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 L'Aquila: regina del cielo

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MessaggioOggetto: L'Aquila: regina del cielo   Lun 29 Mar 2010 - 10:34

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FONTE immagine: http://images.paraorkut.com/img/wallpapers/1024x768/e/eagle-1269.jpg



FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aquila

Aquila
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.
.

Aquila

Aquila chrysaetos

Classificazione scientifica

Dominio:
Eukaryota

Regno:
Animalia

Sottoregno:
Eumetazoa

Superphylum:
Deuterostomia

Phylum:
Chordata

Subphylum:
Vertebrata

Superclasse:
Tetrapoda

Classe:
Aves

Sottoclasse:
Neornithes

Ordine:
Accipitriformes

Famiglia:
Accipitridae

Sottofamiglia:
Buteoninae

Genere:
Aquila


Specie

• Aquila chrysaetos
• Aquila heliaca
• Aquila adalberti
• Aquila nipalensis
• Aquila rapax
• Aquila clanga
• Aquila pomarina
• Aquila verreauxii
• Aquila gurneyi
• Aquila wahlbergi
• Aquila audax
• Aquila morphnoides
• Aquila kienerii
• Aquila fasciata ex Hieraaetus fasciatus
• Aquila pennata ex Hieraatus_pennatus

Partecipa al Progetto:Forme di vita



Aquila è un genere di uccelli della famiglia Accipitridae.
Indice

• 1 Descrizione
• 2 Alimentazione
• 3 Leggende, miti e simboli
o 3.1 L'aquila nelle tradizioni precristiane e precolombiane
o 3.2 L'aquila nell'iconologia e nel simbolismo cristiano
 3.2.1 L'aquila, simbolo cristologico
 3.2.2 L'aquila rigeneratrice
 3.2.3 Altra simbologia
o 3.3 Simbologia negativa
o 3.4 Stemmi, emblemi, armi araldiche
• 4 Note
• 5 Bibliografia
• 6 Altri progetti

Descrizione


Il gruppo delle aquile è caratterizzato da particolare robustezza e prestanza fisica, becco potente ed uncinato, testa grande, ali grandi, tarsi generalmente ricoperti di piume sino al piede. Dispiegano volo potente, spesso veleggiato, maestoso; piombano dall'alto sulle prede.


Alimentazione


Il cibo di questi rapaci è vario, ma sempre di origine animale. L'Aquila reale preda lepri, fagianidi, corvidi, tartarughe, piccioni, conigli, pica, giovani cerbiatti. In linea di massima queste sono le prede cacciate da questi cacciatori incredibili. L'Aquila codacuneata, preda anche grossi pitoni, koala, opossum, canguri, Wallabys, Uccelli del paradiso e piccoli marsupiali.
Leggende, miti e simboli

L'aquila, grazie alle sue caratteristiche di grosso rapace, dalla vista acutissima, dal volo maestoso, dalla capacità di volare ad altezze irraggiungibili e piombare con velocità impressionante sulle prede, ha destato in tutti i popoli antichi il mito della invincibilità, paragonato ora al sole, ora al messaggero degli dei od allo stesso Dio. Se il leone è ritenuto il re degli animali terrestri, l'aquila è la regina dei volatili. Dell'antica arte sumerica si trovano reperti archeologici che mostrano un animale con corpo d'aquila e testa di leone: emblema di sovranità sulla terra e sull'aria.[1] Simbolo celeste e solare, l'aquila indica pure acutezza mentale e d'ingegno, tanto che ancor oggi, parlando di un Tizio d'intelligenza mediocre, se non scarsa, si ricorre alla litote: «Tizio non è certo un'aquila». A "canonizzare" questa metafora ci pensa Dante Alighieri, allorché nella sua Divina Commedia parla di Omero, che ai tempi del sommo poeta era considerato una delle più grandi menti mai esistite:


« Quel signor dell'altissimo canto, / che sovra gli altri com'aquila vola »
(Dante Alighieri, Divina Commedia, Inferno, IV, 95-96)

D'altra parte anche l'antico proverbio latino

Aquila non capit muscas (L'aquila non cattura mosche)

che sta ad indicare come i grandi non si curino delle piccole cose, attribuisce automaticmente all'aquila il simbolo di grandezza.
L'aquila nelle tradizioni precristiane e precolombiane

Nello sciamanesimo asiatico l'aquila era il simbolo di un dio e presso il popolo degli Jakuti Siberiani il suo nome è il medesimo del Dio Creatore e gli sciamani, intermediari fra il popolo e la divinità, erano detti "figli dell'aquila". È l'aquila infatti, secondo tale credenza, che trasporta l'anima dello sciamano durante la sua fase d'iniziazione.

Anche nella mitologia nordica l'aquila occupava un posto importante: simbolo della luce, sedeva sopra il Walhalla; in aquila si trasformò Odino, per impadronirsi dell'idromele, la bevanda che trasformava in poeti i suoi bevitori[3] così come fece Zeus, secondo la mitologia greca, per rapire Ganimede.[4]

Nella mitologia dei pellerossa l'aquila è la rappresentazione tangibile di Wakan Tanka, il Grande Uccello del Tuono, che elargisce i raggi solari ed è la manifestazione del Grande Spirito, la divinità suprema. Il diadema che ornava la testa dei grandi capi indiani era fatto di penne d'aquila, simbolo solare, e penne d'aquila, artigli e addirittura teste di questo regale uccello costituivano un corredo di amuleti indispensabile ad ogni guerriero.[5] Nella "Danza del Sole" i partecipanti indossavano piume di aquila ed un fischietto di osso dello stesso uccello.[6]

Nella mitologia azteca il dio-sole Tonatiuh era rappresentato da un'aquila, confermando anche qui la valenza solare che il mito assegna a questo uccello.

L'aquila fu anche considerata uccello aruspice, messaggero che portava i presagi dagli dei agli uomini. Nell'Iliade Priamo, prima di recarsi presso il nemico Achille per ottenerne il corpo del figlio Ettore, ucciso dall'eroe greco, offre a Zeus una libagione chiedendogli che gl'invii «…l'uccello che ti è caro fra tutti e che ha la forza suprema […] e il prudente Zeus ascolta la sua preghiera e subito lancia l'aquila, il più sicuro degli uccelli, il cacciatore fosco che è chiamato il nero.»[7]

L'aquila era, secondo la mitologia greco-romana, la portatrice dei fulmini di Giove e veniva anche raffigurata con i fulmini tra gli artigli.[8] E così, leggermente modificata, compare nell'emblema degli Stati Uniti d'America.[9]
Portatrice di fulmini ma anche protettrice da essi: secondo Plinio il Vecchio i greci antichi a questo fine inchiodavano aquile sulle porte delle loro case.[10]

Essa è nemica mortale del serpente, che attacca e uccide. Così viene mostrata su antiche monete greche e galliche, mentre in Siria la leggenda vuole che Etana, pastore divenuto re, abbia salvato l'aquila dalle spire del serpente cui l'uccello aveva divorato i figli. L'aquila, per ricompensarlo, lo avrebbe portato sulle sue ali fino in cielo. [1]

L'aquila nell'iconologia e nel simbolismo cristiano


Nell'antico testamento il Libro di Ezechiele inizia con la descrizione di una visione del profeta-autore:
« Al centro apparve la figura di quattro esseri animati che avevano sembianze umane ed avevano ciascuno quattro facce e quattro ali. […] Quanto alle loro fattezze, ognuno dei quattro aveva fattezze d'uomo; poi fattezze di leone a destra, fattezze di toro a sinistra e, ognuno dei quattro, fattezze d'aquila. »
(Ezechiele, 1, 5-10)
Si tratta del Tetramorfo, figura ripresa da San Giovanni evangelista nell'Apocalisse:
« Il primo vivente era simile ad un leone, il secondo essere vivente aveva l'aspetto di un vitello, il terzo vivente aveva l'aspetto d'un uomo, il quarto vivente era simile a un'aquila mentre vola. »
(Apocalisse di San Giovanni, 4, 7)


L'aquila, simbolo cristologico

La sua funzione di psicopompa si è evoluta, dalla leggenda siriana di Etana, nota sicuramente alle prime comunità cristiane, in immagine di Cristo salvatore, che porta le anime in cielo. Così già il Deuteronomio, nel Cantico di Mosé, assimila la figura di Dio all'aquila:
Come un'aquila incita la sua nidiata e aleggia sopra i suoi piccoli, così Egli spiega le ali, lo prende e lo porta sulle sue penne. [11]
ove quell'Egli è il Signore.

Scrive Filippo di Thaon, monaco e poeta normanno del XII secolo:


« L'aquila significa / il figlio di Santa Maria, / che è un re di tutti gli uomini / senza alcun dubbio, / sta in alto e vede lontano, / sa bene che cosa deve fare »
( Filippo di Thaon, Bestiario[12])

seguendo quanto ancor più esplicitamente aveva detto Sant'Ambrogio in proposito, nel suo commento ad un passo dei Proverbi:[13]
L'aquila si comprende come quella del Cristo che, col suo volo, è sceso in terra. Questo genere di animale non riceve cibo prima che la castità di sua madre sia dimostrata quando con gli occhi aperti, senza battere le ciglia, può contemplare il sole.[14] È dunque a giusto titolo che questo animale è paragonato al Salvatore perché, quando vuole catturare qualche essere, non calpesta il suolo, ma elegge un luogo elevato: così il Cristo, sospeso all'alta croce, in un fracasso terribile ed in un volo tonante prende d'assalto gl'inferi e porta via verso i cieli i santi che ha afferrato.[15]


L'aquila rigeneratrice


L'aquila aveva anche fama di rigenerarsi. Secondo una leggenda, all'aquila anziana si annebbiava la vista e si appesantivano le ali. Essa allora volava in cielo e bruciava le sue ali e il velo che le copriva gli occhi al calore del sole, dopo di che scendeva in terra ed immersasi tre volte in una fonte tornava ad essere giovane e vigorosa.[16] Questa leggenda fu ripresa nella iconografia cristiana grazie ai versi del Libro dei Salmi:
«Egli [il Signore] perdona tutte le tue colpe, / guarisce tutte le tue malattie; / salva dalla fossa la tua vita, / ti corona di grazia e di misericordia, / egli sazia di beni i tuoi giorni / e tu ti rinnovi come aquila la tua giovinezza.»[17]
e Sant'Ambrogio fa sua quest'interpretazione nei suoi Sermoni:

«A dire il vero si tratta di una sola, autentica aquila, Gesù Cristo, nostro Signore, la cui gioventù è stata rinnovata quando è risuscitato dai morti. Infatti, dopo aver deposto le spoglie di un corpo corruttibile, è rifiorito rivestendo una corona gloriosa.»[18]


Altra simbologia


L'aquila è stata attribuita come simbolo a San Giovanni Evangelista in quanto con la sua visione descritta nel Libro dell'Apocalisse avrebbe contemplato la Vera Luce del Verbo, come descritto nel Prologo del suo Vangelo, così come l'aquila può fissare direttamente la luce solare.[19] Tale attribuzione è attestata ai tempi di Sant'Agostino (IV - V secolo).[20] San Giovanni Evangelista viene paragonato all'aquila da Dante Alighieri, quando nella cantica del Paradiso immagina di parlare proprio con l'Evangelista:
« Non fu latente la santa intenzione / dell'aguglia [aquila, n.d.r.] di Cristo, anzi m'accorsi / dove volea menar mia professione. »
(Dante Alighieri, Paradiso, XXVI, 52-54)
L'aquila viene anche considerata come simbolo del cristiano, chiamato dal battesimo a nuova vita e la frase del Vangelo secondo Luca: «laddove sarà il corpo , le aquile si raduneranno»[21] venne interpretata da commentatori medievali che paragonarono il corpo al Cristo e le aquile che vi si radunano intorno, alle anime cristiane.[22]
Simbologia negativa
L'aquila, a causa della sua voracità e della rapidità con la quale si avventa sulla preda, ebbe anche connotazioni simboliche negative. La credenza che si cibi di pesci raggiunti e ghermiti mentre nuotano tranquilli, ne ha determinato un'interpretazione negativa, soprattutto riguardo al fatto che il pesce era considerato dai primi cristiani un simbolo di Cristo. Sotto questo aspetto essa venne vista anche come simbolo di Satana, che attacca e ghermisce le anime, sottraendole alla loro normale destinazione cristiana.[23] A questa interpretazione simbolica negativa ha contribuito certamente anche la classificazione dell'aquila come animale impuro, quindi non edule, che viene data nel Deuteronomio.[24]

Stemmi, emblemi, armi araldiche
Per approfondire, vedi la voce Aquila (araldica).


Con questa ricchezza di attribuzioni simboliche, l'aquila non potava mancare negli emblemi e stemmi di qualsiasi genere: rappresentativi di eserciti, città, nazioni o di casate nobiliari.
Essa fu adottata nei labari delle legioni romane, a cominciare dal consolato di Mario.[25]


Note


^ a b Louis Charbonneau-Lassay, Il bestiario del Cristo, vol II, p. 137
1. ^ Alfredo Cattabiani, Volario, pp. 394
2. ^ Alfredo Cattabiani, Volario, p. 400
3. ^ Publio Ovidio Nasone, Metamorfosi, X, 155-61
4. ^ Alfredo Cattabiani, Volario, pp. 395-397
5. ^ Jean Chevalier e Alain Gheerbrant, Dizionario dei Simboli, Vol. I, p. 80
6. ^ Omero, Iliade , 24, 308-321
7. ^ Louis Charbonneau-Lassay, Il bestiario del Cristo, vol II, p. 142
8. ^ Ecco come la descrive il noto romanziere americano Nathaniel Hawthorne nella sua novella The scarlet letter:
(IT)
« Sopra l'ingresso è appeso un enorme modello dell'aquila americana, con le ali spiegate, uno scudo di fronte al petto e, se ricordo bene, un fascio di fulmini mischiati a frecce con barbigli per ciascun artiglio. »
( Nathaniel Hawthorne, La lettera scarlatta, cap. L'Ufficio della dogana)
9. ^ Plinio il Vecchio, Storia naturale, II, 56
10. ^ Antico Testamento, Deuteronomio, 32, 11
11. ^ Così citato da Alfredo Cattabiani, Volario, pag. 411
12. ^
« Tre cose mi sono difficili, / anzi quattro, che io non comprendo: / il sentiero dell'aquila nell'aria, / il sentiero del serpente sulla roccia, / il sentiero della nave in alto mare, / il sentiero dell'uomo in una giovane. »
(Antico Testamento, Proverbi di Re Salomone, 30, 18-19)

13. ^ Nell'antichità si credeva che l'aquila potesse fissare con gli occhi direttamente il sole senza rimanerne accecata.
14. ^ Sant'Ambrogio, Sermoni , 47, in Patrologia latina, 17, 724. Così citato da Alfredo Cattabiani, Volario, p. 577
15. ^ Alfredo Cattabiani, Volario, p. 406
16. ^ Salmi, 103 (102), 3-5
17. ^ Citato in: Louis Charbonneau-Lassay, Il bestiario del Cristo, vol II, p.146
18. ^ Alfredo Cattabiani, Volario, p. 409
19. ^ La Bibbia, ed. Piemme, Casale Monferrato (AL), 1996, p. 2511
20. ^ Vangelo secondo Luca, 17, 37
21. ^ Louis Charbonneau-Lassay, Il bestiario del Cristo, vol II, p. 150-151
22. ^ Louis Charbonneau-Lassay, Il bestiario del Cristo, vol II, pp. 153-155
23. ^ Deuteronomio, 14, 12
24. ^ Alfredo Cattabiani, Volario, p. 405
25. ^ Albania nella lingua originaria si dice Shqipëria cioè terra delle aquile
Bibliografia
per Leggende, miti e simboli:
• Alfredo Cattabiani, Volario, Mondatori, Milano, 2000, ISBN 88-04-47991-4
• Louis Charbonneau-Lassay, Il bestiario del Cristo, vol II, Ed. Arkeios, Roma, 1995, ISBN 88-86495-02-1
• Jean Chevalier e Alain Gheerbrant, Dizionario dei Simboli, Biblioteca Universale Rizzoli, Milano, 1993, Vol. I, ISBN 88-17-14508-4
• La Bibbia, ed. Piemme, Casale Monferrato (AL), 1996, ISBN 88-384-2400-4
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: L'Aquila: regina del cielo   Lun 29 Mar 2010 - 11:00



FONTE immagine: http://www.afrizim.com/Pics/Slide_Shows_Pics/Birds/Raptors/African_Fish_Eagle.jpg

FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eagle



Bald Eagle

Scientific classification

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Aves

Order: Falconiformes (or Accipitriformes, q.v.)
Family: Accipitridae

Genera
Several, see text

This article is about the bird. For other uses, see Eagle (disambiguation).
Eagles are large birds of prey which are members of the bird family Accipitridae, and belong to several genera which are not necessarily closely related to each other. Most of the more than 60 species occur in Eurasia and Africa.[1] Outside this area, just two species (the Bald and Golden Eagles) can be found in the USA and Canada, nine more in Central and South America, and three in Australia.
Contents
[hide]
• 1 Description
• 2 Species
• 3 Eagles in culture
o 3.1 The word
o 3.2 Eagles as national symbols
o 3.3 Religion
o 3.4 In popular culture
• 4 References
• 5 Further reading
• 6 External links

Description
Eagles are differentiated from many other birds of prey mainly by their larger size, more powerful build, and heavier head and beak. Even the smallest eagles, like the Booted Eagle (which is comparable in size to a Common Buzzard or Red-tailed Hawk), have relatively longer and more evenly broad wings, and more direct, faster flight. Most eagles are larger than any other raptors apart from the vultures. Species named as eagles can range in size from the South Nicobar Serpent-eagle, at 500 grams (1.1 pounds) and 40 cm (16 in), to the 6.7-kg Steller's Sea Eagle and the 100 cm (39 in) Philippine Eagle.
Like all birds of prey, eagles have very large powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong muscular legs, and powerful talons. They also have extremely keen eyesight which enables them to spot potential prey from a very long distance.[2] This keen eyesight is primarily contributed by their extremely large pupils which ensure minimal diffraction (scattering) of the incoming light.
Eagles build their nests, called eyries, in tall trees or on high cliffs. Many species lay two eggs, but the older, larger chick frequently kills its younger sibling once it has hatched. The dominant chick tends to be the female, as they are bigger than the male. The parents take no action to stop the killing.
Species



Major new research into eagle taxonomy suggests that the important genera Aquila and Hieraaetus are not composed of nearest relatives, and it is likely that a reclassification of these genera will soon take place, with some species being moved to Lophaetus or Ictinaetus.[3]
• Bonelli's Eagle, the Booted Eagle and the Little Eagle have been moved from Hieraaetus to Aquila.
• Either the Greater Spotted Eagle and Lesser Spotted Eagle should move from Aquila to join the Long-crested Eagle in Lophaetus, or, perhaps better, all three of these species should move to Ictinaetus with the Black Eagle.
• The Steppe Eagle and Tawny Eagle, once thought to be conspecific, are not even each other's nearest relatives.
FAMILY ACCIPITRIDAE
• Subfamily Buteoninae - hawks (buzzards), true eagles and sea-eagles
o Genus Geranoaetus
 Black-chested Buzzard-eagle, Geranoaetus melanoleucus
o Genus Harpyhaliaetus
 Crowned Solitary Eagle, Harpyhaliaetus coronatus
 Solitary Eagle, H. solitarius
o Genus Morphnus
 Crested Eagle, Morphnus guianensis
o Genus Harpia
 Harpy Eagle, Harpia harpyja
o Genus Pithecophaga
 Philippine Eagle, Pithecophaga jefferyi
o Genus Harpyopsis
 New Guinea Eagle, Harpyopsis novaeguineae
o Genus Oroaetus
 Black-and-chestnut Eagle, Oroaetus isidori
o Genus Spizaetus
 Cassin's Hawk-eagle, Spizaetus africanus
 Changeable Hawk-eagle, S. cirrhatus
 Mountain Hawk-eagle, S. nipalensis
 Blyth's Hawk-eagle, S. alboniger
 Javan Hawk-eagle, S. bartelsi
 Sulawesi Hawk-eagle, S. lanceolatus
 Philippine Hawk-eagle, S. philippensis
 Wallace's Hawk-eagle, S. nanus
 Black Hawk-eagle, S. tyrannus
 Ornate Hawk-eagle, S. ornatus
 Black-and-white Hawk-eagle, S. melanoleucus
o Genus Lophaetus
 Long-crested Eagle, Lophaetus occipitalis - possibly belongs in Ictinaetus
o Genus Stephanoaetus
 Crowned Hawk-eagle, Stephanoaetus coronatus
o Genus Polemaetus
 Martial Eagle, Polemaetus bellicosus
o Genus Hieraaetus
 Ayres' Hawk-eagle, Hieraaetus ayresii
 African Hawk Eagle, H. spilogaster
 New Guinea Hawk-eagle, H. weiskei
o Genus Harpagornis (extinct)
 Haast's Eagle, Harpagornis moorei - possibly belongs in either Hieraaetus or Aquila[4]


A Steppe Eagle in Lahore Zoo Pakistan.

o Genus Aquila
 Bonelli's Eagle, Aquila fasciata - formerly Hieraaetus fasciatus
 Booted Eagle, A. pennata - formerly Hieraaetus pennatus
 Little Eagle, A. morphnoides
 Golden Eagle, A. chrysaetos
 Eastern Imperial Eagle, A. heliaca
 Rufous-bellied Eagle, A. kienerii
 Spanish Imperial Eagle A. adalberti
 Steppe Eagle, A. nipalensis
 Tawny Eagle, A. rapax
 Greater Spotted Eagle, A. clanga - to be moved to Lophaetus or Ictinaetus
 Lesser Spotted Eagle, A. pomarina - to be moved to Lophaetus or Ictinaetus
 Indian Spotted Eagle, A. hastata - to be moved to Lophaetus or Ictinaetus
 Verreaux's Eagle, A. verreauxii
 Gurney's Eagle, A. gurneyi
 Wahlberg's Eagle, A. wahlbergi
 Wedge-tailed Eagle, A. audax
o Genus Ictinaetus
 Black Eagle, Ictinaetus malayensis
o Genus Haliaeetus
 White-tailed Eagle, Haliaeetus albicilla
 Bald Eagle, H. leucocephalus
 Steller's Sea-eagle, H. pelagicus
 African Fish-eagle, H. vocifer
 White-bellied Sea-eagle, H. leucogaster
 Sanford's Fish-eagle, H. sanfordi
 Madagascar Fish-eagle, H. vociferoides
 Pallas' Sea-eagle, H. leucoryphus
o Genus Ichthyophaga
 Lesser Fish-eagle, Ichthyophaga humilis
 Grey-headed Fish-eagle, I. ichthyaetus


A dark individual of the Short-toed Eagle.
• Subfamily Circaetinae: snake-eagles
o Genus Terathopius
 Bateleur, Terathopius ecaudatus
o Genus Circaetus
 Short-toed Eagle, Circaetus gallicus
 Black-chested Snake-eagle, C. pectoralis
 Brown Snake-eagle, C. cinereus
 Fasciated Snake-eagle, C. fasciolatus
 Banded Snake-eagle, C. cinerascens
o Genus Spilornis
 Crested Serpent-eagle, Spilornis cheela
 Nicobar Serpent-eagle, S. minimus
 Mountain Serpent-eagle,S. kinabaluensis
 Sulawesi Serpent-eagle, S. rufipectus
 Philippine Serpent-eagle, S. holospilus
 Andaman Serpent-eagle, S. elgini
o Genus Eutriorchis
 Madagascar Serpent-eagle, Eutriorchis astur
Eagles in culture
The word
The modern English name of the bird is derived from the Latin term aquila by way of the French aigle. The Latin aquila may derive from the word aquilus, meaning dark-colored, swarthy, or blackish, as a description of the eagle's plumage; or from aquilo, the Latin version of Greek boreas, or north wind; however, aquilus and aquilo may just as well derive from aquila (or be unrelated) and the latter be of unknown origin.
Old English used the term earn, related to Scandinavia's ørn / örn. The etymology of this word relates it to Greek ornís, meaning "bird", though other Indo-European languages (such as Welsh eryr or Russian orël / орёл) show that the meaning 'eagle' is older. The Greek word may be an old diminutive. The Albanian word for eagle is "shqiponje" deriving from the root "shq" which is the same for the word "shquaj" ("distinguish") and could be explained with the outstanding ability of the bird to distinguish clearly objects from long distances.
In Britain before 1678, Eagle referred specifically to the Golden Eagle, the other native species, the White-tailed Eagle, being known as the Erne. The modern name "Golden Eagle" for Aquila chrysaetos was introduced by the naturalist John Ray.
Eagles as national symbols

Eagles have been used by many nations as a national symbol.
• The coat of arms of the Seljukian Empire has a double-headed eagle
• The coat of arms of Albania has a black double-headed eagle. Furthermore the eagle gives Albania its name ( in Albanian Shqiperia meaning Land of the eagles) and Albanians call themselves shqipetar or shqipe meaning eagles.
• The coat of arms of Armenia has a gold eagle and lion.
• The coat of arms of Austria has a black eagle.
• The coat of arms of the Czech Republic integrates the symbols of Moravia and Silesia (both with female eagles in their emblems - red-and-white chequered and black respectively) on the coat of arms of the Czech Republic with Bohemia's lion.
• The coat of arms of Egypt is a golden eagle looking towards the viewer's left. It is taking from the golden Eagle of Saladin founded on Saladin Citadel of Cairo .
• The coat of arms of Germany has a black eagle.
• The coat of arms of Ghana has two golden eagles holding it.
• The coat of arms of Iceland has a eagle holding it, as well as a dragon, a bull and a giant.
• The coat of arms of Indonesia has an eagle-like garuda carrying a shield on its neck and a banner on its feet.
• The coat of arms of Iraq has the golden Eagle of Saladin
• The coat of arms of Jordan has a black eagle.
• The coat of arms of Mexico has a golden eagle perched upon a cactus devouring a snake.
• The coat of arms of Moldova consists of a stylized eagle holding a cross in its beak and a sceptre and a branch in its claws.
• The coat of arms of Montenegro represents the two-headed eagle in flight.
• The coat of arms of Navarre/Basque Country Kingdom has a black eagle.
• The coat of arms of Nigeria has a red eagle on top.
• The Insignia of the Pakistan Air Force includes the Peregrine Falcon State Military national bird.
• The coat of arms of Panama has a harpy eagle
• The coat of arms of the Philippines has the bald eagle of the United States as a symbol of its colonial past, but the Monkey-eating Eagle is the de jure National Bird of the country.
• The coat of arms of Poland has a white eagle with a golden beak and talons wearing a golden crown.
• The coat of arms of Romania has a golden aquila holding a cross in its beak and a mace and a sword in its claws.
• The coat of arms of Russia has a gold double-headed eagle.
• The coat of arms of Serbia has a white bicephalic eagle of the House of Nemanjić.
• The coat of arms of Syria formerly had the eagle of Saladin.
• The Great Seal of the United States has a bald eagle.
• The coat of arms of Yemen depicts a golden eagle with a scroll between its claws.
• The coat of arms of Zambia has a orange red eagle on top.
• The coat of arms of Ghana has two eagles.
Historic uses:
• The Ptolemaic rulers of Egypt used it as their seal.
• Napoleon Bonaparte used the Roman Golden Eagle as the symbol of his new French empire.
• Persian Empire: the symbol of Persian Army was an Eagle
• The Romans used it on the standards of their armies. From this derives:
o The late Byzantine Empire chose a two-headed golden eagle as its symbol. It is popularly that one head symbolised ancient Rome, and the other head symbolised "new Rome" at Constantinople. From this derives:
 The two-headed eagle is the emblem of "Shqipëria" or Land of the Eagles, which is known in English as Albania (see The Tale of the Eagle for the legendary origin of the name)
 After the fall of Constantinople, the Russian Empire took the two-headed eagle as its own symbol.
o After his crowning as the new Roman Emperor, Charlemagne adopted the ancient Roman eagle as his own symbol. The Holy Roman Empire born of his kingdom took the eagle, but the Habsburgs replaced the golden eagle by an imperial eagle. From this derives:
 The Austrian Empire had a two-headed eagle as its symbol. After the abolition of Austria-Hungary, Austria took as its symbol a one-headed eagle in the modern coat of arms of Austria.
 Prussia, and later Germany have used a black eagle as their national symbol.
 The Spanish Catholic monarchs, Isabella and Ferdinand, used the eagle as a part of the royal shield representing Saint John the Evangelist. The eagle was again on the Spanish shield under the Francoist regime and the transition to Democracy (1939–1981).
• The Seljuk Turks and Ottoman Turks used a double-headed eagle as coats-of-arms.
Religion
The eagle is the symbol used to depict John the Evangelist in some Christian churches. In art, John is sometimes depicted with an eagle.
The eagle is a sacred bird in some cultures and the feathers of the eagle are central to many religious and spiritual customs, especially amongst Native Americans in the United States and First Nations in Canada, as well as among many of the peoples of Meso-America. Some Native American peoples revere eagles as sacred religious objects and the feathers and parts of Bald and Golden Eagles are often compared to the Bible and crucifix. Eagle feathers are often used in various ceremonies and are used to honor noteworthy achievements and qualities such as exceptional leadership and bravery. In the cultures of the Northwest Coast, Eagle is also a supernatural being and also the ancestor and features in the heraldic crests of important clans known as totem poles.
The Moche people of ancient Peru worshipped the animal and often depicted eagles in their art.[5]
Despite modern and historic Native American practices of giving eagle feathers to non-indigenous people and also members of other tribes who have been deemed worthy, current United States eagle feather law stipulates that only individuals of certifiable Native American ancestry enrolled in a federally recognized tribe are legally authorized to obtain eagle feathers for religious or spiritual reasons.[6] In Canada, poaching of eagle feathers for the booming U.S. market has sometimes resulted in the arrests of First Nations person for the crime.[7]
In Hindu religion, Garuda is a lesser Hindu divinity, usually the mount (vahanam) of Vishnu. Garuda is depicted as having the golden body of a strong man with a white face, red wings, and an eagle's beak and with a crown on his head. This ancient deity was said to be massive, large enough to block out the sun.
Garuda's stature in Hindu religion can be gauged by the fact that an independent Upanishad, the Garudopanidad, and a Purana, the Garuda Purana, is devoted to him. Various names have been attributed to Garuda - Chirada, Gaganeshvara, Kamayusha, Kashyapi, Khageshvara, Nagantaka, Sitanana, Sudhahara, Suparna, Tarkshya, Vainateya, Vishnuratha and others. The Vedas provide the earliest reference of Garuda, though by the name of Śyena, where this mighty bird is said to have brought nectar to earth from heaven. The Puranas, which came into existence much later, mention Garuda as doing the same thing, which indicates that Śyena (Sanskrit for Eagle) and Garuda are the same. One of the faces of Śrī Pañcamukha Hanuman is Mahavira Garuda. This face points towards the west. Worship of Garuda is believed to remove the effects of poisons from one's body. In Tamil Vaishnavism Garuda and Hanuman are known as "Periya Thiruvadi" and "Siriya Thiruvadi" respectively.
In the Bhagavad-Gita (Ch.10, Verse 30), in the middle of the battlefield "Kurukshetra", Krishna explaining his omnipresence, says - "Of birds, I am the son of Vinata (Garuda)" indicating the importance of Garuda.
Garuda plays an important role in Krishna Avatar in which Krishna and Satyabhama ride on Garuda to kill Narakasura. On another occasion, Lord Hari rides on Garuda to save the devotee Elephant Gajendra. It is also said that Garuda's wings when flying will chant the Vedas.
The eagle is also the patron animal of Zeus
In popular culture
Songs about eagles include:
• Eimai aitos horis ftera (I am a wingless eagle, Greek: Είμαι αϊτός χωρίς φτερά) by Manos Hatzidakis and Eftichia Papagianopoulou, originally sung by Lakis Pappas
• Eimai o aitos (I am the eagle, Greek: Είμαι ο αϊτός) by Mimis Plessas and Dimitris Christodoulou, originally sung by Antonis Kalogiannis
• Enan aito zografisa (I painted an eagle, Greek: Έναν αϊτό ζωγράφισα) by Nikos Mamagakis and Dinos Dimopoulos, originally sung by Giannis Poulopoulos
• Enas aitos (An eagle, Greek: Ένας αϊτός), traditional
• Enas aitos gremistike (An eagle feel down, Greek: Ένας αϊτός γκρεμίστηκε) by Antonis Repanis and Eftichia Papagianopoulou, originally sung by Stratos Dionysiou
• Enas etoras aitos (An eagle-love, Greek: Ένας έρωτας αϊτός) by Minos Matsas and Akos Daskalopoulos, sung by George Dalaras
• Fly Like an Eagle by Steve Miller from the album Fly Like an Eagle
• O mavros aitos (The black eagle, Greek: Ο μαύρος αϊτός) by Giorgos Petsilas and Nikos Gatsos, originally sung by Nana Mouskouri
• Pare me aite (Take me eagle, Greek: Πάρε με αϊτέ) by Vangelis Germanos
• On Eagles' Wings is a sacred song by Michael Joncas
References
1. ^ del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A. & Sargatal, J. (editors). (1994). Handbook of the Birds of the World Volume 2: New World Vultures to Guineafowl. Lynx Edicions. ISBN 8487334156
2. ^ Shlaer, Robert (1972-05-26). "An Eagle's Eye: Quality of the Retinal Image". Science 176 (4037): 920–922. doi:10.1126/science.176.4037.920. PMID 5033635. http://www./920?ck=nck. Retrieved 2007-11-20.
3. ^ Lerner, H. R. L.; D. P. Mindell (2005). "Phylogeny of eagles, Old World vultures, and other Accipitridae based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 37 (37): 327–346. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.04.010.
4. ^ Bunce, M.; et al. (2005). "Ancient DNA Provides New Insights into the Evolutionary History of New Zealand's Extinct Giant Eagle". PLoS Biol 3 (1): e9. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030009. PMID 15660162. PMC 539324. http://biology.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.0030009. Retrieved 2006-12-27.
5. ^ Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. The Spirit of Ancient Peru:Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997.
6. ^ Office of Law Enforcement. "National Eagle Repository". Mountain-Prairie Region. United States Fish and Wildlife Service. http://www.fws.gov/mountain-prairie/law/le65.html. Retrieved 2007-11-20.
7. ^ Sin, Lena (2006-04-30). "Charges laid in eagle-poaching case". The Province (CanWest MediaWorks Publications Inc.). http://www.canada.com/theprovince/news/story.html?id=7037508c-70c7-4c47-9d3e-713a118e6b66&k=55151. Retrieved 2007-11-20.
Further reading
• Bruguier, Leonard.A Warrior's Eagle Feather
• Collinson, Martin. Splitting headaches? Recent taxonomic changes affecting the British and Western Palaearctic lists British Birds vol 99 (June 2006), 306–323
External links
• Eagle photos on Oriental Bird Images
• PBS Nature: Eagles
• Eagle videos on the Internet Bird Collection
• Eagle photos - including chick in nest
• Web of the Conservation Biology Team-Bonelli's Eagle, of the University of Barcelona
• Eagle Conservation Alliance (ECA)
• Eagle Stamps from around the world
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eagle"





FONTE immagine: http://www.hdwallpapers.in/walls/screaming_eagle-normal.jpg


Ultima modifica di Admin il Gio 9 Dic 2010 - 17:34, modificato 1 volta
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Tila
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Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: L'Aquila   Dom 4 Apr 2010 - 8:19

Admin ho trovato qualche interessante documento che ci parla della simbologia di questo splendido esemplare alato.

Buona lettura!

FONTE: http://openspace.forumfree.it/?t=18862264

L'Aquila -> Per gli Indiani d'America l'Aquila è perfetta, la più maestosa, la più meravigliosa, e la più sacra tra tutte le creature che vivono nel Cielo e racchiude in se l'intero straordinario potere del Grande Spirito. L'Aquila gode della libertà del cielo e simboleggia potere, libertà, comprensione e interesse spirituale. Essa è inoltre la messaggera del cielo che porta le preghiere degli uomini sino al Sole. Gli uomini della Medicina celebrano riti e danze in suo onore e solo i grandi capi o i più meritevoli potevano indossare un copricapo di piume d'Aquila. A lei è affidato il compito di fare da tramite tra L'assoluto, il divino ed il Creatore e gli esseri umani, confinati nella realtà terrena. Allo stesso tempo l'aquila incarna la paura di fronte all'ignoto.

FONTE: http://animalitotem.wordpress.com/2008/02/04/animali-dalla-a-alla-d/

AQUILA - Il guerriero spirituale. Per ottenere una prospettiva più ampia e maggiore chiarezza. Aiuta a percepire la verità più profonda nel cuore di una situazione. Rafforza la visione spirituale e creativa e favorisce
l’ispirazione. Per collegarsi con il Sé Superiore.

FONTE: Dal libro "Segni e Presagi del mondo animale - i poteri magici e grandi creature" di Ted Andrews Ed. Mediterranee
Illuminazione dello spirito, guarigione e creazione.
Nell'antica tradizione azteca, il capo degli dei disse al popolo di stabilirsi nel luogo in cui avrebbero trovato un'aquila posata su un cactus e intenta a cibarsi di un serpente. Quel luogo sarebbe diventato Città del Messico.
Collegarsi alla medicina dell'aquila significa avere la responsabilità e il potere di diventare molto più grandi di quanto non si appaia. Da un punto di vista karmico, ciò riflette il fatto che gli avvenimenti da ora in poi voleranno più veloci, e le ripercussioni di qualsiasi cosa penserete, farete o direte sia positive che negative, saranno più forti e più rapide.
Accettare l'aquila come totem significa accettare una nuova crescita spirituale.


Ultima modifica di Tila il Mar 28 Dic 2010 - 10:24, modificato 1 volta
Tornare in alto Andare in basso
Tila
Iniziato Sciamano
Iniziato Sciamano


Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Re: L'Aquila: regina del cielo   Sab 25 Dic 2010 - 16:10

Ogni tanto rifare ricerche porta frutti... eh eh ecco a voi altri documenti su questo totem...

Come vedremo la sua capacità di volare in alto fa sì che diventi messaggera dal cielo, vista anche come l'incarnazione dello spirito del sole, considerata come un legame tra il divino e gli uomini.

Riconosciuta come simbolo di una potente energia spirituale.

Inoltre grazie ad uno stralcio del documento di wikipedia, che troverete in fondo, conosceremo l'aquila calva secondo le tradizioni e usanze di alcune culture del Nord America.

Buona lettura! Very Happy


FONTE: http://www.linsdomain.com/totems/pages/eagle.htm

EAGLE

Spirit, Healing, Creation

The eagle is symbol of the zenith.
A great reminder of your own ability to soar to great heights.

Eagles are messengers from heaven and are the embodiment of the spirit of the sun.

Those with an Eagle totem need to have an involvement with creation;
a willingness to experience extremes;
a willingness to use your ability
even if it means getting "scorched" a little as you fly high;
a willingness to seek out your true emotions.

A demanding totem, but one that offers so much reward at the end of the journey.

Its four-toed feet remind you to stay grounded even went soaring high;
Its talons remind you to grasp the things of the earth;
Its sharp beak shows you when to speak, how much, and how strongly.

This totem will show you opportunities and how to ride the winds to your benefit.
Eagle people can live in the realm of the spirit
yet still remain connected and balanced within the realm of the Earth.

You must become much more than you ever dreamed possible.

Some of the information on this webpage was derived from the following sources:
Sans, Jamie & Carson, David. Medicine Cards: the Discovery of Power Through the Way of Animals. Santa Fe, NM. 1988. Print.
Andrews, Ted. Animal-speak: the Spiritual & Magical Powers of Creatures Great & Small. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 1993. Print.
Andrews, Ted. Animal-Wise: the Spirit Language and Signs of Nature. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 1999. Print.
D. J. Conway. Animal Magick: the Art of Recognizing & Working with Familiars. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 2003. Print.
Farmer, Steven D. Animal Spirit Guides. Hayhouse Inc., 2006. Print.



FONTE: http://wolfs_moon.tripod.com/baldeagletotem.html

Spirit of the Bald Eagle

Role: ~Illuminating Force~

Lesson: Soar Above

Element: Air/Water

Wind: ~East~ Illumination

Medicine: Connection to Grandfather Sky

Keywords

Illumination Ability to See Hidden Spiritual Truths

Strength Connection to Spirit Guides & Teachers

Courageous Intuitive Rising Above

Creativity Healing

Keen Sight

On the currents of the Four Winds
you ride the sky
held aloft by unseen hands
that hold you close to the Grandfather

Far below lies the world of Man
a realm in which you also dwell,
yet always from within
comes the ache to rejoin the Great Spirit

Caught between two realms,
you remind all who witness your beauty and strength
of the eternal struggle of the two-legged
to rise above the mundane
and feel the Soul take flight


Illumination

In Earth Medicine, we recognize the Eagle (all members of the Eagle family) as a symbol of a powerful, spiritual energy. Because the Eagle soars so close to the Grandfather Sky, it is believed that Eagle hears the voice of the ~Great Spirit~ and is thus a link between the Divine and the Two-Leggeds (humanity)

Bald Eagle feathers are treasured and revered amongst the Native People, for they are recognized as containing a very powerful Medicine energy/magic). While speaking in Truth, seeking to bridge differences, or in asking for guidance and Illumination for a course of action, the Eagle feather is held during ceremonies to draw in such spiritual illumination.

As a means to speak with spiritual clarity and Truth, the Speaker will hold an Eagle feather, either as it is attached to a ~Talking Stick,~ or held in the hands. This serves as a connection to the Divine, so that all words that are spoken, are spoken from Higher Intent, and also as a means of asking that the Ancestors and the ~Great Mystery~ speak to and through, the Holder of the Feather.

***Thus, One who flies with the Eagle, has a responsibility along the Good Red Road, to operate from Higher Intent, to develop the latent abilities of Illumination, and then freely share this Illumination with Others. Obviously, this is no small task, or one to ever be taken lightly, for the ramifications are very far reaching, as are the Gifts and blessings for the Self
and Others, which ripple outward from this particular attribute.

The Path to Illumination is one often fraught with boulders and stumbling blocks that serve as a schoolroom for the developing soul. A broad range of experiences (both pleasurable and exceedingly painful), are met by the one beside whom Eagle flies as it is from the depth of experience that true wisdom is forged and from wisdom, comes the Illumination of the Soul, or
~Enlightenment.~ However, as while encased in the Robe of Physical Life, there exists the possibility that the personality center may arise that Eagle soul may examine his/her current level of growth and integration. In some instances, one such manifestation of the Personality Center may be a sense of self-aggrandizement or self-importance, as these are individuals who
have an intuitive grasp on mysteries that elude other less observant and/or intuitive individuals. This ~arcane knowledge~ often gets the Eagle individual noticed, and where the soul has not sufficiently integrated the lower vibrations of the personality center, arrogance may surface. Or the converse may be true wherein the Eagle Soul has not acknowledged the
splendor and beauty of his/her soul. In this instance, what is obviously apparent to Others as to the Gifts and Quality of Being that exists in the one beside whom Eagle soars, will be non-apparent to the Eagle Individual, and the lesson then becomes acknowledging and embracing the Light of their own Spirit.

Soul of Bald Eagle will possess an innate ability to ~see,~ dream, feel or ~know~ secret or hidden spiritual truths, both of the other realms and planes of ~Being,~ and the hidden truths of ~Others.~ Such powerful insight and perception (think of the eagle’s powerful vision and ever-alert and intense eyes), comes from both a plethora of past life experiences whose
memory bubbles just below the surface of conscious recollection, and partially from present lifetime experiences which serve as lessons in developing and honing the gift of ~Insight.~

For the one who is able to find the splendid dance of balance between self-love and humility, celebration of Self and celebration of the All, the dance is a beauty to witness, as the Eagle Spirit unfurls the wings of their Soul, like their winged Totem dancing upon the Wind as they fully embrace and inherit the brilliant Gift of true Illumination.***


Intuitive

The Eagle, as he soars amongst the clouds and floats upon the unseen currents of air, dwells in close proximity to Grandfather Sky. From his connection to the Grandfather, Eagle also seeks to rekindle his connection to the creative force of the ~Great Spirit.~ As such, Eagle intuitively understands that we are never far from Home, or completely dis-connected
from the Source of All That Is.

Bald Eagle is one of the Totem Animals that dwells simultaneously within two realms. Such dualistic Totems symbolize the need for Balance between two points, or the requirement that the Soul whom Eagle flies beside, learns to dance between two planes. In the instance of this Totem, Bald Eagle is considered to be a Water or Fish Eagle, as the primary source of the Bald Eagle’s diet consists of fish that the Eagle will capture in fresh water rivers, streams and lakes. Yet he also exists in the realm of Air, living on the wing and soaring above the mountain peaks.

Earth Medicine teaches us that each elemental clan symbolizes various aspects of our walk along the Red Road. Water represents our emotional and spiritual Self, while Air represents our intellect and conscious mind. Hence, Eagle must dive into the water with precision in order to retrieve her meal of fish, which she will clutch firmly in her razor sharp talons, then to rise once more to greet the sky. Within this behavior of Bald Eagle, lies the clue as to the nature that it represents within all two-leggeds who have the Soul of Bald Eagle.

Water, as intuition, psychic attunement and emotions, represents your Soul’s ability to intuitively assess situations, individuals and circumstances with an immediate grasp. Yet water also symbolizes a depth of emotion and feeling that is nearly fathomless. Love is given whole-heartedly and without restraint, a trait that can often lead to your being hurt by souls
who have not reached sufficient maturation and integration with their own Emotional Centers. Then, it is imperative that one learns the value of appropriately timed detachment (as represented by the Air), and the quality of discernment so that the beautiful nurturing and loving energy that flows so effortlessly through you is not "wasted" on those who have not earned this most precious of Gifts, and shared instead with those of a similar depth and maturation who are able to reciprocate what has been received.

With each successive incarnation, the Soul learns how to move swiftly from one realm to the next, to know when to utilize the psychic/intuitive gifts and depth of emotion, and when to soar above and revisit the condition of the encounter or experience with detachment. This is one of the primary factors in the Life Path of one with this Totem.

Ultimately, the Soul will reach the Zenith of this Life Lesson, and the Eagle’s desire for reuniting with the Great Spirit will be fulfilled as the Eagle Soul learns to love and nurture the Self.


Courage

Wherever Eagle soars, the Native People have recognized this splendid bird as a symbol of strength & courage. The builders of the American Constitution likewise acknowledged this majestic creature’s aura of strength, and established it as the national symbol of America.

In the wild, the Eagle is the undisputed king/queen of the skies with no other bird equaling the Eagle in either size or hierarchy. And it is in watching the heart stopping dives as the Eagle pummels downward to capture their meals of fresh fish, that one truly begins to understand the connection between these mighty birds and the keyword for this Totem of Courage.

***Like their totem Ally, the two-legged who has Eagle flying beside them, will often exhibit great depths of inner strength and courage. Often times, they will encounter situations in their flight along the Red Road of Physical Life in which they will need to call upon that courage in the face of overwhelming adversity. Does this mean that the Eagle Soul feels no fear? Hardly, yet once the fear has been felt and acknowledged, the Eagle Soul will then establish a plan of action in order to confront and resolve the situation as these are the problem-solvers that will find a possibility in what appears to be an impossible scenario. In facing their fears we witness the Eagle demonstrating the literal meaning of Courage.

Whenever faced with situations, people or circumstances in which fear is felt, one with this Animal Spirit might call upon Bald Eagle to bring the Courage to face what must be done. In so doing, they are not only recognizing and giving thanks to the role of this Totem in their Life, they are honoring their own Divine Essence of the ~Eagle Within.~***


Rising Above

Much as the Eagle soars majestically, held aloft on the Four Winds and leaving the ground far below, so does the Soul who has Bald Eagle as their Power Totem, possess the same ability to Rise Above the mundane.

***In many respects, this keyword is linked to the preceding one of Illumination, for it represents the Soul’s ability to integrate the lessons of the physical world, to leave behind the trappings of the past and the darker shadows of the human mind, so that one might soar on the winds of illumination and awareness. Only once the ~Lower Personality~ has been
thoroughly embraced, understood, resolved and integrated, will the Soul have the freedom to Soar. The road “there” is not an easy one to take, nor for the faint-hearted, yet it is a Journey that all of us must make in order that our Soul may evolve beyond the need to incarnate into flesh.

This process is begun by uncovering those habits, beliefs and actions which are either self-destructive or cause pain for another, and is the crucial first step in the Journey of integrating the personality to the Soul. Many lifetimes may be spent in this first step alone as to face one’s own Inner Truth in complete honesty may be painful and require a good deal of detachment, it also requires that we embrace those aspects of ourselves that we may see as less than desirable. Yet once the Soul has acknowledged these ~Truths~ then the greatest step has already been taken.

Next in this process (once our ~stumbling blocks~ have been identified), is to evaluate what lessons they have presented in our life. This is then initialed by once again evaluating the Self in honesty, by asking if these lessons and issues have been resolved, for if they have not been, they will simply re-present themselves again and again, becoming exponentially
larger, until we are “forced” to confront and resolve them. For some who chose to evade and fool themselves, this can ultimately manifest physically with the individual either becoming so ill that they are left under the surgeons knife, in the hospital, or they ~transition,~ only to come back in the next life and face those very same lessons yet again.

If indeed, one can honestly affirm that those lessons have been thoroughly
acknowledged, learned and absorbed, then the unfolding of the Soul begins and with it, the ability to rise above the mundane. This, as stated earlier, is a very involved process and must always be approached in conscious awareness, yet the freedom of the Soul on the wing, able to rise above those things that have caused one so much pain, anger or torment in the past, is a glorious unfolding to behold.***


Connection to Spirit Guides and Teachers

As an Animal Totem, the Eagle has long been revered by the Native People for the proximity in which he/she soars to the Great Spirit. Because of the Eagle`s ability to fly so near to the roof of the sky, to view all that which lies below from a viewpoint similar to that of the Great Mystery, this mighty bird is believed to be a conveyor of messages between the
Blue Road of Spirit and the Red Road of Physical Life.

***Like their Spirit Animal, the two-legged beside whom Eagle soars, will have an aspect of him/herself that will be attuned to the voices of the Ancestors. This ability to tune into other realms and hidden knowledge, may be seen by those lacking in such sensitivity and attunement as "day dreaming" or "spacing out." The truth of the matter is that the soul of the
Eagle individual is in a near-constant state of receptivity, though they may not be consciously aware of the messages they are receiving from Spirit Guides, Totems and Teachers, the messages are coming through none the less.

The more that the Eagle Soul can learn to tune into his/her feelings, intuitions and visuals received, the greater this perception and ability to tune into ancient wisdom becomes. For some, the knowledge received will be expressed as "automatic writing" or trance channeling, others will express this ability via creative artwork in the form of beautiful illustrations that convey a deep spirituality, for others still, such knowledge and connection to
the ~Higher Self~ is expressed via deeply stirring music.

Regardless of the medium through which such a connection to both the Spirit Guides and Higher Self is established, the end result is that these are the souls that carry profound messages for the rest of Humanity. Through conveying such messages in their non-judgmental and beautifully presented manner, the messages and knowledge passed along is received on a deeper level, and thus both the Messenger and the Recipient benefit from this
beautiful Talent.

Creativity

The Eagle is recognized in Earth Medicine as a Winged One that is a symbol of Creation. In particular, the Thunder Eagle (or Thunderbird) is revered as a powerful Spirit that heralds great change and unlimited happiness that arises through the fountain of the Divine Creative Spark.

Eagle’s place in Native American culture is quite significant, as very few Totem Animals are believed to possess such a broad and all-encompassing range of Medicine. For Eagle, the greatest creation is Life, either in the saving of the life of another (as through the strong healing emphasis associated with this raptor), or in the act of procreation. Like the legendary Phoenix, the Eagle is a Animal Totem of Transformation and Regeneration, a Spirit in a continual creative process.

***The two-legged who is blessed to have this Spirit Animal fly beside him/her, will be an individual that has entered onto the Good Red Road to express themselves creatively. This Divine Spark of Creativity may manifest in a multitude of channels, from music to making intricate and stunning jewelry, producing beautifully illustrated paintings to conceptualizing impressive architectural designs. Whatever medium this creative genius asserts itself, these will often be amongst the most skilled of artisans, poets and musicians.

Indeed, the entire existence of the Eagle individual will seem to be a creative process, and life will be seen with a sensitivity that is both esthetic and deeply spiritual. Herein lies the key for the Eagle Soul, as the art they create will contain deeply spiritual overtones and undercurrents, their music, writing or art will transcend their captive audiences to a higher vibration where all life is celebrated with a deep reverence and joy.

The irony perhaps is that often these souls are not fully aware of the talent they possess, as like the white crown feathers of the adult Bald Eagle, the two-legged beside whom this raptor travels will mature into his/her supreme talents. Such profound creativity must be reclaimed with a willing heart, yet one that is willing to fully embrace the responsibility to convey the realms of ethereal beauty, mysticism, music and art that is often invisible or unheard to the average two-legged. Yet when the Bald Eagle Soul has fully embraced both his/her talents and the responsibility to pass along their ~Vision,~ the physical world is not only made more esthetically appealing, the spirituality inherent in the visions conveyed will call to Others to reach for that sense of Beauty, Peace and Illumination within.***


FONTE: http://www.whats-your-sign.com/symbolic-eagle-meaning.html


Symbolic Eagle Meaning

I've been seeing eagles and moles in my meditations lately. When creatures persist in my awareness, I know it's time to write a page on them. Plus, I've gotten several requests from readers of this site wanting to know more about symbolic eagle meaning, so here are a few thoughts.

I've had the luxury of observing Golden Eagles in the wild. Like our nature-inclined forebears, the sheer size of these creatures is mind-numbing.

Size does matter to the Native mind. It is the mammoth size of the eagle that, in part, wins its title as the King of the Birds in myth and lore. In spite of its enormous size, the eagle still takes flight, seemingly effortlessly. This is the first of many symbolic cues from the eagle about perception (not judging a book by its cover) and, not allowing the illusion of limitation to ground us in our flight.

What else matters when considering symbolic eagle meaning? Here are a few attributes and keywords associated with Eagle Medicine:

* Opportunity
* Protection
* Guardianship
* Masculinity
* Dominance
* Control
* Freedom
* Community
* Command
* Action
* Authority
* Skill
* Focus
* Determination
* Vision
* Power
* Liberation
* Inspiration
* Ruler
* Judgment

Native wisdom also honors the eagle for their opportunistic ways. It's not that they're skilled hunters (they are), but the go about gaining their needs in ways that are most efficient. This is a lesson for conserving resources. Work smarter, not harder.

Some Native American (plains tribes) refers to the eagle as an earthly incarnation of the great Thunderbird spirit. Legend further states that lightning bolts shoot from the eyes of the bald eagle, and with the beating of its expansive wings, rain is conjured from the skies. That's easy to envision.

Coming from the mindset that all energy is interconnected, an average wingspan of 5-7 feet (in golden's and bald's) could understandably cause some massive energetic ripples in the cosmos. Even prompt rain. I love how eagles as rain bringers segways into the cleansing theme of water.

And, we see from the Native mind that eagle feathers are tribal tools resonating patterns of healing within ritual. Do a little research into Native wisdom, and you will find the eagle is invoked for revitalization, creation and healing purposes. I like to think this deals with the eagle's connection with water.

In this vein of thought, we can contemplate the healing messages the eagle may offer us in our daily life. When the eagle soars into our psychic vision, it may be a sign of getting prepared for symbolic cleansing rains. What needs cleaning in our lives?

Of course, as rulers of the sky, eagle meaning is connected with the air element, which symbolizes communication and thought. All bird totems speak to us about higher thinking, dreams, and mental liberation. As king of the birds, the eagle's message of mental acuity is super-dominant.

Visually, everything about the eagle's appearance is sharp. Streamlined, sleek, chiseled. This prompts our deeper minds to hone our thoughts and skills. The eagle commands us to tailor our intelligence and talents in a form that best suits our needs. We all have inner abilities, but when the eagle shows up - it's a clear sign it's time to use these abilities in a laser-like fashion to bring about focused change in our lives.

To revisit the Thunderbird association, eagles are said to bring down lightning with the storms. This makes me think of flashes of insight, surges of power - electrifying vision.

I also like to look into the eyes of the eagle. There I see the lightning. I see the sun itself living in those all-seeing bright yellow orbs.

Do these observations this strike a chord with you? If so, take flight with the eagle meaning by experimenting with these visualizations:

* contemplate the power cased in the heart of the eagle.
* Synchronize your own heart beat with that of the eagle's - visualize each pulse as a flash of lighting - an impulse of divine thought.
* Picture the power of the gods clapping like thunder with each flap of their wings. With each crack of thunder consider barriers and blockages in your life being shattered.
* Then see the great 7 foot wingspan of the eagle growing even longer in your vision in order to swipe away the rubble - making all trace of limitation disappear.
* Look into the eyes of the eagle, and see the dawning sun shine clarity upon the dawning of your own awareness. These eyes are like a light into your own contemplative vision - let them illuminate your from the inside out.

These kind of powerful connections can liberate on so many levels.

But, you don't have to take my word for it. Consider our ancestors perspectives on the eagle meaning for more inspiration.

Alchemy symbolic eagle meaning:
A representation of prime matter, the start of an alchemical operation. The eagle spreads its wings over the step into creation and fans the fire, encouraging growth of new matter.

Aztec and Mayan meaning of eagle:
The eagle carries the veil of night and dark over our existence and awareness. It's affiliated with the dawning sun, and is a magnificent celestial power, able to shine light into our world.

Celtic animal symbolism of eagle:
Associated with the symbolism of water, and the intuitive oracle water serves as. Perhaps because our Celtic kin observed their magnificent ability to see into waters with miraculous clarity. Like scrying. I like to think the Celts skimmed across the waters of their existence invoked the eagle for assistance in "diving in" for treasures of wisdom.

Christian eagle meaning:
Associated with the Christ himself. Because the eagle seems to easily ascend the skies, looking into the sun with unblinking focus, we relate symbolism of Christ's unblinking faith in the Way, the Truth, and the Light. We also see themes of renewal (baptism) as the eagle plunges the soul of man into the sea, and lifts them out renewed and cleansed.

Greek meaning:
Another reference as a solar animal, the eagle is symbolic of authority, rulership and virility. It's depicted with thunderbolts in each talon. In my mind, this seems like a phallic reference would bolster sexual energy as well as warrior status (energy, thrust, courage, bravery, fearlessness). I get a confirmation of this by Zeus's strong affiliation with the eagle in myth.

I could go on forever about the symbolic meaning of the eagle. It's an inspiring creature, so it's only natural that every human eye that has witnessed it would be enraptured by its regal presence.

The eagle imparts spectacular wisdom. Take purposeful, meditative time to connect with the eagle, and discover what kind of glorious insight it can share with you.


FONTE:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bald_Eagle

Role in Native American culture

The Bald Eagle is a sacred bird in some North American cultures, and its feathers, like those of the Golden Eagle, are central to many religious and spiritual customs among Native Americans. Eagles are considered spiritual messengers between gods and humans by some cultures.[47] Many pow wow dancers use the eagle claw as part of their regalia as well. Eagle feathers are often used in traditional ceremonies, particularly in the construction of regalia worn and as a part of fans, bustles and head dresses. The Lakota, for instance, give an eagle feather as a symbol of honor to person who achieves a task. In modern times, it may be given on an event such as a graduation from college.[48] The Pawnee considered eagles as symbols of fertility because their nests are built high off the ground and because they fiercely protect their young. The Kwakwaka'wakw scattered eagle down to welcome important guests.[49] The Choctaw explained that the Bald Eagle, who has direct contact with the upper world of the sun, is a symbol of peace.[50]

During the Sun Dance, which is practiced by many Plains Indian tribes, the eagle is represented in several ways. The eagle nest is represented by the fork of the lodge where the dance is held. A whistle made from the wing bone of an eagle is used during the course of the dance. Also during the dance, a medicine man may direct his fan, which is made of eagle feathers, to people who seek to be healed. The medicine man touches the fan to the center pole and then to the patient, in order to transmit power from the pole to the patient. The fan is then held up toward the sky, so that the eagle may carry the prayers for the sick to the Creator.[51]

Current eagle feather law stipulates that only individuals of certifiable Native American ancestry enrolled in a federally recognized tribe are legally authorized to obtain Bald or Golden Eagle feathers for religious or spiritual use. The constitutionality of these laws has been questioned by Native American groups on the basis that it violates the First Amendment by affecting ability to practice their religion freely.[52][53]


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Haliaeetus_leucocephalus-whale-USFWS.jpg
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Maschile Capra
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: L'Aquila: regina del cielo   Lun 7 Feb 2011 - 7:53

Riporto i seguenti link per il tema trattato

http://www.airesis.net/IlGiardinoDeiMagi/Giardino%201/cardini_aquila_8.htm

e

http://www.airesis.net/IlGiardinoDeiMagi/Giardino%201/cardini_aquila_9.htm
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: L'Aquila: regina del cielo   Mar 3 Mag 2011 - 14:07

Ancora qualche documento sulla simbologia dell'aquila. Di questi documenti, in particolare, riporto solo lo stralcio concernente la simbologia perciò per approfondimenti si consiglia la visione anche ai link originali.



FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aquila_chrysaetos



Simbologia

L'aquila reale riveste un ruolo molto importante nella storia della simbologia europea. Per i greci era un simbolo di Zeus,
colui che ne rispecchiava i valori fondamentali. Il fatto che
simboleggiasse il padre degli dei fece sì che i romani la scegliessero
come emblema fin dai tempi della repubblica.
Con la divisione dell'Impero in due parti decretata dall'imperatore
romano Teodosio per i suoi figli, Arcadio che ebbe l'Oriente e Onorio
l'Occidente, l'aquila romana da quel momento fu raffigurata unico corpo
(impero romano) a due teste (oriente e occidente), come anche ora si può
vedere in stemmi che si rifanno all'impero romano. L'aquila verrà poi
spesso ripresa da tutte le nazioni che vorranno emulare l'immagine di
Roma e questo comportò quindi che essa venisse utilizzata da Carlo Magno, Napoleone, gli stati dell'Europa dell'est, Hitler, Mussolini e infine dagli USA.

La valorizzazione dell'aquila venne portata avanti in seguito dalla Chiesa cattolica,
che prese a sua volta spunto dal fatto che essa è simbolo di
spiritualità (l'aquila è simbolo dell'evangelista Giovanni il più
spirituale dei quattro). Dante la riporta nel sesto canto del paradiso e
ne innalza i valori. La sua strumentalizzazione nel corso della storia
l'ha portata paradossalmente ad essere vista da alcuni come un'immagine
negativa, in quanto utilizzata come simbolo dagli stati totalitari che devastarono l'Europa nel Novecento.
Oggi, tuttavia, è usata comunque in molte aziende, società e paesi come
simbolo di fierezza, nobiltà, divinità e orgoglio (oltre ad essere
usata dagli allevatori per cacciar le volpi quando si avvicinano ai
pollai) È inoltre simbolo dell'Arma Aeronautica Militare Italiana e di
molti altri paesi. Ultimo tra gli stati in cui l'aquila compare nella
bandiera nazionale è il Kazakistan,
mentre l'Albania è detta appunto "Paese delle Aquile" e ne ha una
stilizzata sulla bandiera. È inoltre il simbolo della società sportiva
romana S.S. Lazio,
anche se a rigor di logica quella rappresentata sullo stemma della
squadra biancoceleste dovrebbe essere non un'aquila reale ma la più
rara, in Italia, aquila imperiale .



FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_Eagle



In_human_culture

Falconry
Golden Eagles have been used in falconry since the Middle Ages. In
Asia, they were used in teams to hunt such animals as deer, antelope and
wolves, while their use was reserved for Emperors in Europe.<span>[</span>27<span>]</span> They can be trained for falconry.<span>[</span>28<span>]</span>



Heraldry

The Golden Eagle is the national bird of five nations, Albania, Germany, and Austria in continuation of the Holy Roman Empire,[citation needed], Mexico and Kazakhstan, the most of any species. The eagle is very much connected to the Saladin Golden Eagle, currently used as the coat of arms of Egypt, Iraq, and Palestine, it was also previously used by Libya, and Yemen.[citation needed]
The Golden Eagle was model for the aquila, the standard of the Roman legions. It is featured in the national coats of arms of Germany, Albania, Austria, Egypt, Mexico, Romania and many other countries.[citation needed]



Religion

In North America

The eagle is a sacred bird in some cultures and the feathers of the
eagle are central to many religious and spiritual customs, especially
among some Native Americans in the United States and First Nations
in Canada, as well as among many of the peoples of Meso-America. Some
Native American peoples revere eagles as sacred and the feathers and
other parts of Bald and Golden Eagles. Feathers are often worn on Native
American headdresses and have been compared to the Bible and crucifix
of Christianity. Eagle feathers are often used in various Native
ceremonies and are used to honour noteworthy achievements and qualities
such as exceptional leadership and bravery.[citation needed] The Golden Eagle is thought to be the origin of the Thunderbird legends of the southwestern United States,<span>[</span>27<span>]</span>
Current United States eagle feather law (50 CFR
22) stipulates that only individuals of certifiable Native American
ancestry enrolled in a federally recognized tribe are legally authorized
to obtain eagle feathers for religious or spiritual use. Thus, the
supply of eagle material for traditional ceremonial use can be
guaranteed and ceremonial eagle items can be passed on as heirlooms
by their traditional owners without the restrictions that would usually
apply. Commercial trade in Golden Eagles or their feathers or body
parts is not legalized by these exceptions.<span>[</span>29<span>]</span>
On February 1, 2006 the Director Dale Hall of the USFWS issued a new permit to the Hopi
Tribe for 2006. On April 26, 2007 USFWS Deputy Director Kenneth
Stansell issued a new permit for 2007. As in the past, the permits
authorize the Hopi to take up to 40 Golden Eaglets.[citation needed]
In keeping with a departure begun in 2003, the USFWS HQ in Washington, D.C., not the Regional Director in Albuquerque, New Mexico,
issued the 2006 and 2007 Eagle permits. A new aspect of Native American
religious eagle gathering is that additional tribes are now taking live
eagles under USFWS permits, for the first time. They are:[citation needed]
Jemez Pueblo - In October 2006, the USFWS issued a permit to Jemez Pueblo to capture up to 2 golden eagles in the Valles Caldera National Preserve, administered by the Forest Service, in Sandoval County, New Mexico.
The USFWS had previously denied a Jemez request in 2002 to take eagles.
In July 2007 Jemez reported that they successfully collected two
immature Golden Eagles.
Taos Pueblo - In February 2007 the USFWS issued a permit to Taos Pueblo to shoot one mature Golden Eagle on Taos Pueblo Tribal lands in Taos County, New Mexico.
An additional permit allows the permittee to transport the taken eagle
and its parts anywhere within the United States. Report was due to USFWS
by December 31, 2007.
Isleta Pueblo
- In April 2007, the USFWS issued a permit to the Pueblo of Isleta to
take two mature Golden Eagles on Pueblo lands in Valencia and Bernalillo County, New Mexico. The Isleta Report is due on March 31, 2008.





FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Golden-Eagle-Szmurlo.jpg
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: L'Aquila: regina del cielo   Ven 3 Feb 2012 - 10:10

Nei seguenti articoli di wikipedia conosceremo Garuda una divinità con le sembianze di questo bellissimo totem...

FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garuda

Garuda
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Garuda (sanscrito: गरुड Garuḍa), l'aquila, è una divinità induista minore, il monte (vahanam) di Viṣṇu, e una delle forme della divinità nell'induismo; è rappresentata con piume d'oro, faccia bianca, ali rosse, becco e ali d'aquila, ma un corpo spesso umano. Indossa una corona sulla testa come il suo padrone, Viṣṇu; è antica ed enorme, al punto da oscurare il sole.

Secondo alcuni studiosi il nome deriverebbe da gara-ud-di, che significa "colui che aspetta il veleno", oppure "colui che porta un gran peso", mentre secondo altri deriverebbe da Garuman, il dio vedico del sole. Un racconto mitico narra che dopo essersi seduto su un ramo, accortosi che stava cedendo per il gran peso, visto che ospitava ben 40.000 asceti, con un gran sforzo è riuscito a sollevarlo.(Valakhilya)[1]

La sua importanza nella religione induista può essere compresa dal fatto che un'Upaniṣad indipendente, la Garudopanishada, e un Purana, il Garuda Purana, sono dedicati a lei. Garuda è nota con molti altri nomi - Chirada, Gaganeshvara, Kamayusha, Kashyapi, Khageshvara, Nagantaka, Sitanana, Sudhahara, Suparna, Takshya, Vainateya, Viṣṇuratha e altri ancora. Nei Veda è presente il più antico riferimento a Garuda, con il nome Shyena, laddove si dice che questo maestoso uccello avrebbe portato il nettare degli dei (amrit) sulla Terra dal Cielo; i Purana, molto successivi, riferiscono lo stesso di Garuda, indicando che Shyena e Garuda siano la stessa divinità (o lo siano diventate nel tempo). Una delle facce dello Shri Panchamukha ("cinque facce", metamorfosi di Hanuman) è Mahavira Garuda, rivolta ad occidente. Si crede che pregando Garuda sia possibile curare gli effetti del veleno. Nella mitologia buddhista, i garuda sono una razza divina di uomini-uccello, nemici dei naga, cui danno la caccia. Nel Mahasamyatta Sutta, si narra che Buddha abbia ottenuto una pace tra naga e garuda.

Le raffigurazioni antiche lo rappresentano con sembianze per lo più animali, mentre quelle più recenti le hanno quasi completamente umanizzate.

In Thailandia è nota come Krut (ครุฑ); in Myanmar, ga-lon; in giapponese come Karura(迦楼羅), anche se in molte opere recenti si è recuperata la pronuncia Garuda (ガルダ - vedi sotto). Tutte le varianti sono comunque pronunce locali del nome sanscrito. In Thailandia (come Krut Pha, Krut con le ali aperte, simbolo della famiglia reale) e in Indonesia, Garuda è il simbolo nazionale; la compagnia aerea nazionale indonesiana si chiama inoltre Garuda Indonesia.


La statua di Garuda nel Garuda Wisnu Kencana
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Garuda_gwk.JPG

Garuda nella cultura popolare

Garudamimus è il nome dato ad un dinosauro trovato nel Deserto dei Gobi, per l'aspetto simile ad un uccello gigante.
Nel manga/anime Naruto, il Garuda è la mossa finale del temibile artista della distruzione esplosiva: Deidara
Nel manga/anime I Cavalieri dello zodiaco, Aiakos di Garuda è il nome di uno dei Kyoto, i tre Giudici degli Inferi.
Nel gioco Street Fighter EX, Garuda è un demone simile ad un samurai che si affronta verso la fine del gioco.
Nel videogioco Warhammer Fantasy Battle i demoni di Tzeentch sono estremamente simili alle raffigurazioni tradizionali di Garuda.
Nel videogioco Final Fantasy III, Garuda è un boss che può essere sconfitto solo da un drago.
Nel videogioco Final Fantasy XI, Garuda è una donna-uccello nuda che una volta sconfitta può essere evocata.
Nel videogioco Final Fantasy XII, il Garuda è un uccello sacro che protegge la tomba del re Raithwall ed è indebolibile grazie al frutto d'ixiro.
Nel videogioco Ace combat 6:Fires of liberation è presente il team Garuda, in cui il giocatore vestirà i panni del capitano Talisman/Garuda 1.
Nell'anime Digimon, Garudamon è la super digievoluzione di Biyomon, rappresentato (come la digievoluzione in forma campione Birdramon) simile a una fenice.
Nel manga/anime/gioco di carte collezionabili Yu-Gi-Oh!, c'è un mostro chiamato 'Garuda Spirito del Vento', raffigurato come aquila con arti umani.
Nella serie Power Rangers: Mystic Force, il simbolo di Yellow Ranger è il Garuda.
Tra i mostri del videogioco di Dragon Quest VIII: L'odissea del re maledetto c'è il Garuda
Nel Bas-Lag, il mondo fantastico creato dallo scrittore inglese di weird fiction China Miéville, i Garuda sono una razza di uomini uccello.
In Zegapain, anime giapponese del 2006 della nota casa produttrice Sunrise, Garuda è il nome di uno dei mecha utilizzati dai protagonisti nei combattimenti.


Note

^ "Dizionario dei mostri", di Massimo Izzi, ediz. L'Airone, Roma, 1997, (alla pag.41 - voce "Garuda")




Statua di Garuda attualmente conservata nel Giardino zoologico del Québec, in Canada.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jardin_zoologique_du_Qu%C3%A9bec_-_Garouda_-_2006-02.JPG



FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garuda

Garuda
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Garuda (Sanskrit/Javanese/Balinese/Indonesian: गरुड garuḍa, "eagle"; Pāli garuḷa; Burmese: ဂဠုန်, [ɡəlòʊɴ]; Tamil: கருடன் karutan; Thai/Lao: ครุฑ khrut; Khmer: គ្រុឌ; Malay: geroda; Mongolian: гарьд garid) is a large mythical bird or bird-like creature that appears in both Hindu and Buddhist mythology.

From an Indian perspective, Garuda is the Hindu name for the constellation Aquila and the Brahminy kite is considered to be the contemporary representation of Garuda.[1] Indonesia adopts a more stylistic approach to the Garuda's depiction as its national symbol, where it depicts an eagle (being much larger than a kite).[2]

In Hinduism

In Hindu religion, Garuda is a lesser Hindu divinity, usually the mount (vahanam) of the God Vishnu. Garuda is depicted as having the golden body of a strong man with a white face, red wings, and an eagle's beak and with a crown on his head. This ancient deity was said to be massive, large enough to block out the sun.

Garuda is known as the eternal sworn enemy of the Nāga serpent race and known for feeding exclusively on snakes, such behavior may have referred to the actual Short-toed Eagle of India. The image of Garuda is often used as the charm or amulet to protect the bearer from snake attack and its poison, since the king of birds is an implacable enemy and "devourer of serpent". Garudi Vidya is the mantra against snake poison to remove all kinds of evil.[3]

His stature in Hindu religion can be gauged by the fact that an independent Upanishad, the Garudopanishad, and a Purana, the Garuda Purana, is devoted to him. Various names have been attributed to Garuda - Chirada, Gaganeshvara, Kamayusha, Kashyapi, Khageshvara, Nagantaka, Sitanana, Sudhahara, Suparna, Tarkshya, Vainateya, Vishnuratha and others. The Vedas provide the earliest reference of Garuda, though by the name of Śyena, where this mighty bird is said to have brought nectar to earth from heaven. The Puranas, which came into existence much later, mention Garuda as doing the same thing, which indicates that Śyena (Sanskrit for Eagle) and Garuda are the same. One of the faces of Śrī Pañcamukha Hanuman is Mahavira Garuda. This face points towards the west. Worship of Garuda is believed to remove the effects of poisons from one's body. In Tamil Vaishnavism Garuda and Hanuman are known as "Periya Thiruvadi" and "Siriya Thiruvadi" respectively.

In the Bhagavad-Gita (Ch.10, Verse 30), in the middle of the battlefield "Kurukshetra", Krishna explaining his omnipresence, says - " as son of Vinata, I am in the form of Garuda, the king of the bird community (Garuda)" indicating the importance of Garuda.

Garuda plays an important role in Krishna Avatar in which Krishna and Satyabhama ride on Garuda to kill Narakasura. On another occasion, Lord Hari rides on Garuda to save the devotee Elephant Gajendra. It is also said that Garuda's wings when flying will chant the Vedas.


Vishnu and Lakshmi riding on the Garuda - Painting in LACMA from Rajasthan, Bundi, c.1730
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Garuda_Vishnu_Laxmi.jpg


In the Mahabharata

Birth and deeds

The story of Garuda's birth and deeds is told in the first book of the great epic Mahabharata.[4] According to the epic, when Garuda first burst forth from his egg, he appeared as a raging inferno equal to the cosmic conflagration that consumes the world at the end of every age. Frightened, the gods begged him for mercy. Garuda, hearing their plea, reduced himself in size and energy.

Garuda's father was the creator-rishi Kasyapa. His mother was Vinata, whose sister was Kadru, the mother of serpents. One day, Vinata entered into and lost a foolish bet, as a result of which she became enslaved to her sister. Resolving to release his mother from this state of bondage, Garuda approached the serpents and asked them what it would take to purchase her freedom. Their reply was that Garuda would have to bring them the elixir of immortality, also called amrita. It was a tall order. The amrita at that time found itself in the possession of the gods, who guarded it jealously, since it was the source of their immortality. They had ringed the elixir with a massive fire that covered the sky. They had blocked the way to the elixir with a fierce mechanical contraption of sharp rotating blades. And finally, they had stationed two gigantic poisonous snakes next to the elixir as deadly guardians.

Undaunted, Garuda hastened toward the abode of the gods intent on robbing them of their treasure. Knowing of his design, the gods met him in full battle-array. Garuda, however, defeated the entire host and scattered them in all directions. Taking the water of many rivers into his mouth, he extinguished the protective fire the gods had thrown up. Reducing his size, he crept past the rotating blades of their murderous machine. And finally, he mangled the two gigantic serpents they had posted as guards. Taking the elixir into his mouth without swallowing it, he launched again into the air and headed toward the eagerly waiting serpents. En route, he encountered Vishnu. Rather than fight, the two exchanged promises. Vishnu promised Garuda the gift of immortality even without drinking from the elixir, and Garuda promised to become Vishnu's mount. Flying onward, he met Indra the god of the sky. Another exchange of promises occurred. Garuda promised that once he had delivered the elixir, thus fulfilling the request of the serpents, he would make it possible for Indra to regain possession of the elixir and to take it back to the gods. Indra in turn promised Garuda the serpents as food.

At long last, Garuda alighted in front of the waiting serpents. Placing the elixir on the grass, and thereby liberating his mother Vinata from her servitude, he urged the serpents to perform their religious ablutions before consuming it. As they hurried off to do so, Indra swooped in to make off with the elixir. The serpents came back from their ablutions and saw the elixir gone but with small droplets of it on the grass. They tried to lick the droplets and thereby split their tongues in two. From then onwards, serpents have split tongues and shed their skin as a kind of immortality.

From that day onward, Garuda was the ally of the gods and the trusty mount of Vishnu, as well as the implacable enemy of snakes, upon whom he preyed at every opportunity.

Descendents

According to the Mahabharata, Garuda had six sons from whom were descended the race of birds. The members of this race were of great might and without compassion, subsisting as they did on their relatives the snakes. Vishnu was their protector.[5]


As a Symbol

Throughout the Mahabharata, Garuda is invoked as a symbol of impetuous violent force, of speed, and of martial prowess. Powerful warriors advancing rapidly on doomed foes are likened to Garuda swooping down on a serpent.[6] Defeated warriors are like snakes beaten down by Garuda.[7] The field marshal Drona uses a military formation named after Garuda.[8] Krishna even carries the image of Garuda on his banner.[9]

In Buddhism

In Buddhist mythology, the Garuda (Pāli: garuḷā) are enormous predatory birds with intelligence and social organization. Another name for the Garuda is suparṇa (Pāli: supaṇṇa), meaning "well-winged, having good wings". Like the nāga, they combine the characteristics of animals and divine beings, and may be considered to be among the lowest devas.

The exact size of the Garuda is uncertain, but its wings are said to have a span of many miles. This may be a poetic exaggeration, but it is also said that when a Garuda's wings flap, they create hurricane-like winds that darken the sky and blow down houses. A human being is so small compared to a Garuda that a man can hide in the plumage of one without being noticed (Kākātī Jātaka, J.327). They are also capable of tearing up entire banyan trees from their roots and carrying them off.

Garudas are the great golden-winged Peng birds. They also have the ability to grow large or small, and to appear and disappear at will. Their wingspan is 330 yojanas (one yojana being 40 miles long). With one flap of its wings, a Peng bird dries up the waters of the sea so that it can gobble up all the exposed dragons. With another flap of its wings, it can level the mountains by moving them into the ocean.

There were also the four garuda-kings : Great-Power-Virtue Garuda-King, Great-Body Garuda-King, Great-Fulfillment Garuda-King, and Free-At-Will Garuda-King, each accompanied by hundreds of thousands of attendants.

The Garudas have kings and cities, and at least some of them have the magical power of changing into human form when they wish to have dealings with people. On some occasions Garuda kings have had romances with human women in this form. Their dwellings are in groves of the simbalī, or silk-cotton tree.

The Garuda are enemies to the nāga, a race of intelligent serpent- or dragon-like beings, whom they hunt. The Garudas at one time caught the nāgas by seizing them by their heads; but the nāgas learned that by swallowing large stones, they could make themselves too heavy to be carried by the Garudas, wearing them out and killing them from exhaustion. This secret was divulged to one of the Garudas by the ascetic Karambiya, who taught him how to seize a nāga by the tail and force him to vomit up his stone (Pandara Jātaka, J.518).

The Garudas were among the beings appointed by Śakra to guard Mount Sumeru and the Trāyastriṃśa heaven from the attacks of the asuras.

In the Mahasamyatta Sutta, the Buddha is shown making temporary peace between the Nagas and the Garudas.

The Thai rendering of Krut (Garuda) as Vishnu vehicle and Garuda's quest for elixir was based on Indian legend of Garuda. It was told that Garuda overcame many heavenly beings in order to gain the ambrosia (amrita) elixir. No one was able to get the better of him, not even Narai (Vishnu). At last, a truce was called and an agreement was made to settle the rancor and smooth all the ruffled feathers. If was agreed that when Narai is in his heavenly palace, Garuda will be positioned in a superior status, atop the pillar above Narai's residence. However, whenever Narai wants to travel anywhere, Garuda must serve as his transport.[citation needed]

The Sanskrit word Garuda has been borrowed and modified in the languages of several countries. In Burmese, Garudas are called galone (ဂဠုန်). In Burmese astrology, the vehicle of the Sunday planet is the galone.[10] In the Kapampangan language of the Philippines, the native word for eagle is galura. In Japanese a Garuda is called karura (however, the form Garuda ガルーダ is used in recent Japanese fiction - see below).

For the Mongols, the Garuda is called Khan Garuda or Khangarid (Mongolian: Хангарьд). Before and after each round of Mongolian wrestling, wrestlers perform the Garuda ritual, a stylised imitation of the Khangarid and a hawk.[citation needed]

In the Qing Dynasty fiction The Story of Yue Fei (1684), Garuda sits at the head of the Buddha's throne. But when a celestial bat (an embodiment of the Aquarius constellation) flatulates during the Buddha’s expounding of the Lotus Sutra, Garuda kills her and is exiled from paradise. He is later reborn as Song Dynasty General Yue Fei. The bat is reborn as Lady Wang, wife of the traitor Prime Minister Qin Hui, and is instrumental in formulating the "Eastern Window" plot that leads to Yue's eventual political execution.[11] It is interesting to note The Story of Yue Fei plays on the legendary animosity between Garuda and the Nagas when the celestial bird-born Yue Fei defeats a magic serpent who transforms into the unearthly spear he uses throughout his military career.[12] Literary critic C.T. Hsia explains the reason why Qian Cai, the book's author, linked Yue with Garuda is because of the homology in their Chinese names. Yue Fei's style name is Pengju (鵬舉).[13] A Peng (鵬) is a giant mythological bird likened to the Middle Eastern Roc.[14] Garuda's Chinese name is Great Peng, the Golden-Winged Illumination King (大鵬金翅明王).[13]

As a cultural and national symbol

In India and Southeast Asia the eagle symbolism is represented by Garuda, a large mythical bird with eagle-like features that appears in both Hindu and Buddhist mythology as the vahana (vehicle) of the god Vishnu. Garuda become the national emblem of Thailand and Indonesia; Thailand's Garuda is rendered in a more traditional anthropomorphic mythical style, while that of Indonesia is rendered in heraldic style with traits similar to the real Javan Hawk-eagle.

India

India uses Garuda as military symbols:

Garud Commando Force is a Special Forces unit of the Indian Air Force, specializing in operations deep behind enemy lines.
The Brigade of the Guards of the Indian Army uses the Garud as their symbol.
The elite bodyguards of the medieval Hoysala kings in Karnataka, India, were called Garudas, because they served the king in the way that Garuda served Vishnu.
In both Kerala and Andhra pradesh,its state road transport are using Garuda as the name for Volvo buses.
Garuda rock A Rocky cliff in Tirumala hills in Andhra pradesh
13th century Aragalur chief Magadesan's insignia was Rishabha the sacred Bull and the Garuda.


Indonesia

Indonesia uses the Garuda, Garuda Pancasila as its national symbol, it is somewhat intertwined with the concept of the phoenix.

The Garuda Pancasila is coloured or gilt gold, symbolizes the greatness of the nation and is a representation of the elang Jawa or Javan Hawk-eagle Nisaetus bartelsi. The black color represents nature. There are 17 feathers on each wing, 8 on the lower tail, 19 on the upper tail and 45 on the neck, which represent the date Indonesia proclaimed its independence: 17 August 1945. The shield it carries with the Indonesian Panca Sila heraldry symbolizes self-defense and protection in struggle.[2]
The Indonesian national airline is Garuda Indonesia.
Indonesian Armed Forces United Nations peacekeeping missions is known as Pasukan Garuda or Garuda Contingent.
In Bali and Java Garuda has become a cultural symbol, the wooden statue and mask of Garuda is a popular artworks and souvenirs.
In Bali, we can find the tallest Garuda statue of 18 metres tall made from tons of copper and brass. The statue is located in Garuda Wisnu Kencana complex.
Garuda has identified as Indonesian national football team in international games, namely "The Garuda Team".[15]

The stylized brush stroke that resemble Garuda is appear in the logo of 2011 Southeast Asian Games, held in Palembang and Jakarta, Indonesia.
The stylized curves that took form of Garuda Pancasila is appear in the logo of Wonderful Indonesia tourism campaign.



FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Garuda_Bali_GWK.jpg


Thailand

Thailand uses the Garuda (Thai: ครุฑ krut) as its national symbol.

One form of the Garuda used in Thailand as a sign of the royal family is called Krut Pha, meaning "Garuda acting as the vehicle (of Vishnu)."
The statue and images of Garuda adorned many buddhist temples in Thailand, it also has become the cultural symbol of Thailand.


Mongolia

The Garuda, known as Khangarid, is the symbol of the capital city of Mongolia, Ulan Bator.[16] According to popular Mongolian belief, Khangarid is the mountain spirit of the Bogd Khan Uul range who became a follower of Buddhist faith. Today he is considered the guardian of that mountain range and a symbol of courage and honesty.
The bird also gives its name to Hangard Aviation
Khangarid (Хангарьд), a football (soccer) team in the Mongolia Premier League also named after Garuda.
Garuda Ord (Гаруда Орд), a private construction and trading company based in Ulaanbaatar, also named after Garuda.



Head of a Gruda during the 14th century, Honolulu Academy of Arts
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:WLA_haa_Head_of_a_Garuda_Khmer.jpg
Tornare in alto Andare in basso
Aphroditi



Femminile Capra
Numero di messaggi : 21
Data d'iscrizione : 13.03.12
Età : 37
Località : Balcani

MessaggioOggetto: Re: L'Aquila: regina del cielo   Sab 7 Lug 2012 - 13:31

Aggiungerei una poesia di Osho, mistico e illuminato dell'India, poiché parla dell'aquila come animale guida:

Il ribelle

La gente ha paura,
un vero terrore
di coloro che conoscono se stessi.
Essi hanno un potere ben preciso,
un’aura e un magnetismo,
un carisma in grado di estrarre
chi è giovane e vivo
dalla prigione delle tradizioni.


Che sia ricco o povero,
il Ribelle è un vero imperatore
poiché ha spezzato le catene
dei condizionamenti
e delle opinioni
della società repressiva.
Ha dato forma a se stesso,
abbracciando tutti i colori dell’arcobaleno,
emergendo dall’oscurità
e dalle radici informi
del suo passato inconsapevole
e sviluppando ali con cui volare alto nel cielo.


Il suo modo di essere è ribelle
- non perché lotti contro qualcuno
o qualcosa,
ma perché ha scoperto
la propria vera natura
ed è determinato a vivere in base a essa.


L’aquila è il suo spirito animale,
un messaggero tra la terra e il cielo.


Il ribelle ti sfida a essere coraggioso
a sufficienza per assumerti la responsabilità
di ciò che sei e per vivere in funzione della tua verità.


Tutto passa, ma tu rimani.
Tu sei la realtà; tutto il resto
non è altro che un semplice sogno.


Ci sono sogni meravigliosi,
e ci sono incubi terribili…
ma non importa
che si tratti di un sogno magnifico
o di un incubo terrificante;
ciò che conta è colui che osserva il sogno.
Colui che vede è l’unica realtà.


Questa è la cosa
più importante da ricordare.
Se inizi a pensare
a come rendere permanenti
i tuoi momenti di estasi,
hai già iniziato a distruggerli.


Quando giungono, sii grato;
quando se ne vanno,
ringrazia l’esistenza.
Resta aperto.
Accadrà molte volte:
non giudicare mai,
non scegliere mai,
non privilegiare nulla.
Resta in uno stato d’animo
privo di scelta.
Tornare in alto Andare in basso
Tila
Iniziato Sciamano
Iniziato Sciamano


Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Re: L'Aquila: regina del cielo   Mar 10 Lug 2012 - 8:11

Buondì a tutti riporto un aggiornamento dal documento di wikipedia italiano,che tratta la simbologia di questo bellissimo totem. Buona lettura!

PS
Grazie Aphroditi per aver condiviso con noi la poesia di Osho. Smile


FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aquila#Leggende.2C_miti_e_simboli

Leggende, miti e simboli

L'aquila, grazie alle sue caratteristiche di grosso rapace, dalla vista acutissima, dal volo maestoso, dalla capacità di volare ad altezze irraggiungibili e piombare con velocità impressionante sulle prede, ha destato in tutti i popoli antichi il mito della invincibilità, paragonato ora al sole, ora al messaggero degli dei od allo stesso Dio. Se il leone è ritenuto il re degli animali terrestri, l'aquila è la regina dei volatili. Dell'antica arte sumerica si trovano reperti archeologici che mostrano un animale con corpo d'aquila e testa di leone: emblema di sovranità sulla terra e sull'aria.[2] Simbolo celeste e solare, l'aquila indica pure acutezza mentale e d'ingegno, tanto che ancor oggi, parlando di una persona d'intelligenza mediocre, se non scarsa, si ricorre alla litote: «Quella persona non è certo un'aquila». A "canonizzare" questa metafora ci pensa Dante Alighieri, allorché nella sua Divina Commedia parla di Omero, che ai tempi del sommo poeta era considerato una delle più grandi menti mai esistite:
« Quel signor dell'altissimo canto, / che sovra gli altri com'aquila vola »

(Dante Alighieri, Divina Commedia, Inferno, IV, 95-96)

D'altra parte anche l'antico proverbio latino

Aquila non capit muscas (L'aquila non cattura mosche)

che sta ad indicare come i grandi non si curino delle piccole cose, attribuisce automaticamente all'aquila il simbolo di grandezza.


L'aquila nelle tradizioni precristiane e precolombiane

Nello sciamanesimo asiatico l'aquila era il simbolo di un dio e presso il popolo degli Jakuti Siberiani il suo nome è il medesimo del Dio Creatore e gli sciamani, intermediari fra il popolo e la divinità, erano detti "figli dell'aquila". È l'aquila infatti, secondo tale credenza, che trasporta l'anima dello sciamano durante la sua fase d'iniziazione.[3]

Secondo la mitologia greca, Zeus si trasformò in aquila per rapire Ganimede.[4]

Nella mitologia dei pellerossa l'aquila è la rappresentazione tangibile di Wakan Tanka, il Grande Uccello del Tuono, che elargisce i raggi solari ed è la manifestazione del Grande Spirito, la divinità suprema. Il diadema che ornava la testa dei grandi capi indiani era fatto di penne d'aquila, simbolo solare, e penne d'aquila, artigli e addirittura teste di questo regale uccello costituivano un corredo di amuleti indispensabile ad ogni guerriero.[5] Nella "Danza del Sole" i partecipanti indossavano piume di aquila ed un fischietto di osso dello stesso uccello.[6]

Nella mitologia azteca il dio-sole Tonatiuh era rappresentato da un'aquila, confermando anche qui la valenza solare che il mito assegna a questo uccello.

L'aquila fu anche considerata uccello aruspice, messaggero che portava i presagi dagli dei agli uomini. Nell'Iliade Priamo, prima di recarsi presso il nemico Achille per ottenerne il corpo del figlio Ettore, ucciso dall'eroe greco, offre a Zeus una libagione chiedendogli che gl'invii «…l'uccello che ti è caro fra tutti e che ha la forza suprema […] e il prudente Zeus ascolta la sua preghiera e subito lancia l'aquila, il più sicuro degli uccelli, il cacciatore fosco che è chiamato il nero.»[7]

L'aquila era, secondo la mitologia greco-romana, la portatrice dei fulmini di Giove e veniva anche raffigurata con i fulmini tra gli artigli.[8] E così, leggermente modificata, compare nell'emblema degli Stati Uniti d'America.[9]

Portatrice di fulmini ma anche protettrice da essi: secondo Plinio il Vecchio i greci antichi a questo fine inchiodavano aquile sulle porte delle loro case.[10]

Essa è nemica mortale del serpente, che attacca e uccide. Così viene mostrata su antiche monete greche e galliche, mentre in Siria la leggenda vuole che Etana, pastore divenuto re, abbia salvato l'aquila dalle spire del serpente cui l'uccello aveva divorato i figli. L'aquila, per ricompensarlo, lo avrebbe portato sulle sue ali fino in cielo.[2]

L'aquila nella mitologia norrena


Secondo la mitologia norrena, l'aquila è l'eccelso tra gli uccelli, poiché sa volare molto in alto e può fissare il sole: è dunque emblema della percezione diretta della luce divina e della suprema sublimazione.
È altresì animale rapace, nemico dei serpenti, che strisciano sul terreno, e ciò ne accentua la simbologia di antagonista della materialità. Un'aquila con un falco tra gli occhi – immagine che simboleggia una straordinaria percezione visiva – è appollaiata sui rami dell'albero cosmico Yggdrasill e scambia continuamente cattive parole con il serpente Níðhöggr, che con altri ne rode le radici. La connessione dell'aquila con l'albero cosmico appare confermata non solo da un verso che recita «sui rami dei frassini si posano le aquile», bensì anche là dove si parla di un'aquila che si trova sopra la Valhalla, dimora di Odino, nello stesso luogo in cui cresce l'albero Læraðr, da identificare con l'albero cosmico.
L'aquila è dunque un uccello sacro, iniziatico e dotato di grande sapienza, e sul suo becco sono incise le rune. È estremamente sapiente perché è l'uccello delle origini, il primo che vola sul mondo ogni volta che un nuovo ciclo ha inizio. Dall'alto dello spazio e dall'alto del tempo, essa ha chiara percezione del mondo.
L'aquila è altresì uccello di Odino: sotto forma d'aquila egli compie il furto dell'idromele, che rende poeta chi lo beve; a tale mito alludono verosimilmente i suoi appellativi Arnhöfði, «testa d'aquila», e Örn, «aquila».
Come un sacrificio al dio dev'essere presumibilmente intesa anche la pratica crudele di mettere a morte i nemici incidendo la cosiddetta «aquila di sangue» (rista blóðörn): ciò consisteva nello staccare le costole dalla spina dorsale, aprirle come ali d'aquila ed estrarre i polmoni della vittima.
Alla definizione dell'aquila quale uccello di Odino non è estranea la qualità rapace dell'uccello, che si nutre di cadaveri: la metafora «rallegrare le aquile», «dare cibo all'aquila» vale «uccidere molti nemici».
La trasformazione magica in aquila non è tuttavia prerogativa esclusiva del dio: così, infatti, è detto dello jarl Fránmarr che vuole proteggere due donne dall'assalto di un esercito; così soprattutto è detto di taluni giganti quali Þjazi, il rapitore di Idunn, Suttungr, derubato da Odino del sacro idromele, o Hraesvelgr, che col battito delle sue ali possenti genera il vento sulla terra.[11]



FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aquila_%28araldica%29

Aquila (araldica)
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

L'aquila in araldica è di foggia convenzionale, corpo di fronte, ale spiegate, testa verso destra. L'aquila nella mitologia greca e latina è l'uccello sacro a Zeus, dio del fulmine e delle nuvole, suo attributo specifico, ed è spesso identificata con lo stesso padre degli dèi. È anche simbolo di potenza, vittoria e prosperità.

Nell'antica Roma l'aquila era utilizzata nell'esercito romano come insegna dell'intera legione romana.


L'aquila è una figura araldica naturale femminile. Con Carlo Magno, diviene il simbolo del Sacro Romano Impero Germanico e guadagna anche una seconda testa al momento della fusione tra l'Impero d'Oriente e l'Impero d'Occidente.

Questa concorrente aerea del leone vola raramente, e ciò potrebbe avvenire per rimarcare la sua supremazia: essa può regnare sulle stesse zone del leone, mentre quest'ultimo non ha alcun potere nell'aria, che diviene simbolicamente un mondo superiore.

L'aquila naturale ha le zampe coperte di piume fino agli artigli, contrariamente all'aquila araldica, le cui zampe glabre sono spesso rosse, e che dunque è più simile al falcone da caccia.

L'aquila, benché molto utilizzata nelle armi, soprattutto nell'Europa orientale, non ha conosciuto la stessa banalizzazione del leone. È sicuramente questa la ragione per cui le varianti sono meno numerose:

L'aquila bicefala (fig. 1), nata dalla riunione dei due imperi romani, ha a sua volta originato una effimera variante tricefala nel 1229 ad opera di Federico II che pensava di aggiungervi l'impero di Gerusalemme... (fig. 2)
L'aquila della fig. 3 si blasona così: d'argento (il campo è bianco) all'aquila di rosso, al volo abbassato (ali con le penne pendenti), imbeccata di nero (col becco nero), lampassata di verde (con la lingua verde), membrata d'azzurro (con le zampe azzurre), armata d'oro (con gli artigli gialli).

benché teoricamente possibile, aquile così variopinte come questo esempio "scolastico" quasi non se ne trovano.

La si trova accompagnata da vari accessori, molto spesso è coronata, o come nella fig. 4, nembata d'argento (aureolata di bianco) tenente una spada dello stesso (anche la spada è bianca)
Può essere mutilata: senza testa, sarà decollata, senza coda né zampe né cosce, sarà dismembrata....

L'aquila ha dato origine ad alcune figure mostruose tra cui l'arpia e il grifone, quest'ultimo con il suo reale concorrente terrestre il leone

L'araldica napoleonica ristabilì un'aquila più vicina al modello naturale ed al modello romano, volante, o in ogni caso sorante (che sta spiccando il volo), ma che si ritrova principalmente negli ornamenti esteriori dello scudo.

Il comune svizzero di Aigle ed il suo distretto vi trovano una rappresentazione immediata nelle loro armi parlanti:
troncato di nero e d'oro a due aquile, dell'uno nell'altro (sul campo nero è posta un'aquila d'oro, sul campo d'oro è posta un'aquila nera).

Il Rione Cattedrale, che è uno dei Rioni partecipanti al Palio di Asti, presenta come simbolo araldico un'aquila nera simbolo della famiglia Alfieri di Asti.


Posizione araldica ordinaria

L'aquila è rappresentata di fronte, con zampe e penne della coda divaricate, ali aperte con penne spiegate (si dice volo spiegato) e testa di profilo, che guarda a destra, come deve avvenire per ogni animale araldicamente corretto... (è appena il caso di ricordare che nello scudo la destra è quella che l'osservatore vede a sinistra e viceversa, in quanto indica in realtà la destra di colui che porta lo scudo davanti a sé).

Attributi araldici

Armata quando ha gli artigli di smalto diverso.
Bicipite quando ha due teste, rivolte verso l'esterno dello scudo.
Diademata o Nimbata quando ha la testa cinta da un piccolo cerchio, come l'aureola dei santi.
Lampassata quando ha la lingua di smalto diverso.
Membrata quando ha le zampe di smalto diverse.
Rivoltata quando ha la testa rivolta verso il fianco sinistro dello scudo.
Rostrata quando ha il becco di smalto diverso.
Spiegata quando è ad ali spiegate, ovverosia la punta delle ali è rivolta verso l'alto.
Abbassata, o a volo abbassato, quando le ali sono abbassate.
Tornare in alto Andare in basso
Tila
Iniziato Sciamano
Iniziato Sciamano


Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Re: L'Aquila: regina del cielo   Mar 10 Lug 2012 - 8:32

Nella mitologia norrena Thiassi (o Þjazi, Thiazi, Thjazi, Tjasse) era un gigante che assumeva la forma di aquila. In questo articolo di wikipedia inglese conosceremo parte della sua leggenda. Buona lettura.

FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%9Ejazi

Þjazi
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In Norse mythology, Þjazi (anglicized as Thiazi, Thjazi, Tjasse or Thiassi) was a giant. He was a son of the giant Olvaldi, brother of giants Idi and Gangr, and the father of Skaði. His most notable misdeed was the kidnapping of the goddess Iðunn, which is related in both the Prose Edda and the skaldic poem Haustlöng.


Iðunn is carried off by Þjazi in this artwork by H. Theaker, 1920.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Idun_and_Thiazi.jpg

Skáldskaparmál

According to Skáldskaparmál, the gods Odin, Loki and Hœnir set out one day on a journey, traveling through mountains and wilderness until they were in need of food. In a valley they saw a herd of oxen, and they took one of the oxen and set it in an earth oven, but after a while they found that it would not cook. As they were trying to determine the reason for this, they heard someone talking in the oak tree above them, saying that he himself was the one responsible for the oven not cooking. They looked up and saw that it was Þjazi in the form of a great eagle, and he told them that if they would let him eat from the ox, then he would make the oven cook. To this they agreed, so he came down from the tree and began devouring a large portion of the meal. He ate so much of it that Loki became angry, grabbed his long staff and attempted to strike him, but the weapon stuck fast to Þjazi's body and he took flight, carrying Loki up with him. As they flew across the land Loki shouted and begged to be let down as his legs banged against trees and stones, but Þjazi would only do so on the condition that Loki must lure Idunn out of Asgard with her apples of youth, which he solemnly promised to do.

Later, at the agreed time, Loki lured Idunn out of Asgard into a forest, telling her he had found some apples that she might think worth having, and that she should bring her own apples with her to compare them. Þjazi then appeared in his eagle shape, grabbed Idunn and flew away with her to his realm of Þrymheimr, located in Jötunheimr.

The gods, deprived of Idunn's apples, began growing old and grey. When they learned that Idunn was last seen going out of Asgard with Loki, they threatened him with torture and death until he agreed to rescue her. Loki borrowed a magical coat from Freyja that would allow him to take the shape of a falcon, then flew to Jotunheim until he reached the hall of Þjazi. Finding Idunn alone while Þjazi was out to sea on a boat, Loki transformed her into a nut and carried her back, flying as fast as he could. When Þjazi returned home and discovered she was gone he assumed his eagle form and flew after Loki. When the gods saw Loki flying toward them with Þjazi right behind they lit a fire which burned Þjazi's feathers, causing him to fall to the ground where he was set upon and killed.

Þjazi's daughter Skadi then put on her war gear and went to Asgard to seek vengeance, but the gods offered her atonement and compensation until she was placated. She was also given the hand of Njord in marriage, and as a further reparation Odin took Þjazi's eyes and placed them in the night sky as stars.

Also according to Skáldskaparmál, Þjazi and his brothers Gangr and Idi had a father named Olvaldi. Olvaldi was very rich in gold, and when he died his three sons divided their inheritance between them by each in turn taking a mouthful. For this reason the expressions "speech of Þjazi, Gangr or Idi" and "Idi's shining talk" are kennings for gold, and twice in the same book a kenning is given for Þjazi as "lady wolf", a reference to his abduction of Idunn. Another is "snowshoe deity's fosterer", or the father of the goddess who goes about on skis.



FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:He_flapped_away_with_her,_magic_apples_and_all_by_Elmer_Boyd_Smith.jpg

Grímnismál

In Grímnismál, during Odin's visions of the various dwelling places of gods and giants he mentions that of Þjazi in stanza 11:

"Thrymheim the sixth is called
where Þjazi lived, the terrible giant,
but now Skadi, shining bride of the gods,
lives in her father's ancient courts"

Hárbarðsljóð

According to Hárbarðsljóð, it was not Odin but Thor who claimed to have made Þjazi's eyes into stars in stanza 19:

Thor said:

"I killed Þjazi, the powerful minded giant.
I threw up the eyes of Olvaldi's son
into the bright heavens.
They are the greatest sign of my deeds,
those which all men can see afterwards.
What were you doing meanwhile, Harbard?"

Lokasenna

In Lokasenna, it was neither Odin nor Thor but Loki himself who during his verbal sparring with Skadi lays claim to the death of her father in stanza 50:

Loki said:

"You know, if on a sharp rock, with my ice cold son's guts
the gods shall bind me,
first and foremost I was at the killing
when we attacked Þjazi"

Hyndluljóð

According to the interpolated group of stanzas known as the Short Völuspá in Hyndluljóð, Þjazi is further described as "the giant who loved to shoot".

Familiar forms

Þjazi, anglicized as

Thiazi
Thjazi
Thiassi

Tjatse (mainland Scandinavian)
Tjasse (Norse)



Another depiction of Þjazi as an eagle, trying to stop the Æsir from boiling food.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Treated_NKS_haustlong.jpg
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