Coyotes in popular culture
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The coyote is a popular figure in folklore and popular culture. References may invoke either the animal coyote (a wild canine native to North America), or the mythological figure Coyote, common to many myths of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Traits commonly described include inventiveness, mischievousness, and evasiveness.
Coyote is a mythological figure common to many Native American cultures, based on the coyote animal. This character is usually male and is generally anthropomorphic. The myths and legends which include Coyote vary widely from culture to culture. He can play the role of trickster or culture hero (or both), and also often appears in creation myths and just-so stories.
A one-person play, According to Coyote, is based upon the Plateau folk tales about Coyote.
Coyote appears as a mythological trickster character in Buffalo Gals by Ursula Le Guin, Coyote Blue by Christopher Moore - which features the Native American trickster god, and Green Grass, Running Water by Thomas King, among others. In Summerland by Michael Chabon, Coyote is the primary antagonist, who tries to destroy the world so that he can change his status from "Changer" (trickster) to "Maker", and create a universe all of his own.
The character appears in stranger guises in The Nagasaki Vector by L. Neil Smith, as a cyborg who specializes in scent tracking, and in Sky Coyote by Kage Baker, wherein the role of "Sky Coyote" is taken on by the cyborg Joseph in order to convince a Chumash community in California to evacuate in advance of European exploration. Baker's Sky Coyote ties in the cartoon character Wile E. Coyote, as well. In a series of novels by Michael Bergey, including New Coyote and Coyote Season, Coyote reincarnates as a genetically engineered coyote to learn how to use science as well as magic.
Coyote is mentioned in Neil Gaiman's fantasy novel American Gods.
Coyote appears as an animal in The Book of Sorrows by Walter Wangerin, Jr., wherein scrawny Ferric accidentally sets in motion a chain of events that bring Heaven and Hell crashing down upon the land.
A pack of Arizona desert coyotes are portrayed as nuisances when they harass a cowardly Great Dane and his friends in Bill Wallace's children's book, Watchdog and the Coyotes. The same author also wrote Coyote Summer, in which a twelve-year-old boy rescues and raises an orphaned pup after hunters kill its family.
In The Mercedes Thompson Series by Patricia Briggs (such as the sixth book, River Marked), the eponymous main character is a Walker, who able to shape-shift into a coyote.
In The Iron Druid Chronicles by Kevin Hearne (particularly in book two, "Hexed"), Coyote is portrayed as a trickster god who intervenes on behalf of Native Americans to protect them from a fallen angel released in book one, "Hounded". In the series, there exists a separate Coyote for each tribe who believes in him, and each can come back from the dead whenever he is killed. The Coyote featured in the series represents the Diné (Navajo).
In comics, manga, and cartoons
A cartoon coyote is featured in the Grant Morrison comic book Animal Man. In the chapter called "The Coyote Gospel", he is sick of the cycle of violence in cartoons, and so is placed in Animal Man's "comic" world, where he is depicted as a more realistic anthropomorphic coyote. He repeatedly dies and comes back to life in exchange for the violence in his world ending, a form of religious allegory.
Other cartoon appearances include Calamity Coyote in Tiny Toon Adventures, Bent-Tail and Bent-Tail Jr., who appear in some animated Disney shorts, and Coyote, the name of a series of robots in the Gargoyles series. (The mythical Coyote the trickster also makes an appearance in the Gargoyles episode "Cloud Fathers".)
The manga series BLEACH features a character named Coyote Starrk. When he releases his Zanpakuto named Los Lobos he gains the appearance of a wild west gunslinger and the ability to summon a pack of wolves.
The Coyote comic series features a lead hero/trickster character similar to the mythical versions of the Coyote, as well as a modern interpretation of a half-man/half-coyote hero. The trickster-god Coyote appears in the webcomic Gunnerkrigg Court, his actions having far reaching consequences in the story. The Sonic the Hedgehog comic book features Antoine D'Coolette, a cowardly coyote with good intentions, and Patch, Antione's opposite number from a mirror universe, known for being cunning, deceptive, and cruel.
The cartoon coyote Wilber is the official mascot for GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program), a free raster graphics editor. He was created in 1997.
Coyote is a character in the webcomic Gunnerkrigg Court.
Wile E. Coyote could be considered an instance of the buffoon version of the Coyote myth. Wile E. Coyote. is a popular character in the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of cartoons, distributed by Warner Bros., who is endlessly trying to catch and eat an extremely fast Road Runner with his tricks, many of which involve technology or Rube Goldberg machines. His efforts are always futile, and he usually harms himself in the effort. It is likely that the stereotype of Coyote-as-trickster helped form the basis of this protagonist. The cartoon character Wile E. Coyote has a comically exaggerated nose, tail and ears, inspired by the appearance of the real animal. (Many of the other Warner Brothers cartoon characters also share some qualities with the trickster Coyote, especially Daffy Duck and Bugs Bunny.)
Coyote appears in the comic book series Spirit of the Wolf, created by Sean Collins & published by Wild Wolf Entertainment LLC
In motion pictures and television
The Simpsons has an episode ("El Viaje Misterioso de Nuestro Jomer") where a coyote voiced by music legend Johnny Cash plays the role of a Spirit Guide, who Homer Simpson refers to as the "Space Coyote." When Space Coyote instinctively starts gnawing on Homer's leg he quickly stops and apologizes by saying, "Sorry. I am a coyote."
In the movie Coyote Ugly, Lil, the bar owner, explains that she named her bar after the slang term "coyote ugly", which refers to the feeling of waking up after a one night stand and discovering that you are beside someone who is so physically repulsive that you would gladly gnaw off any of your limbs that he or she is sleeping on just so you can get away without being discovered. Many wild animals, including coyotes, will gnaw off limbs in order to escape traps.
Computer-animated movies and TV shows have featured Tommy the Coyote (Father of the Pride) and Dag (Barnyard: The Original Party Animals).
In the Southwest United States, a "coyote" is a person paid to smuggle illegal immigrants across the border between Mexico and the United States.
In colonial Mexico, "coyote" was used as a name for a person of mixed Mestizo and Amerindian ancestry, similar to "cholo".
In sports and games
The Phoenix NHL ice hockey team is the Phoenix Coyotes.
The San Antonio Spurs NBA basketball team has used a coyote character (created by Tim Derk) as its mascot since 1983. To learn more about Tim Derk and his time as the Spurs' mascot, you can read his book Hi Mom, Send Sheep! My Life as the Coyote and After (Trinity University Press, 2006). The Coyote is also the mascot of several college and university athletic teams, including those of the University of South Dakota, California State University, San Bernardino, and The College of Idaho.
In White Wolf, Inc.'s roleplaying game Werewolf: The Apocalypse, Coyote is a Totem for the Nuwisha (were-coyotes), as well as some of the Garou (werewolves).
In Gregory Alan Isakov's song 3 a.m., there is a lyric that goes "I ain't out there to cheat you, see I killed that damn coyote in me" referring to the traditional habit of the trickster god Coyote to cheat people according to Native American mythology. 
^ Kevin Hearne's Official Page, Hexed
^ Characters in Disney shorts
^ Gregory Alan Isakov Lyrics, 3 a.m.FONTE:
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The coyote (US: /kaɪˈoʊtiː/ or /ˈkaɪ.oʊt/, UK: /kɔɪˈjoʊteɪ/ or /kɔɪˈjoʊt/; Canis latrans), also known as the American jackal or the prairie wolf, is a species of canine found throughout North and Central America, ranging from Panama in the south, north through Mexico, the United States and Canada. It occurs as far north as Alaska and all but the northernmost portions of Canada. There are currently 19 recognized subspecies, with 16 in Canada, Mexico and the United States, and 3 in Central America. Unlike its cousin the gray wolf, which is Eurasian in origin, evolutionary theory suggests the coyote evolved in North America during the Pleistocene epoch 1.81 million years ago alongside the Dire Wolf. Unlike the wolf, the coyote's range has expanded in the wake of human civilization, and coyotes readily reproduce in metropolitan areas.
The name coyote is borrowed from Mexican Spanish, ultimately derived from the Nahuatl word cóyotl. Its scientific name, Canis latrans, means "barking dog" in Latin. Preliminary genetic evidence, however, has shown that "coyotes" in some areas are, genetically speaking, 85–90% Canis latrans, and from 10 to 15% Canis lupus, along with some domestic dog DNA; this prompted one researcher to suggest, jokingly, that they be called "Canis soupus," as they are a "soup" (mixture) of canid species.
The color of the coyote's pelt varies from grayish brown to yellowish gray on the upper parts, while the throat and belly tend to have a buff or white color. The forelegs, sides of the head, muzzle and paws are reddish brown. The back has tawny-colored underfur and long, black-tipped guard hairs that form a black dorsal stripe and a dark cross on the shoulder area. The black-tipped tail has a scent gland located on its dorsal base. Coyotes shed once a year, beginning in May with light hair loss, ending in July after heavy shedding. The ears are proportionately large in relation to the head, while the feet are relatively small in relation to the rest of the body. Certain experts have noted that the shape of a domestic dog's brain case is closer to the coyote's in shape than the wolf's. Mountain dwelling coyotes tend to be dark furred while desert coyotes tend to be more light brown in color.
Coyotes typically grow to up to 30–34 in (76–86 cm) in length, not counting a tail of 12–16 in (30–41 cm), stand about 23–26 in (58–66 cm) at the shoulder and, on average, weigh from 15–46 lb (6.8–21 kg). Northern coyotes are typically larger than southern subspecies, with the largest coyotes on record weighing 74¾ pounds (33.7 kg) and measuring over five feet in total length.
The coyote's dental formula is I 3/3, C 1/1, Pm 4/4, M usually 2/2, occasionally 3/3, 3/2, or 2/3 × 2 = 40, 44, or 42 Normal spacing between the upper canine teeth is 1⅛–1⅜ inches (29–35 mm) and 1–1¼ inches (25–32 mm) between the lower canine teeth.
The upper frequency limit of hearing for coyotes is 80 KHz, compared to the 60 kHz of domestic dogs. Compared to wolves, and similarly to domestic dogs, coyotes have a higher density of sweat glands on their paw pads. This trait, however, is absent in the large New England coyotes, which are thought to have some wolf ancestry.
During pursuit, a coyote may reach speeds up to 43 mph (69 km/h), and can jump a distance of over 13 ft (4 m).
Though coyotes have been observed to travel in large groups, they primarily hunt in pairs. Typical packs consist of six closely related adults, yearlings and young. Coyote packs are generally smaller than wolf packs and associations between individuals are less stable, thus making their social behavior more in line with that of the dingo. It has been theorized that this is due to an earlier expression of aggression, and the fact that coyotes reach their full growth in their first year, unlike wolves, which reach it in their second. Common names of coyote groups are a band, a pack, or a rout. Coyotes are primarily nocturnal, but can often be seen during daylight hours. Coyotes were once essentially diurnal, but have adapted to more nocturnal behavior with pressure from humans.
Coyotes are capable of digging their own burrows, though they often prefer the burrows of groundhogs or American badgers. Coyote territorial ranges can be as much as 19 kilometers in diameter around the den, and travel occurs along fixed trails.
In areas where wolves have been exterminated, coyotes usually flourish. For example, as New England became increasingly settled and the resident wolves were eliminated, the coyote population increased, filling the empty ecological niche. Coyotes appear better able than wolves to live among people.
Coyotes have been known to live a maximum of 10 years in the wild and 18 years in captivity. They seem to be better than dogs at observational learning.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Coyote_pup.jpg
Female coyotes are monoestrous, and remain in heat for 2–5 days between late January and late March, during which mating occurs. Once the female chooses a partner, the mated pair may remain temporarily monogamous for a number of years. Depending on geographic location, spermatogenesis in males takes around 54 days, and occurs between January and February. The gestation period lasts from 60 to 63 days. Litter size ranges from 1 to 19 pups; the average is 6. These large litters act as compensatory measures against the high juvenile mortality rate, with approximately 50–70% of pups not surviving to adulthood. The pups weigh approximately 250 grams at birth, and are initially blind and limp-eared. Coyote growth rate is faster than that of wolves, being similar in length to that of the dhole. The eyes open and ears become erect after 10 days. Around 21–28 days after birth, the young begin to emerge from the den, and by 35 days they are fully weaned. Both parents feed the weaned pups with regurgitated food. Male pups will disperse from their dens between months 6 and 9, while females usually remain with the parents and form the basis of the pack. The pups attain full growth between 9 and 12 months. Sexual maturity is reached by 12 months. Unlike wolves, mother coyotes will tolerate other lactating females in their pack.
Coyotes will sometimes mate with domestic dogs, usually in areas like Texas and Oklahoma, where the coyotes are plentiful and the breeding season is extended because of the warm weather. The resulting hybrids, called coydogs, maintain the coyote's predatory nature, along with the dog's lack of timidity toward humans, making them a more serious threat to livestock than pure-blooded animals. This cross-breeding has the added effect of confusing the breeding cycle. Coyotes usually breed only once a year, while coydogs will breed year-round, producing many more pups than a wild coyote. Differences in the ears and tail are generally what can be used to distinguish coydogs from domestic/feral dogs or pure coyotes. Breeding experiments in Germany with poodles, coyotes, and later on with the resulting dog-coyote hybrids showed that unlike wolfdogs, coydogs show a decrease in fertility, significant communication problems as well as an increase of genetic diseases after three generations of interbreeding.
Coyotes have also been known on occasion to mate with wolves, though this is less common than with dogs, due to the wolf's hostility to the coyote. The offspring, known as a coywolf, is generally intermediate in size to both parents, being larger than a pure coyote, but smaller than a pure wolf. A study showed that of 100 coyotes collected in Maine, 22 had half or more wolf ancestry, and one was 89% wolf. A theory has been proposed that the large eastern coyotes in Canada are actually hybrids of the smaller western coyotes and wolves that met and mated decades ago as the coyotes moved toward New England from their earlier western ranges. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources research scientist Brent Patterson has revealed findings that most coyotes in Eastern Ontario are wolf-coyote hybrids and that the Eastern wolves in Algonquin Park are, in general, not inter-breeding with coyotes.
The Red Wolf is thought by certain scientists to be in fact a wolf/coyote hybrid rather than a unique species. Strong evidence for hybridization was found through genetic testing, which showed that red wolves have only 5% of their alleles unique from either gray wolves or coyotes. Genetic distance calculations have indicated that red wolves are intermediate between coyotes and gray wolves, and that they bear great similarity to wolf/coyote hybrids in southern Quebec and Minnesota. Analyses of mitochondrial DNA showed that existing red wolf populations are predominantly coyote in origin.
The calls a coyote makes are high-pitched and variously described as howls, yips, yelps, and barks. These calls may be a long rising and falling note (a howl) or a series of short notes (yips). These calls are most often heard at dusk or night, but may sometimes be heard in the day or in the middle of the day. Although these calls are made throughout the year, they are most common during the spring mating season and in the fall when the pups leave their families to establish new territories. When a coyote calls his pack together, he howls at one high note. When the pack is together, he howls higher and higher, and then they yip and yelp and also do a yi-yi sound very shrill with the howl.
Relationship with humans
Adaptation to human environment
Despite being extensively hunted, the coyote is one of the few medium-to-large-sized animals that has enlarged its range since human encroachment began. It originally ranged primarily in the western half of North America, but it has adapted readily to the changes caused by human presence and, since the early 19th century, has been steadily and dramatically extending its range. Sightings now commonly occur in a majority of the United States and Canada. Coyotes inhabit nearly every contiguous U.S. state and Alaska. Coyotes have moved into most of the areas of North America formerly occupied by wolves, and are often observed foraging in suburban garbage bins.
Coyotes thrive in suburban settings and even some urban ones. A study by wildlife ecologists at Ohio State University yielded some surprising findings in this regard. Researchers studied coyote populations in Chicago over a seven-year period (2000–2007), proposing that coyotes have adapted well to living in densely populated urban environments while avoiding contact with humans. They found, among other things, that urban coyotes tend to live longer than their rural counterparts, kill rodents and small pets, and live anywhere from parks to industrial areas. The researchers estimate that there are up to 2,000 coyotes living in "the greater Chicago area" and that this circumstance may well apply to many other urban landscapes in North America. In Washington, D.C.'s Rock Creek Park, coyotes den and raise their young, scavenge roadkill, and hunt rodents. "I don't see it as a bad thing for a park," the assigned National Park Service biologist told a reporter for Smithsonian Magazine (March 2006). "I see it as good for keeping animal populations in control, like the squirrels and the mice."
In another testament to the coyote's habitat adaptability, a coyote nicknamed "Hal" made his way to New York City's Central Park in March 2006, wandering about the park for at least two days before being captured by officials. New York's parks commissioner Adrian Benepe noted this coyote had to be very "adventurous" and "curious" to get so far into the city. An incident also occurred in April 2007 in the Chicago Loop district, where a coyote, later nicknamed "Adrian", quietly entered a Quizno's restaurant during the lunch hours; it was later captured and released at a wildlife rehab center near Barrington, Illinois. In February 2010, up to three coyotes were spotted on the Columbia University campus, and another coyote sighting occurred in Central Park.
Attacks on humans
Coyote attacks on humans are uncommon and rarely cause serious injuries, due to the relatively small size of the coyote. However, coyote attacks on humans have increased since 1998 in the state of California. Data from USDA Wildlife Services, the California Department of Fish & Game, and other sources show that while 41 attacks occurred during the period of 1988–1997, 48 attacks were verified from 1998 through 2003. The majority of these incidents occurred in Southern California near the suburban-wildland interface.
Due to an absence of harassment by residents, urban coyotes lose their natural fear of humans, which is further worsened by people intentionally feeding coyotes. In such situations, some coyotes have begun to act aggressively toward humans, chasing joggers and bicyclists, confronting people walking their dogs, and stalking small children. Non-rabid coyotes in these areas will sometimes target small children, mostly under the age of 10, though some adults have been bitten. In June 2010 a 3-year-old girl and a 6-year-old girl were attacked and seriously injured in separate attacks by coyotes in Rye, New York, a suburb of New York City. The 6-year-old was attacked by two coyotes on June 25 and the 3-year-old was attacked by one coyote on June 29. There was no indication the animals were rabid, but the girls were given treatment as a precaution. In June 2011 an unattended toddler on a trampoline was attacked by a coyote who attempted to drag her into the woods in North Carolina.
There are only two recorded fatalities in North America from coyote attacks. In 1981 in Glendale, California, a coyote attacked toddler Kelly Keen, who was rescued by her father, but died in surgery due to blood loss and a broken neck. In October 2009, Taylor Mitchell, a 19-year-old folk singer on tour, died from injuries sustained in an attack by a pair of coyotes while hiking in the Skyline Trail of the Cape Breton Highlands National Park in Nova Scotia, Canada. Recent studies have shown, however, that the large northeastern coyotes responsible for this attack may in fact be coyote-wolf hybrids (or coywolves) due to absorption of wolves when coyotes moved into eastern North America.
Character in mythology
Traditional stories from many Native American, First Nations, and Aboriginal cultures include a deity whose name is translated into English as Coyote. Although especially common in stories told by southwestern Native American nations, such as the Diné and Apache, stories about Coyote appear in dozens of Native American nations from Canada to Mexico.
Usually appearing as a trickster, a culture hero or both, Coyote also often appears in creation myths and etiological myths. Although often appearing in stories as male, Coyote can be female, hermaphrodite, or gender changing, in traditional Aboriginal stories.
Contemporary cultural references
The coyote is a popular figure in folklore and popular culture. References may invoke either the animal or the mythological figure. Traits commonly described in pop culture appearances include inventiveness, mischievousness, and evasiveness. By far the best known representation is the animated Wile E. Coyote, Super Genius, whose popularity has spread the three-syllable Spanish pronunciation of the word coyote throughout English-speaking North America.
Coyote is also a slang term for a person who smuggles illegal immigrants over the border from Mexico to the United States.
The Phoenix Coyotes are a National Hockey League franchise based in Arizona.
The mascot of the University of South Dakota is the coyote.
There are 19 recognized subspecies of coyote:
C. l. cagottis (Hamilton-Smith): Mexican Coyote – states of Oaxaca, San Luis Potosi, Puebla, and Veracruz in Mexico
C. l. clepticus (Elliot): San Pedro Martir Coyote – northern Baja California and southwestern California
C. l. dickeyi: Salvador Coyote
C. l. frustor (Woodhouse): Southeastern Coyote – southeastern and extreme eastern Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Missouri, and Arkansas
C. l. goldmani: Belize Coyote
C. l. hondurensis: Honduras Coyote
C. l. impavidus (Allen): Durango Coyote – southern Sonora, extreme southwestern Chihuahua, western Durango, western Zacatecas, and Sinaloa
C. l. incolatus (Hall): Northern Coyote – Yukon, Northwest Territories, northern British Columbia, and northern Alberta, and Alaska
C. l. jamesi (Townsend): Tiburón Island Coyote – Tiburón Island
C. l. latrans: Plains Coyote – Great Plains from Alberta, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan south to New Mexico and the Texas Panhandle
C. l. lestes (Merriam): Mountain Coyote – British Columbia and southeastern Alberta south to Utah and Nevada
C. l. mearnsi (Merriam): Mearns Coyote – southwestern Colorado and southern Utah south to northern Sonora and Chihuahua
C. l. microdon (Merriam): Lower Rio Grande Coyote – southern Texas and northern Tamaulipas
C. l. ochropus (Eschscholtz): California Valley Coyote – California west of the Sierra Nevada
C. l. peninsulae (Merriam): Peninsula Coyote – Baja California
C. l. texensis (Bailey): Texas Plains Coyote – most of Texas, eastern New Mexico, and northeastern Mexico
C. l. thamnos (Jackson): Northeastern Coyote – range extends from north-central Saskatchewan east to southern Ontario south to northern Indiana and west to Missouri
C. l. umpquensis (Jackson): Northwest Coast Coyote – coast of Washington and Oregon
C. l. vigilis (Merriam): Colima Coyote – Pacific coast of Mexico from Jalisco south to Guerrero
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Coyote_closeup.jpg