Forum di sciamanesimo, antropologia e spirito critico
Nei momenti più bui, ricorda sempre di fare un passo alla volta.
Voler ottenere tutto e subito è sciocco
Nei momenti più difficili, ricorda sempre che le abitudini stabiliscono un destino.
Stabilisci quelle che ti danno energia e crescita.
È solo nell’ora più profonda del Duat, nella Notte oscura dell’anima che possiamo vedere noi stessi.
E capire come superare la notte.
Non rifuggire l’oscurità, impara a vederci attraverso.
Tutto passa e scorre, il giorno diviene notte e la notte giorno.
Ciò che è bene per te ora domani diverrà un ostacolo e un impedimento, o un danno, e viceversa.
Tutto finisce e muta, come la pelle di un serpente.
Impara ad essere la volontà pura di vivere e non la pelle morta di un intento esaurito.
Tutto ciò che non supera l’alba del tuo nuovo giorno, non deve essere portato con te.
Il mondo è infinito, non giudicare perdite e guadagni come il piccolo pescatore che non ha mai visto l’Oceano.
Sconfinate sono le possibilità della Ruota.
Impara a fluire e solo allora senza occhi, senza orecchie né pensiero, vedrai, sentirai e capirai il Tao.
(Admin - Shamanism & Co. © 2011 - All rights reserved)


Forum di sciamanesimo, antropologia e spirito critico

forum di sciamanesimo, antropologia, spirito critico, terapie alternative, esoterismo. Forum of shamanism, anthropology, criticism, alternative therapies and esoterism
 
IndicePortaleFAQCercaRegistrarsiAccedi

Condividere | 
 

 Coyote - Canis latrans

Vedere l'argomento precedente Vedere l'argomento seguente Andare in basso 
AutoreMessaggio
Admin
Admin
Admin


Maschile Capra
Numero di messaggi : 2142
Data d'iscrizione : 04.02.09
Età : 37
Località : Roma

MessaggioOggetto: Coyote - Canis latrans   Mar 6 Apr 2010 - 6:50



FONTE immagine: http://www.ics.uci.edu/~eppstein/pix/peninsula/CoyotePtZoo-m.jpg


FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canis_latrans

Canis latrans

Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.


Il coyote (Canis latrans) è un mammifero carnivoro appartenente alla famiglia dei Canidae.
Indice


• 1 Descrizione
• 2 Alimentazione
• 3 Struttura sociale
• 4 Riproduzione
• 5 Bibliografia
• 6 Altri progetti
• 7 Voci correlate


Descrizione

Diffuso in America centrale e settentrionale, è molto simile al lupo, ma presenta dimensioni più ridotte. È lungo tra 1 e 1,5 m e pesa dai 12 ai 18 kg; la femmina è mediamente più piccola. Il colore della pelliccia, più lunga e folta negli individui che vivono nelle zone fredde, va dal grigio scuro al marrone. I coyoti che vivono a sud hanno il pelo più chiaro rispetto a quelli delle regioni settentrionali. La coda è molto folta e ha frange di colore nero, come il pelo del dorso. Le orecchie sono lunghe e a punta. Tutte le capacità sensoriali del coyote sono molto sviluppate. È il più atletico dei canidi, si sposta su grandi distanze e raggiunge una velocità di 65 km/h; è un abile nuotatore. Si conosce oltre una dozzina di sottospecie.
Alimentazione
Le lepri sono il suo cibo, soprattutto nelle grandi praterie del Nord-America, sebbene consumi tutto ciò che può catturare: uccelli, insetti, ratti, marmotte, castori, serpenti e altri animali; mangia anche frutti caduti. Durante il rigido inverno dell'Alaska e del Canada, il coyote non esita a consumare anche carogne. Caccia in branco o in coppia, soprattutto per catturare prede di maggiori dimensioni.
Struttura sociale
Vive in coppia o in branchi, anche se è possibile incontrare individui solitari. La coppia si forma a metà dell'inverno, quando la femmina entra in calore, e si mantiene per anni. I branchi sono fortemente gerarchizzati e gli animali d'età più avanzata sono quelli dominanti. I territori vengono demarcati con le urine da tutti i componenti del branco o della coppia, o dall'individuo, se solitario. Oltre al linguaggio corporale, per comunicare tra loro i coyoti utilizzano anche un vasto repertorio vocale, che comprende ululati simili a quelli del lupo. Sono capaci anche di abbaiare.
Riproduzione
Durante il periodo in cui la femmina è in calore, i maschi sono attratti e la corteggiano per svariate settimane. Tuttavia, è la femmina a scegliere il compagno dandogli colpetti con il muso. La coppia delimita il nuovo territorio, caccia e dorme assieme. Spesso usurpa la tana di una marmotta, di un tasso o di una volpe o ne costruisce una propria per la nascita dei cuccioli, in genere da 2 a 12. A solo due settimane dalla nascita, i piccoli mangiano carne rigurgitata dai genitori, anche se possono continuare ad essere allattati fino al quarto mese di vita. Attorno all'ottavo o nono mese, alcuni dei giovani cuccioli già lasciano i genitori.
Bibliografia
• Gese, E.M., Bekoff, M., Andelt,W., Carbyn, L. & Knowlton, F. 2008. Canis latrans. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Versione 2010.1
Altri progetti
• Wikimedia Commons contiene file multimediali su Canis latrans
• Wikispecies contiene informazioni su Canis latrans
Voci correlate
• Lupo
• Lupo Grigio
• Sciacallo
• Volpe
• Licaone





FONTE: http://advocacy.britannica.com/blog/advocacy/wp-content/uploads/coyote005-004.jpg




FONTE: http://www.adventurejournalist.com/coyote800x600.jpg


Ultima modifica di Admin il Gio 9 Dic 2010 - 17:32, modificato 1 volta
Tornare in alto Andare in basso
Admin
Admin
Admin


Maschile Capra
Numero di messaggi : 2142
Data d'iscrizione : 04.02.09
Età : 37
Località : Roma

MessaggioOggetto: Re: Coyote - Canis latrans   Mar 6 Apr 2010 - 6:58

FONTE: http://wolfs_moon.tripod.com/CoyoteTotem.html



Trickster



Native American culture is rich with lore featuring Coyote as a central figure. ~Masleca~ is known as ~The Trickster,~ a paradoxical mixture of wise sage and foolish prankster.

The Trickster, always carries with him, lessons that are crucial to growth and change, yet the lesson he brings is usually one that is contained within a grand joke that Coyote plays upon the unwitting human. As such, though he is a Teacher Spirit, his lessons are taught via the vehicle of humor and wisdom found within folly.

***For the two-legged beside whom Coyote walks, there will be an aspect of their personality that is deeply playful and mischievious, yet they are equally capable of deep contemplation and introspection. Though this may at first appear to be a great contradiction, such dichotomy is all a part of the paradoxical Medicine of the Trickster that is both the Wise Sage and the hapless Fool.

Coyote souls will most often learn their lessons the hard way as they go through the Earthwalk trusting those who are incapable (or unwilling) to be worthy of such innocent trust. Such faith in Others is beautiful in its simplicity and genuiness, yet ultimately it brings to Soul of Masleca, lessons in discernment.

The Coyote individual will often make things much harder on him/herself than they need be, and part of their Lesson as they journey around the Sacred Hoop of Life, is to uncomplicate their life and enjoy the “simple” pleasures. For one whose outer personality is marked by a great curiosity, this can be exceptionally difficult to master as the focus tends to shift frequently and they become easily bored or distracted. Yet if they can learn to discipline their sharp intellect, much can be accomplished.

This is not to say that they should attempt to focus only on one project until completed, but rather to find their own way of following projects through that can also appease their proclivity for multi-tasking. Perhaps in realizing that it is acceptable to have a variety of projects going simultaneously, so long as the projects are completed, Coyote Soul can begin to “own” their success. Often times, society teaches us that we must focus on only one thing at a time and to not veer from that one venture until it is completed. For those who walk beside a Totem that is singularly focused (such as the Mountain Goat), this is a natural and “easy” process, yet for one beside whom Coyote journeys (a multi-tasking Totem), this is contrary to their inherent Nature. Attempting to meet sociatal expectations and then “failing,” Coyote can become discouraged and lose faith in him/herself. By recognizing that it is part of their nature to have several projects going simultaneously and combining this self-acceptance with a degree of discipline geared toward finishing those projects (even if this is done simultaneously), the two-legged with this restless Animal Spirit comes to recognize that there is nothing “wrong” with their approach, it is merely unique.***





Trust & seeing through Illusion

In Earth Medicine, it is recognized that each Wind or Direction possesses its own unique Medicine. In the South, we see the Cycles of Summer and Mid-Day. The Directional Totem for the South is Coyote with the Medicine of this Direction being that of herbs and the ~Standing People.~ Three is the ~Sacred Count~ for the South and it governs the Soul with the Powers of Trust, Faith of the Child, Enthusiasm for Knowledge, Understanding forged in the fires of Experience, Innocence and the ability to heal through the use of Herbs and Plants. The South Wind teaches us the importance of retaining our child-like (as opposed to childish) Faith and Trust despite the adversities and challenges we all must surely face on this Walk of Life.

As the Animal Spirit that is recognized as the Totem for the South Wind/Direction on the Hoop of Life (Eagle is the Totem of the East, Grizzly Bear is the Totem of the West and Buffalo is the Totem of the North), Coyote remiinds us of the importance of ~Keeping our Faith.~

Observing the Coyote in his/her natural environment can be a study in comedy and drama as this beautiful wild canine endures all that is currently stacked against it to survive as the two-legged encroaches further and further into the wilderness and is becoming increasingly intolerant of Coyote’s rightful place on the Sacred Hoop of Life. Yet in watching the enthusiasm of Coyote interacting with members of his/her family, or (as seen in the background to this page) when chasing prey, there is an unbridled and child-like playfulness about this Creature Being that reminds us all of the need to retain our joy and discovery of life.

***Coyote as a Primary Totem will bring to the two-legged beside whom Masleca journeys, many lessons in Trust and Seeing through Illusion. This can be a challenging aspect to Coyote Medicine

At heart, the Coyote individual will be an exceptionally trusting individual who will enter the Sacred Hoop with a heart that is virtually wide open and trusting. Unfortunately, the two-legged with Masleca as a Totem Spirit begins the process of discovering not everyone is “worthy” of such trust as he/she encounters many individuals who take advantage of their open and trusting nature.

The lessons themselves may be presented in a variety of ways from lending money to a friend under the guise of being reimbursed only to be left “holding the bag” to having unquestioning faith in a romantic partner who betrays such trust in acts of unfaithfulness and/or deceit. These will be exceptionally painful experiences that often leaves the Coyote with blaming the Self for being so “gullible.”

If the lessons represented by those painful experiences are not embraced and
integrated in Conscious Awareness, the result can be a developing sense of disillusionment and the Coyote will become suspicious of even the most trust-worthy of individuals. For those who are operating from a standpoint of automatic suspicion, partners, friends and associates who are honest and faithful, unable to operate any longer under such questioning of their integrity, will ultimately leave. Hence, the wounded Coyote’s belief that the individual couldn’t be trusted in the first place will be reinforced and justified as it becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy.

The irony is that the Coyote individual is often very keen and perceptive, and on some level they will intuitively know those who are worthy of trust. A subtle “knowing” will inform them of those who are out to take advantage of their nature, and they will invariably be proved right every time, yet equally that same inner knowing will tell them when another can be trusted.

When operating from the Shadow or Contrary Medicine, the Soul of Coyote will be untrustworthy themselves, weaving tales and betraying the faith of loved ones. If this is the instance, then the lessons encountered are much harder, as ultimately the lies spoken or unfaithful acts will ultimately be exposed. The culmination of these lessons will often result in the Coyote losing one whom they cherish until they are forced to face themselves in honesty and truth.

In both instances, when the two-legged beside whom Coyote trots can learn to listen to his/her intuition rather than what they either want to believe or refuse to see, or if they are the individual who cannot be trusted and learn to become honest and truthful, the lesson in Trust is well and truly absorbed as Masleca learns to pierce beyond the veil of Illusion of Self and Others to the Truth that dwells beneath.***


Song of Life

The desert Southwest is often filled with the haunting cry of the Coyote’s howl. Higher-pitched than that of their cousin Wolf, the Coyote’s song drifts across mesas and through sandstone canyons with a song that is simultaneously mournful and wise. It is the call of unity amongst family members sung back and forth across vast distances as a means of staying in contact.

This same song is also a rallying cry between pack members before a hunt or to chase of intruders, or the serenade of a lone Coyote in search of a mate beside whom they will journey the rest of their lives. As there are so many circumstances in which Coyote will sing, the call has become known as the Song of Life.

***The one beside whom Coyote journeys will be an individual that feels they are here for a specific purpose or “mission.” However, the irony often is that despite this strong sense that there is a goal to be accomplished on this Earthwalk, the Coyote Soul will spend many years in attempting to discern what that special purpose is. At times glimmers of their “destiny” will appear clearly before their questing eyes only to suddenly disappear as
ensuing doubts and issues of self-worth clouds their vision.

Only through exploring many different avenues will the Coyote eventually find the Path that his/her heart resonates to, and along the way a variety of interests will capture their restless curiosity. Above all however, the Coyote individual needs to explore and investigate as theirs is an active and inquisitive mind. Hence, fields in which they are challenged intellectually or spiritually will resonate the strongest with them as well as a field in which they can share their insights and knowledge gained with Others.

Some professions which the combination of qualities mentioned above might be found are in the communications field such as writing or journalism, the educational field or any Role in which they are able to transmit their philosophy, ideas and ideals to their fellow Two-Leggeds.

Once the Pathway has been found, the Coyote’s soul with resonate with a sense of ultimate fulfillment as they begin the exploration of their “mission,” their voices will raise in celebration as their Song of Life rings forth.”***
Tornare in alto Andare in basso
Tila
Iniziato Sciamano
Iniziato Sciamano


Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Re: Coyote - Canis latrans   Mar 20 Apr 2010 - 14:37

Admin riporto qualche stralcio sulla simbologia del coyote...


FONTE: http://animalitotem.wordpress.com/2008/02/04/animali-dalla-a-alla-d/
Il briccone sacro. Ti aiuta a prenderti meno sul serio e ad allargare il tuo punto di vista. Può diventare la tua spina nel fianco, costringendoti a ridere delle tue debolezze e portandoti a vivere situazioni paradossali, per costringerti a esplodere in una sonora risata.

FONTE: dal libro “Segni e presagi del mondo animale – i poteri magici di piccole e grandi creature.” Di Ted Andrews Ed. Mediterranee

Saggezza e follia.
Il coyote è per gli indiani delle pianure ciò che il corvo era per il popolo del Nord-Est, ossia creatore, maestro e custode della magia: a entrambi piace giocare e divertirsi; sono ambedue dotati di grande abilità, pur essendo sempre alla ricerca di metodi per fare le cose senza doversene servire. Cercano spesso scorciatoie, rammentandoci di non essere trippo seri e confermandoci che tutto è possibile.


Ultima modifica di Tila il Mar 28 Dic 2010 - 14:02, modificato 1 volta
Tornare in alto Andare in basso
Tila
Iniziato Sciamano
Iniziato Sciamano


Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Re: Coyote - Canis latrans   Gio 18 Nov 2010 - 17:16


I miti e le leggende che ci parlano del coyote variano da cultura a cultura.

Considerato molto spesso come un eroe imbroglione, in molte culture è visto come colui che rubò il fuoco per darlo all'uomo...

FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coyote_%28mythology%29

Coyote (mythology)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Coyote canoeing, in a traditional story.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Coyoteinacanoe.png

Coyote is a mythological character common to many Native American cultures, based on the coyote (Canis latrans) animal. This character is usually male and is generally anthropomorphic although he may have some coyote-like physical features such as fur, pointed ears, yellow eyes, a tail and claws. The myths and legends which include Coyote vary widely from culture to culture.

Coyote shares many traits with the mythological figure Raven.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 By culture
o 1.1 California
o 1.2 Great Plains
o 1.3 Plateau
* 2 Homologues
* 3 Coyote in the modern world
o 3.1 Coyote in popular culture
* 4 References
* 5 External links

[edit] By culture

Coyote is a figure in the following cultural areas of the Americas, as commonly defined by ethnographers:

[edit] California

Coyote is featured in the culture of the following groups who live in the area covered by the state of California: the Karuk [1], the Maidu of Northern California, the Tongva of Southern California, the Ohlone mythology of Northern California, the Miwok mythology of Northern California, and the Pomo mythology of Northern California

[edit] Great Plains

Coyote is seen in the cultural heritage of these people of the Great Plains area: the Crow mythology (Crow Nation), the Ho-Chunk mythology (Ho-Chunk, Winnebago), and the Menominee.

[edit] Plateau

Myths and stories of Coyote are also found in the cultures of the Plateau area: the Chinookan (including the Wishram people and the Multnomah) [2], the Flathead [3], the Nez Perce [4], the Nlaka'pamux, the Secwepemc, the St'at'imc, the Tsilhqot'in, and the Yakama.[5]

[edit] Homologues
See also: Trickster#Coyote

Coyote has been compared to both the Scandinavian Loki, and also Prometheus, who shared with Coyote the trick of having stolen fire from the gods as a gift for mankind, and Anansi, a mythological culture hero from Western African mythology. In Eurasia, rather than a coyote, a fox is often featured as a trickster hero, ranging from kitsune (fox) tales in Japan to the Reynard cycle in Western Europe. Similarities can also be drawn with another trickster, the Polynesian demigod Māui, who also stole fire for mankind and introduced death to the world.

Claude Lévi-Strauss, French anthropologist proposed a structuralist theory that suggests that Coyote and Crow obtained mythic status because they are mediator animals between life and death.[6]

[edit] Coyote in the modern world

Coyote figures prominently in current efforts to educate young people about Western Native American languages and cultures. For example, the Secwepemc people of the Kamloops Indian Band in Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada, have designated their recently opened native elementary school the Sk'elep (Coyote) School of Excellence, while educational websites such as one co-sponsored by the Neskonlith Indian Band of Chase, British Columbia prominently feature stories about Sk'elep.[7].

Peter Blue Cloud (Aroniawenrate) is a member of the Turtle clan of the Mohawk Nation. His books include two collections of contemporary Coyote tales, Elderberry Flute Song and The Other Side of Nowhere, which place Coyote in a number of different guises—showing Coyote to be funny, wise, sad, and sexual. William Bright's collection, A Coyote Reader, also shows the continuing importance of Coyote in today's world.

[edit] Coyote in popular culture
Main article: Coyotes in popular culture

The coyote is a popular figure in folklore and popular culture. Modern references may invoke either the animal or the mythological figure. Traits commonly described in pop culture appearances include inventiveness, mischievousness, and evasiveness.

Wile E. Coyote could be considered an instance of the buffoon version of the Coyote myth.

A one-person play, According to Coyote is based upon the Plateau folk tales about Coyote.

Coyote's mythological role as a trickster is the basis for American sex workers' modern adoption of the coyote in service to advocacy[citation needed] in their industry – "COYOTE" ("Call Off Your Old Tired Ethics") is the name of a group established in 1973 in San Francisco to advocate for sex workers in political issues and to help prostitutes who want to leave the business.

Coyote is a character in the webcomic Gunnerkrigg Court.

A cartoon coyote is featured in the Grant Morrison comic book Animal Man, in the chapter called "The Coyote Gospel". Similar to Wile E. Coyote, he was sick of the cycle of violence in cartoons, and so was placed in Animal Man's "comic" world, where he is depicted as a more realistic anthropomorphic coyote. He repeatedly dies and comes back to life in exchange for the violence in his world ending, as a form of religious allegory.

[edit] References

1. ^ Karuk stories
2. ^ Chinookan stories
3. ^ Flathead stories
4. ^ Nez Perce Stories
5. ^ Other stories from Plateau tribes
6. ^ Lévi-Strauss, Claude. Structural Anthropology. Trans. Claire Jacobson. New York: Basic Books, 1963. (p. 224)
7. ^ Stseptekwle legends [pronounced S-chep-tek-wool-eh]




Nel seguente documento vedremo che si narra che coyote portò con sé i semi della crescita nel mondo, quindi raffigura il coyote come portatore di vita e diviene simbolo di rinascita.

Tra le sue capacità spiccano l'ingegno, la trasformazione, inventità e l'intelligenza.


FONTE: http://www.whats-your-sign.com/animal-symbolism-coyote.html

Coyote Symbolism

The Coyote is a clown in the natural world, and in many Native American tribes view the symbolism of the Coyote as that of trickster, shape-shifter, and transformer.

The Navajo never kill Coyote because of their belief that it accompanied the first man and woman into the entrance of the first physical world.

Also, in the same myth, the Coyote brought with it seeds of life so as to sew new growth upon the new world. This legend depicts the Coyote as a bringer of life and a new birth symbol.

However, the Shoshoni believed the Coyote to be the bringer of death. The sighting of the Coyote was said to bring natural disasters such as illness, floods and harsh winters. This was not viewed as something to be feared - rather it made way for new beginnings. Essentially, the Coyote was the "way-maker" of new direction as it went about its symbolic role of completing the cycle of life in nature.

Some general animal symbolism of the Coyote:

* Ingenuity
* Skill
* Transformation
* Inventiveness
* Intelligence
* Resourcefulness
* Playfulness

The Coyote tells us to be mindful of our actions - be wary of playing tricks on ourselves or others. Coyote also reminds us that the consequences of our actions effect more than just ourselves.

The Coyote comes to us with a message that only by learning from our mistakes will we ever be free from shackles/restriction.

This wonderful creature also reminds us that no matter what form we take (as we "shape-shift" our personality) or how many difficult situations we may find ourselves in - we must always take time to laugh.


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:SevenCoyotePups08.jpg
Tornare in alto Andare in basso
Tila
Iniziato Sciamano
Iniziato Sciamano


Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Re: Coyote - Canis latrans   Mer 10 Ago 2011 - 12:43

FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coyotes_in_popular_culture

Coyotes in popular culture
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The coyote is a popular figure in folklore and popular culture. References may invoke either the animal coyote (a wild canine native to North America), or the mythological figure Coyote, common to many myths of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Traits commonly described include inventiveness, mischievousness, and evasiveness.

In folklore

Coyote is a mythological figure common to many Native American cultures, based on the coyote animal. This character is usually male and is generally anthropomorphic. The myths and legends which include Coyote vary widely from culture to culture. He can play the role of trickster or culture hero (or both), and also often appears in creation myths and just-so stories.

In literature

A one-person play, According to Coyote, is based upon the Plateau folk tales about Coyote.

Coyote appears as a mythological trickster character in Buffalo Gals by Ursula Le Guin, Coyote Blue by Christopher Moore - which features the Native American trickster god, and Green Grass, Running Water by Thomas King, among others. In Summerland by Michael Chabon, Coyote is the primary antagonist, who tries to destroy the world so that he can change his status from "Changer" (trickster) to "Maker", and create a universe all of his own.

The character appears in stranger guises in The Nagasaki Vector by L. Neil Smith, as a cyborg who specializes in scent tracking, and in Sky Coyote by Kage Baker, wherein the role of "Sky Coyote" is taken on by the cyborg Joseph in order to convince a Chumash community in California to evacuate in advance of European exploration. Baker's Sky Coyote ties in the cartoon character Wile E. Coyote, as well. In a series of novels by Michael Bergey, including New Coyote and Coyote Season, Coyote reincarnates as a genetically engineered coyote to learn how to use science as well as magic.

Coyote is mentioned in Neil Gaiman's fantasy novel American Gods.

Coyote appears as an animal in The Book of Sorrows by Walter Wangerin, Jr., wherein scrawny Ferric accidentally sets in motion a chain of events that bring Heaven and Hell crashing down upon the land.

A pack of Arizona desert coyotes are portrayed as nuisances when they harass a cowardly Great Dane and his friends in Bill Wallace's children's book, Watchdog and the Coyotes. The same author also wrote Coyote Summer, in which a twelve-year-old boy rescues and raises an orphaned pup after hunters kill its family.

In The Mercedes Thompson Series by Patricia Briggs (such as the sixth book, River Marked), the eponymous main character is a Walker, who able to shape-shift into a coyote.

In The Iron Druid Chronicles by Kevin Hearne (particularly in book two, "Hexed"), Coyote is portrayed as a trickster god who intervenes on behalf of Native Americans to protect them from a fallen angel released in book one, "Hounded". In the series, there exists a separate Coyote for each tribe who believes in him, and each can come back from the dead whenever he is killed. The Coyote featured in the series represents the Diné (Navajo).[1]

In comics, manga, and cartoons

A cartoon coyote is featured in the Grant Morrison comic book Animal Man. In the chapter called "The Coyote Gospel", he is sick of the cycle of violence in cartoons, and so is placed in Animal Man's "comic" world, where he is depicted as a more realistic anthropomorphic coyote. He repeatedly dies and comes back to life in exchange for the violence in his world ending, a form of religious allegory.

Other cartoon appearances include Calamity Coyote in Tiny Toon Adventures, Bent-Tail and Bent-Tail Jr., who appear in some animated Disney shorts[2], and Coyote, the name of a series of robots in the Gargoyles series. (The mythical Coyote the trickster also makes an appearance in the Gargoyles episode "Cloud Fathers".)

The manga series BLEACH features a character named Coyote Starrk. When he releases his Zanpakuto named Los Lobos he gains the appearance of a wild west gunslinger and the ability to summon a pack of wolves.

The Coyote comic series features a lead hero/trickster character similar to the mythical versions of the Coyote, as well as a modern interpretation of a half-man/half-coyote hero. The trickster-god Coyote appears in the webcomic Gunnerkrigg Court, his actions having far reaching consequences in the story. The Sonic the Hedgehog comic book features Antoine D'Coolette, a cowardly coyote with good intentions, and Patch, Antione's opposite number from a mirror universe, known for being cunning, deceptive, and cruel.

The cartoon coyote Wilber is the official mascot for GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program), a free raster graphics editor. He was created in 1997.

Coyote is a character in the webcomic Gunnerkrigg Court.

Wile E. Coyote could be considered an instance of the buffoon version of the Coyote myth. Wile E. Coyote. is a popular character in the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of cartoons, distributed by Warner Bros., who is endlessly trying to catch and eat an extremely fast Road Runner with his tricks, many of which involve technology or Rube Goldberg machines. His efforts are always futile, and he usually harms himself in the effort. It is likely that the stereotype of Coyote-as-trickster helped form the basis of this protagonist. The cartoon character Wile E. Coyote has a comically exaggerated nose, tail and ears, inspired by the appearance of the real animal. (Many of the other Warner Brothers cartoon characters also share some qualities with the trickster Coyote, especially Daffy Duck and Bugs Bunny.)

Coyote appears in the comic book series Spirit of the Wolf, created by Sean Collins & published by Wild Wolf Entertainment LLC

In motion pictures and television

The Simpsons has an episode ("El Viaje Misterioso de Nuestro Jomer") where a coyote voiced by music legend Johnny Cash plays the role of a Spirit Guide, who Homer Simpson refers to as the "Space Coyote." When Space Coyote instinctively starts gnawing on Homer's leg he quickly stops and apologizes by saying, "Sorry. I am a coyote."

In the movie Coyote Ugly, Lil, the bar owner, explains that she named her bar after the slang term "coyote ugly", which refers to the feeling of waking up after a one night stand and discovering that you are beside someone who is so physically repulsive that you would gladly gnaw off any of your limbs that he or she is sleeping on just so you can get away without being discovered. Many wild animals, including coyotes, will gnaw off limbs in order to escape traps.

Computer-animated movies and TV shows have featured Tommy the Coyote (Father of the Pride) and Dag (Barnyard: The Original Party Animals).

In slang

In the Southwest United States, a "coyote" is a person paid to smuggle illegal immigrants across the border between Mexico and the United States.

In colonial Mexico, "coyote" was used as a name for a person of mixed Mestizo and Amerindian ancestry, similar to "cholo".

In sports and games

The Phoenix NHL ice hockey team is the Phoenix Coyotes.

The San Antonio Spurs NBA basketball team has used a coyote character (created by Tim Derk) as its mascot since 1983. To learn more about Tim Derk and his time as the Spurs' mascot, you can read his book Hi Mom, Send Sheep! My Life as the Coyote and After (Trinity University Press, 2006). The Coyote is also the mascot of several college and university athletic teams, including those of the University of South Dakota, California State University, San Bernardino, and The College of Idaho.

In White Wolf, Inc.'s roleplaying game Werewolf: The Apocalypse, Coyote is a Totem for the Nuwisha (were-coyotes), as well as some of the Garou (werewolves).

In Music

In Gregory Alan Isakov's song 3 a.m., there is a lyric that goes "I ain't out there to cheat you, see I killed that damn coyote in me" referring to the traditional habit of the trickster god Coyote to cheat people according to Native American mythology. [3]

References

^ Kevin Hearne's Official Page, Hexed
^ Characters in Disney shorts
^ Gregory Alan Isakov Lyrics, 3 a.m.



FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coyote

Coyote
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The coyote (US: /kaɪˈoʊtiː/ or /ˈkaɪ.oʊt/, UK: /kɔɪˈjoʊteɪ/ or /kɔɪˈjoʊt/;[2] Canis latrans), also known as the American jackal or the prairie wolf, is a species of canine found throughout North and Central America, ranging from Panama in the south, north through Mexico, the United States and Canada. It occurs as far north as Alaska and all but the northernmost portions of Canada.[3] There are currently 19 recognized subspecies, with 16 in Canada, Mexico and the United States, and 3 in Central America.[4] Unlike its cousin the gray wolf, which is Eurasian in origin, evolutionary theory suggests the coyote evolved in North America during the Pleistocene epoch 1.81 million years ago[5] alongside the Dire Wolf.[6] Unlike the wolf, the coyote's range has expanded in the wake of human civilization, and coyotes readily reproduce in metropolitan areas.[7][8]

Name

The name coyote is borrowed from Mexican Spanish, ultimately derived from the Nahuatl word cóyotl.[9] Its scientific name, Canis latrans, means "barking dog" in Latin.[10] Preliminary genetic evidence, however, has shown that "coyotes" in some areas are, genetically speaking, 85–90% Canis latrans, and from 10 to 15% Canis lupus, along with some domestic dog DNA; this prompted one researcher to suggest, jokingly, that they be called "Canis soupus," as they are a "soup" (mixture) of canid species.[11]

Description

The color of the coyote's pelt varies from grayish brown to yellowish gray on the upper parts, while the throat and belly tend to have a buff or white color. The forelegs, sides of the head, muzzle and paws are reddish brown. The back has tawny-colored underfur and long, black-tipped guard hairs that form a black dorsal stripe and a dark cross on the shoulder area. The black-tipped tail has a scent gland located on its dorsal base. Coyotes shed once a year, beginning in May with light hair loss, ending in July after heavy shedding. The ears are proportionately large in relation to the head, while the feet are relatively small in relation to the rest of the body.[3] Certain experts have noted that the shape of a domestic dog's brain case is closer to the coyote's in shape than the wolf's. Mountain dwelling coyotes tend to be dark furred while desert coyotes tend to be more light brown in color.[4]

Coyotes typically grow to up to 30–34 in (76–86 cm) in length, not counting a tail of 12–16 in (30–41 cm), stand about 23–26 in (58–66 cm) at the shoulder and, on average, weigh from 15–46 lb (6.8–21 kg).[3][12] Northern coyotes are typically larger than southern subspecies, with the largest coyotes on record weighing 74¾ pounds (33.7 kg) and measuring over five feet in total length.[13]

The coyote's dental formula is I 3/3, C 1/1, Pm 4/4, M usually 2/2, occasionally 3/3, 3/2, or 2/3 × 2 = 40, 44, or 42[14] Normal spacing between the upper canine teeth is 1⅛–1⅜ inches (29–35 mm) and 1–1¼ inches (25–32 mm) between the lower canine teeth.[15]

The upper frequency limit of hearing for coyotes is 80 KHz, compared to the 60 kHz of domestic dogs.[16] Compared to wolves, and similarly to domestic dogs, coyotes have a higher density of sweat glands on their paw pads. This trait, however, is absent in the large New England coyotes, which are thought to have some wolf ancestry.[17]

During pursuit, a coyote may reach speeds up to 43 mph (69 km/h),[18] and can jump a distance of over 13 ft (4 m).[3]

Behavior

Though coyotes have been observed to travel in large groups, they primarily hunt in pairs. Typical packs consist of six closely related adults, yearlings and young. Coyote packs are generally smaller than wolf packs and associations between individuals are less stable,[19] thus making their social behavior more in line with that of the dingo.[20] It has been theorized that this is due to an earlier expression of aggression, and the fact that coyotes reach their full growth in their first year, unlike wolves, which reach it in their second.[19] Common names of coyote groups are a band, a pack, or a rout.[21] Coyotes are primarily nocturnal, but can often be seen during daylight hours.[3] Coyotes were once essentially diurnal, but have adapted to more nocturnal behavior with pressure from humans.[22]

Coyotes are capable of digging their own burrows, though they often prefer the burrows of groundhogs or American badgers. Coyote territorial ranges can be as much as 19 kilometers in diameter around the den, and travel occurs along fixed trails.[3]

In areas where wolves have been exterminated, coyotes usually flourish. For example, as New England became increasingly settled and the resident wolves were eliminated, the coyote population increased, filling the empty ecological niche. Coyotes appear better able than wolves to live among people.[23]

Coyotes have been known to live a maximum of 10 years in the wild and 18 years in captivity.[3] They seem to be better than dogs at observational learning.[17]


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Coyote_pup.jpg


Reproduction

Female coyotes are monoestrous, and remain in heat for 2–5 days between late January and late March, during which mating occurs. Once the female chooses a partner, the mated pair may remain temporarily monogamous for a number of years. Depending on geographic location, spermatogenesis in males takes around 54 days, and occurs between January and February. The gestation period lasts from 60 to 63 days. Litter size ranges from 1 to 19 pups; the average is 6.[3] These large litters act as compensatory measures against the high juvenile mortality rate, with approximately 50–70% of pups not surviving to adulthood.[24] The pups weigh approximately 250 grams at birth, and are initially blind and limp-eared.[3] Coyote growth rate is faster than that of wolves, being similar in length to that of the dhole.[25] The eyes open and ears become erect after 10 days. Around 21–28 days after birth, the young begin to emerge from the den, and by 35 days they are fully weaned. Both parents feed the weaned pups with regurgitated food. Male pups will disperse from their dens between months 6 and 9, while females usually remain with the parents and form the basis of the pack. The pups attain full growth between 9 and 12 months. Sexual maturity is reached by 12 months.[3] Unlike wolves, mother coyotes will tolerate other lactating females in their pack.[26]


Interspecific hybridization

Coyotes will sometimes mate with domestic dogs, usually in areas like Texas and Oklahoma, where the coyotes are plentiful and the breeding season is extended because of the warm weather. The resulting hybrids, called coydogs, maintain the coyote's predatory nature, along with the dog's lack of timidity toward humans, making them a more serious threat to livestock than pure-blooded animals. This cross-breeding has the added effect of confusing the breeding cycle. Coyotes usually breed only once a year, while coydogs will breed year-round, producing many more pups than a wild coyote. Differences in the ears and tail are generally what can be used to distinguish coydogs from domestic/feral dogs or pure coyotes.[27] Breeding experiments in Germany with poodles, coyotes, and later on with the resulting dog-coyote hybrids showed that unlike wolfdogs, coydogs show a decrease in fertility, significant communication problems as well as an increase of genetic diseases after three generations of interbreeding.[28]

Coyotes have also been known on occasion to mate with wolves, though this is less common than with dogs, due to the wolf's hostility to the coyote. The offspring, known as a coywolf, is generally intermediate in size to both parents, being larger than a pure coyote, but smaller than a pure wolf. A study showed that of 100 coyotes collected in Maine, 22 had half or more wolf ancestry, and one was 89% wolf. A theory has been proposed that the large eastern coyotes in Canada are actually hybrids of the smaller western coyotes and wolves that met and mated decades ago as the coyotes moved toward New England from their earlier western ranges.[23] Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources research scientist Brent Patterson has revealed findings that most coyotes in Eastern Ontario are wolf-coyote hybrids and that the Eastern wolves in Algonquin Park are, in general, not inter-breeding with coyotes.[29]

The Red Wolf is thought by certain scientists to be in fact a wolf/coyote hybrid rather than a unique species. Strong evidence for hybridization was found through genetic testing, which showed that red wolves have only 5% of their alleles unique from either gray wolves or coyotes. Genetic distance calculations have indicated that red wolves are intermediate between coyotes and gray wolves, and that they bear great similarity to wolf/coyote hybrids in southern Quebec and Minnesota. Analyses of mitochondrial DNA showed that existing red wolf populations are predominantly coyote in origin.[30]

Communication

The calls a coyote makes are high-pitched and variously described as howls, yips, yelps, and barks. These calls may be a long rising and falling note (a howl) or a series of short notes (yips). These calls are most often heard at dusk or night, but may sometimes be heard in the day or in the middle of the day. Although these calls are made throughout the year, they are most common during the spring mating season and in the fall when the pups leave their families to establish new territories. When a coyote calls his pack together, he howls at one high note. When the pack is together, he howls higher and higher, and then they yip and yelp and also do a yi-yi sound very shrill with the howl.


Relationship with humans

Adaptation to human environment

Despite being extensively hunted, the coyote is one of the few medium-to-large-sized animals that has enlarged its range since human encroachment began. It originally ranged primarily in the western half of North America, but it has adapted readily to the changes caused by human presence and, since the early 19th century, has been steadily and dramatically extending its range.[50] Sightings now commonly occur in a majority of the United States and Canada.[51] Coyotes inhabit nearly every contiguous U.S. state and Alaska. Coyotes have moved into most of the areas of North America formerly occupied by wolves, and are often observed foraging in suburban garbage bins.

Coyotes thrive in suburban settings and even some urban ones. A study by wildlife ecologists at Ohio State University yielded some surprising findings in this regard. Researchers studied coyote populations in Chicago over a seven-year period (2000–2007), proposing that coyotes have adapted well to living in densely populated urban environments while avoiding contact with humans. They found, among other things, that urban coyotes tend to live longer than their rural counterparts, kill rodents and small pets, and live anywhere from parks to industrial areas. The researchers estimate that there are up to 2,000 coyotes living in "the greater Chicago area" and that this circumstance may well apply to many other urban landscapes in North America.[52] In Washington, D.C.'s Rock Creek Park, coyotes den and raise their young, scavenge roadkill, and hunt rodents. "I don't see it as a bad thing for a park," the assigned National Park Service biologist told a reporter for Smithsonian Magazine (March 2006). "I see it as good for keeping animal populations in control, like the squirrels and the mice."

In another testament to the coyote's habitat adaptability, a coyote nicknamed "Hal" made his way to New York City's Central Park in March 2006, wandering about the park for at least two days before being captured by officials. New York's parks commissioner Adrian Benepe noted this coyote had to be very "adventurous" and "curious" to get so far into the city.[53] An incident also occurred in April 2007 in the Chicago Loop district, where a coyote, later nicknamed "Adrian", quietly entered a Quizno's restaurant during the lunch hours; it was later captured and released at a wildlife rehab center near Barrington, Illinois.[54][55] In February 2010, up to three coyotes were spotted on the Columbia University campus, and another coyote sighting occurred in Central Park.[56]

Attacks on humans

Coyote attacks on humans are uncommon and rarely cause serious injuries, due to the relatively small size of the coyote. However, coyote attacks on humans have increased since 1998 in the state of California. Data from USDA Wildlife Services, the California Department of Fish & Game, and other sources show that while 41 attacks occurred during the period of 1988–1997, 48 attacks were verified from 1998 through 2003. The majority of these incidents occurred in Southern California near the suburban-wildland interface.[57]

Due to an absence of harassment by residents, urban coyotes lose their natural fear of humans, which is further worsened by people intentionally feeding coyotes. In such situations, some coyotes have begun to act aggressively toward humans, chasing joggers and bicyclists, confronting people walking their dogs, and stalking small children.[57] Non-rabid coyotes in these areas will sometimes target small children, mostly under the age of 10, though some adults have been bitten. In June 2010 a 3-year-old girl and a 6-year-old girl were attacked and seriously injured in separate attacks by coyotes in Rye, New York, a suburb of New York City. The 6-year-old was attacked by two coyotes on June 25 and the 3-year-old was attacked by one coyote on June 29. There was no indication the animals were rabid, but the girls were given treatment as a precaution.[58][59] In June 2011 an unattended toddler on a trampoline was attacked by a coyote who attempted to drag her into the woods in North Carolina.[60]

There are only two recorded fatalities in North America from coyote attacks. In 1981 in Glendale, California, a coyote attacked toddler Kelly Keen, who was rescued by her father, but died in surgery due to blood loss and a broken neck.[57][61] In October 2009, Taylor Mitchell, a 19-year-old folk singer on tour, died from injuries sustained in an attack by a pair of coyotes while hiking in the Skyline Trail of the Cape Breton Highlands National Park in Nova Scotia, Canada.[62] Recent studies have shown, however, that the large northeastern coyotes responsible for this attack may in fact be coyote-wolf hybrids (or coywolves) due to absorption of wolves when coyotes moved into eastern North America.[63]

Character in mythology

Traditional stories from many Native American, First Nations, and Aboriginal cultures include a deity whose name is translated into English as Coyote. Although especially common in stories told by southwestern Native American nations, such as the Diné and Apache, stories about Coyote appear in dozens of Native American nations from Canada to Mexico.

Usually appearing as a trickster, a culture hero or both, Coyote also often appears in creation myths and etiological myths. Although often appearing in stories as male, Coyote can be female, hermaphrodite, or gender changing, in traditional Aboriginal stories.

Contemporary cultural references

The coyote is a popular figure in folklore and popular culture. References may invoke either the animal or the mythological figure. Traits commonly described in pop culture appearances include inventiveness, mischievousness, and evasiveness. By far the best known representation is the animated Wile E. Coyote, Super Genius, whose popularity has spread the three-syllable Spanish pronunciation of the word coyote throughout English-speaking North America.

Coyote is also a slang term for a person who smuggles illegal immigrants over the border from Mexico to the United States.

The Phoenix Coyotes are a National Hockey League franchise based in Arizona.

The mascot of the University of South Dakota is the coyote.

Subspecies

There are 19 recognized subspecies of coyote:[76]

C. l. cagottis (Hamilton-Smith): Mexican Coyote – states of Oaxaca, San Luis Potosi, Puebla, and Veracruz in Mexico[77]
C. l. clepticus (Elliot): San Pedro Martir Coyote – northern Baja California and southwestern California[77]
C. l. dickeyi: Salvador Coyote
C. l. frustor (Woodhouse): Southeastern Coyote – southeastern and extreme eastern Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Missouri, and Arkansas[77]
C. l. goldmani: Belize Coyote
C. l. hondurensis: Honduras Coyote
C. l. impavidus (Allen): Durango Coyote – southern Sonora, extreme southwestern Chihuahua, western Durango, western Zacatecas, and Sinaloa[77]
C. l. incolatus (Hall): Northern Coyote – Yukon, Northwest Territories, northern British Columbia, and northern Alberta, and Alaska[77]
C. l. jamesi (Townsend): Tiburón Island Coyote – Tiburón Island[77]
C. l. latrans: Plains Coyote – Great Plains from Alberta, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan south to New Mexico and the Texas Panhandle[77]
C. l. lestes (Merriam): Mountain Coyote – British Columbia and southeastern Alberta south to Utah and Nevada[77]
C. l. mearnsi (Merriam): Mearns Coyote – southwestern Colorado and southern Utah south to northern Sonora and Chihuahua[77]
C. l. microdon (Merriam): Lower Rio Grande Coyote – southern Texas and northern Tamaulipas[77]
C. l. ochropus (Eschscholtz): California Valley Coyote – California west of the Sierra Nevada[77]
C. l. peninsulae (Merriam): Peninsula Coyote – Baja California[77]
C. l. texensis (Bailey): Texas Plains Coyote – most of Texas, eastern New Mexico, and northeastern Mexico[77]
C. l. thamnos (Jackson): Northeastern Coyote – range extends from north-central Saskatchewan east to southern Ontario south to northern Indiana and west to Missouri[77]
C. l. umpquensis (Jackson): Northwest Coast Coyote – coast of Washington and Oregon[77]
C. l. vigilis (Merriam): Colima Coyote – Pacific coast of Mexico from Jalisco south to Guerrero[77]



FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Coyote_closeup.jpg
Tornare in alto Andare in basso
Contenuto sponsorizzato




MessaggioOggetto: Re: Coyote - Canis latrans   Oggi a 12:29

Tornare in alto Andare in basso
 
Coyote - Canis latrans
Vedere l'argomento precedente Vedere l'argomento seguente Tornare in alto 
Pagina 1 di 1

Permesso di questo forum:Non puoi rispondere agli argomenti in questo forum
Forum di sciamanesimo, antropologia e spirito critico :: SCIAMANESIMO :: I TEMI DELLO SCIAMANESIMO - THEMES OF SHAMANSIM :: Animali Totem e Spiriti Guida - Totem Animals and Allies Spirits :: Totem Animals A-E-
Andare verso: