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 La Tartaruga

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MessaggioOggetto: La Tartaruga   Mer 24 Mar 2010 - 7:17

Ecco una breve scheda di trattazione della Tartaruga, sia acome informazioni biologiche che come animale totem, se avetet altre informazioni e fonti postatele ragazze/i!




FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Testudines

Testudines
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Testudines

Kunstformen der Natur, Ernst Haeckel 1904

Classificazione scientifica

Regno:
Animalia

Phylum:
Chordata

Subphylum:
Vertebrata

Infraphylum:
Gnathostomata

Classe:
Sauropsida (Reptilia)

Sottoclasse:
Anapsida

Ordine:
Testudines
Linnaeus, 1758


Sinonimi

Chelonia
Sottordini

• Paracryptodira †;
• Cryptodira
• Pleurodira



« La tartaruga disse a Zeus: "Voglio una casa tutta per me, in modo che vi possa entrare solo chi dico io!". Zeus rispose: "Avrai una casa tutta tua, ma ci potrai entrare solo tu!" »
(Esopo)

L'ordine Testudines o Chelonia comprende rettili comunemente noti come tartarughe o testuggini.
Più precisamente il termine tartaruga indica le tartarughe acquatiche (siano esse d'acqua dolce -come ad esempio gli Emydidae, con membrane di pelle tra gli artigli- o marine -con arti trasformati in pinne), carnivore e con carapace dal profilo basso; mentre si dice testuggine (dal latino testudo) qualunque specie sia adattata alla vita terrestre, erbivora, con possenti artigli e con carapace (generalmente) rialzato.
Indice
[nascondi]
• 1 Descrizione
• 2 Tassonomia
• 3 Alcune specie
• 4 Mitologia
• 5 Nei media
• 6 Curiosità
• 7 Voci correlate
• 8 Altri progetti
• 9 Collegamenti esterni

Descrizione
Le tartarughe sono dotate di un guscio protettivo: la parte superiore di questa "corazza" prende il nome di "carapace", mentre la parte inferiore prende il nome di "piastrone". Le tessere di carapace e piastrone sono chiamati scuti.
Esistono diverse specie adattate per diversi ambienti, per i fiumi e laghi (come la Pseudemydis scripta), per i mari (come la Caretta caretta) per la terra (come la Testudo hermanni).
Le specie acquatiche sono onnivore, per lo più carnivore da giovani e con la crescita preferiscono i vegetali, si alimentano di pesce, lattuga, frutti di bosco (che non fermentano a differenza degli altri frutti durante la digestione), mentre le terrestri sono più erbivore con una dieta che varia dalla frutta ai cactus.
Tassonomia
L'ordine comprende circa 300 specie viventi, di cui alcune in pericolo di estinzione.
Sottordine Paracryptodira (estinto)
Sottordine Cryptodira
• Famiglia Chelydridae
• Famiglia Meiolaniidae (estinta)
• Superfamiglia Testudinoidae
• Famiglia Haichemydidae (estinta)
• Famiglia Sinochelyidae (estinta)
• Famiglia Lindholmemydidae (estinta)
• Famiglia Testudinidae
• Famiglia Geoemydidae
• Famiglia Emydidae


Areale dell'ordine Testudines,
blu: tartarughe marine, nero: tartarughe terrestri
• Superfamiglia Trionychoidae
• Famiglia Adocidae
• Famiglia Carettochelyidae
• Famiglia Trionychidae
• Superfamiglia Kinosternoidae
• Famiglia Dermatemydidae
• Famiglia Kinosternidae
• Famiglia Platysternidae
• Superfamiglia Chelonioidea
• Famiglia Toxochelyidae (estinta)
• Famiglia Cheloniidae
• Famiglia Thalassemyidae (estinta)
• Famiglia Dermochelyidae
• Famiglia Protostegidae (estinta)
Sottordine Pleurodira
• Famiglia Proterochersidae (estinta)
• Famiglia Chelidae
• Famiglia Araripemydidae (estinta)
• Superfamiglia Pelomedusoidae
• Famiglia Pelomedusidae
• Famiglia Bothremydidae (estinta)
• Famiglia Podocnemididae


Le tartarughe marine
Le tartarughe marine sono rettili che nel corso della loro evoluzione si sono adattati a vivere in mare.
Sono 7 le specie che popolano i mari di tutto il mondo:
Tartaruga comune – Caretta caretta
Tartaruga verde – Chelonia mydas
Tartaruga liuto – Dermochelys coriacea
Tartaruga embricata – Eretmochelys imbricata
Tartaruga bastarda – Lepidochelys kempii
Tartaruga olivacea – Lepidochelys olivacea
Tartaruga piatta – Natator depressus

Tartaruga comune – Caretta caretta
Con una lunghezza massima di circa 140 cm di carapace è una delle tre specie di tartarughe marine che vivono in Mediterraneo. Il carapace presenta una colorazione marrone –rossiccia con 5 placche neurali, 5 paia di placche costali e 12 paia di placche marginali. Il piastrone ha una colorazione tendente al giallo. La sua alimentazione è costituita prevalentemente da crostacei e molluschi ma anche da organismi planctonici come ad esempio alcune specie di meduse. In alcuni contenuti stomacali sono stati ritrovati esemplari di cavallucci marini e pesci ago ( generi Hippocampus e Syngnathus ).
Il periodo della deposizione varia dai primi di maggio fino alla fine di agosto. Un nido è composto da un numero variabile di uova (fino ad un massimo registrato di 190).In Mediterraneo i maggiori siti di deposizione sono in Grecia, Turchia, Libia , Tunisia ed Italia. Questa specie è l’unica che regolarmente depone le uova in alcuni siti lungo le coste italiane ( es. Isole Pelagie).
Tartaruga verde – Chelonia mydas
Caratteristica sistematica di questa specie è la presenza di 5 placche neurali, 4 paia di placche costali e 11 paia di placche marginali. Il carapace ha una colorazione verde tendente al nero e il piastrone è giallastro. Raggiunge i 125 cm di carapace e i 250 kg di peso.
E’ una tartaruga erbivora che predilige le acque basse anche se nelle fasi giovanili è principalmente carnivora. Particolare è la ranfoteca dentellata che facilita la sua alimentazione basata principalmente su piante marine quali Posidonia e Zostera.
Il periodo di deposizione è legato alla latitudine in cui esse vivono. In Mediterraneo i siti principali sono in Turchia, Cipro ed Israele principalmente nel periodo estivo. Ogni nido può essere formato da 38-195 uova.

Tartaruga liuto – Dermochelys coriacea
La particolarità di questa tartaruga è l’assenza di un carapace osseo che è stato sostituito da una pelle cuoiosa supportata da placche ossee. La colorazione è nera con macchie rosa prevalentemente sul collo e nella parte anteriore e posteriore degli arti. Le natatoie anteriori possono raggiungere i 2,5 metri di lunghezza. E’ la più grande tartaruga esistente: può raggiungere infatti i 2 m di lunghezza e i 700 Kg di peso. Nella parte anteriore della ranfoteca la presenza di due cuspidi forniscono, quando la stessa è chiusa, la caratteristica forma a W.
Si nutre principalmente di meduse, salpe, calamari, larve di crostacei e pesci. Animali prevalentemente pelagici sono conosciuti per il loro comportamento durante la deposizione. Presente in Mediterraneo dove però non nidifica. Le deposizioni ad esempio avvengono da marzo a giugno in Colombia e da ottobre a febbraio in Messico. La tartaruga liuto si riproduce ogni 2-3 anni e può deporre da 4 a 5 nidi per stagione riproduttiva. Un nido può contenere un numero variabile di uova: da 46 a 160.

Tartaruga embricata – Eretmochelys imbricata
Tra le tartarughe marine è la più colorata: il carapace presenta striature marroni e nere su un fondo color ambra, il piastrone è giallastro. Presenta 5 placche neurali, 4 paia di costali e 11 paia di marginali come la Chelonia. Il suo nome deriva dalla conformazione delle placche che nei giovani sono in parte sovrapposte, quindi embricate. Con la crescita la struttura delle pacche cornee tende a uniformarsi risultando così perfettamente unite negli individui adulti. Si nutre principalmente di crostacei, molluschi e alghe raggiungendo anche i 100 metri di profondità. Si ciba inoltre di spugne. E’ la più tropicale delle tartarughe marine. Predilige le acque tropicali, calde e basse, dell’area indo-pacifica e dell’Atlantico centrale. In Mediteranno è considerata una specie occasionale. I luoghi di deposizione di questa specie sono molto isolati. Il periodo di nidificazione dipende dalla latitudine. Ogni nido può contenere da 71 a 250 uova. Anche se raggiunge la maturità sessuale abbastanza precocemente (intorno ai 3 anni) e i siti di deposizione siano molto isolati le popolazioni di tartarughe embricate sono molto rare. Infatti questa specie, nei tempi passati, è stata sempre soggetta ad una pesca finalizzata alla produzione di oggetti decorativi e gioielli. Sebbene oggi siano state istituite delle normative per la tutela di questa specie non è difficile trovare piccoli souvenir nei mercatini delle regioni che si affacciano nell’Oceano Indiano.

Tartaruga bastarda – Lepidochelys kempii
Tartaruga di piccole dimensioni era considerata frutto di un incrocio tra la tartaruga comune e la tartaruga verde. Per questo motivo era stata denominata “bastarda”. La livrea del suo carapace cambia con l’età. I piccoli sono grigio scuro per raggiungere una colorazione verde oliva negli individui adulti per poi ridiventare grigio scuro negli esemplari molto vecchi. Anche il piastrone cambia colorazione da bianco a giallastro. La sua alimentazione è principalmente carnivora. Le sue abitudine riproduttive sono poco conosciute ma sembra che questa specie deponga le uova in una sola spiaggia del Messico. Caratteristica di questa specie è il fenomeno della “arribada” un deposizione di massa. Ad esempio in una singola spiaggia di Racho Nuevo nel Golfo del Messico sono state registrate 40.000 femmine in deposizione. Con i passare del tempo il numero di femmine che determinano questo particolare evento sono drasticamente diminuite. Nel 1995 la grande arribada ha interessato soltanto 1429 femmine. I giovani di questa specie vivono soprattutto lungo le coste europee e africane dell’oceano Atlantico.

Tartaruga olivacea – Lepidochelys olivacea
La colorazione verde oliva del suo carapace conferisce il nome a questa tartaruga, la più piccola tra le specie di tartarughe marine ( in media 68 cm di carapace).
Prevalentemente carnivora si nutre di pesci, molluschi ( bivalvi e gasteropodi), crostacei (antipodi, isopodi), briozoi, ascidie. Come avviene per la tartaruga bastarda le femmine di questa specie si danno appuntamento e risalgono tutte insieme sulla stessa spiaggia per deporre le uova. In Messico il periodo di deposizione inizia con l’estate per protrarsi fino al tardo autunno. Ogni nido può essere formato al massimo da circa 102 uova. Vive nelle regioni tropicali dell’Oceano Pacifico, Indiano e Atlantico dove predilige le acque che coprono la piattaforma continentale.

Tartaruga piatta – Natator depressus
Caratteristica di questa tartaruga è la presenza di un unico artiglio nelle pinne anteriori. Il carapace di forma piatta ed ellittica ha una colorazione verde- grigio mentre in piastrone è uniformemente chiaro.
Il suo habitat principale è caratterizzato da acque basse del sottocosta e quelle delle barriere coralline. Poco si conosce sulle sue abitudini alimentari. E’ una specie endemica dell’Australia dove, nel periodo compreso tra novembre e dicembre, depone le uova nella zone a nord-ovest del continente. Ogni nido contiene un numero ridotto di uova ( da 7 a 73 uova) .
Poco o niente si conosce circa il suo comportamento e le sue migrazioni.




FONTE: http://cervellodiscorta.files.wordpress.com/2007/07/tartaruga-embricata.jpg


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MessaggioOggetto: Re: La Tartaruga   Mer 24 Mar 2010 - 7:31

FONTE: http://www.animaltotem.com/turtle.html

Turtles love the water. In fact they spend a lot of time in the water and some go ashore only to lay and bury their eggs. There are some 250 types of turtles found in the world, 48 of which live in the United States. Turtle survival is highly based on their body structure. They use the shell (which is actually their backbone and ribs) on their backs as their home and can retreat into it when they sense danger. Another way turtles survive is by sensing vibrations in the water through their skin and shell. If a turtle is flipped over when hiding in its shell, it will use its strong neck to flip itself back over. Turtles have slow metabolisms which enable to live a long time.

Turtle teaches us to be careful in new situations and to be patient in reaching our goals. Turtle also teaches us to take things slow, for it gives us time to figure out if we need to protect our self or forge ahead. Turtle shows up in our lives when we need to go into shell and wait until our thoughts & ideas are ready to be expressed. He also teaches us to be adaptable to our environment so we can find the harmony within it.


Vedere anche: http://healing.about.com/od/animaltotems/ig/Animal-Totems-Photo-Gallery/Turtle.htm


FONTE: http://www.sayahda.com/cyc5.html

The Tortoise

The tortoise is a land bound creature and is exclusively terrestrial. In myth and folklore the tortoise represents determination and longevity. Tortoises have high domed shells and heavy elephant like hind legs. The weight of its shell keeps it from moving too fast. The heaviness of its hind legs gives it the strength to carry heavy loads. Those with this totem often carry the loads of others as well as the burdens of self. They make good therapists but must be careful not to take on the problems of other people.

One of the most ancient and adaptable creatures, the tortoise holds the energy of patience and perseverance. They are very sensitive to the environment in which they live and have a strong psychic connection to mother earth. Extreme changes in climatic conditions can affect their overall disposition. Tortoise medicine people need a stable environment for their overall well being. Without this stability they are prone to mood swings.

The tortoise feels vibrations within the earth and reacts strongly to them. By observing the tortoise's behavior we are forewarned of any imbalances within the earth's core before an actual change occurs. This helps us prepare for geophysical changes in a balanced way.

The tortoise is self-reliant and self determined. Its ability to survive for as long as it has is partly due to its talent to stay focused. When this medicine is fully developed within us we use these gifts efficiently. If this medicine is underdeveloped staying centered in spite of the constant distractions that appear in our day-to-day life will be our greatest challenge.

Tortoises are vegetarians and are very terrestrial. Those with this totem can benefit from a similar diet and often place a great deal of importance on a stable home environment. The tortoise carries their home on their backs and reminds us that although stability in our life is important true stability lies within ourselves.

Moving slowly through life the tortoise observes and processes everything efficiently. This movement compliments its inner wisdom. When the tortoise shuffles into your life it is ready to share that wisdom with you. All you need to do is slow down, pay attention and begin to move with patient persistence. In this way longevity, inner strength and a harmonious lifestyle are attained.




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MessaggioOggetto: Re: La Tartaruga   Mer 24 Mar 2010 - 7:43

FONTE:

Cultural depictions of turtles and tortoises
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia




The Tortoise and the Hare, illustrated by Milo Winter in a 1919 Aesop anthology.
Turtles and tortoises are frequently depicted in popular culture as easygoing, patient, and wise creatures, snapping turtles aside.[citation needed] Due to their long lifespan, slow movement, sturdiness, and wrinkled appearance, they are an emblem of longevity and stability in many cultures around the world.[1][2] Turtles are regularly incorporated into human culture, with painters, photographers, poets, songwriters, and sculptors using them as subjects.[3] They have an important role in mythologies around the world,[4] and are often implicated in creation myths regarding the origin of the Earth.[5] Sea turtles are a charismatic megafauna and are used as symbols of the marine environment and environmentalism.[3]
As a result of its role as a slow, peaceful creature in culture, the turtle can be misconceived as a sedentary animal; however, many types of turtle, especially sea turtles, frequently migrate over large distances in oceans.[6]
Contents

• 1 In Mythology, Legends and Folklore
• 2 In fiction
• 3 Political use
• 4 In conservation and tourism
• 5 In slang
• 6 See also
• 7 References
• 8 External links

In Mythology, Legends and Folklore





A bas-relief from Angkor Wat, Cambodia, shows Samudra manthan-Vishnu in the center and his turtle avatar Kurma below
The turtle has a prominent position as a symbol of steadfastness and tranquility in religion, mythology, and folklore from around the world.[6] A tortoise’s longevity is suggested by its long lifespan and its shell, which was thought to protect it from any foe.[2] In the creation myths of several cultures, the turtle or tortoise carries the world upon its back or supports the heavens.[5]
In Chinese tradition the creator goddess Nu Gua cuts the legs off a sea turtle and uses them to prop up the sky after Gong Gong destroys the mountain that had supported the sky. The flat undershell and round domed upper shell of a turtle resembles the ancient Chinese idea of a flat earth and round domed sky.[7]
The World Turtle carries the Earth upon its back in myths from North America. In Cheyenne tradition, the great creator spirit Maheo kneads some mud he takes from a coot's beak until it expands so much that only Old Grandmother Turtle can support it on her back. In Mohawk tradition, the trembling or shaking of the Earth is thought of as a sign that the World Turtle is stretching beneath the great weight that she carries.[5]





Japanese Edo period depiction of a minogame
In a story from Admiralty Island, people are born from eggs laid by the World Turtle. There are many similar creation stories throughout Polynesia.[5]
Turtles and tortoises are incorporated into many religious traditions and mythologies around the world.[4] In ancient Mesopotamia, the turtle was associated with the god Ea and was used on kudurrus as a symbol of Ea.[8] Ijapa the tortoise is a trickster in a cycle of tales told by the Yoruba of Nigeria.[5]
In Hindu mythology the world is thought to rest on the backs of four elephants, who stand on the shell of a turtle.[9] In Hinduism, Akupara is a tortoise who carries the world on his back. It upholds the Earth and the sea.[2] One avatar of Vishnu is said to be the giant turtle Kurma. The Sri Kurmam Temple in Andhra Pradesh, India is dedicated to the Kurma-avatar.
In China, the tortoise is one of the “Four Fabulous Animals”,[2] the most prominent beasts of China. It is of the water element.[10] The other animals are the tiger, phoenix, and dragon. These animals govern the four points of the compass, with the Black Tortoise the ruler of the north, symbolizing endurance, strength, and longevity.[11] Along with the Tiger, they are the only two of the four that is a real animal, although it is depicted with the supernatural features of dragon ears, flaming tentacles at its shoulders and hips, and a long hairy tail. The hairy tail is based on seaweed and the growth of plant parasites that are found on older tortoises’ shells, which flow behind the tortoise as it swims. The tortoise is a symbol of longevity, with a potential lifespan of ten thousand years.[2] Due to its longevity, a symbol of a turtle was often used during burials. A burial mound might be shaped like a turtle, and even called a “grave turtle”. A carved turtle, known as bixi was used as a plinth for memorial tablets of high ranking officials during the Sui Dynasty (581-618 CE) and the Ming period (1368-1644 CE). Enormous turtles supported the memorial tablets of emperors.[11]







A bixi holding Kangxi Emperor's stele near Marco Polo Bridge in Beijing, China





The stone turtle carries stela on its back Văn Miếu in Hanoi, Vietnam





Stone Turtle of Karakorum.


In Feng shui the rear of the home is represented by the Black Tortoise, which signifies support for home, family life, and personal relationships. A tortoise at the back door of a house or in the backyard by a pond is said to attract good fortune and many blessings. Three tortoises stacked on top of each other represents a mother and her babies.[10] In Daoist art, the tortoise is an emblem of the triad of earth-humankind-heaven.[12]
Tortoise shells were used for divination in the ancient Shang Dynasty China, and carry the earliest specimens of Chinese writing.
In Taiwanese villages, paste cakes of flour shaped like turtles are made for festivals that are held in honor of the lineage patron deity. People buy these cakes at their lineage temple and take them home to assure prosperity, harmony, and security for the following year.[11]
In Japan, the turtle has developed a more independent tradition than the other three prominent beasts of China. In particular the minogame (蓑亀?), which is so old it has a train of seaweed growing on its back, is a symbol of longevity and felicity. A minogame has an important role in the well-known legend of Urashima Tarō. The tortoise is an attribute of Kompira, the deity of seafarers. It is a favored motif by netsuke-carvers and other artisans, and features in traditional Japanese wedding ceremonies.[2] There is also a well-known tortoise-shell artistic pattern, based on the nearly hexagonal shape of a tortoise’s shell. These patterns are usually composed of symmetrical hexagons, sometimes with smaller hexagons within them.[13]
Many legends of Vietnam connect closely to turtle. In Yao dynasty of China, a Vietnamese King's envoy offered a sacred turtle (Vietnamese: Thần Quy) which was carved Khoa Đẩu script on its carapace writing all things happening from the time Sky and Earth had just been born. Yao King ordered a person copied it and called it Turtle Calendar.
Another legend told that Kim Quy Deity (literally: Golden Turtle Deity) came into sight and crawled after An Dương Vương's pray. And follow the Deity's foot prints, An Dương Vương built Co Loa citadel in spiral model and got result. Furthermore, An Dương Vương was given present a Kim Quy Deity's claw to make the trigger (Vietnamese: lẫy), one part of the crossbow (Vietnamese: nỏ) named Linh Quang Kim Trảo Thần Nỏ which is the military secret of winning Zhao Tuo. Unfortunately, a wicked scheme of stealing the sacred crossbow through a political marriage made Vietnam lose its sovereignty for 1000 years hence.[citation needed]
An 15th century- legend told that Lê Lợi returned his sacred sword named Thuận Thiên (literally: Heaven's Will) to Golden Turtle in Lục Thủy lake after he had won Ming's army. That is why Lục Thủy lake was renamed to Sword Lake (Vietnamese: Hồ Gươm) or Returning Sword lake (Vietnamese: Hồ Hoàn Kiếm). This action symbolizes to taking leave of weapons for peace.





"Br'er Fox Tackles Br'er Tarrypin", from Uncle Remus, His Songs and His Sayings: The Folk-Lore of the Old Plantation
Br'er Turtle, or Br'er Tarrypin, is a fictional character from Uncle Remus's folk tales and Disney's controversial film adaptation about Br'er Rabbit. He is the neighbor of Br'er Rabbit, and is often hunted by Br'er Fox and Br'er Bear; though the duo tend to focus more on hunting Br'er Rabbit.
In fiction
The turtle has often been a humorous figure in literature, such as in Yertle the Turtle by Dr. Seuss.[14] In children’s literature, the turtle is often depicted as having a mixture of animal and human characteristics.[14][15]
In Aesop's fable The Tortoise and the Hare, a tortoise defeats an overconfident hare in a race. In the Hypnerotomachia Poliphili (1499), there is an engraving of a woman holding a turtle in one hand and a pair of outspread wings in the other. The turtle symbolizes stagnation and slowness, compared to the elevation of the spirit denoted by the wings.[1]

There is a character called the Mock Turtle in Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. In the illustration by John Tenniel, the Mock Turtle is depicted as a turtle with the head, hooves, and tail of a calf; referencing the real ingredients of mock turtle soup.[16]
In the children's story, Esio Trot by Roald Dahl, a character named Mrs. Silver has a small pet tortoise, Alfie, who she loves very much. One morning, Mrs. Silver mentions to Mr. Hoppy that even though she has had Alfie for many years, her pet has only grown a tiny bit and has gained only 3 ounces in weight. She confesses that she wishes she knew of some way to make her little Alfie grown into a larger, more dignified tortoise. Mr. Hoppy suddenly thinks of a way to give Mrs. Silver her wish and (he hopes) win her affection. He eventually begins swapping the tortoise for bigger and bigger ones, with the illusion of using magic.
Michael Ende's books Momo (1973) and The Neverending Story (1979) feature, respectively, the tortoise Cassiopeia, who can see into the future and display messages on her shell, and the giant, wise swamp turtle Morla. Some of his other works also feature turtles and tortoises.
In the books by Terry Pratchett, the Discworld rests on the back of the gigantic star-turtle Great A'Tuin. In the Discworld novel Small Gods, the Great God Om manifests as a tortoise. Yertle the Turtle by children's author Dr. Seuss is a king turtle who orders all the other turtles in his pond, called Salamasond, to stack themselves beneath him so that he can look out across all his kingdom but he ends up falling into the mud.[14]
In The Grapes of Wrath, John Steinbeck uses the tortoise as an emblem of the resolve and persistence of the "Okies" that travel west across the US for a better life.[4]
In Stephen King's Dark Tower Series, the turtle is a prominent figure. Named Maturin, the turtle is one of the 12 guardians of the beams which hold up the dark tower. There is also a small carving of the turtle which is described as a 'tiny god'. A rhyme is recited by the characters, "See the TURTLE of enormous girth, on his shell he holds the earth." This rhyme and the turtle also show up in Stephen King's "It", where the turtle represents the opposition to the terror that is It.
Great A'Tuin is the fictional giant star turtle in the Discworld universe, who travels through space, carrying the four giant elephants (named Berilia, Tubul, Great T'Phon, and Jerakeen) who in turn carry the Discworld. A member of the species Chelys galactica, A'Tuin is the only turtle to ever feature on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. Its shell is frosted with frozen methane, pitted with meteor craters, and scoured with asteroidal dust.
Great A'Tuin's sex is unknown, but is the subject of much speculation by some of the Disc's finest scientific minds - in an analogy to astrophysicists, specialists in this field are called astrochelonians.The sex of The World Turtle is pivotal in proving or disproving a number of conflicting theories about the destination of "Great A'Tuin's" journey through the cosmos. If (as one popular theory states) "Great A'Tuin" is moving to his (or her) mating grounds, then at the point of mating might the civilisations of the Disc be crushed or simply slide off? Attempts by telepaths to learn more about Great A'Tuin's intents have not met with much success, mainly because they did not realise that its brain functions on such a slow timescale.
Following the events in The Light Fantastic, Great A'Tuin attended the hatching of eight baby turtles, each with four baby elephants and a tiny Discworld of their own. They have since gone off on their own journeys.
The gender of the Turtle is something of a mystery to the inhabitants of the disc, being not able to peer underneath the turtle themselves. This leads to some great debate and argument as to what position the turtle would assume should there be another cosmic big bang.
Other notable examples include:
• Mock Turtle is a character devised by Lewis Carroll from his popular book Alice's Adventures in Wonderland
• Om who spends most of the Discworld novel Small Gods in the form of a tortoise
• Pong Pagong, a character in the Filipino children's show Batibot
• Tortoise, a character in "What the Tortoise Said to Achilles"
• Yertle the Turtle is a picture book collection by Theodor Geisel


Duck and Cover was a six minute civil defense film that starred an animated character called Bert the Turtle. In “Tortoise Wins by a Hare” Bugs Bunny raced the slow moving Cecil Turtle in an Aesop’s Fables spoof.[17]
The Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles are comic book characters whose adventures have been adapted for TV and film. They are Leonardo, Raphael, Donatello, and Michelangelo. They were created in 1983.[18] They were a cultural phenomenon between 1988 and 1992, with their images ubiquitous in advertising, cinema, comics, magazines, music, newspapers, and television.[19] Their action figures were top sellers around the world. In 1990, the cartoon series was shown on more than 125 television stations every day and the comic books sold 125,000 copies a month.[18] Their origin – flushed down the toilet and ending up in the sewer system – echoed contemporary stories of small reptiles that were flushed down toilets growing into fierce animals in city sewers.[19]






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MessaggioOggetto: Re: La Tartaruga   Mer 24 Mar 2010 - 7:47

Turtles are also featured in the popular worldwide phenomenon Pokémon, with creatures such as Blastoise, Torkoal, Squirtle, Turtwig, and Grotle.
Pong Pagong was a character in the Filipino children's show Batibot. Pong was in the form of a turtle standing on its hindlegs. Like Big Bird of Sesame Street, Pong was an enlarged small-animal character, standing over six feet tall and towering over human co-stars and aged to be around six years old.
Together with Batibot's other equally popular muppet, Kiko Matsing, Pong entertained and taught children. In 1994 both characters were pulled out from the show by the Children's Television Workshop because of licensing issues.
Verne is a fictional turtle in the Over the Hedge merchandise. In the movie he is played by Gary Shandling. In the movie, Verne is shown as a tentative, cautious and neurotic turtle who considers himself the leader of a pack forest foragers. Verne calls his pack his "family"; Verne's family includes: Hammy the squirrel, Stella the skunk, Ozzie and Heather the opossums, Lou, Penny, Quillo, Spike and Bucky the porcupines. Verne is quite disturbed when he finds out that the humans settled over their forest while they were hibernating and misses his pristine forest a lot. Verne prefers to eat the primitive way, i.e. by foraging through the forest, unlike the other foragers who are led by RJ into the neighboring suburb to steal the humans' food. Verne is also particularly suspicious of RJ, because "his tail tingles everytime he gets near him (RJ)," which is supposed to indicate something wrong.
Although the foragers keep ignoring Verne's warnings about RJ, at one point even considering him to be jealous of RJ's cool antics, in the end they regret ignoring Verne after they figure out that Verne was right. RJ used the foragers to steal all the food for an angry bear (Vincent) and afterwards dumped the foragers, leaving them vulnerable to the traps of the hi-tech pest control specialist, the Verminator. However, later on RJ helps them escape from the Verminator's enclosures, and eventually saves them from Vincent, who hunted down the pest control van after RJ threw the wagon of food he gathered for the bear in front of the van in order to distract the Verminator and allow the foragers to escape from the enclosures inside the van. Near the end of the movie, Verne officially introduces RJ to the family, saying that "this (the primitive life) is the gateway to the good life"; RJ used the same phrase earlier in the movie when introducing the foragers to suburbia. In the comic strip, Verne has a girlfriend, Velma, and a cousin Plushie. However neither of those characters appear in the film.
Walt Kelly's Pogo featured a turtle named Churchy LeFemme, always afraid of Friday the 13th and usually wearing a pirate's hat.
Koopa Troopas (Japanese ノコノコ Nokonoko) are common enemies in the Mario Series which resemble tortoises, usually displayed as footsoldiers under the direct leadership of Bowser. Since Super Mario 64 however, many Koopas whom do not work for Bowser (or any other villain) have appeared, some of which even act as allies to Mario during his adventures. Koopa Troopas are turtle-like humanoids with shells that come in many different colours. Koopas, along with Goombas, are some of Mario's most persistent foes.
Tortimer, also from a game, is the tortoise mayor of your town. He is eccentric and hosts many of the towns tournaments.
The Giant Turtle is a character from The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask. This unnamed, mysterious turtle plays a minor, but invaluable role during Link's quest to stop the destruction of Termina. Very little is known about this giant turtle; however, during his short conversation with Link and Lulu, he appears to be a guardian god of the Zora, similar to Lord Jabu-Jabu.
Toby Turtle is a character in the Disney film Robin Hood. He is cheerful, smart, and a little bit of a coward. He wears a brown hat and big round black glasses. He is first seen playing with Skippy and his friends when they try out Skippy's bow and arrow. When the arrows lands in the castle grounds, Skippy makes Toby swear by an oath that he will not tattle on him. Later, they meet Maid Marian and Lady Kluck when they retrieve Skippy's arrow. Then he seen at the archery tournament, in which his dad is entered.
He is then later seen at the party after the tournament and dodges arrows during the jail break scene. He is seen on the TV show House of Mouse, as a guest and In Mickey's Christmas Carol, he is seen playing in the streets with Skippy.
Howard the Turtle was a staple character on the Canadian television show for children, Razzle Dazzle. The show ran in the early and middle 1960s and was first hosted by Alan Hamel, who perhaps went on to greater fame by marrying Suzanne Somers in 1977.
Rolling Turtle is a mini-boss in Kirby's Adventure that gives the Throw Ability. He is a turtle with green gloves and a shell that rises above his body. His attacks include jumping, rolling into Kirby and throwing smaller red turtles. When he grabs Kirby, he either spins then throws Kirby against the wall or jumps and lands on Kirby. If he rolls into Kirby he will grab him and throw him across the screen, so this could be the strongest mini-boss in the game.
In Kirby: Nightmare in Dream Land Rolling Turtle was replaced with Phan Phan. He never made an appearance in any other Kirby game after that. Rolling Turtle and Capsule J are considered erased from the series until further notice.
Lodizal is an enormous turtle in the fantasy MMORPG EverQuest, whose slain shell may be turned into a high-end item, the Lodizal Shell Shield.
Other notable examples include:
• Crush and Squirt, two Australian Turtles from Finding Nemo
• Super-Turtle, a character in the DC Comics universe
• Terrific Whatzit, a character in the DC Comics universe
• Timmy-Joe Terrapin/Fastback, in Captain Carrot and his Amazing Zoo Crew
• Tim Turtle, a characters in the Lionel's Kingdom
• Toto, the main character of British children's show Harry & Toto.
• Mudface the Turtle in Hugh Lofting's Doctor Dolittle series, particularly Doctor Dolittle and the Secret Lake.
Political use
Various Native American groups use the term "Great Turtle Island" as an alternate term for America, use of the term implying that the continent in question belongs to its indigenous inhabitants and that its conquest and settlement by Europeans was illegitimate [1]
In conservation and tourism
Sea turtles are used to promote tourism, as sea turtles can have a symbolic role in the imaginations of potential tourists. Tourists interact with turtles in countries such as Australia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Greece, and the United States. Turtle-based ecotourism activities take place on nesting beaches around the world.[3] Sea turtles are on Tuvalu postage stamps as a national symbol.[3] The mascot of the KAME project is a sea turtle.
Due to the turtles’ status as a charismatic megafauna, they are a flagship species for conservation efforts. Educating the public about turtles and conserving their habitats can positively affect other species in the turtles’ habitat. Turtles are also used as marketing tools to give products the appearance of being environmentally friendly.[3]
Ecotourism has become popular in Brazil. In Praia do Forte a marine conservation project called Tamar (from tartaruga marinha or sea turtle) has more than 300,000 visitors every year, attracted by the idea of saving the habitat of five endangered sea turtle species that nest on the coast. Tamar uses the sea turtle as a symbol for the need for the protection of the coastal environment. Turtle related souvenirs are sold to tourists, and the hotels are “turtle friendly”, being low-rise, dimly lit, and located back from the beach.[20]
At the World Trade Organization's 1999 meeting in Seattle, sea turtles were a focal point of protests.[3] A group of protestors from the Earth Island Institute that focused on the issue of TED use in shrimp trawls wore sea turtle costumes. They had brought 500 turtle costumes to the demonstration.[21] Images of protesters wearing turtle costumes were carried in the media, and they became a symbol of the anti-globalization movement.[3]
In slang
Mandarin slang uses tortoises and turtles for three striking images. Firstly, tortoises and turtles are regarded as insufficiently virile. So "to wear a green hat" (i.e., to look like a tortoise or turtle) is to be cuckolded. It is therefore a major faux pas for a man to wear a green hat.
Secondly, "sea turtle" (海龟, hǎi gūi) is slang for a returnee, a Chinese person who has studied abroad and returned home. (There is also a pun here, as hǎi gūi is also 海归, "to come back home from overseas"). The term has positive connotations, implying a dynamic ability to travel across the ocean. By contrast, "kelp", which sounds similar to "turtle" in Mandarin, is used to describe an unemployed returnee. It's a less positive term, implying the person is drifting aimlessly.
Finally, "Turtle" is commonly used as a nickname for slow or short people who look like a turtle when they sit down. Commonly, this nickname begins as an insult but is later embraced by the "Turtle".
See also
• Owen and Mzee, a real-life friendship between an old Aldabra tortoise and a baby hippopotamus.
• Turtle racing
References
1. ^ a b Cirlot, Juan-Eduardo, trans. Sage, Jack, 2002, A Dictionary of Symbols, Courier Dover Publications, ISBN 0-486-42523-1.
2. ^ a b c d e f Ball, Catherine, 2004, Animal Motifs in Asian Art, Courier Dover Publications, ISBN 0-486-43338-2.
3. ^ a b c d e f g Lutz, Peter L., Musick, John A., and Wyneken, Jeanette, 2002, The Biology of Sea Turtles, CRC Press, ISBN 0-849-31123-3.
4. ^ a b c Garfield, Eugene, 1986, The Turtle: A Most Ancient Mystery. Part 1. Its Role in Art, Literature, and Mythology, Towards Scientography: 9 (Essays of An Information Scientist), Isis Press, ISBN 0-894-95081-9.
5. ^ a b c d e Stookey, Lorena Laura, 2004, Thematic Guide to World Mythology, Greenwood Press, ISBN 0-313-31505-1.
6. ^ a b Plotkin, Pamela, T., 2007, Biology and Conservation of Ridley Sea Turtles, Johns Hopkins University, ISBN 0-801-88611-2.
7. ^ Allan, Sarah, 1991, The Shape of the Turtle: Myth, Art, and Cosmos in Early China, SUNY Press, ISBN 0-791-40459-5.
8. ^ Green, Anthony and Black, Jeremy, 1992, Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia: an illustrated dictionary, University of Texas Press, ISBN 0-292-70794-0.
9. ^ Cobb, Kelton, 2005, The Blackwell Guide to Theology and Popular Culture, Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 1-405-10698-0.
10. ^ a b Moran, Elizabeth, Biktashev, Val and Yu, Joseph, 2002, Complete Idiot's Guide to Feng Shui, Alpha Books, ISBN 0-028-64339-9.
11. ^ a b c Simoons, Frederick J., 1991, Food in China: A Cultural and Historical Inquiry, CRC Press, ISBN 0-849-38804-X.
12. ^ Tresidder, Jack, 2005, The Complete Dictionary of Symbols, Chronicle Books, ISBN 0-811-84767-5.
13. ^ Niwa, Motoji, 2001, trans, Thomas, Jay W., Snow, Wave, Pine: Traditional Patterns in Japanese Design, ISBN 4-770-02689-7.
14. ^ a b c Smith-Marder, Paula, The Turtle and the Psyche, Journal of Psychological Perspectives, December 2006, 49, 2, p. 228-248, DOI: 10.1080/00332920600998262.
15. ^ Goldstein, Jeffrey H., 1994, Toys, Play, and Child Development, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-45564-2.
16. ^ Reichertz, Ronald, 1997, The Making of the Alice Books, McGill-Queen’s Press, ISBN 0-773-52081-3.
17. ^ Lenburg, Jeff, 2006, Who's Who in Animated Cartoons: An International Guide to Film & Television, Hal Leonard, ISBN 1-557-83671-X.
18. ^ a b Long, Mark A., 2002, Bad Fads, ECW Press, ISBN 1-550-22491-3.
19. ^ a b Jones, Dudley, and Watkins, Tony, 2000, A Necessary Fantasy?: The Heroic Figure in Children's Popular Culture, Routledge, ISBN 0-815-31844-8.
20. ^ Levine, Robert M., 1999, The History of Brazil, Greenwood Press, ISBN 0-313-30390-8.
21. ^ Berg, John C., 2003, Teamsters and Turtles?: U.S. Progressive Political Movements in the 21st Century, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 0-742-50192-2.
External links
• Sea Turtle Postage Stamps of the World.













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MessaggioOggetto: Tartaruga   Mer 24 Mar 2010 - 8:40

Cito la fonte:
Dal libro "Segni e presagi del mondo animale - i poteri magici di piccole e grandi creature" di Ted Andrews ediz. Mediterranee


Simbolismo fondamentale. maternità, longevità, risveglio alle opportunità.
Le tartarughe ci riconrdano che la via verso il cielo passa per la terra, e la Madre Terra ha tutto ciò che ci occorre: si prenderà curadi noi, ci proteggerà e ci nutrirà, fino a quando faremo la stessa cosa con lei.
Affinchè ciò possa verificarsi, dobbiamo rallentare i nostri ritmi e affinare la nostra sensibilità, onde riuscire a vedere il legame esistente tra tutte le cose.
Proprio come la tartaruga non è in grado di separarsi dal suo guscio, neppure noi possiamo vivere separati da quanto dobbiamo realizzare sulla terra.
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MessaggioOggetto: La tartaruga   Ven 2 Apr 2010 - 17:42

FONTE: http://animalitotem.wordpress.com/2008/02/05/animali-dalla-s-alla-z/

Stabilità. Aiuta a stare coi piedi per terra, essendo presenti nel qui e ora. Favorisce la sincronia tra cuore, mente e spirito. Aiuta a non forzare le situazioni e fornisce protezione emotiva e psichica, quando si affrontano persone o situazioni troppo intense.





FONTE IMMAGINE: http://www.astea-cidrea.it/pagina%20065.asp


Ultima modifica di Tila il Mer 29 Set 2010 - 10:23, modificato 2 volte
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: La Tartaruga   Dom 11 Lug 2010 - 19:00

FONTE: Animali e spiritualità. La convivenza con l'uomo. Sacrifici rituali e miti. Spiriti e simboli animali di Saunders Nicholas J. Ed. EDT

Nei racconti leggendari spesso si distingue appena tra tartaruga acquatica e terrestre, del resto anche a livello scientifico le due specie furono differenziate solo nel XVI secolo. Per la robustezza del loro guscio e l'apparente lentezza dei loro movimenti, entrambe sono state rappresentate come la base d'appoggio del mondo dalle culture più diverse, da quella hindu in Asia a quella degli Huron in America.

D'altronde, la cosmologia taoista immaginava l'universo attorniato da un guscio di tartaruga e questa idea era condivisa anche dai Sioux americani.

La cosmologia hindu invece concepiva l'universo proprio come il guscio bipartito dell'animale: la metà piatta inferiore - rappresentava la terra, mentre la parte tonda superiore - il capace - era la sfera celeste.

Gli indigeni delle praterie americane pensavano poi che il fragore dei terremoti fosse prodotto dalla tartaruga cosmica quando scuoteva il guscio.

La mitologia hindu stabilisce un nesso tra la fertilità e la tartaruga (che depone fino a 200 uova in una sola covata), la quale è identificata sia con Prajapati, il signore della creazione, sia con Vishnu, il conservatore dell'universo.

Persino il guscio vuoto della tartaruga ha trovato spazio nel mito.
Il dio greco Ermete uccise una tartaruga e alle estremità del guscio tese delle strisce di cuoio inventando la lira, strmento che poi diede ad Apollo - di cui divenne simbolo - quale punizione per avergli rubato il bestiame.

I Maya credevano che la terra fosse una grande tartaruga. Sebbene tale visione fosse comuni a popoli del Nord America e del Vecchio Mondo, i Maya si spingevano anche oltre. Il guscio dell'animale simbolizzava la terra tondeggiante, da cui il dio del mais Hun Hunahpu era spesso ritratto mentre emergeva per visitare il mondo.
Nella concezione Maya delle origini del mondo, i cui elementi inscindibili erano sacrificio, fertilità e mondo sotterraneo, gli dèi si affrontavano in sanguinosi rituali presso un altare somigliante a una mostruosa tartaruga.

Talvolta i Maya associavano la tartaruga alla superficie acquea che separarva la terra dal cielo e in tal caso la identificavano con il dio della pioggia Chac.


FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uxmal


Casa delle tartarughe

Casa delle tartarughe


La Casa delle tartarughe (Casa da las tortugas) è un piccolo edificio situato alla estremità nord-occidentale dell'ampio terrazzamento su cui si erige il Palazzo del Governatore. Lungo circa trenta metri e largo dieci, deve il suo nome alle tartarughe che ne decorano il cornicione superiore.

La tartaruga ha un importante significato simbolico nella cosmogonia maya, in quanto nutrice del dio del mais, origine della vita. I maya associavano inoltre la tartaruga al dio della pioggia Chaac.

FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chaac



Chaac (talora translitterato come Chaak o Chac) è il nome della divinità Maya della pioggia.
Secondo la tradizione questo dio dimorava nei cenotes, considerati una porta di ingresso all'inframondo.
Era una divinità particolarmente venerata tra i popoli di cultura Puuc, abitanti di zone caratterizzate da una carenza di precipitazioni.
Sue raffigurazioni si possono osservare in numerosi siti archeologici maya tra cui Uxmal, Sayil, Kabah e Chichén Itzá.
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: La Tartaruga   Lun 11 Ott 2010 - 16:43

FONTE: http://www.whats-your-sign.com/animal-symbolism-turtle.html

Turtle Meanings and Totem/Animal Symbolism of the Turtle

Those with the turtle as their animal totem can relate to the "sure and steady" message this creature brings to our lives.

It is also a powerful totem for protection as withdrawing into it's shell is an amazing self-defense mechanism.

The turtle has few predators, which gives it an innocent energy. This also increases its lifespan, and so holds the symbolic meaning for longevity in many cultures.

Animal symbolism of the turtle includes:

* Order
* Creation
* Patience
* Strength
* Stability
* Longevity
* Innocence
* Endurance
* Protection



Because of its seemingly wide-eyed, long-lived, carefree attitude the turtle is often thought to be the wisest of souls among the animal kingdom. We would all do well to take this as a lesson and move at our own pace as the turtle does.

Furthermore, the turtle takes its wisdom one day at a time - not reacting, simply accepting and moving on in its natural methods. Again, this is a powerful analogy for humankind, and we would benefit from adopting the same behavior pattern.

Tutles share an association with water, which lends meanings of motion, intuition and emotion to the myriad of more symbolic meanings of the turtle.

Other associations for the turtle include:

* Water
* Winter
* Humidity
* Venus (Roman)
* Aphrodite (Greek)
* Northern directions
* Lunar (moon aspect)
* Femininity (except in African lore where it is considered a male symbol)

In China and Japan the turtle is a symbol for longevity.

In Asian myth the turtle represents cosmic order:

* Its shell is symbolic of the heavens
* Its body symbolic of the earth
* Its undershell represents the underworld.

Furthermore, it is considered to have brought about the creation of the universe from its parts.

What's more, the turtle is a symbol of motherhood and creation. You can read more about that here.

Divination or foretelling has been known to be conducted by reading a turtle's shell and underbelly. These parts of the turtle are said to depict a map of the stars and sacred writings. Furthermore, most turtle shells are divided into thirteen sections which is associated with the thirteen phases of the moon in a year.



FONTE: http://www.linsdomain.com/totems/pages/turtle.htm

Mother Earth

Turtle is the oldest symbol for the Earth.
It is the personification of goddess energy and the eternal Earth itself.

If you have a Turtle totem,
you must be mindful of returning to the Earth what she has given you.
Honor the creative source within you.
Use water and earth energies to create a harmonious flow in your life.
Ask the Earth for assistance and her riches will pour forth.

If a Turtle totem shows up in your life,
slow down the pace of your life.
Bigger, stronger, faster are not always the best ways to reach your goals.

Turtle is fine teacher of the art of grounding.
When you learn to ground yourself to Earth's power and strength,
you place focus on your thoughts and actions
and use the Earth's limitless energies rather than your own to accomplish your will.

Turtle is the keeper of doors
and one of the ways into the Faerie Realm.


Some of the information on this webpage was derived from the following sources:
Sans, Jamie & Carson, David. Medicine Cards: the Discovery of Power Through the Way of Animals. Santa Fe, NM. 1988. Print.
Andrews, Ted. Animal-speak: the Spiritual & Magical Powers of Creatures Great & Small. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 1993. Print.
Andrews, Ted. Animal-Wise: the Spirit Language and Signs of Nature. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 1999. Print.
D. J. Conway. Animal Magick: the Art of Recognizing & Working with Familiars. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 2003. Print.
Farmer, Steven D. Animal Spirit Guides. Hayhouse Inc., 2006. Print.
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: La Tartaruga   Ven 17 Dic 2010 - 18:00

Buona sera a tutti,

ho trovato qualche interessante documento sui miti e tradizioni cinesi che riguardano la tartaruga...vi sono anche riferimenti al serpente che troverete invece in questo link....

buona lettura!


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ao_%28turtle%29

Ao (turtle)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

According to legend, Ao (Chinese: 鳌; pinyin: Áo) was a large marine turtle or tortoise who lived in the South China Sea during the time of the formation of the world by the goddess Nüwa, creator of mankind. When Nüwa was repairing the sky she chopped off Ao’s four legs and used them as supports.

Another myth claims that Ao lived in the Bohai Sea and carried Mount Penglai (蓬莱山), Mount Fangzhan (方丈山) and Mount Yingzhou (瀛洲山) (three of the five Mountains of the Eight Immortals) on his back.[1]


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Tortoise

Black Tortoise
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Black Tortoise is one of the Four Symbols of the Chinese constellations. It is sometimes called the Black Warrior of the North (北方玄武, Běi Fāng Xuán Wǔ), and is known as Genbu in Japan, Hyeonmu in Korea and Huyền Vũ in Vietnam. It represents the north and the winter season. Although its name in Chinese, Xuánwǔ, is often translated as Black Tortoise in English, it is usually depicted as both a tortoise and a snake, specifically with the snake coiling around the tortoise.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 The Seven Mansions of the Black Tortoise
* 2 Origin
* 3 Historic reference
* 4 See also
* 5 External links

[edit] The Seven Mansions of the Black Tortoise

Like the other Four Symbols, the Black Tortoise corresponds to seven "mansions", or positions, of the moon.

* Dipper (Chinese: 斗; pinyin: Dǒu)
* Ox (Chinese: 牛; pinyin: Niú)
* Girl (Chinese: 女; pinyin: Nǚ)
* Emptiness (Chinese: 虛; pinyin: Xū)
* Rooftop (Chinese: 危; pinyin: Wēi)
* Encampment (Chinese: 室; pinyin: Shì)
* Wall (Chinese: 壁; pinyin: Bì)

[edit] Origin

In ancient China, the tortoise and the snake were thought to be spiritual creatures symbolising longevity. During the Han Dynasty, people often wore jade pendants that were in the shape of tortoises. Because of ancient Chinese influence on Japan, honorific titles and badges in Japan often referred to the tortoise or images of tortoises.

[edit] Historic reference

In the classic novel, Journey to the West, Xuánwǔ was a king of the north who had two generals serving under him, a "Tortoise General" and a "Snake General." This king had a temple at Wudang Mountains in Hubei, thus there is a "Tortoise Mountain" and a "Snake Mountain" on the opposite sides of a river in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei.

In Taoist legend it was said that Xuánwǔ was the prince of a Chinese Emperor. However, he was not interested in taking the throne, but decided to study in Tao's way. At age 16, he left his parents to search for enlightenment in Tao's way. It was said that he eventually achieved god status and was worshipped as a god of northern sky.

Other Chinese legends also speak of how the "Tortoise General" and a "Snake General" came to be. During Xuánwǔ's study to achieve enlightenment and god status he was told that in order to fully achieve god status, he must purge all humanly flesh from his body. Since he was born he had been eating the food of the world, humanly food, therefore his stomach and intestines were still human. Legend told of an event that a god came and changed out his human stomach and intestines for a godly body so he could fully achieve god status. (It was also said that the stomach and intestines that were tossed out became the "Tortoise Mountain" and "Snake Mountain".) The stomach and intestines taken out by the god who did the surgery on Xuánwǔ were said to have taken on the shape of a tortoise (stomach) and a snake (intestines). As many Chinese legends speak of certain animals becoming demons over time as they gain knowledge, that's what the tortoise and snake became, and terrorized people. As Xuánwǔ, now in his god status, heard of this, he came and slayed the demons from his past. However, he did not kill them, as the snake and tortoise demons showed remorse. He let them train under him and atone for their wrong doings, and they became the "Tortoise General" and "Snake General", and they assisted Xuánwǔ with his quests.

According to another source, once Xuánwǔ's had begun study of the way, he discovered that he must purge himself of all his past sins to become a god. He learned to achieve this by washing his stomach and bowels (intestines) in the river. In the washing of his internal organs, his sins melted from them and into the river in a dark, black form. These then formed into a black tortoise and snake who terrorized the people. Once Xuánwǔ learned of this, he returned to conquer the forms of this past sins and subdue them under himself and they became his servants.

The place Li Shimin set to kill his brothers Li Jiancheng and Li Yuanji is the gate named Xuanwumen.


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wudanghshan-Xuanwu-in-Beijing-Capital-Museum-3796.jpg


FONTE:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bixi_%28tortoise%29

Bixi (tortoise)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bixi (simplified Chinese: 赑屃; traditional Chinese: 贔屭; pinyin: bìxì), also called guifu (龟趺) or baxia (霸下), is a stone tortoise, used as a pedestal for a stele or tablet.[1] Tortoise-mounted stelae have been traditionally used in the funerary complexes of Chinese emperors and other dignitaries. Later, they have also been used to commemorate an important event, such as an emperor's visit or the anniversary of World War II victory. Besides China, they can be found in Vietnam, Mongolia, Korea, and even the Russian Far East.

According to some 19th-century western authors, the Chinese tradition of using a tortoise as a pedestal may have a common source with the Indian legend of the world being held up by a giant turtle.[2] (For a turtle figure in the Indian mythology, see Kurma).

History

The tradition of tortoise-mounted stelae originated no later than early 3rd century AD (late Han Dynasty). According to the 1957 survey by Chêng Tê-k'un (鄭徳坤), the earliest extant tortoise-borne stele is thought to be the one at the tomb of Fan Min (樊敏), in Lushan County, Ya'an, Sichuan.[3] Victor Segalen had earlier identified the stele as a Han Dynasty monument; present-day authors agree, usually giving it the date of 205 AD.[4][5] The stele has rounded top with a dragon design in low relief - a precursor to the "two intertwined dragons" design that was very common on such steles even in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, over a thousand years later.[3][6]

In the collection of the Nanjing Museum there is a hunping funerary jar, dating to 272 AD, with a miniature architectural composition on top, depicting, among other objects, a tortoise carrying a stele erected by the Jin Dynasty governor of Changsha in honor of a local dignitary.[7]

Perhaps the best known extant early example of the genre is the set of four stele-bearing tortoises at the mausoleum of Xiao Xiu (475-518), who was the younger brother of the first Liang Dynasty emperor Wu (Xiao Yan), near Nanjing.[8] [9][10]

The bixi tradition flourished during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. The Ming founder, the Hongwu Emperor, in the first year after the dynasty had been proclaimed (1368), adopted regulations, allowing tortoise-based funerary tablets to the higher ranks of the nobility and the mandarinate. He tightened the rules in 1396, leaving only the highest nobility (those of the gong and hou ranks) and the officials of the top 3 ranks eligible for bixi-based stelae. The type of dragons crowning the tortoise-born stele, and the type and number of other statuary at the tomb site, were prescribed by the same regulations as well.[11]

At the Hongwu Emperor's own own mausoleum, a huge bixi holding the so-called Shengde stele welcomes visitors at the Sifangcheng pavilion at the entrance of the mausoleum complex. Three centuries later (1699), the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing Dynasty visited Nanjing and contributed another tortoise, with a stele praising the founder of the Ming, comparing him to the founders of the great Tang and Song dynasties of the past.[12][13]

The Hongwu Emperor's tortoise tradition was continued by the later Ming and Qing emperors, whose mausoleums are usually decorated by bixi-born steles as well.

Even the self-declared emperor Yuan Shikai was posthumously honored with a bixi-based stele in Anyang,[14] as was the Republic of China Premier Tan Yankai (1880–1930), whose stele near Nanjing's Linggu Temple had its inscription erased after the Communist Revolution.

Occasionally, a foreign head of state was honored with a bixi as well, as it happened to the sultan of Brunei Abdul Majid Hassan, who died during his visit to China in 1408. The sultan's grave, with a suitably royal bixi-based monument, was discovered in Yuhuatai District south of Nanjing in 1958.[15]

After an ancient Christian stele was unearthed in Xi'an in 1625, it, too, was put on the back of a tortoise. In 1907, this so-called Nestorian Stele was moved to the Stele Forest Museum along with its tortoise.[16] [17]

The name of the tortoise

The word bi 贔 or bixi 贔屭 (also written with a variant character, 贔屓) is translated by Chinese dictionaries as "strong", "capable to support great weight". The word bixi is attested already in Zhang Heng's (78-139) "Western Metropolis Rhapsody" (Xi Jing Fu), which mentions "the great strides" of the giant divine bixi.[24] Zhang Heng's follower Zuo Si (250 - 305) in his Wu Capital Rhapsody (Wu Jing Fu) explicitly associates the attribute bixi with the legendary giant turtle ao, whose head supports a sacred mountain.[25]

The term bixi became associated with the stele-carrying tortoises no later than the Ming Dynasty. The terminology, however, did not immediately become stable. The earliest known Ming-era list of fantastic creatures appearing in architecture and applied art is given by Lu Rong (1436–1494) in his Miscellaneous records from the bean garden (椒园杂记, Shuyuan Zaji). The bixi, with the syllables swapped (屭贔, xibi), appears in the first position in that list:

The xibi looks like a tortoise. By its nature it likes to carry heavy weights. It used to be employed to support stone tablets.[26]

Lu Rong claims that his list (including the total of 14 creatures) is based on the ancient books of beasts and supernatural creatures, the Shan Hai Jing and the Bo Wu Zhi (博物志); however, as the modern researchers Yang Jingrong and Liu Zhixiong note, that is not the case, and the names, much more likely, were taken by Lu Rong from the folklore of his times.[27]

Soon after Lu Rong, the mighty tablet-carrying tortoise appears the lists of the "Nine children of the Dragons", compiled by the several Ming authors. However, both Li Dongyang (1441–1516) in his Huai Lu Tang Ji and Xie Zhaozhe (謝肇淛, 1567–1624) in his Wu Za Ji (五雜俎, Five Assorted Offerings, ca. 1592), refer to the tortoise that carries the stele as name baxia (霸下), rather than bixi; at the same time they apply the name bixi to the "literature-loving" dragons that appear on the sides of the stele:

The baxia has an innate love for carrying weights; the creature [that] now [is] under tablets is its image. ... The bixi has an innate love for literature; the dragons [that] now [are] on the sides of tablets are its image.[28]

The name bixi, however, is given to the table-carrying tortoise in the more popular version of the list of the "Nine Children of the Dragon". In this form of the list, given e.g. by Yang Shen (1488–1559), the bixi is given the first position:

The bixi looks like a tortoise, and likes to carry heavy weights; [he] is the tortoise-carrier (guifu) now [seen] under stone tablets.[29]

[edit] Stone tortoises in art and popular lore

The great stone tortoises, whose antiquity sometimes went farther into the history than anyone could remember, often made impression on people who saw them, and excited their curiosity. It is said that an old legend of the stone tortoise made by Lu Ban that went to swim in the ocean every summer, and came back to its seaside hill in the fall, inspired Lu Ji's lines: [30] [31]

The stone tortoise cherishes in its heart the love of the sea.
How can I forget my home village?

The opening chapter of the 14-century novel Water Margin involves Marshal Hong releasing 108 spirits imprisoned under an ancient stele-bearing tortoise. [32]

The French poet and researcher Victor Segalen (1878–1919), who published both a scholarly book about China's stelae[33] and a book of poetry-in-prose about them,[34] was also impressed by the "truly emblematic" stone tortoises, their "firm gestures and elegiac posture".[35]

The continues to inspire modern Chinese artists, too.[36]



WWII monument in Wanping Castle, Beijing. People's Republic of China, 1995
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Minzu-zhengqi-haoran-changcun-Bixi-3563.jpg



Near Linggu Temple, Nanjing, Ming Dynasty
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Linggu-Stone-Tortoise-2901.jpg
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: La Tartaruga   Mer 9 Feb 2011 - 19:27

Admin ho trovato questa interessante leggenda giapponese che riporto grazie a wikipedia (inserisco anche la versione inglese).

Buona lettura!

FONTE:
http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urashima_Tar%C5%8D

Urashima Tarō
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Kuniyoshi_Station_38.jpg
Urashima Tarō in un'illustrazione del diciannovesimo secolo.

Urashima Tarō (浦島太郎, Urashima Tarō?) è una storia giapponese che parla di un pescatore che soccorre una tartaruga e viene ricompensato con una visita al Ryūgū-jō, il Palazzo del drago.

Trascorre molti giorni felici in questo regno subacqueo. Alla fine, però, viene sopraffatto dalla nostalgia di casa e chiede alla regina il permesso farvi ritorno. Lei acconsente e gli dona una scatola tempestata di gioielli raccomandandogli però di non aprirla mai, per nessuna ragione. Giunto a casa, egli scopre che nel mondo reale sono trascorsi oltre 300 anni e nessuno può ricordarsi di lui.

Caduto in depressione si reca sulla spiaggia e si ricorda della scatola ingioiellata, la apre e fuoriesce una nuvola bianca: lui invecchia e muore (la scatola conteneva la sua reale età). Varianti di questa storia si sono sviluppate in Oceania. La sua effettiva origine è sconosciuta.

Storie simili esistono in Europa: Ciclo di Fianna (vedi Oisín e Niamh) e Viaggio di Bran.


FONTE: http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urashima_Tar%C5%8D

Urashima Tarō
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Urashima Tarō (浦島太郎, Urashima Tarō?) is a Japanese fairy tale about a fisherman who rescues a turtle and is rewarded with a visit to the Ryūgū-jō, the Dragon Palace. There are many different versions of this story.

[change] Story

One day, a fisherman named Urashima Taro was fishing when he noticed a turtle, which appeared to be in trouble. Taro saved the turtle and in return the turtle magically gave Taro gills and brought Taro to the Dragon Palace (Ryūgū-jō), deep underwater. The turtle turned out to be the daughter of Ryūgū-jō, a lovely princess. He stayed there with her for a few days, and received a mysterious box from her when he was leaving, which she told him never to open. What he did not realize that time in the Dragon Palace moves an awful lot slower than on land and when he returned 700 years had passed. When he got home he found that all of his family had died long ago. In grief, he opened the box. It revealed itself in a cloud of white smoke, it was his true age, and Urashima Taro aged and died.
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: La Tartaruga   Gio 6 Ott 2011 - 8:25

Oggi riporto una leggenda che narra di una gigantesca tartaruga chiamata Oscar (come il contadino che la vide per primo), buona lettura.


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beast_of_Busco

Beast of Busco
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Beast of Busco is the subject of a legend in Churubusco, Indiana about an enormous snapping turtle named Oscar which citizens claimed to have seen in 1949. Despite a month–long hunt that briefly gained national attention, the Beast of Busco was never found.


History

The story starts in 1898, when a farmer named Oscar Fulk supposedly saw a giant turtle living in the seven-acre lake on his farm near Churubusco. He told others about it, but eventually he decided to leave it alone. [1]

A half century later, in July, 1948, two Churubusco men, Ora Blue and Charley Wilson, also reported seeing a huge turtle (weighing an estimated 500 pounds) while fishing on the same lake, which had come to be known as Fulk Lake. A farmer named Gale Harris owned the land at that time. Harris and others also reported seeing the creature. Word spread. [2]

In early 1949, a UPI reporter from Fort Wayne sent the story out on the wire services, and the turtle became nationally famous.[3]

Curious mobs of sightseers began to invade Harris’ land. Traffic got so bad that the state police had to be called in for traffic control.[4]

People questioned the existence of the turtle. To vindicate his good name, Mr. Harris made several attempts to catch the beast, including draining the lake, but "Oscar" (named after the original owner of the farm) was never captured.[5][6][7][8]

A photographer for Life Magazine, Mike Shea, took 299 photos at the site, but they were deemed unusable.[9] However, dozens of photos related to the history of the Beast are archived for viewing on the Web site of the Indianapolis Star.


Was Oscar a giant version of this two-year-old snapping turtle?
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Submerged_Snapping_turtle.jpg


Cultural impact

Oscar's memory lives on in Churubusco's Turtle Days festival held each June.[10] It includes a parade, carnival and turtle races.[11]

A turtle shell labeled "Beast of Busco" hangs in the Two Brothers Restaurant in Decatur, Indiana.

A small concrete statue of a turtle sits on the sidewalk at the main intersection in the center of Churubusco.

References

^ Ho, Oliver and Cochran, Josh (2008) "Mutants & Monsters: Mutants & Monsters". Sterling Publishing Company, Inc.. p.53 ISBN 9781402736421
^ "The Beast of Busco". May 26, 2009. Retrieved June 25, 2011.
^ "The Beast of Busco". May 26, 2009. Retrieved June 25, 2011.
^ Peterson, Victor (May 26, 2009). "The 1949 Story of the Hunt for Oscar, the Beast of Busco, According to the Indianapolis Star". Busco Voice. Retrieved June 25, 2011.
^ "The Beast of Busco". May 26, 2009. Retrieved June 25, 2011.
^ Ho, Oliver and Cochran, Josh (2008) "Mutants & Monsters: Mutants & Monsters". Sterling Publishing Company, Inc.. p.53 ISBN 9781402736421
^ Thomas, Phyllis (2007) "Indiana: Off the Beaten Path : a Guide to Unique Places". Globe Pequot. p.61 ISBN 0762744146
^ Cavinder, Fred. D. (2003) "More Amazing Tales from Indiana". Indiana University Press. p.147 ISBN 0253216532
^ http://www.mackinawbrigadoon.com/newsletter.phtml?id=12
^ Sisson, Richard (2007) "The American Midwest: An Interpretive Encyclopedia". Indiana University Press. p.402 ISBN 0253348862.
^ Dorson, Richard Mercer (1986) "Handbook of American Folklore". Indiana University Press. p.238 ISBN 0253203732.


FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bestia_di_Busco

Bestia di Busco
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

La Bestia di Busco (in inglese Beast of Busco) è un presunto mostro che abiterebbe il Fulk Lake vicino a Churubusco (Indiana, Stati Uniti), secondo alcuni abitanti del luogo e criptozoologi. Avrebbe l'aspetto di una gigantesca tartaruga del peso approssimativo di 400 libbre, circa 180 chili.

La leggenda sulla sua presenza si inserisce nel solco dei vari racconti, attestati in ogni continente, di misteriose (e spesso enormi) creature che vivrebbero nella acque dei laghi.

Le origini

Nel 1898, un contadino di nome Oscar Fulk disse di aver visto, in un lago all'interno della sua proprietà, un'enorme tartaruga che emergeva dalle acque. Inizialmente, nessuno gli credette, ma dopo che egli vendette la sua proprietà anche i nuovi proprietari avvistarono la tartaruga molte volte, così l’interesse per la stessa crebbe. Presto il mostro, insieme alla celebrità, ottenne anche ben due nomi: Oscar, come il suo scopritore, e La Bestia di Busco; anche il lago fu battezzato in onore del vecchio contadino: Fulk Lake.

Tentativi di cattura

La proprietà del vecchio Fulk divenne col tempo un'attrazione turistica per molti curiosi desiderosi di vedere il mostro, la cui attesa veniva spesso delusa.
Nel 1949, dopo che Oscar emerse dal lago, dei contadini provarono a catturarlo ma lui ruppe la rete che gli avevano gettato e si dileguò. Secondo alcuni, di questo tentativo di cattura esisterebbe anche un video, di cui si è persa ogni traccia.

In seguito, furono organizzate molte battute di caccia e si tentò anche di attirare Oscar usando una tartaruga femmina di 200 libre; nessun tentativo ebbe però risultati positivi.

Oggi di Oscar non si sa più nulla, ma la gente del luogo festeggia ancora in suo onore i "Turtle Days" ("Giorni della tartaruga").

Spiegazione

Secondo alcuni scienziati, Oscar potrebbe essere una tartaruga Chelydra serpentina di eccezionali dimensioni.[senza fonte]

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MessaggioOggetto: Re: La Tartaruga   Mar 8 Nov 2011 - 13:01

Ancora qualche mito legato alla tartaruga...


FONTE: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_turtle

World Turtle
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The World Turtle (also referred to as the Cosmic Turtle, the World-bearing Turtle, or the Divine Turtle) is a mytheme of a giant turtle (or tortoise) supporting or containing the world. The mytheme, which is similar to that of the World Elephant and World Serpent, occurs in Hindu, Chinese, and Native American mythology. The "World-Tortoise" mytheme was discussed comparatively by Edward Burnett Tylor (1878:341).



Tortoises as the supporting agent
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Giambologna_tortugues.jpg


North America

The Lenape myth of the "Great Turtle" was first recorded between 1678 and 1680 by Jasper Danckaerts. The myth is shared by other Northeastern Woodlands tribes, notably the Iroquois.[1]


China

In Chinese mythology the creator goddess Nüwa cut the legs off the giant sea turtle Ao (鳌) and used them to prop up the sky after Gong Gong damaged the Buzhou Mountain that had previously supported the heavens.


India

Hindu mythology has various account of World Tortoises, besides a World Serpent (Shesha), Kurmaraja and world-elephants.

The most widespread name given to the tortoise is Kurma or Kurmaraja. The Shatapatha Brahmana identifies the earth as its lower shell, the atmosphere as its body and the vault of heaven as its upper shell.

The name Akūpāra (the Sanskrit for "unbounded") is mentioned in the Bhagavata Purana.[citation needed]

An alleged tortoise Chukwa supporting Mount Meru is reported by Leveson Venables Vernon-Harcourt in 1838.[2] Vernon-Harcourt claims that this Chukwa was introduced to bishop Heber "in the Vidalaya school in Benares [by] an astronomical lecturer" (sic; vidyalaya is the Sanskrit for "school"). Chukwa along with Maha-padma (spelled "Maha-pudma") as the name of a world-elephant mentioned in the Ramayana has subsequently made it into Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable and was further repeated by reference to that work.

The concept of World-Tortoise and World-Elephant was conflated in popular or rhetorical references to Hindu mythology.[dubious – discuss] The combination of tortoise and elephant is present in John Locke's 1690 tract An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, which references an "Indian who said the world was on an elephant which was on a tortoise ". It is repeated in Bertrand Russell's 1927 Why I Am Not A Christian in the reference to "the Hindu's view, that the world rested upon an elephant and the elephant rested upon a tortoise". A whimsical allusion to such a supposed "tortoise-and-elephant" version of the myth appears in Wilfrid Sellars' 1956 Empiricism and the Philosophy of Mind:

authoritative nonverbal episodes... would constitute the tortoise on which stands the elephant on which rests the edifice of empirical knowledge.

Terry Pratchett's Discworld also parodies the supposed tortoise-and-elephants cosmological myth, with the "Giant Star Turtle" Great A'Tuin carrying four elephants on its back which in turn support the world on their backs.


References

^ Why the World is on the Back of a Turtle - Miller, Jay; Man, Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, New Series, Vol. 9, No. 2 (Jun., 1974), pp. 306–308, including further references within the cited text)
^ The Doctrine of the Deluge: Vindicating the Scriptural Account from the Doubts which Have Recently Been Cast Upon it by Geological Speculations (1838), p. 250.

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