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Stabilisci quelle che ti danno energia e crescita.
È solo nell’ora più profonda del Duat, nella Notte oscura dell’anima che possiamo vedere noi stessi.
E capire come superare la notte.
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Tutto passa e scorre, il giorno diviene notte e la notte giorno.
Ciò che è bene per te ora domani diverrà un ostacolo e un impedimento, o un danno, e viceversa.
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Impara ad essere la volontà pura di vivere e non la pelle morta di un intento esaurito.
Tutto ciò che non supera l’alba del tuo nuovo giorno, non deve essere portato con te.
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Forum di sciamanesimo, antropologia e spirito critico

forum di sciamanesimo, antropologia, spirito critico, terapie alternative, esoterismo. Forum of shamanism, anthropology, criticism, alternative therapies and esoterism

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Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10

MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il Serpente   Mer 9 Nov 2011 - 11:23

Admin, in un tuo precedente post hai fatto riferimento al serpente cornuto, ho trovato la scheda di wikipedia che tratta in dettaglio l'argomento.

Buona lettura.


Horned Serpent
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Horned Serpent appears in the mythologies of many Native Americans.[1] Details vary among tribes, with many of the stories associating the mystical figure with water, rain, lightning and/or thunder. Horned Serpents were major components of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex of North American prehistory.[2][3]

Horned serpents also appear in European and Near Eastern mythology.

A Horned Serpent in a Barrier Canyon Style pictograph, Western San Rafael Swell region of Utah.
Attribution: I, Markarian421

In Native American culture

Horned serpents appear in the oral history of numerous Native American cultures, especially in the Southeastern Woodlands and Great Lakes.

Muscogee Creek traditions include a Horned Serpent and a Tie-Snake, estakwvnayv in the Muscogee Creek language. These are sometimes interpreted as being the same creature and sometimes different — similar, but the Horned Serpent is larger than the Tie-Snake. To the Muscogee people, the Horned Serpent is a type of underwater serpent covered with iridescent, crystalline scales and a single, large crystal in its forehead. Both the scales and crystals are prized for their powers of divination.[4] The horns, called chitto gab-by, were used in medicine.[5] Jackson Lewis, a Muscogee Creek informant to John R. Swanton, said, "This snake lives in the water has has horns like the stag. It is not a bad snake. ... It does not harm human beings but seems to have a magnetic power over game."[6] In stories, the Horned Serpent enjoyed eating sumac, Rhus glabra.[7]

Alabama people call the Horned Serpent, tcinto såktco or "crawfish snake," which they divide into four classifications based on its horns' colors, which can be blue, red, white, or yellow.[6]

Yuchi people made effigies of the Horned Serpent as recently as 1905. An effigy was fashioned from stuffed deerhide, painted blue, with the antlers painted yellow. The Yuchi Big Turtle Dance honors the Horned Serpent's spirit, which was related to storms, thunder, lighting, disease, and rainbows.[5]

Among Cherokee people, a Horned Serpent is called an uktena. Anthropologist James Mooney, describes the creature:

Those who know say the Uktena is a great snake, as large around as a tree trunk, with horns on its head, and a bright blazing crest like a diamond on its forehead, and scales glowing like sparks of fire. It has rings or spots of color along its whole length, and can not be wounded except by shooting in the seventh spot from the head, because under this spot are its heart and its life. The blazing diamond is called Ulun'suti—"Transparent"—and he who can win it may become the greatest wonder worker of the tribe. But it is worth a man's life to attempt it, for whoever is seen by the Uktena is so dazed by the bright light that he runs toward the snake instead of trying to escape. As if this were not enough, the breath of the Uktena is so pestilential, that no living creature can survive should they inhale the tiniest bit of the foul air expelled by the Uktena. Even to see the Uktena asleep is death, not to the hunter himself, but to his family.

Rock art depicting a Horned Serpent (Pony Hills and Cook's Peak, Texas)

According to Sioux belief, the Unktehila (Ųȟcéǧila) are dangerous reptilian water monsters that lived in anicent times. They were of various shapes. In the end the Thunderbirds destroyed them, except for small species like snakes and lizards. This belief may have been inspired by finds of dinosaur fossils in Sioux tribal territory. The Thunderbird may have been inspired partly by finds of pterosaur skeletons.[8]
[edit] Other known names

Misi-kinepikw ("great snake")—Cree
Msi-kinepikwa ("great snake")—Shawnee
Misi-ginebig ("great snake")—Oji-Cree
Mishi-ginebig ("great snake")—Ojibwe
Pita-skog ("great snake")—Abenaki
Sinti lapitta—Choctaw
Unktehi or Unktehila—Dakota

Tie-snakes on a Mississippian sandstone plate from the Moundville Archaeological Site
Attribution: Heironymous Rowe at en.wikipedia

In European iconography

The ram-horned serpent is a well-attested cult image of north-west Europe before and during the Roman period. It appears three times on the Gundestrup cauldron, and in Romano-Celtic Gaul was closely associated with the horned or antlered god Cernunnos, in whose company it is regularly depicted. This pairing is found as early as the fourth century BC in Northern Italy, where a huge antlered figure with torcs and a serpent was carved on the rocks in Val Camonica.[9]

A bronze image at Étang-sur-Arroux and a stone sculpture at Sommerécourt depict Cernunnos' body encircled by two horned snakes that feed from bowls of fruit and corn-mash in the god's lap. Also at Sommerécourt is a sculpture of a goddess holding a cornucopia and a pomegranate, with a horned serpent eating from a bowl of food. At Yzeures-sur-Creuse a carved youth has a ram-horned snake twined around his legs, with its head at his stomach. At Cirencester, Gloucestershire, Cernunnos' legs are two snakes which rear up on each side of his head and are eating fruit or corn. According to Miranda Green, the snakes reflect the peaceful nature of the god, associated with nature and fruitfulness, and perhaps accentuate his association with regeneration.[9]

Other deities occasionally accompanied by ram-horned serpents include "Celtic Mars", "Celtic Mercury", and the horned snake, and also conventional snakes, appears together with the solar wheel, apparently as attributes of the sun or sky god.[9]

The description of Unktehi or Unktena is, however, more similar to that of a Lindorm in Northern Europe,[citation needed] especially in Southern Scandinavia, and most of all as described in folklore in Eastern Denmark (including the provinces lost to Sweden in 1658). There, too, it is a water creature of huge dimensions, while in Southern Sweden it is a huge snake, the sight of which was deadly.[citation needed] This latter characteristic is reminiscent of the basilisk.

In Mesopotamian iconography

In Mesopotamian mythology Ningishzida, a prototype of the Biblical serpent in the Garden of Eden, is sometimes depicted as a serpent with horns. In other depictions he is shown as human, but is accompanied by bashmu, horned serpents. Ningishzida shares the epithet Ushumgal, "great serpent", with several other Mesopotamian gods.[citation needed]


^ Horned serpent, feathered serpent
^ Townsend, Richard F. (2004). Hero, Hawk, and Open Hand. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10601-7.
^ F. Kent Reilly and James Garber, ed (2004). Ancient Objects and Sacred Realms. University of Texas Press. pp. 29–34. ISBN 978-0-292-71347-5.
^ Grantham 24-5
^ a b Grantham 52
^ a b Grantham 25
^ Grantham 26
^ Morell, Virginia (December 2005). "Sea Monsters". National Geographic, pages 74–75.
^ a b c Green, Miranda. Animals in Celtic Life and Myth. pp. 227–8. Celtic Mars: carving at the curative sanctuary at Mavilly (Cote d'Ôr). Celtic Mercury: carving at Beauvais (Oise) and Néris-les-Bains (Allier). Association with the solar wheel: Gundestrup cauldron, altar at Lypiatt (Gloucestershire).


Grantham, Bill. Creation Myths and Legends of the Creek Indians. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 2002. ISBN 978-0-8130-2451-6 .
Willoughby, Charles C. (1936). "The Cincinnati Tablet: An Interpretation". The Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Quarterly Vol. 45:257–264.
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Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il Serpente   Gio 26 Gen 2012 - 8:44

Buondì a tutti,

oggi riporto altre curiosità sul serpente piumato nella cultura Maya.

Buona lettura.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kukulkan ("Plumed Serpent", "Feathered Serpent") is the name of a Maya snake deity that also serves to designate historical persons. The depiction of the feathered serpent deity is present in other cultures of Mesoamerica. Kukulkan is closely related to the god Q'uq'umatz of the K'iche' Maya and to Quetzalcoatl of the Aztecs.[1] Little is known of the mythology of this pre-Columbian deity.[2]

Although heavily Mexicanised, Kukulkan has his origins among the Maya of the Classic Period, when he was known as Waxaklahun Ubah Kan, the War Serpent, and he has been identified as the Postclassic version of the Vision Serpent of Classic Maya art.[3]

The cult of Kukulkan/Quetzalcoatl was the first Mesoamerican religion to transcend the old Classic Period linguistic and ethnic divisions.[4] This cult facilitated communication and peaceful trade among peoples of many different social and ethnic backgrounds.[4] Although the cult was originally centred on the ancient city of Chichén Itzá in the modern Mexican state of Yucatán, it spread as far as the Guatemalan highlands.[5]

In Yucatán, references to the deity Kukulkan are confused by references to a named individual who bore the name of the god. Because of this, the distinction between the two has become blurred.[6] This individual appears to have been a ruler or priest at Chichen Itza, who first appeared around the 10th century.[7] Although Kukulkan was mentioned as a historical person by Maya writers of the 16th century, the earlier 9th century texts at Chichen Itza never identified him as human and artistic representations depicted him as a Vision Serpent entwined around the figures of nobles.[8] At Chichen Itza, Kukulkan is also depicted presiding over sacrifice scenes.[9]

Sizeable temples to Kukulkan are found at archaeological sites throughout the north of the Yucatán Peninsula, such as Chichen Itza, Uxmal and Mayapan.[7]

Kukulkan at Chichen Itza during the Equinox. The famous descent of the snake March 2009


In Yucatec the name is spelt K'uk'ulkan and in Tzotzil it is K'uk'ul-chon.[10] The Yucatec form of the name is formed from the word kuk (feather) with the adjectival suffix -ul, giving kukul (feathered),[11] combined with can (snake),[11] giving a literal meaning of "feathered snake".

Kukulkan and the Itza

Kukulkan was a deity closely associated with the Itza state in the northern Yucatán Peninsula, where the cult formed the core of the state religion.[4] Although the cult of Kukulkan had its origins in earlier Maya traditions, the Itza worship of Kukulkan was heavily influenced by the Quetzalcoatl cult of central Mexico.[4] This influence probably arrived via Chontal Maya merchants from the Gulf Coast of Mexico.[4] These Chontal merchants probably actively promoted the feathered serpent cult throughout Mesoamerica.[4] Kukulkan headed a pantheon of deities of mixed Maya and non-Maya provenance, used to promote the Itza political and commercial agenda.[4] It also eased the passage of Itza merchants into central Mexico and other non-Maya areas, promoting the Itza economy.[4]

At Chichen Itza, Kukulkan ceased to be the Vision Serpent that served as a messenger between the king and the gods and came instead to symbolise the divinity of the state.[12]

El Castillo in Chichen Itza served as a temple to Kukulkan. During the spring and fall equinoxes the shadow cast by the angle of the sun and edges of the nine steps of the pyramid combined with the northern stairway and the stone serpent head carvings create the illusion of a massive serpent descending the pyramid.

After the fall of Chichen Itza, the nearby Postclassic city of Mayapan became the centre of the revived Kukulkan cult, with temples decorated with feathered serpent columns.[13] At the time of the Spanish Conquest, the high priest of Kukulkan was the family patriarch of the Xiu faction and was one of the two most powerful men in the city.[14]

The cult of Kukulkan spread as far as the Guatemalan highlands, where Postclassic feathered serpent sculptures are found with open mouths from which protrude the heads of human warriors.[5]

Ballcourt marker from the Postclassic site of Mixco Viejo in Guatemala. This sculpture depicts Kukulkan, jaws agape, with the head of a human warrior emerging from his maw.[5]

Modern folklore

Stories are still told about Kukulkan among the modern Yucatec Maya.[15] In one tale, Kukulkan is a boy who was born as a snake. As he grew older it became obvious that he was the plumed serpent and his sister cared for him in a cave. He grew to such a size that his sister was unable to continue feeding him, so he flew out of his cave and into the sea, causing an earthquake. To let his sister know that he is still alive, Kukulkan causes earth tremors every year in July.[7]

A modern collection of folklore from Yucatán tells how Kukulkan was a winged snake that flew to the sun and tried to speak to it but the sun, in its pride, burnt his tongue. The same source relates how Kukulkan always travels ahead of the Yucatec Maya rain god Chaac, helping to predict the rains as his tail moves the winds and sweeps the earth clean.[16]

Among the Lacandon Maya of Chiapas, Kukulkan is an evil, monstrous snake that is the pet of the sun god.[7]


^ Read & Gonzalez 2000, pp. 180-2.
^ Read & Gonzalez 2000, p. 201.
^ Freidel et al 1993, pp. 289, 325, 441n26.
^ a b c d e f g h Sharer & Traxler 2006, pp 582-3.
^ a b c Sharer & Traxler 2006, p. 619.
^ Miller & Taube 1993, p. 142.
^ a b c d Read & González 2000, p. 201.
^ Freidel et al 1993, p. 325.
^ Freidel et al 1993, p. 478n60.
^ Freidel et al 1993, p. 289.
^ a b Yucatec-English Dictionary at FAMSI
^ Schele & Freidel 1990, pp. 394-5.
^ Sharer & Traxler 2006, p. 598.
^ Schele & Freidel 1990, pp. 361-2.
^ Read & González 2000, p. 202.
^ Gómez 1995, p. 57.


Freidel, David A.; Linda Schele and Joy Parker (1993). Maya Cosmos: Three Thousand Years on the Shaman's Path. New York: William Morrow & Co.. ISBN 0-688-10081-3. OCLC 27430287.
Gómez, Ermilo Abreu (1995). Leyendas y consejas del antiguo Yucatán. Mexico City: Tezontle. ISBN 968-16-4889-7. OCLC 38991657. (Spanish)
Miller, Mary (1999). Maya Art and Architecture. London and New York: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-20327-X. OCLC 41659173.
Read, Kay Almere; and Jason González (2000). Handbook of Mesoamerican Mythology. Oxford: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-85109-340-0. OCLC 43879188.
Schele, Linda; and David Freidel (1990). A Forest of Kings: The Untold Story of the Ancient Maya. New York: William Morrow and Company. ISBN 0-688-11204-8. OCLC 24501607.
Sharer, Robert J.; with Loa P. Traxler (2006). The Ancient Maya (6th (fully revised) ed.). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-4817-9. OCLC 57577446.

Further reading

Aveni, Anthony F. (2001). Skywatchers (Rev. and updated edn. of: Skywatchers of ancient Mexico, 1980 ed.). Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70504-2. OCLC 45195586.
Carrasco, David (1982). Quetzalcoatl and the Irony of Empire: Myths and Prophecies in the Aztec Tradition. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-09487-1. OCLC 0226094871.
Graña-Behrens, Daniel; and Nikolai Grube (2006). "Glossary". In Nikolai Grube (ed.). Maya: Divine Kings of the Rain Forest. Eva Eggebrecht and Matthias Seidel (assistant eds.). Cologne, Germany: Könemann. pp. 428–439. ISBN 978-3-8331-1957-6. OCLC 71165439.
Milbrath, Susan (1999). Star Gods of the Maya: Astronomy in Art, Folklore, and Calendars. The Linda Schele series in Maya and pre-Columbian studies. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-75225-3. OCLC 40848420.
Miller, Mary; and Karl Taube (1993). The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya: An Illustrated Dictionary of Mesoamerican Religion. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05068-6. OCLC 27667317.

Kukulkan at the base of the west face of the northern stairway of El Castillo, Chichen Itza


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Q'uq'umatz (alternatively Qucumatz, Gukumatz, Gucumatz, Gugumatz, Kucumatz etc.) was a deity of the Postclassic K'iche Maya. Q'uq'umatz was the feathered serpent god of the Popol Vuh who created humanity together with the god Tepeu. Q'uq'umatz is considered to be the rough equivalent of the Aztec god Quetzalcoatl,[1] and also of Kukulkan of the Yucatec Maya tradition.[2] It is likely that the feathered serpent deity was borrowed from one of these two peoples and blended with other deities to provide the god Q'uq'umatz that the K'iche' worshipped.[3] Q'uq'umatz may have had his origin in the Valley of Mexico; some scholars have equated the deity with the Aztec deity Ehecatl-Quetzalcoatl, who was also a creator god.[4] Q'uq'umatz may originally have been the same god as Tohil, the K'iche' sun god who also had attributes of the feathered serpent,[5] but they later diverged and each deity came to have a separate priesthood.[6]

Q'uq'umatz was one of the gods who created the world in the Popul Vuh, the K'iche' creation epic.[7] Q'uq'umatz, god of wind and rain, was closely associated with Tepeu, the god of lightning and fire.[8] Both of these deities were considered to be the mythical ancestors of the K'iche' nobility by direct male line.[9] Q'uq'umatz carried the sun across the sky and down into the underworld and acted as a mediator between the various powers in the Maya cosmos.[5][10][11][12][13] The deity was particularly associated with water, clouds, the wind and the sky.

Kotuja', the K'iche' king who founded the city of Q'umarkaj, bore the name of the deity as a title and was likely to have been a former priest of the god. The priests of Q'uq'umatz at Q'umarkaj, the K'iche' capital, were drawn from the dominant Kaweq dynasty and acted as stewards in the city.

Etymology and symbolism

The name translates literally as "Quetzal Serpent" although it is often rendered less accurately as "Feathered Serpent".[14] The name derives from the K'iche' word q'uq', referring to the Resplendent Quetzal Pharomachrus mocinno, a brightly coloured bird of the cloud forests of southern Mesoamerica.[14] This is combined with the word kumatz, meaning "snake".[1] The male Resplendent Quetzal boasts iridescent blue-green tail feathers measuring up to 1 metre (3.3 ft) long that were prized by the Maya elite.[1][14] The blue-green feathers symbolised vegetation and the sky, both symbols of life for the ancient Maya, while the bright red feathers of the bird's chest symbolised fire.[1][14] Together, this combination gave a profound religious symbolism to the bird.[1] The snake was a Maya symbol of rebirth due to its habit of shedding its skin to reveal a fresher one underneath.[1] Q'uq'umatz thus combined the celestial characteristics of the Quetzal with the serpentine underworld powers of the snake, giving him power over all levels of the Maya universe.[1] These characteristics also indicated a sexual duality between his masculine feathered serpent aspect and his feminine association with water and wind.[8] This duality enabled the god to serve as a mediator between the masculine sun god Tohil and the feminine moon goddess Awilix, a role that was symobolised with the Mesoamerican ballgame.[8][10][15]

In ancient Maya highland texts Q'uq'umatz is strongly associated with water, which in turn is associated with the underworld.[16][17] The K'iche' are reported to have believed that Q'uq'umatz was a feathered serpent that moved in the water.[16] In the Annals of the Cakchiquels, it is related that a group of highland Maya referred to themselves as the Gucumatz because their only salvation was said to be in the water.[16][18] The Kaqchikel Maya were closely linked to the K'iche' and one of their ancestors, Gagavitz, was said to have thrown himself into Lake Atitlán and transformed himself into the deity, thus raising a storm upon the water and forming a whirlpool.[16][19]

Among the K'iche' Q'uq'umatz not only appeared as a feathered serpent, he was also embodied as an eagle and a jaguar, he was also known to transform himself into a pool of blood.[3][20] The deity was sometimes represented by a snail or conch shell and was associated with a flute made from bones.[3][20] As well as being associated with water, Q'uq'umatz was also associated with clouds and the wind.[8][21]

Q'uq'umatz, the sun and the ballgame

Q'uq'umatz was not directly equivalent to the Mexican Quetzalcoatl, he combined his attributes with those of the Classic Period Chontal Maya creator god Itzamna and was a two headed serpentine sky monster that carried the sun across the sky.[5][11][12] Sculptures of a human face emerging between the jaws of a serpent were common from the end of the Classic Period through to the Late Postclassic and may represent Q'uq'umatz in the act of carrying Hunahpu, the youthful avatar of the sun god Tohil, across the sky.[5][10] After midday, Q'uq'umatz continued into the west and descended towards the underworld bearing an older sun.[22] Such sculptures were used as markers for the Mesoamerican ballgame.[10] Since Q'uq'umatz acted as a mediator between Tohil and Awilix and their incarnations as the Maya Hero Twins Hunahpu and Ixbalanque, the positioning of such ballcourt markers on the east and west sides of north-south oriented ballcourts would represent Q'uq'umatz carrying the sun to the zenith with the east marker carrying Hunahpu/Tohil in its jaws, while the west marker would represent the descent of the sun into the underworld and would be carrying Ixbalanque/Awilix in its jaws.[5][10]

No ballgame markers are known from the heart of the K'iche' kingdom and investigators such as Fox consider it significant that these images of Q'uq'umatz carrying the sun are found in the eastern periphery facing the underworld due to the use of the ballgame in mediating political conflict.[10][23]

Modern belief

The various Feathered Serpent deities remained popular in Mesoamerican folk traditions after the Spanish Conquest but by the 20th century Q'uq'umatz appeared only rarely among the K'iche'.[24] A tradition was recorded by Juan de León that Q'uq'umatz assisted the sun-god Tohil in his daily climb to the zenith.[25] According to De León, who may have gathered the information from elders in Santa Cruz del Quiché, the feathered serpent gripped Tohil in his jaws to carry him safely up into the sky.[26]

The Popol Vuh

In the beginning of the Popol Vuh, Q'uq'umatz is depicted as afloat in the primordial sea with Tepeu, wrapped in quetzal feathers.[27] Nothing yet existed, only the sea at rest under the sky.[27] Soon Q'uq'umatz and Tepeu discussed the creation of man and it was decided between them to raise the earth and create mankind.[7] The gods spoke the word "Earth" and the earth was formed as if from a mist.[28] They then called forth the mountains from the water and the mountains rose at their command.[28] Forests of pine and cypress then sprung up among the newly formed mountains and valleys.[29] Q'uq'umatz was pleased with their collaborative creation of the earth and thanked the other gods that were present.[29] The gods created animals such as the deer, the birds, pumas, jaguars and different types of snakes.[30] They instructed each animal where it should live.[30] The gods then commanded that the animals should give them praise and worship them.[31][32] However, the animals could not speak and simply squawked, chattered and roared in their own manner.[32] Q'uq'umatz soon realized that their first attempt at the creation of beings was a failure as they could not give them praise and so they condemned the animals to live in the forests and ravines.[33] Their animals were ordered to live in the wild and to let their flesh be eaten by the ones who will keep the days of the gods and show them praise.

They first formed men of mud, but in this form man could neither move nor speak and quickly dissolved into nothingness. Later, they created men of sculpted wood, which Huracan destroyed as the wooden manikins were imperfect, emotionless and showed no praise to the gods. The survivors were then transformed into monkeys, and sentenced to live in the wild. Q'uq'umatz and Tepeu were finally successful in their creation by constructing men out of maize.[34] Here the first men were formed: B'alam Agab, B'alam Quitzé, Iqi B'alam, Mahucatah. Their sight was far and they understood all.

The Popol Vuh also mentions a historic ruler of the K'iche' who bore the name or title of the deity, probably because he drew some of his power from the god.[3][35] This title of "Feathered Serpent", was an important title used for historical figures in other parts of Mesoamerica,[36] the personal name of this king was likely to have been Kotuja'.[37] This individual was likely to have been an Aj Q'uq'umatz, or priest of Q'uq'umatz, before he became the Aj pop (king).[38] This king was said to have refounded the K'iche' capital at Q'umarkaj.[36]

Temple and priesthood at Q'umarkaj

In the K'iche' capital city Q'umarkaj the temple of Q'uq'umatz consisted of a circular temple in honour of the deity together with a palace in honour of the Kawek lineage, the ruling dynasty of the city.[39] The only trace of the temple now is a circular impression in the surface of the city's main plaza.[25] The temple was located directly between the temples to the important K'iche' deities Tohil and Awilix, slightly north of the central axis of the temple of Tohil and slightly south of the axis of the temple of Awilix, replicating the role of Q'uq'umatz as mediator between the two deities.[8][40] From the traces left in the plaza it is evident that the temple consisted of a circular wall measuring 6 metres (20 ft) across, running around a circular platform, with a 1-metre (3.3 ft) wide circular passage between the two.[25] The whole structure probably once supported a roof and there were small stone platforms on the east and west sides of the temple, each about 1 metre (3.3 ft) wide.[25] The temple of Q'uq'umatz must have been completely dismantled very soon after the Spanish Conquest since it is not mentioned by any of the Colonial era visitors, and early drawings of the site show only vegetation where the temple once stood.[25] The tradition of circular temples dedicated to the Feathered Serpent deity was an ancient one in the Mesoamerican cultural region.[26]

The priests of Q'uq'umatz were drawn from an important lineage among the ruling Kaweq dynasty and this was likely to have been a source of power and prestige for the Kaweq.[41] The priests were known as Aj Q'uq'umatz, meaning "he of Q'uq'umatz".[42] The priests of Q'uq'umatz and of Tepeu, his partner in the K'iche' creation myth (the Aj Q'uq'umatz and the Tepew Yaki), also served as stewards in Q'umarkaj and were responsible for receiving and guarding any tribute payments and plunder that were returned to the city.[43] Although K'iche' priests were generally of lower rank than secular officials, the priests of the Kaweq lineages were an exception, and this included the priests of Q'uq'umatz, Tepeu and Tohil.[44]

See also



Carmack, Robert M. (2001a). Kik'ulmatajem le K'iche'aab': Evolución del Reino K'iche'. Guatemala: Iximulew. ISBN 99922-56-22-2. OCLC 253481949. (Spanish)
Carmack, Robert M. (2001b). Kik'aslemaal le K'iche'aab': Historia Social de los K'iche's. Guatemala: Iximulew. ISBN 99922-56-19-2. OCLC 47220876. (Spanish)
Christenson, Allen J. (2003, 2007). "Popul Vuh: Sacred Book of the Quiché Maya People" (PDF online publication). Mesoweb articles. Mesoweb: An Exploration of Mesoamerican Cultures. Retrieved 2010-01-23.
Coe, Michael D. (1999). The Maya. Ancient peoples and places series (6th edition, fully revised and expanded ed.). London and New York: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-28066-5. OCLC 59432778.
Fox, John W. (1987, 2008). Maya Postclassic state formation. Cambridge, UK and New York, USA: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-10195-0. OCLC 297146853.
Fox, John W. (1991). "The Lords of Light Versus the Lords of Dark: The Postclassic Highland Maya Ballgame". In Vernon Scarborough and David R. Wilcox (eds.). The Mesoamerican Ballgame. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. pp. 213–238. ISBN 0-8165-1360-0. OCLC 51873028.
Kelly, Joyce (1996). An Archaeological Guide to Northern Central America: Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-2858-5. OCLC 34658843.
Luhrmann, T. M. (Winter 1984). "Popul Vuh and Lacan". Ethos (Blackwell Publishing and the American Anthropological Association) 12 (4): 335–362.
Miller, Mary; and Karl Taube (1993, 2003). An Illustrated Dictionary of the Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-27928-4. OCLC 28801551.
Orellana, Sandra L. (Spring 1981). "Idols and Idolatry in Highland Guatemala". Ethnohistory (Duke University Press) 28 (2): 157–177.
Preuss, Mary H. (1988). Gods of the Popol Vuh: Xmucane, Kucumatz, Tojil, and Jurakan. Culver City, California: Labyrinthos. ISBN 0911437258.
McCallister, Rick (2008). "Orden y caos en la literatura indígena mesoamericana" (RTF). Artifara: Revista de lenguas y literaturas ibéricas y latinoamricanas (Torino, Italy: Università degli Studi di Torino: Dipartimento di Scienze Letterarie e Filologiche) (Cool. ISSN 1594-378X. OCLC 489051220. (Spanish)
Read, Kay Almere; and Jason González (2000). Handbook of Mesoamerican Mythology. Oxford: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-85109-340-0. OCLC 43879188.
Recinos, Adrian (1998). Memorial de Solalá, Anales de los Kaqchikeles; Título de los Señores de Totonicapán. Guatemala: Piedra Santa. ISBN 84-8377-006-7. OCLC 25476196. (Spanish)
Recinos, Adrian; Delia Goetz and Sylvanus Griswold Morley (1954). "Popul Vuh, the Book of the People" (PDF). Los Angeles, USA: Plantin Press. Retrieved 2010-01-24.
Tedlock, Dennis (trans.) (1985). Popol Vuh: The Definitive Edition of the Maya Book of the Dawn of Life and the Glories of Gods and Kings. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 067145241X.

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Femminile Serpente
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il Serpente   Gio 15 Mar 2012 - 13:01

Buondì a tutti,

secondo una leggenda giapponese lo Tsuchinoko è un essere, simile ad un serpente, che ha il dono della parola, ha l'abitudine di dire menzogne e predilige l'alcol...

Buona lettura.


Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Lo Tsuchinoko (ツチノコ?) è un essere leggendario simile ad un serpente, originario del Giappone. Il nome tsuchinoko è utilizzato prevalentemente nell'Ovest del Giappone, incluse le province di Kansai e Shikoku; nel nord-est del Giappone è conosciuto come bachi hebi .

Gli Tsuchinoko sono descritti come degli animali lunghi tra 30 e gli 80 centimetri, simili in apparenza a dei serpenti, tranne per la parte centrale del loro corpo, che è più larga della parte finale e della testa, e aventi i denti e il veleno come quello di una vipera[1]. Alcune persone dicono che possegga la capacità di saltare oltre un metro di distanza.

Stando alla leggenda, lo tsuchinoko ha l'abilità di parlare e un'attitudine alla menzogna, così come una propensione per l'alcol. Le leggende riportano altresì che possa ingoiare la propria coda, per poter rotolare come un cerchio.



Disegni raffiguranti lo tsuchinoko su ceramica risalenti al Periodo Jōmon sono stati rinvenuti a Gifu e Nagano. Un'enciclopedia del Periodo Edo contiene una descrizione sullo Tsuchinoko sotto il nome di yatsui hebi. Descrizioni di questa creatura si riscontrano anche nella Kojiki[1].

Nel 1989 la cittadina di Mikata, nella Prefettura di Hyōgo, ha offerto un premio di 330 metri quadri di terreno per chiunque catturi uno tsuchinoko e, nel 2001, venne esposto un grosso serpente nero sostenendo che si trattasse di uno tsuchinoko[1].

Possibili spiegazioni

Esclusi Hokkaido e le Isole giapponesi del Sud, avvistamenti di tsuchinoko sono stati segnalati in tutto il Giappone. Benché un vero tsuchinoko non sia mai stato formalmente catalogato dalla comunità scientifica, esistono delle ipotesi che qualche altro animale sia stato confuso con questa creatura. Alcuni ritengono che la leggenda dello tsuchinoko si basi su avvistamenti di serpenti che abbiano appena ingoiato una preda. Anche la lucertola dalla lingua blu, il cui possesso divenne legale in Giappone negli anni settanta, sembra essere facilmente confondibile per uno tsuchinoko; l'unica grande differenza nell'aspetto sono le quattro zampe.

Tsuchinoko nella finzione

Lo Tsuchinoko è considerato un oggetto segreto o un nemico in un vasto numero di videogiochi giapponesi, tra cui: Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater, Castlevania: Aria of Sorrow, We Love Katamari, Me and My Katamari, Siren, Radiata Stories, Super Scribblenauts e Pokémon (il personaggio Dunsparce). Negli episodi speciali dell'anime Occult Academy due personaggi allevano un esemplare di Tsuchinoko arrivando persino a battezzarlo affettuosamente Tsucchi.


^ a b c Kenzo Moriguchi. «Town touting mythical snake find; is 'rare' creature really a cash cow?». The Japan Times, 16 giugno 2001.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Tsuchinoko (ツチノコ or 槌の子?) literally translating to "hammer's spawn," is a legendary snake-like cryptid from Japan. The name tsuchinoko is prevalent in Western Japan, including Kansai and Shikoku; the creature is known as bachi hebi (バチヘビ?) in Northeastern Japan.

Tsuchinoko are described as being between 30 and 80 centimetres in length, similar in appearance to a snake, but with a central girth that is much wider than its head or tail, and as having fangs and venom similar to that of a viper.[1] Some accounts also describe the tsuchinoko as being able to jump up to a meter in distance.[2]

According to legend, some tsuchinoko have the ability to speak and a propensity for lying, and is also said to have a taste for alcohol. Legend records that it will sometimes swallow its own tail so that it can roll like a hoop, similarly to the mythical hoop snake.


^ Moriguchi, Kenzo (2001-06-16). "Town touting mythical snake find; is 'rare' creature really a cash cow?". The Japan Times. Retrieved 2010-05-10.
^ Metropolis, "Fortean Japan", 27 June 2008, p. 12.

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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il Serpente   Dom 17 Giu 2012 - 8:52

Salve, ho avuto 3 sogni che mi confermavano chiaramente che il mio animale totem è il serpente. Non erano veri e propri sogni, in realtà, ma visioni - erano troppo nitide e pratica ero io il serpente.
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Femminile Serpente
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il Serpente   Mar 19 Giu 2012 - 16:01

Isis9 ha scritto:
Salve, ho avuto 3 sogni che mi confermavano chiaramente che il mio animale totem è il serpente. Non erano veri e propri sogni, in realtà, ma visioni - erano troppo nitide e pratica ero io il serpente.

Buon pomeriggio Isis9,

benvenuto/a in questa biblioteca virtuale e accademia di studio sullo sciamanesimo.

Secondo alcune tradizioni sciamaniche, come ad esempio quelle di alcune culture dei nativi americani, basta avere la visione (in sogno, nel mondo ordinario o in quello non ordinario) per ben tre volte per avere la certezza assoluta sulla identità del proprio animale totem.

Per altre culture ciò non basta, bisogna intraprendere il viaggio sciamanico nel mondo inferiore e poi interagire con esso.

Per approfondimenti ti consiglio la visione di questi link

Buona lettura e a presto.

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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il Serpente   Lun 6 Apr 2015 - 8:23

Buondì a tutti, inserisco un documento di wikipedia riguardante una divinità legata al culto dei serpenti...buona lettura.



Angizia (in latino Angitia o Angita, da anguis, serpente; in peligno Anaceta[1]) era una divinità adorata dai Marsi, dai Peligni e da altri popoli osco-umbri, associata al culto dei serpenti.
Poiché i serpenti erano spesso collegati con le arti curative, Angizia era probabilmente una dea della guarigione; i Marsi, che la consideravano più una maga che una dea, le dovevano la conoscenza dell'uso delle erbe curative, specie quelle contro i morsi di serpente. Le venivano attribuiti altri poteri, come quelli di uccidere i serpenti col solo tocco.
Dai Romani veniva talvolta associata alla Bona Dea.
L'antica diffusione della devozione alla dea Angizia in vaste zone dell'Italia Centro Meridionale e la tradizione di cerimonie che si svolgono a metà primavera in diverse contrade sono rivelatrici di un rito propiziatorio della fertilità. Angitia fra i Marsi, Anagtia presso i Sanniti, in Aesernia le veniva riservato l'appellativo di diiviia; Anaceta o Anceta nella peligna Corfinio aveva culto fra le donne ed era invocata con l'attributo di Keria, voce che richiama il sumero kur (terra), accadico kerû (terra coltivata, orto) e il latino Cerere il cui culto in Roma era abbinato a quello della Terra. È suggestiva la corrispondenza della dea italica alla divinità iranica Anahita o Anchita, compagna di Mitra, nome sumero del sole, e alla dea assira Ištar, anch'essa dea della fecondità (Antonino Pagliaro). Se Angizia, Anagzia, Anceta, Anaceta, Anahita sono, come appare, denominazioni della stessa divinità, ne consegue che condividono il significato del nome. Anahita vuol dire "colei che viene in soccorso, che sta accanto" ed è costituito dalle componenti accadiche an (accanto, per, verso) e aḫitu (fianco, lato); pronunciarlo sarà valso implorazione di aiuto (v. Giovanni Semerano Le origini della cultura europea, pp. 285,328).
I tradizionali pellegrinaggi di devoti che dai paesi della conca del Fucino si recano, la prima domenica di maggio, al santuario della Madonna della Libera a Pratola Peligna, poco distante da Corfinio; a Cocullo, il primo giovedì dello stesso mese; la singolare cerimonia che si svolge a Luco dei Marsi il giorno di Pentecoste che prevede, indizio rivelatore, l'imprescindibile presenza degli zampognari con sosta presso i ruderi del tempio di Angizia; le ricorrenze religiose, con pratiche all'aperto, in altri luoghi vicini, le tante chiese dedicate alla Madonna delle Grazie, richiamano il culto della divinità italica della fecondità.


Silius, nelle Punicae (libro VIII, 495-501) scrive:
Angitia, figlia di Eeta, per prima scoprì le male erbe,così dicono, e maneggiava da padronai veleni e traeva giù la luna dal cielo;con le grida i fiumi tratteneva e,chiamandole, spogliava i monti delle selve.


Il toponimo del bosco sacro presso il santuario di Angizia (lucus Angitiae) sopravvive nel nome del paese di Luco dei Marsi.


La festa dei serpari a Cocullo (AQ), ora dedicata a san Domenico, deriva dall'originaria festa pagana in onore di Angizia.
La squadra di calcio di Luco dei Marsi si chiama "Angizia Luco"

Per un approfondimento consiglio anche la visione del seguente link:
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