserne del tutto coscienti".

Secondo alcuni neurologi tali fenomeni potrebbero essere, specialmente nel caso di sogni lucidi spontanei e frequenti, disturbi del sonno, in cui lo stato di veglia viene a manifestarsi durante la fase REM, compromettendo così l'equilibrio del sonno e la sua funzione ristorativa[senza fonte]. Ciò non significa necessariamente che siano contro tale realtà, ma sono propensi a riconoscere una positiva funzionalità del fenomeno se indotto artificialmente o meccanicamente a scopi terapeutici per risolvere disturbi radicati nel subconscio (è ben saputo che nel sonno prende spazio l'inconscio, che custodisce le nostre informazioni più recondite).

Test di realtà

Uno dei modi per ottenere la consapevolezza di star sognando è quello di andare a verificare se l'ambiente che ci circonda è reale od onirico, ovvero svolgere un test di realtà. Va detto che nel momento in cui un soggetto avverte il bisogno di effettuare un test di realtà, il dubbio stesso, se ciò che vede o sente sia o no reale è di per sé un test di realtà, (in stato di veglia non ci chiediamo ragionevolmente se stiamo sognando oppure no) comunque, a conferma, tale operazione consiste nella volontaria ricerca di alcuni dettagli che contraddistinguano univocamente il mondo onirico. Può capitare che i primi tentativi diano un esito negativo. È quindi consigliabile dubitare del "falso negativo", fidarsi dell'intuizione di sognare (o del dubbio di essere svegli) e di insistere. Con un numero maggiore di tentativi (da 3 a 5) si aumenta l'accurabilità del risultato. Si ottengono risultati più accurati combinando diversi test (piuttosto che ripetere meccanicamente lo stesso test). In generale, ripetere meccanicamente un test senza attenzione (fermarsi a riflettere) è inutile. Ecco alcuni esempi:

* Saltare - Nel mondo dei sogni spesso la forza di gravità non agisce come nella realtà: saltare corrisponde il più delle volte a prendere il volo o rimanere sospesi a mezz'aria.
* Leggere - Un test efficace consiste nel leggere una scritta qualsiasi, distogliere lo sguardo e poi provare a rileggerla. Nei sogni spesso le parole cambiano, non restano le stesse.
* Guardare l'orologio - Nei sogni l'ora su un orologio digitale non rimane la stessa se la si legge più volte di seguito. Stranamente questo fenomeno non si ha con gli orologi analogici (a lancette). Una spiegazione potrebbe essere che per leggere dei numerali lo sforzo mentale è maggiore (si devono mettere in serie dei simboli, come per la lettura), mentre per interpretare la posizione delle lancette è sufficiente riconoscere una forma geometrica, attività maggiormente legata alla vista.
* Respirare - Se si riesce a respirare chiaramente con il naso pur essendoselo tappato o se si respira sott'acqua si sta sognando.
* Guardarsi allo specchio - Spesso nei sogni la propria immagine riflessa allo specchio è deformata o sostituita con qualcosa d'altro o, anche, può non apparire. Talvolta lo specchio è molto sporco e non specchia affatto.
* Spegnere la luce - Se in un sogno si prova a spegnere la luce, anche forzatamente (distruggendo la fonte), la luce non si spegne.
* Aprire la vista su nuovi spazi - Accendere la luce in una stanza buia, aprire una porta, usare un cannocchiale, sbirciare oltre un muro e via dicendo, può avere il sorprendente effetto di mostrare uno spazio indistinto senza contorni o contenuti discernibili (molto simile alla nebbia o al fumo).

Se il test di realtà dà esito favorevole si è nel mondo dei sogni. A tal punto il sognatore, pur essendo ancora addormentato, acquisisce l'acutezza dei sensi e la lucidità proprie della vita nel mondo reale e può quindi interagire con il proprio mondo onirico come se fosse sveglio, forte dei propri ricordi e della propria volontà. In questa condizione è facile risvegliarsi oppure riperdere il controllo di sé e continuare l'esperienza di sogno normalmente: la capacità di controllo di questo labile stato viene dall'esperienza e dalla pratica.

Arrivare ad eseguire volontariamente un test di realtà all'interno di un sogno richiede una certa pratica di tale tecnica durante la veglia: nei sogni, infatti, tendiamo a riprodurre i comportamenti e le operazioni che siamo più abituati ad assumere e ad eseguire nel mondo reale.

Falsi risvegli

A seguito di un test di realtà positivo (spesso involontario) l'improvvisa acquisizione di lucidità può causare nel sognatore una sorpresa tale da svegliarlo. A volte però il risveglio è solo virtuale: il sognatore si ritrova nella sua camera da letto credendo di essersi svegliato, invece sta ancora sognando. Il fenomeno del "falso risveglio" potrebbe essere un meccanismo di protezione del sonno. Ad esempio, il sognatore ha sete, e sogna di svegliarsi per andare a bere; oppure, decide di svegliarsi per sfuggire ad un incubo. Questi falsi risvegli causano la maggior parte delle volte la perdita di lucidità e il soggetto prosegue nel suo sogno normalmente (talvolta ci si sveglia realmente quando nel sogno già ci si è recati al lavoro). Per evitare la perdita di lucidità è possibile abituarsi ad eseguire un test di realtà appena si crede di essersi svegliati. Tuttavia l'acquisizione di consapevolezza del "falso risveglio" può essere l'anticamera di una esperienza assai angosciosa (anche se per fortuna breve): nel tentativo di risvegliarsi veramente, il soggetto si ritrova lucido e cosciente ma con il corpo paralizzato; ciò è dovuto alla cosiddetta paralisi ipnagogica che tipicamente accompagna le fasi REM (si veda più avanti).

Tecniche per ottenere un sogno lucido

Vi sono diverse tecniche che permettono di aumentare significativamente le probabilità di avere un sogno lucido se applicate correttamente.

RCT, Metodo del controllo sulla realtà [modifica]

Una tecnica a priori per massimizzare la possibilità di avere un sogno lucido consiste nell'utilizzo del Metodo del Controllo sulla Realtà (RCT, Reality Control Test). Si tratta durante il giorno di prestare attenzione più volte a cose che durante il sogno cambiano, in modo tale da rendersi conto che si sta sognando. Ad esempio si potrebbe controllare l'ora più volte (in genere quando si controlla l'orologio nel sogno e lo si ricontrolla anche a distanza di qualche secondo, l'orario è mutato)...oppure fissare un panorama o una stanza più volte (quando lo si fa nel sogno... in genere lo scenario cambia completamente). Riferirsi con questa tecnica a cose che non sono patrimonio dell'inconscio (contrariamente al sogno che è invece patrimonio dell'inconscio)...Ergo controllare qualsiasi cosa che abbia a che fare con i numeri (orario, matrici di numeri, partenze e arrivi di treni o di aerei...), con frasi logiche in genere ("mamma non è nanna"...), con percorsi preferenziali (quando si guida un veicolo porre attenzione alla strada e magari notare qualche albero particolare...)

CAT, tecnica di adeguamento del ciclo [modifica]

La CAT, acronimo di cycle adjustment technique, è una efficace tecnica per indurre un sogno lucido. È stata sviluppata da Daniel Love, uno studioso britannico. Consiste nel calibrare il proprio ciclo di sonno al fine di aumentare le probabilità di veglia durante la sua ultima parte. È necessario svegliarsi 90 minuti prima del normale orario di sveglia, finché il ciclo di sonno si regola sulle nuove condizioni. A questo punto si alternano le vecchie e le nuove condizioni di sveglia. Nei giorni con tempo di sveglia normale, lo stato di allerta sarà così aumentato rendendo il sogno lucido più probabile.

MILD, induzione mnemonica del sogno lucido [modifica]

Acronimo di Mnemonic Induction of Lucid Dreaming, è una delle tecniche più utilizzate e consiste semplicemente nel coricarsi con l'intenzione di riconoscere nel sogno delle situazioni inusuali o impossibili da verificarsi nella realtà. È una tecnica molto semplice ed immediata da applicare ma non molto efficace se applicata da sola: solitamente si utilizza in combinazione con una delle altre per ottenere un effetto sinergico.

WBTB, induzione per risveglio e riaddormentamento [modifica]

Acronimo di Wake Back To Bed. Questa tecnica applicata ad uno dei metodi è molto efficace; si sperimenta infatti un aumento del 60% dei sogni lucidi[senza fonte]. La tecnica consiste nell'andare a dormire e svegliarsi circa 5/6 ore dopo, restare svegli per un'ora focalizzando i propri pensieri sul sogno lucido (semplicemente pensandoci o leggendo qualche libro sull'argomento) ed infine tornare a letto, cercando di effettuare il MILD. Questa procedura aumenta di molto la probabilità di ottenere un sogno lucido. Ciò è dovuto al fatto che le fasi del sonno REM (quelle in cui si sogna) si allungano col prolungarsi della notte. Più la fase REM è lunga, più si alzano le probabilità di acquisire lucidità all'interno di essa.

WILD, sogni lucidi iniziati da sveglio [modifica]

Acronimo di Wake Initiated Lucid Dreams, questa tecnica consiste nell'iniziare il sogno "senza addormentarsi" ed è resa possibile rilassando completamente il corpo ma mantenendo la mente vigile e concentrata su di esso. Il sogno lucido può essere raggiunto passando attraverso vari stadi: è possibile avvertire delle scosse attraversare il proprio corpo, essere preda di una particore paralisi del sonno (innocua ma talvolta terrificante), assistere alla materializzazione di particolari immagini ipnagogiche davanti ai propri occhi (chiusi), e successivamente ritrovarsi in un ambiente onirico passando quindi da "spettatore" ad "attore" della scena. Non è raro che l'ambiente in cui ci si viene a ritrovare sia una riproduzione del luogo in cui ci si era appisolati: si può supporre che sia questo il tipo di esperienza sperimentata da quei soggetti che dichiarano di aver vissuto esperienze extracorporee come viaggi astrali o fenomeni paranormali del genere.

Induzione tramite stimoli esterni [modifica]

Alcuni ricercatori hanno sperimentato stimoli acustici su soggetti quando essi entravano nella fase REM, come l'ascolto di un nastro con frasi tipo "Questo è un sogno".

Sono inoltre in commercio dei dispositivi, come ad esempio il Novadreamer, che si presentano come mascherine da indossare a mo' di occhiali quando si va a dormire. I sensori dell'apparecchio si accorgono quando il soggetto entra in fase REM e provvedono ad inviargli degli stimoli tramite led luminosi (talvolta si può anche programmarli con suoni e/o registrazioni). A questo punto, se il dormiente sarà in grado di avvertirli ed interpretarli correttamente, potrà ottenere la lucidità nel sogno, anche perché richiede da parte dell'aspirante onironauta la capacità di porsi spontaneamente la verifica della percezione con i suddetti test di realtà (in questo caso deve "predisporsi" a riconoscere già durante il giorno delle luci lampeggianti). Comunque sia, il loro utilizzo viene proposto per facilitare l'accesso a tale stato di coscienza.

Bibliografia [modifica]

* Stephen La Berge, Sogni coscienti (1988), Armenia editore
* Michele Cavallo - Flavio Leone, articolo su Informazione Psicologia Psicoterapia Psichiatria n° 30
* Paolo M. Clemente, Imperfetto onirico (2008) edizioni Armando Armando, Roma, pp. 192
* Mark McElroy, Sogni lucidi (2008) Macro Edizioni
* Enrico Sigurtà, I segreti della visualizzazione (2008) Bruno editore (e-book) 236 pp.
* J. Dane, An empirical evaluation of two techniques for lucid dream induction Doctoral dissertation, Georgia State University, Atlanta, 1984
* Hervey de Saint-Denys, I sogni e il modo di dirigerli (2000), edizioni Phoenix
* Malcolm Godwin, Il sognatore lucido (1999), edizioni Corbaccio
* Fabrizio Speziale, Sogni lucidi (1999), Edizioni Punto d'incontro, pp. 176
* Stephen LaBerge & Howard Rheingold, Exploring the world of lucid dreaming (1991), Ballantine Books, pp. 335
* Carlos castaneda, L'arte di sognare , Milano, Rizzoli, 1993.

Note [modifica]

1. ^ Stephen LaBerge, Ph.D. & Howard Rheingold, Exploring the World of Lucid Dreaming, Ballantine Books
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Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Re: Lucid Dream - Sogni Lucidi   Mer 28 Lug 2010 - 15:43

Ieri spulciando internet ho trovato questo video sui sogni lucidi che vi consiglio di vedere.





“Il mondo del sogno lucido è un mondo dove tutto è possibile ed io sono o ne divento il creatore.”

Con questa frase conclusiva, l’autrice, Marie Noelle Urech (ho letto qualcosa sulla sua biografia: docente di storia della medicina e di simbologia delle Piante, collaboratrice della rivista Natura & Benessere, studiosa dell'astrologia evolutiva e della danza terapia, l’espressione corporea e lo psicodramma), ci spiega in parole semplici e pacate cos’è il sogno lucido.

Facendo alcuni esempi riferisce di possibili incontri con animali mostruosi o con parenti morti, partecipando nel sogno lucido come attori e non da semplici spettatori lei suggerisce che sia possibile comunicare ed interagire con tutti gli elementi presenti e di modellarli perfino.

A voi è capitato? Siete riusciti, una volta consapevoli di essere in un sogno lucido, ad interagire a vostro piacimento con il sogno stesso? Avete incontrato parenti o conoscenti morti? Siete riusciti a comunicare con loro?



Ultima modifica di Tila il Gio 30 Giu 2011 - 17:00, modificato 1 volta
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Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Re: Lucid Dream - Sogni Lucidi   Gio 29 Lug 2010 - 14:10

Dal documentario "Gli esploratori del mondo del sogno lucido". Intervista al Dr. Stephen LaBerge fondatore del Lucidity Institute.


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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Lucid Dream - Sogni Lucidi   Oggi a 16:14

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