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 Pipistrello: transizione e iniziazione

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AutoreMessaggio
Tila
Iniziato Sciamano
Iniziato Sciamano


Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Pipistrello: transizione e iniziazione   Mar 13 Apr 2010 - 16:11

Un saluto a tutti,

oggi vi parlo di un animale che purtroppo, come per altri, ha una bruttissima fama.

Vedremo come è collocato nel contesto sciamanico, quale è la sua simbologia e le sue caratteristiche.

Buona lettura!



FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chiroptera

I Chirotteri sono un ordine di mammiferi placentati comunemente noti come pipistrelli.

Etimologia
La parola Pipistrello deriva dal latino vespertilio, -onis «animale vespertino», da vesper che significa «sera».

La parola Chiroptera deriva invece dal greco cheir (mano) e pteron (ala).

Descrizione
Sono mammiferi antichissimi: allattano i loro piccoli e hanno il corpo ricoperto di pelo; anziché camminare e correre, volano, grazie a una speciale modificazione di mano e braccio trasformati in ala.

Hanno occhi piccoli e vista limitata, il loro udito invece è molto sviluppato. Mentre volano emettono degli ultrasuoni che, rimbalzando contro gli oggetti che incontrano, provocano un'eco permettendogli così di individuare gli ostacoli.

L'ala del pipistrello è diversa da quella di un uccello, infatti è costituita da una sottile membrana simile alla pelle. Il patagio (le ossa della mano e delle dita) è costituito da un sottile strato di vasi sanguigni e filamenti elastici tra due strati di pelle.
Abitudini

Di giorno si riposano nelle fessure dei muri, nelle cavità degli alberi e nelle grotte mentre di notte vanno a caccia di cibo.

Molte specie di Pipistrelli (soprattutto del gruppo dei microchirotteri) si nutrono di insetti, ma ne esistono altre (i megachirotteri) che mangiano polline, nettare, frutta; altre ancora, roditori, pesci, rane ed, infine, si conoscono tre specie di pipistrelli limitate al Centro e al Sud America, che succhiano il sangue degli animali domestici. I pipistrelli italiani predano insetti, eliminando, così, tanti insetti nocivi all'uomo. Un singolo pipistrello, ad esempio, può in una sola notte mangiare fino a 500 zanzare.

In inverno i pipistrelli vanno in letargo in gruppo, rallentano tutte le attività corporee, incluso la frequenza respiratoria e il battito cardiaco, consumando così poca energia e sopravvivendo grazie alle riserve di grasso corporeo accumulate nella bella stagione. Con l'arrivo della primavera, cessa la fase di letargo: le femmine, dopo un certo tempo, si radunano in rifugi ove, tra giugno e luglio, danno alla luce i piccoli (in genere uno solo). Dopo poche settimane, i piccoli sanno già volare e vanno subito a caccia d'insetti.

Predatori
I loro nemici sono i gufi, le donnole, le martore e i topi.

Tassonomia
I Chirotteri sono suddivisi in due sottordini: i Microchirotteri e i Macrochirotteri. I primi sono molto numerosi, mentre il secondo gruppo è invece formato dalla sola famiglia Pteropodidae , che comprende specie conosciute popolarmente col nome di volpi volanti o pipistrelli della frutta.


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://pietrobellantoni.wordpress.com/2009/08/08/a-oropa-la-notte-dei-pipistrelli/

FONTE: http://www.esoterya.com/totem-pipistrello/1473/
Il pipistrello abita anfratti oscuri, riposa a testa in giù nella posizione che ha un bimbo nel ventre materno.
Le sua venerazione è originaria del Centro America, e aveva un ruolo rilevante nelle culture degli Aztechi, dei Toltechi e dei Maya.

Raffigura la morte simbolica che lo sciamano deve sperimentare durante il rito d’iniziazione. l’iniziando deve affrontare e vincere le proprie paure ed incontrare se stesso, in modo da potersi liberare dal proprio vecchio io e rinascere come uomo nuovo.

L’aspirante sciamano viene sottoposto a prove durissime di ogni genere, che lo portano ai limiti sia psichicamente che fisicamente.

Quando in sogno appare un pipistrello, indica la necessità di staccarvi da una parte di voi stessi, da una vostra particolare attitudine, da una situazione non più soddisfacente. E’ importante morire una morte simbolica per poter progredire ulteriormente.

FONTE: "Segni e presagi del mondo animale - i poteri magici di piccole e grandi creature" di ted Andrews Ed. Mediterranee

In Babilonia rappresentava le anime dei morti, mentre in Cina era simbolo di felicità e lunga vita. Per gli antichi Maya, i pipistrelli significavano iniziazione e rinascita, e nel Medioevo erano draghi in miniatura.


Ultima modifica di Tila il Mer 26 Gen 2011 - 18:00, modificato 1 volta
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Maschile Capra
Numero di messaggi : 2142
Data d'iscrizione : 04.02.09
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Località : Roma

MessaggioOggetto: Re: Pipistrello: transizione e iniziazione   Mar 13 Apr 2010 - 17:55

Aggiungo anche questa sezione della wikipedia in inglese che come sempre ha molto piu materiale che quella in italiano.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bat


Bat
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Bat (disambiguation).
Bats
Fossil range: 52–0 Ma PreЄЄOSDCPTJKPgNLate Paleocene – Recent

Townsend's big-eared bat, Corynorhinus townsendii
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Mammalia

Infraclass: Eutheria

Superorder: Laurasiatheria[1]

Order: Chiroptera
Blumenbach, 1779
Suborders
See article


Bats are flying mammals in the order Chiroptera (pronounced /kaɪˈrɒptərə/). The forelimbs of bats are webbed and developed as wings, making them the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight. By contrast, other mammals said to fly, such as flying squirrels, gliding possums and colugos, glide rather than fly, and only for short distances. Bats do not flap their entire forelimbs, as birds do, but instead flap their spread out digits,[2] which are very long and covered with a thin membrane or patagium. Chiroptera comes from two Greek words, cheir (χειρ) "hand" and pteron (πτερον) "wing."

There are about 1,100 bat species worldwide, which represent about twenty percent of all classified mammal species.[3] About seventy percent of bats are insectivores. Most of the rest are frugivores, or fruit eaters. A few species feed from animals other than insects. Bats are present throughout most of the world and perform vital ecological roles such as pollinating flowers and dispersing fruit seeds. Many tropical plants depend entirely on bats for the distribution of their seeds.

Bats range in size from Kitti's Hog-nosed Bat measuring 29–33 mm (1.14–1.30 in) in length and 2 g (0.07 oz) in mass,[4] to the Giant Golden-crowned Flying-fox, which has a wing span of 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in) and weighs approximately 1.2 kg (3 lb).

Contents [hide]
1 Fossil bats
2 Classification and evolution
3 Anatomy
3.1 Echolocation
3.2 Eyes
3.3 Wings
3.4 Other
4 Reproduction
5 Hunting, feeding, and drinking
5.1 Hunting
5.2 Feeding
5.2.1 Aerial insectivores
5.2.2 Forage gleaners
5.2.3 Fruits and flower nectar
5.2.4 Vertebrates
5.2.5 Blood
5.3 Results of eating
6 Drinking
7 Behaviour
8 Threats
8.1 White nose syndrome
8.2 Wind turbines
9 Role in the transmission of pathogens
10 Cultural aspects
10.1 Bats in Mesoamerican mythology
10.2 In Oaxacan mythology
10.3 East Nigerian mythology
10.4 Artificial roosts
10.5 The bat in heraldry
10.6 In popular culture
11 See also
12 References
12.1 Further reading
13 External links


[edit] Fossil bats
There are few fossilized remains of bats, as they are terrestrial and light-boned. An Eocene bat, Onychonycteris finneyi, was found in the fifty-two-million-year-old Green River Formation in South Dakota, United States, in 2004 and was added as a new genus and placed in a new family when published in Nature in 2008.[5] It had characteristics indicating that it could fly, yet the well-preserved skeleton showed that the cochlea of the inner ear lacked development needed to support the greater hearing abilities of modern bats. This provided evidence that flight in bats developed well before echolocation. The team that found the remains of this species, named Onychonycteris finneyi, recognized that it lacked ear and throat features present not only in echolocating bats today, but also in other known prehistoric species.

Fossil remains of another Eocene bat, Icaronycteris, were found in 1960.

The appearance and flight movement of bats 52.5 million years ago were different from those of bats today. Onychonycteris had claws on all five of its fingers, whereas modern bats have at most two claws appearing on two digits of each hand. It also had longer hind legs and shorter forearms, similar to climbing mammals that hang under branches such as sloths and gibbons. This palm-sized bat had broad, short wings suggesting that it could not fly as fast or as far as later bat species. Instead of flapping its wings continuously while flying, Onychonycteris likely alternated between flaps and glides while in the air. Such physical characteristics suggest that this bat did not fly as much as modern bats do, rather flying from tree to tree and spending most of its waking day climbing or hanging on the branches of trees.[6]

[edit] Classification and evolution

Giant Golden-crowned Flying-fox, Acerodon jubatus.Bats are mammals. Sometimes they are mistakenly called "flying rodents" or "flying rats", and they can also be mistaken for insects and birds. There are two suborders of bats:

Megachiroptera (megabats)
Microchiroptera (microbats/echolocating bats)
Not all megabats are larger than microbats. The major distinctions between the two suborders are:

Microbats use echolocation: megabats do not with the exception of Rousettus and relatives.
Microbats lack the claw at the second toe of the forelimb.
The ears of microbats do not close to form a ring: the edges are separated from each other at the base of the ear.
Microbats lack underfur: they are either naked or have guard hairs.
Megabats eat fruit, nectar or pollen while most microbats eat insects; others may feed on the blood of animals, small mammals, fish, frogs, fruit, pollen or nectar. Megabats have a well-developed visual cortex and show good visual acuity, while microbats rely on echolocation for navigation and finding prey.

The phylogenetic relationships of the different groups of bats have been the subject of much debate. The traditional subdivision between Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera reflects the view that these groups of bats have evolved independently of each other for a long time, from a common ancestor that was already capable of flight. This hypothesis recognized differences between microbats and megabats and acknowledged that flight has only evolved once in mammals. Most molecular biological evidence supports the view that bats form a single or monophyletic group.[7]

Researchers have proposed alternate views of chiropteran phylogeny and classification, but more research is needed.

Genetic evidence indicates that megabats originated during the early Eocene and should be placed within the four major lines of microbats.

Consequently, two new suborders based on molecular data have been proposed. The new suborder Yinpterochiroptera includes the Pteropodidae or megabat family as well as the Rhinolophidae, Megadermatidae, and Rhinopomatidae families. The new suborder Yangochiroptera includes all the remaining families of bats (all of which use laryngeal echolocation). These two new suborders are strongly supported by statistical tests. Teeling (2005) found 100% bootstrap support in all maximum likelihood analyses for the division of Chiroptera into these two modified suborders. This conclusion is further supported by a fifteen-base pair deletion in BRCA1 and a seven-base pair deletion in PLCB4 present in all Yangochiroptera and absent in all Yinpterochiroptera.[8] The Chiropteran phylogeny based on molecular evidence is controversial because microbat paraphyly implies that one of two seemingly unlikely hypotheses occurred. The first suggests that laryngeal echolocation evolved twice in Chiroptera, once in Yangochiroptera and once in the rhinolophoids.[9][10] The second proposes that laryngeal echolocation had a single origin in Chiroptera, was subsequently lost in the family Pteropodidae (all megabats), and later evolved as a system of tongue-clicking in the genus Rousettus.[11]


Common Pipistrelle, Pipistrellus pipistrellus.Analyses of the sequence of the "vocalization" gene, FoxP2 was inconclusive of whether laryngeal echolocation was secondarily lost in the pteropodids or independently gained in the echolocating lineages[12]. However, analyses of the "hearing" gene, Prestin seemed to favor the independent gain in echolocating species rather than a secondary loss in the pteropodids.[13]

In addition to Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera, the names Pteropodiformes and Vespertilioniformes have also been proposed for these suborders.[14][15] Under this new proposed nomenclature, the suborder Pteropodiformes includes all extant bat families more closely related to the genus Pteropus than the genus Vespertilio, while the suborder Vespertilioniformes includes all extant bat families more closely related to the genus Vespertilio than to the genus Pteropus.

In the 1980s, a hypothesis based on morphological evidence was offered that stated that the Megachiroptera evolved flight separately from the Microchiroptera. The so-called flying primates theory proposed that when adaptations to flight are removed, the Megachiroptera are allied to primates by anatomical features that are not shared with Microchiroptera. One example is that the brains of megabats show a number of advanced characteristics that link them to primates. Although recent genetic studies support the monophyly of bats,[16] debate continues as to the meaning of available genetic and morphological evidence.[citation needed]

Little fossil evidence is available to help map the evolution of bats, since their small, delicate skeletons do not fossilize very well. However a Late Cretaceous tooth from South America resembles that of an early Microchiropteran bat. The oldest known definitely identified bat fossils, such as Icaronycteris, Archaeonycteris, Palaeochiropteryx and Hassianycteris, are from the early Eocene period, 52.5 million years ago[7]. These fossil bats were already very similar to modern microbats. Archaeopteropus, formerly classified as the earliest known megachiropteran, is now classified as a microchiropteran.

Bats were formerly grouped in the superorder Archonta along with the treeshrews (Scandentia), colugos (Dermoptera), and the primates, because of the apparent similarities between Megachiroptera and such mammals. Genetic studies have now placed bats in the superorder Laurasiatheria along with carnivorans, pangolins, odd-toed ungulates, even-toed ungulates, and cetaceans.[1]


"Chiroptera" from Ernst Haeckel's Kunstformen der Natur, 1904The traditional classification of bats is:

Order Chiroptera
Suborder Megachiroptera (megabats)
Pteropodidae
Suborder Microchiroptera (microbats)
Superfamily Emballonuroidea
Emballonuridae (Sac-winged or Sheath-tailed bats)
Superfamily Molossoidea
Antrozoidae (Pallid bats)
Molossidae (Free-tailed bats)
Superfamily Nataloidea
Furipteridae (Smoky bats)
Myzopodidae (Sucker-footed bats)
Natalidae (Funnel-eared bats)
Thyropteridae (Disk-winged bats)
Superfamily Noctilionoidea
Mormoopidae (Ghost-faced or Moustached bats)
Mystacinidae (New Zealand short-tailed bats)
Noctilionidae (Bulldog bats or Fisherman bats)
Phyllostomidae (Leaf-nosed bats)
Superfamily Rhinolophoidea
Megadermatidae (False vampires)
Nycteridae (Hollow-faced or Slit-faced bats)
Rhinolophidae (Horseshoe bats)
Superfamily Rhinopomatoidea
Craseonycteridae (Bumblebee Bat or Kitti's Hog-nosed Bat)
Rhinopomatidae (Mouse-tailed bats)
Superfamily Vespertilionoidea
Vespertilionidae (Vesper bats or Evening bats)
Megabats primarily eat fruit or nectar. In New Guinea, they are likely to have evolved for some time in the absence of microbats. This has resulted in some smaller megabats of the genus Nyctimene becoming (partly) insectivorous to fill the vacant microbat ecological niche. Furthermore, there is some evidence that the fruit bat genus Pteralopex from the Solomon Islands, and its close relative Mirimiri from Fiji, have evolved to fill some niches that were open because there are no nonvolant or non-flying mammals in those islands.

[edit] Anatomy

Skeleton of a Greater Mouse-eared Bat (Myotis myotis).[edit] Echolocation
Bat echolocation is a perceptual system where ultrasonic sounds are emitted specifically to produce echoes. By comparing the outgoing pulse with the returning echoes the brain and auditory nervous system can produce detailed images of the bat's surroundings. This allows bats to detect, localize and even classify their prey in complete darkness. At 130 decibels in intensity, bat calls are some of the most intense airborne animal sounds.[17]

To clearly distinguish returning information, bats must be able to separate their calls from the echoes they receive. Microbats use two distinct approaches.

1.Low Duty Cycle Echolocation: Bats can separate their calls and returning echos in time. Bats that use this approach time their short calls to finish before echoes return. This is also important because these bats contract their middle ear muscles when emitting a call to avoid deafening themselves. The time interval between call and echo allows them to relax these muscles so they can clearly hear the returning echo.[18]

2. High Duty Cycle Echolocation: Bats emit a continuous call and separate pulse and echo in frequency. The ears of these bats are sharply tuned to a specific frequency range. They emit calls outside of this range to avoid self-deafening. They then receive echoes back at the finely tuned frequency range by taking advantage of the Doppler shift of their motion in flight. These bats must deal with changes in the Doppler shift due to changes in their flight speed. They have adapted to change their pulse emission frequency in relation to their flight speed so echoes still return in the optimal hearing range.[19]

The new Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera classification of bats that are supported by molecular evidence, suggest two possibilities for the evolution of echolocation. It may have been gained once in a common ancestor of all bats and was then subsequently lost in the Old World fruit bats, only to be regained in the Horse-Shoe bats; or echolocation was evolved independent in both the Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochirpotera lineages.[20]

Two groups of moths exploit a bat sense to echolocate: tiger moths produce ultrasonic signals to warn the bats that they (the moths) are chemically-protected or aposematic. This was once thought to be the biological equivalent of "radar jamming", but this theory has yet to be confirmed. The moths Noctuidae have a hearing organ called a tympanum, which responds to an incoming bat signal by causing the moth's flight muscles to twitch erratically, sending the moth into random evasive manoeuvres.

[edit] Eyes
Although the eyes of most microbat species are small and poorly developed, leading to poor visual acuity, none of them are blind. Vision is used to navigate microbats especially for long distances when beyond the range of echolocation. It has even been discovered that some species are able to detect ultraviolet light. They also have a high quality sense of smell and hearing. Bats hunt at night to avoid competition with birds, and travel large distances at most 800 km, in their search for food.[2]

[edit] Wings

Thermographic image of a bat using trapped air as insulation.The finger bones of bats are much more flexible than those of other mammals. One reason is that the cartilage in their fingers lacks calcium and other minerals nearer the tips, increasing their ability to bend without splintering. The cross-section of the finger bone is also flattened compared to the circular cross section that human finger bones have, and is very flexible. The skin on their wing membranes has more elasticity and so can stretch much more than other mammals.

The wings of bats are much thinner than those of birds, so bats can manoeuvre more quickly and more accurately than birds. It is also delicate, ripping easily.[21] However the tissue of the bat's membrane is able to regrow, such that small tears can heal quickly.[21][22] The surface of their wings is equipped with touch-sensitive receptors on small bumps called Merkel cells, found in most mammals including humans, similarly found on our finger tips. These sensitive areas are different in bats as each bump has a tiny hair in the center,[23] making it even more sensitive and allowing the bat to detect and collect information about the air flowing over its wings, thereby providing feedback to the bat to change its shape of its wing to fly more efficiently.[23] Some bats like the little brown bat can use this dexterious ability where it is able to drink in mid air.[24] Other bats such as the flying fox or fruit bat gently skim the water's surface, then land nearby to lick water from their chest fur.[25] An additional kind of receptor cell is found in the wing membrane of species that use their wings to catch prey. This receptor cell is sensitive to the stretching of the membrane.[23] The cells are concentrated in areas of the membrane where insects hit the wings when the bats capture them.

[edit] Other
The teeth of microbats resemble insectivorans. They are very sharp to bite through the hardened armor of insects or the skin of fruit.

Mammals have one-way valves in veins to prevent the blood from flowing backwards, but bats also have one-way valves in arteries.

One species of bat has the longest tongue of any mammal relative to its body size. This is beneficial to them in terms of pollination and feeding their long narrow tongues can reach deep into the long cup shape of some flowers. When their tongue retracts, it coils up inside their rib cage.[26]

[edit] Reproduction

Newborn Common Pipistrelle, Pipistrellus pipistrellus.
Colony of Mouse-eared bats, Myotis myotis.Most bats have a breeding season, which is in the spring for species living in a temperate climate. Bats may have one to three litters in a season, depending on the species and on environmental conditions such as the availability of food and roost sites. Females generally have one offspring at a time, this is maybe a result of the mother's need to fly to feed while pregnant. Female bats nurse their youngster until it has grown nearly to adult size, this is because a young bat cannot forage on its own until its wings are fully developed.

Female bats use a variety of strategies to control the timing of pregnancy and the birth of young, to make delivery coincide with maximum food ability and other ecological factors. Females of some species have delayed fertilization, in which sperm are stored in the reproductive tract for several months after mating. In many such cases, mating occurs in the fall, and fertilization does not occur until the following spring. Other species exhibit delayed implantation, in which the egg is fertilized after mating, but remains free in the reproductive tract until external conditions become favorable for giving birth and caring for the offspring. In yet another strategy, fertilization and implantation both occur but development of the fetus is delayed until favorable conditions prevail. All of these adaptations result in the pup being born during a time of high local production of fruit or insects.

At birth wings are too small to be used for flight. Young microbats become independent at the age of 6 to 8 weeks, megabats do not until they are four months old.

A single bat can live over 20 years, but the bat population growth is limited by the slow birth rate.[27]

[edit] Hunting, feeding, and drinking
Newborn bats rely on the milk from their mother’s nipples for sustenance.[28] When they are a few weeks old, bats are expected to fly and hunt on their own. It is up to them to find and catch their prey, along with satisfying their thirst.[29]

[edit] Hunting
Bats are nocturnal creatures. Their daylight hours are spent grooming, sleeping, and resting; it is during the nighttime hours that they hunt. The means by which bats navigate while finding and catching their prey in the dark was unknown until the 1790s, when Lazzaro Spallanzani conducted a series of experiments on a group of blind bats. These bats were placed in a room submerged in total darkness, with silk threads strung across the room. Even then, the bats were able to navigate their way through the room. Spallanzani concluded that the bats were not using their eyes to fly through complete darkness, but something else.

Spallanzani decided that bats were able to catch and find their prey through the use of their ears. To prove this theory, Spallanzani plugged the ears of the bats in his experiment. To his pleasure, he found that the bats with plugged ears were not able to fly with the same amount of skill and precision that they were able to without their ears plugged.

Bats seem to use their ears to locate and catch their prey, but how they accomplish this wasn’t discovered until the 1930s, by one Donald R. Griffin. Griffin, who was a biology student at Harvard College at the time, discovered that bats use echolocation to locate and catch their prey. When bats fly, they produce a constant stream of high pitch sounds that only bats are able to hear. When the sound waves produced by these sounds hit an insect or other animal, the echoes bounce back to the bat, and guide them to the source.[29]

[edit] Feeding
The majority of food consumed by bats includes:

Insects
Fruits and flower nectar
Vertebrates
Blood
[30]

Almost three-fourths of the world’s bats are insect eaters. Each of these bats is able to consume one third of its body weight in insects each night, and several hundred insects in a few hours. This means that a group of one thousand bats could eat four tons of insects each year. If bats were to become extinct, the insect population would reach an alarmingly high number.[31]

The types of insects consumed by bats can be divided into two categories: aerial insects, and ground dwelling insects.

[edit] Aerial insectivores
Watching a bat catch and eat an insect is difficult. The action is so fast that all one sees is a bat rapidly change directions, and continue on its way. Scientist Frederick A. Webster discovered how bats catch their prey. In 1960, Webster developed a high-speed camera that was able to take one thousand pictures per second. These photos revealed the fast and precise way in which bats catch insects.[29] Occasionally, a bat will catch an insect in mid-air with its mouth, and eat it in the air. However, more often than not, a bat will use its tail membrane or wings to scoop up the insect and trap it in a sort of “bug net”.[28] Then, the bat will take the insect back to its roost. There, the bat will proceed to eat said insect, often using its tail membrane as a kind of napkin, to prevent its meal from falling to the ground.[32]

[edit] Forage gleaners
These bats typically fly down and grasp their prey off the ground with their teeth, and take it to a nearby perch to eat it. Generally, these bats don’t use echolocation to locate their prey. Instead, they rely on the sounds produced by the insects. Some make unique sounds, and almost all make some noise while moving through the environment.[28]

[edit] Fruits and flower nectar
Fruit eating, or frugivory, is a specific habit found in two families of bats. Megachiropterans and microchiropterans both include species of bat that feed on fruits. These bats feed on the juices of sweet fruits, and fulfill the needs of some seeds to be dispersed. The fruits preferred by most fruit eating bats are fleshy and sweet, but not particularly strong smelling or colorful.[28] To get the juice of these fruits, bats pull the fruit off the trees with their teeth, and fly back to their roost with the fruit in their mouth. There, the bat will consume the fruit in a specific way. To do this, the bats crush open the fruit and eat the parts that satisfy their hunger. The remainder of the fruit; the seeds and pulp, are spat onto the ground. These seeds take root and begin to grow into new fruit trees.[33] “Over one hundred and fifty types of plants depend on bats in order to reproduce”.[34]

Some bats prefer the nectar of flowers to insects or other animals. These bats have evolved specifically for this process. For example, these bats possess long muzzles and long extrusible tongues covered in fine bristles that aid them in feeding on particular flowers and plants.[28] When they sip the nectar from these flowers, pollen gets stuck to their fur, and is dusted off when the bat takes flight, thus pollinating the plants below them.[35] The rainforest is said to be the most benefitted out off all the biomes that bats live in, because of the large variety of appealing plants.[36] Because of their specific eating habits, nectar-feeding bats are more prone to extinction than any other bat.[37] However, according to a study done, published in Biotropica, bats benefit from eating fruits and nectar just as much from eating insects.[38]

[edit] Vertebrates
Although most bats are not included in this group, there is a small group that comprises the carnivorous bats, these bats feed on other vertebrates, and are considered the “top carnivores of the bat world”.[28] These bats typically eat a variety of animals, but normally consume frogs, lizards, and birds, and sometimes other bats.[39] For example, one vertebrate predator; Trachops cirrhosus, is particularly skilled at catching frogs. These bats locate large groups of frogs by distinguishing their mating calls from other sounds around them. They follow the sounds to the source, and pluck them from the surface of the water with their sharp canine teeth.[28]

There are also several species of bat that feed on fish. These types of bats are found on almost all continents. They use echolocation to detect tiny ripples in the water’s surface to locate fish. From there, the bats swoop down low, inches from the water, and use specially enlarged claws on their hind feet to grab fish out of the water. The bats then take the fish to a feeding roost and consume the animal.[28]

[edit] Blood
There are a few species of bat that consume blood exclusively as their diet. This type of diet is referred to as hematophagy, and three species of bat exhibit this behavior. These species include the Common Vampire Bat, the White-winged Vampire Bat, and the Hairy-legged Bat. The Common Vampire Bat typically consumes the blood of mammals, while the Hairy-legged and White-winged feed on the blood of birds.[40] In Dennis Turners book, The Vampire Bat, a scientist by the name of Dr. Greenhall conducted a study to find out if bats preferred the blood of wild or domestic animals. In this study, Greenhall had a sample size of 3,500 vampire bats. Of this group, eighty percent of them fed on the blood of cattle. Thus proving that vampire bats prefer the blood of domestic animals, rather than wild ones.[41]

[edit] Results of eating
Bats’ dung, or guano, is so rich in nutrients, that it is mined from caves, bagged, and used by farmers to fertilize their crops. Also, guano was used in the U.S. Civil War to make gunpowder.[42]

There comes a time in the year that some bats will not eat to supply themselves with food for the night, but for the coming months. These bats are beginning to hibernate. To do this, the bat will eat as much food as its body can contain, being as fat as possible. The bat’s body then takes from the supply of fat for energy, but very slowly, because all body activities have slowed down. This supply of fat will last until the spring season arrives.[29]

[edit] Drinking
Generally, bats drink water. In 1960, Frederic A. Webster discovered how bats are able to acquire this water. To do this, Webster developed a high-speed camera and flashgun that could take one thousand photos per second. Webster's camera captured the bat's method of skimming the surface of a body of water, and lowering its jaw to get just one drop of water. It then skims again to get a second drop of water, and then again to get a third, and so on, until it has had its fill of water. Its precision and control is very fine, and it almost never misses.[29]

[edit] Behaviour
Most microbats are nocturnal and are active at twilight. A large portion of bats migrate hundreds of kilometres to winter hibernation dens[43], some pass into torpor in cold weather, rousing and feeding when warm weather allows for insects to be active[44]. Others retreat to caves for winter and hibernate for six months.[44] Bats rarely fly in rain as the rain interferes with their echo location, and they are unable to locate their food.

The social structure of bats varies, with some bats leading a solitary life and others living in caves colonized by more than a million bats[45]. The fission-fusion social structure is seen among several species of bats. The term "fusion" refers to a large numbers of bats that congregate together in one roosting area and "fission" refers to breaking up and the mixing of subgroups, where individual bats switching roosts with others and often ending up in different trees and with different roostmates.

Studies also show that bats make all kinds of sounds to communicate with others. Scientists in the field have listened to bats and have been able to identify some sounds with some behaviour bats will make after the sounds are made[45].

70% of bat species are insectivorous, locating their prey by means of echolocation. Of the remainder, most feed on fruits[46]. Only three species sustain themselves with blood. Some species even prey on vertebrates: these are the leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae) of Central America and South America, and the two bulldog bat (Noctilionidae) species, which feed on fish. At least two species of bat are known to feed on bats: the Spectral Bat, also known as the American False Vampire bat, and the Ghost Bat of Australia[46]. One species, the Greater Noctule bat, catches and eats small birds in the air.

Predators of bats include Bat Hawks and Bat Falcons.

[edit] Threats

A little brown bat with white nose syndrome.[edit] White nose syndrome
Main article: White nose syndrome
White nose syndrome is a condition associated with the deaths of more than a million bats in the Northeastern United States.[47] The disease is named after a white fungus found growing on the muzzles, ears, and wings of some afflicted bats, but it is not known if the fungus is the primary cause of the disease or is merely an opportunistic infection.[48] Mortality rates of 90–100% have been observed in some caves.[48] At least six species of hibernating bats are affected, including the endangered Indiana bat.[49] Because the affected species have a long lifespan and a low birth rate of only about one offspring per year, it is not expected that populations will recover quickly.[49]

[edit] Wind turbines
The lungs of bats are typical mammalian lungs, and unlike the lungs of birds it has been hypothesized they are more sensitive to sudden air pressure changes in their immediate vicinity such as wind turbines, and are more liable to rupture them to explain their apparent higher rate of mortality rate with such devices.[50] Bats suffer a higher death rate than birds in the neighborhood of wind turbines[51][52][53] since there are no signs of external trauma, the cause has been hypothesized to be a greater sensitivity to sudden pressure fluctuations in the mammalian lung than in that of birds.[54] In addition, it has been suggested that bats are attracted to these structures, perhaps seeking roosts, and thereby increasing the death rate.[50]

[edit] Role in the transmission of pathogens

A big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) approaches a wax moth (Galleria mellonella), which serves as the control species for the studies of the tiger moths. The moth is only "semi-tethered," allowing it to fly evasively.Bats are natural reservoir for a large number of zoonotic pathogens[55] including rabies,[56] severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS),[57] Henipavirus (i.e. Nipah virus and Hendra virus)[58] and possibly ebola virus[59].[60] Their high mobility, broad distribution, and social behaviour (communal roosting, fission-fusion social structure) make bats favourable hosts and vectors of disease. Many species also appear to have a high tolerance for harbouring pathogens and often do not develop disease while infected.

In regions where rabies is endemic, only 0.5% of bats carry the disease. However, of the few cases of rabies reported in the United States every year not caused by dogs, most are caused by bat bites.[61] Those that are rabid may be clumsy, disoriented, and unable to fly, which makes it more likely that they will come into contact with humans. Although one should not have an unreasonable fear of bats, one should avoid handling them or having them in one's living space, as with any wild animal. If a bat is found in living quarters near a child, mentally handicapped person, intoxicated person, sleeping person, or pet, the person or pet should receive immediate medical attention for rabies. Bats have very small teeth and can bite a sleeping person without being felt. There is evidence that it is possible for the bat rabies virus to infect victims purely through airborne transmission, without direct physical contact of the victim with the bat itself.[62][63]

If a bat is found in a house and the possibility of exposure cannot be ruled out, the bat should be sequestered and an animal control officer called immediately, so that the bat can be analysed. This also applies if the bat is found dead. If it is certain that nobody has been exposed to the bat, it should be removed from the house. The best way to do this is to close all the doors and windows to the room except one to the outside. The bat should soon leave.

Due to the risk of rabies and also due to health problems related to their faecal droppings (guano), bats should be excluded from inhabited parts of houses. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention provides full detailed information on all aspects of bat management, including how to capture a bat, what to do in case of exposure, and how to bat-proof a house humanely.[64] In certain countries, such as the United Kingdom, it is illegal to handle bats without a license.

Where rabies is not endemic, as throughout most of Western Europe, small bats can be considered harmless. Larger bats can give a nasty bite. They should be treated with the respect due to any wild animal.

[edit] Cultural aspects

"Nightwing," a work of art by Dale Whistler in Austin, Texas.The bat is sacred in Tonga and is often considered the physical manifestation of a separable soul[citation needed]. Bats are closely associated with vampires, who are said to be able to shapeshift into bats, fog, or wolves. Bats are also a symbol of ghosts, death, and disease. Among some Native Americans, such as the Creek, Cherokee and Apache, the bat is a trickster spirit.

Chinese lore claims the bat is a symbol of longevity and happiness, and is similarly lucky in Poland and geographical Macedonia and among the Kwakiutl and Arabs. The bat is also a heraldic animal of the Spanish autonomous community of Valencia.

Pre-Columbian cultures associated animals with gods and often displayed them in art. The Moche people depicted bats in their ceramics.[65]

In Western Culture, the bat is often a symbol of the night and its foreboding nature. The bat is a primary animal associated with fictional characters of the night, both villains like Dracula and heroes like Batman. The association of the fear of the night with the animal was treated as a literary challenge by Kenneth Oppel, who created a best selling series of novels, beginning with Silverwing, which feature bats as the central heroic figures much as anthropomorphized rabbits were the central figures to the classic novel Watership Down.

An old wives' tale has it that bats will entangle themselves in people's hair. One likely source of this belief is that insect-eating bats seeking prey may dive erratically toward people, who attract mosquitoes and gnats, leading the squeamish to believe that the bats are trying to get in their hair.

In the United Kingdom all bats are protected under the Wildlife and Countryside Acts, and even disturbing a bat or its roost can be punished with a heavy fine.

In Sarawak, Malaysia bats are protected species under the Wildlife Protection Ordinance 1998 (see Malaysian Wildlife Law). The large Naked bat (see Mammals of Borneo) and Greater Nectar bat are consumed by the local communities.

Bats can be a tourist attraction. The Congress Avenue Bridge in Austin, Texas is the summer home to North America's largest urban bat colony, an estimated 1,500,000 Mexican free-tailed bats, which eat an estimated 10,000 to 30,000 pounds of insects each night. An estimated 100,000 tourists per year visit the bridge at twilight to watch the bats leave the roost.

[edit] Bats in Mesoamerican mythology

Bat, Moche Culture 100 A.D. Larco Museum Lima, Peru.In Mesoamerican mythology during the Classic-Contemporary period, bats symbolized the land of the dead, which was considered to be the underworld.[66] They also symbolized destruction and decay. Bats may have symbolized in this way because they fly only at night and dwell in caves during the daytime and are associated with human skulls and bones by classic Maya ceramists. Central Mexicans sometimes depicted bats having snouts that looked like sacrificial knives and carrying human head in the Postclassic era[67]. Bat images were engraved onto funerary urns and were emphasized with large claws and round ears by Zapotecs. They were commonly associated with death.[68] The depiction of bats on funeral urns and goods took on some the characteristics of the jaguar which was and still is another entity of the night and the underworld. There have also been instances where bats are portrayed next to other unseemly animals including scorpions and other nocturnal animals such as owls.

A gigantic, life-size ceramic bat-man has been discovered and dug up from the Templo Mayor. The Templo Mayor is located in the center of the Mexica capital of Tenochtitlan. Known as a god of death, this statue has the clawed feet and hands of a bat, but the body of a man. The statue's human-like eyes bulged out from the bat-like head, making the Zapotec images very realistic and living. It was said that in the 1930s the Kaqchikel Maya proclaimed that the bat was the Devil’s provider. Kaqchikel would leave the Devil’s underworld home and collect blood from the animals to be used for scrumptious meals to feed the Devil. “In the myths, the beast of prey and the animal that is preyed upon play two significant roles. They represent two aspects of life—the aggressive, killing, conquering, creating aspect of life, and the one that is the matter or, you might say, the subject matter”[69]. In the Devil’s underworld, dead sinners would work off their sins in order to get to heaven, indicating that the bat was too a sinner and worked under the authority of the Devil[70].

[edit] In Oaxacan mythology
Oaxacans believe that the jealousy of the bat in wanting birds' feathers that gently fit their bodies led him to become nocturnal. The bat feeling isolated and undesirable spoke to God after that he complained he was extremely cold. God, fair and just turned to birds in the animal kingdom and asked if they would show compassion and donate a feather to the bat so the feathers would keep him warm. The birds all agreed, and began to pluck one feather from their bodies to give to the bat. With all of the feathers, the bat became much magnificent looking than all birds, even able to spread color to the night sky. During daylight, the bat created rainbows that reflected vibrant colors from the sun. The bat soon became overly arrogant and conceited, due having this new and improved look. The birds grew tired of the bat’s self conceitedness and glorification, and so decided to fly up to heaven and speak to God to do something. The birds informed to God of the bat's behaviour, God was surprised and so decided to take a look himself. When on Earth, God called on the bat to show him what he was doing. The bat began to fly across the light blue sky, where one by one each feather began to fall out, uncovering the bat’s natural ugly looking body. The bat became ashamed and distressed of his appearance after all feathers came off, missing the beautiful, plentiful feathers that he had, that he decided to hide in caves during the day. He would only come out during the night, searching high and low for the feathers to avoid embarrassment that he will not be seen during his search.[70]

[edit] East Nigerian mythology
According to a particular East Nigerian tale, the bat developed its nocturnal habits after causing the death of his partner the bush-rat. The bat and the bush-rat would share activities such as rummaging through the grass and trees, hunting, talking and bonding during the day. When at night, the bat and the bush-rat would alternate in cooking duties cooking what was caught, and eat together. It appeared to a dedicated partnership, however the bat hated the bush-rat immensely. The bush rat always found the bat’s soup more appetising so when eating dinner one night asked the bat why the soup tasted better than his own and also asked how it was made. The bat agreed to show him how to make it the next day but instead was forming a malicious plan.

Next day as bat prepared his soup, the bush-rat came, greeting him and asked if he could be shown what was agreed yesterday. Earlier, the bat has found a pot looking exactly like the one he used usually, but it held warm water and so decided to use this instead. The bat explained to the bush-rat that to make his soup, he had to boil himself prior to serving the soup where sweetness and flavor of the soup came from the flesh. The bat jumped in the pot seemingly excited, with the bush-rat mesmerised. After a few minutes the bat climbed out and while the bush-rat was distracted, switched pots. The bat then served his soup out of the soup pot, both tasted it. Over anxious and eager, the bush-rat, jumped into the pot of warm water. He stayed much longer in the pot dying in the process.


Very large bat house, Tallahassee, Florida, United States.When the bush-rat’s wife returned that night to find her husband dead, she wept and ran to the chief of the land's house telling him about what happened and what she was sure what the bat had done. In hearing this, the chief became angry, ordering for the immediate arrest of the bat. It just so happened that the bat was flying over the house and overheard what was just said. He quickly went into hiding high up in a tree. When the chief’s men went looking for the bat, he could not be found. The search to arrest the bat carried on over several days, but still could not be found. The bat needed to eat, so flew out of hiding every night to hunt for food to escape of being arrested. This, according to Eastern Nigeria mythology, is why bats only fly at night.[71].

[edit] Artificial roosts
Many people put up bat houses to attract bats just like many people put up birdhouses to attract birds. Reasons for this vary, but mostly center around the fact that bats are the primary nocturnal insectivores in most if not all ecologies. Bat houses can be made from scratch, made from kits, or bought ready made. Plans for bat houses exist on many web sites, as well as guidelines for designing a bat house[72]. Some conservation societies are giving away free bat houses to bat enthusiasts worldwide[citation needed].

A bat house constructed in 1991 at the University of Florida campus next to Lake Alice in Gainesville, Florida has a population of over 100,000 free-tailed bats.[73]

In Britain, British hardened field defences of World War II have been converted to make roosts for bats. Pillboxes that are well dug-in and thick walled are naturally damp and provide a stable thermal environment that is required by bats that would otherwise hibernate in caves. With a few minor modifications, suitable pillboxes can be converted to artificial caves for bats.[74][75]

Again in the UK, purpose-built bat houses are occasionally built when existing roosts are destroyed by developments such as new roads; one such has been built associated with bat bridges on the new (2008) A38 Dobwalls bypass.[citation needed]


Valencia city's arms
Valencia Club de Fútbol's crest
Palma de Mallorca's arms
Fraga coat of arms[edit] The bat in heraldry
Main article: Bat (heraldry)

Burgee of the Royal Valencia Yacht Club.The bat is sometimes used as a heraldic symbol. The coats of arms of certain cities in eastern Spain, like Valencia, Palma de Mallorca and Fraga have the bat over the shield. Formerly the Barcelona city coat of arms also had a bat crowning it, but the bat has been removed in the present-day versions.

The heraldic use of the bat in Valencia, Catalonia and the Balearic Islands has its origins in a winged dragon (vibra or vibria), which featured in King James I of Aragon's helmet or cimera reial. This is the most widely accepted theory, although there is also a legend that says that due to the intervention of a bat, King James was able to win a crucial battle against the Saracens that allowed him to win Valencia for his kingdom.

The use of the bat as a heraldic symbol is prevalent in the territories of the former Crown of Aragon and it is little used elsewhere. However, it can be found in a few places, as in the coats of arms of the city of Albacete, in Spain, as well as the town of Montchauvet (Yvelines), in France.

Certain Spanish soccer clubs including Valencia CF and Levante UD use bats in their badges.

The Burgee of the Royal Valencia Yacht Club (Reial Club Nàutic de València) displays a bat on a golden field in its center.

[edit] In popular culture
In Western Culture, bats are a symbol of darkness and forbidden nature, something that is associated to fictional dark characters. For example: superheroes like Batman, villains like Dracula and videogame characters like Rouge the Bat of Sonic the Hedgehog videogame series.



FONTE immagine: http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/worldonthemove/image/2/622/451/2/images/noctule-bat2.jpg


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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Pipistrello: transizione e iniziazione   Mar 13 Apr 2010 - 18:42

Tila se ti interessa mi è venuto in mente di una leggenda di pipistrelli giganti nelle leggende Maya, si chiamavano Camazoz.

Ecco qui di seguito il link, credo anche che alcuni biologi abbiano trovato di recente scheletri di alcuni esemplari, quindi le leggende avevano un fondo di verità...

Camazotz

In Maya mythology, Camazotz (alternate spellings Cama-Zotz, Sotz, Zotz) was a bat god. Camazotz means "death bat" in the K'iche' language. In Mesoamerica the bat was associated with night, death, and sacrifice.

Etymology
Camazotz is formed from the K'iche' words kame, meaning "death", and sotz', meaning "bat".[2].

[edit] Mythology
In the Popol Vuh, Camazotz are the bat-like monsters encountered by the Maya Hero Twins Hunahpu and Xbalanque during their trials in the underworld of Xibalba. The twins had to spend the night in the House of Bats where they squeeze themselves into their own blowguns in order to defend themselves from the circling bats. Hunahpu stuck his head out of his blowgun to see if the sun had risen and Camazotz immediately snatched off his head and carried it to the ballcourt to be hung up as the ball to be used by the gods in their next ballgame.[3]

[edit] Notes
1.^ Miller & Taube 1993, 2003, p.44.
2.^ Christenson.
3.^ Miller & Taube 1993, 2003, p.44. Thompson 1966, p.181. Read & Gonzalez 2000, p.133.
[edit] References
Christenson, Allen J. "K’iche’ - English Dictionary and Guide to Pronunciation of the K’iche’-Maya Alphabet" (PDF). Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies, Inc. (FAMSI). http://www.famsi.org/mayawriting/dictionary/christenson/quidic_complete.pdf. Retrieved 2010/01/16.
Miller, Mary; and Karl Taube (1993, 2003). An Illustrated Dictionary of the Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-27928-4. OCLC 28801551.
Read, Kay Almere; and Jason González (2000). Handbook of Mesoamerican Mythology. Oxford: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-85109-340-0. OCLC 43879188.
Thompson, J. Eric S. (June 1966)). "Maya Hieroglyphs of the Bat as Metaphorgrams". Man, New Series (Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland) 1 (2): 176–184.



Altrettanto interessante è questo link qui

http://www.blueroadrunner.com/camazotz.htm

Around 100 B.C., a peculiar religious cult grew up among the Zapotec Indians of Oaxaca, Mexico. The cult venerated an anthropomorphic monster with the head of a bat, an animal associated with night, death, and sacrifice (1). This monster soon found its way into the pantheon of the Quiché, a tribe of Maya who made their home in the jungles of what is now Guatemala. The Quiché identified the bat-deity with their god Zotzilaha Chamalcan, the god of fire.

Popol Vuh, a Mayan sacred book, identifies Zotzilaha as not a god, but a cavern, "The House of Bats" (2). Zotzilaha was home to a type of bat called camazotz; one of these monsters decapitated the hero Hunahpú. Camazotz has been translated as "death bat" (3) and "snatch bat" (4). It is recorded in chapter 10 of this book that the Camazotz's call was similar to eek, eek (5). A vastly different story appears in Chapter 3. Here a demon called Camalotz, or "Sudden Bloodletter", clearly a single entity, is identified as one of four animal demons which slew the impious first race of men (6).

In the Latin American region, it seems that the ancient belief in the "death bat" survives even to the present day. Several cultures have traditions of bat-demons or winged monsters; for example, legends of the h?ik'al, or Black-man, still circulate among the Zotzil people of Chiapas, Mexico. Perhaps revealingly, the H?ik'al is sometimes referred to as a "neckcutter" (7). Other bat-demons include the soucouyant of Trinidad and the tin tin of Ecuador (Cool.

Yet another similar creature appears in the folklore of rural Peru and Chile. The chonchon is a vampire-type monster; and it is truly bizarre, even for a legendary creature. It is said that after a person's death, the head will sometimes sprout enormous ears and lift off from the shoulders. This flying head is the Chonchon; its sound, as recorded by Jorge Luis Borges, was like tui-tui-tui (9). Could the legends of the Chonchon have sprung from the same source as the Camazotz legends?

But what exactly was the basis for the Camazotz legend? Most archaeologists believe that the monster was based on the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), a bat traditionally associated with bloodletting and sacrifice (10). Another suspect is the false vampire bat (Vampyrum spectrum), due to its large size and habit of attacking prey around the head or neck (11).

One of the most prominent and commonly mentioned features of the Camazotz is "a nose the shape of a flint knife" (12), which could be an exaggerated interpretation of the nose-leaf possessed by members of the Phyllostomidae, or leaf-nosed bats. The vampire bat is a relative or member of this group; thus we are once more forced to look at D. rotundus, or its relatives, as suspects (13).

In 1988, a species of fossil bat related to Desmodus rotundus, but 25 percent larger, was described as D. draculae. It was described on the basis of two specimens from Monagas State, Venezuela. A third specimen from São Paulo State, Brazil, was described in a 1991 article by E. Trajano and M. de Vivo. The Brazilian specimen had not yet been dated when the article was written, but the two biologists suggest a "relatively recent age" for the skeleton. They refer to reports circulating among local natives of large bats which attack cattle and horses; these reports may suggest that the bat still lives (14). Its recent age and large range suggest that the bat could have co-existed with the Quiché, giving rise to the legends of the Camazotz. Trajano and de Vivo also speculate that D. draculae may have fed on larger prey than did normal-sized vampire bats (15); possibly even humans?

Several other stories supporting the idea of a large bat-like creature have come out of Latin America in the last century. A 1947 report of a creature presumed to have been a living pterosaur may in fact have been of a large bat. J. Harrison saw five "birds" with a wingspan of about 12 feet. Harrison's birds were brown, featherless, and beaked (16).

The next report of a bat-like monster from the area is a story told by a Brazilian couple, the Reals. One night in the early 1950s, they were walking through a forest outside of Pelotas, Brazil, when they saw two large "birds" in a tree, both of which alighted on the ground (17). Although reported as winged humanoids, the proximity of the sighting area to the Ribeira Valley, where the Brazilian specimen of D. draculae was found, forces one to wonder whether the Reals' "birds" were actually bats.

In March, 1975, a series of animal mutilations swept the countryside near the Puerto Rican town of Moca, and during the incident a man named Juan Muñiz Feliciano claimed that he was attacked by a large, gray-feathered creature. These bird-like creatures were seen numerous times during the outbreak (18).

These reports didn't gain real notoriety until the mid-1970s, when a number of sightings of large birds or bats surfaced in Rio Grande Valley, Texas. The first report came from the town of San Benito, where three people reputedly encounters with a bald-headed creature (19). But rumors had long circulated among the Mexican inhabitants of the town about a large bird-like creature, believed to make tch-tch-tch sounds (20).

On New Year's Day, 1976, two girls near Harlingen watched a large, birdlike creature with a "gorilla-like" face, a bald head, and a short beak. The next day, a number of three-toed tracks were found in the field where the creature had stood (21). On January 14, Armando Grimaldo said he was attacked by the creature at Raymondville. He said it was black, with a monkey's face and large eyes (22). Further reports surfaced from Laredo and Olmito, with a final sighting reported from Eagle Pass on January 21 (23).

The reports cited above, as well as countless others which await careful researchers, support a conclusion that a mysterious winged creature exists in the deserts and jungles of Mesoamerica. The prominence of the bat in Latin American mythology and the discovery of the recently-extinct Desmodus draculae in South America point to the possible identity of the creature as a large, as-of-yet unknown bat, rather than a living pterosaur, as is generally supposed.
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MessaggioOggetto: pipistrelli   Mar 13 Apr 2010 - 19:23

Admin ha scritto:
Tila se ti interessa mi è venuto in mente di una leggenda di pipistrelli giganti nelle leggende Maya, si chiamavano Camazoz.


Secondo me dovremo proprio metterla l'area con i miti e leggende... e poi ho rubacchiato (per modo di dire...ho preso in prestito) un libro sulle leggende orientali...


e chi dorme stanotte...


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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Pipistrello: transizione e iniziazione   Mer 14 Apr 2010 - 11:05

Questa sarebbe la presunta foto del Desmodus Draculae, che ad oggi viene considerata estinta ma per alcuni in alcuni luoghi remoti del mondo ancora viva e vegeta



FONTE immagine: http://www.esencia21.com/imagenes/01_MEDIA_CRIPTO/26_MURCIELAGOS/cryptid-bat-2003-brazil.jpg

The giant vampire bat (Desmodus draculae) was a species of vampire bat that inhabited the Americas during the Pleistocene. It was 30% larger than the Common Vampire Bat.




Desmodus Draculae

Scheda classificazione

Scientific Name: Desmodus draculae
Species Authority: Morgan, Linares & Ray, 1988
Common Name/s: English – Giant Vampire Bat

Taxonomic Notes: This species is extinct and known only from fossil evidence.

Justification:
Known only from fossil and sub-fossil material at various sites in Central and South America. As some of the material was not fossilised, it is suggested that this species persisted into modern times, hence it is included on the IUCN Red List as an Extinct species, although the date and reason for its extinction are unknown.


Range Description: The bones of this species were discovered in a cave in northern Venezuela (Monagas) in 1988 and more recently in southeastern Brazil (Trajan and de Vivo 1991). Remains have been reported from other countries in the region, so it seems to have had a wider distribution than initially thought. The other countries are not recorded in the list below, but may include the Guinas, Colombia and Ecuador. The remains were not mineralized and found in association with living species, thus the extinction is presumed to be recent.
Countries: Regionally extinct:
Brazil; Venezuela


Ultima modifica di Admin il Gio 9 Dic 2010 - 17:56, modificato 1 volta
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Pipistrello: transizione e iniziazione   Sab 7 Ago 2010 - 6:24

Altre curiosità sul pipistrello...

FONTE: Animali e spiritualità. La convivenza con l'uomo. Sacrifici rituali e miti. Spiriti e simboli animali di Saunders Nicholas J. Ed. EDT

In quanto animale notturno e abitatnte dei luoghi oscuri, il pipistrello è stato spesso considerato nemico della luce e pertanto alleato o incarnazione di spiriti maligni. Essendo poi dotato di un corpo da topo ma capace di eseguire acrobazie aeree simili a quelli degli uccelli, è stato presentato come una creatura ibrida capace di trasformazioni soprannaturali.

Se il pipistrello nel Vecchio Testamento era un essere abominevole, nel Nuovo fu definito l'"uccello del Diavolo". I cristiani lo vedevano infatti come l'incarnazione di Satana e il compagno fedele delle streghe.

I contadini tedeschi erano soliti inchiodare i pipistrelli alle porte delle case per spaventare il Diavolo, forse con l'intenzione di mostrargli il trattamento che avrebbe ricevuto qualora fosse apparso di persona.

Nelle tradizioni del Centro America, il pipistrello era un divoratore mitico del sole.

Non meno forte era la visione che ne avevano gli Aztechi, i quali pensavano che Mictlantecuhtli, il signore del mondo sotterraneo, fosse circondato da moltitudini di pipistrelli che portavano in bocca teste umane.

Tali associazioni sinistre non erano universali. Tanto la Grecia classica quanto alcune culture africane ersero il pipistrello a simbolo della vigilanza, attribuendo la sua capacità di orientarsi nell'oscurità a una vista acuta anziché al suo eccezionale udito.

Omero lo associava all'anima umana e lo stesso facevano alcuni popoli africani e sudamericani.

In Cina era consuetudine accompagnare i doni da un bigliettino raffigurante un paio di pipistrelli: poiché il termine fu (pipistrello) significa anche "buona fortuna".

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Maschile Capra
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Pipistrello: transizione e iniziazione   Ven 21 Gen 2011 - 14:38



http://cheezdailysquee.files.wordpress.com/2011/01/5fad3138-0ff9-40c3-85a8-fd7ad6a78145.jpg



Ecco alcune foto molto carine su questo animale tanto mal conosciuto.
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Pipistrello: transizione e iniziazione   Gio 22 Set 2011 - 16:35

Admin, oggi ho trovato una curiosità su un particolare pipistrello che è famoso, pensa, per essere il mammifero (insieme al mustiolo etrusco) più piccolo esistente.

Riporto le schede di wikipedia, ma prima il link dell'articolo del sito di National Geographic, c'è anche una foto pucciosa Very Happy

http://www.nationalgeographic.it/natura/2011/09/16/news/qual_il_mammifero_pi_piccolo_del_mondo_sapevatelo_su_natgeo_italia-495971/

Buona lettura!

FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Craseonycteris_thonglongyai

Craseonycteris thonglongyai
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Il Pipistrello calabrone (o pipistrello farfalla) (Craseonycteris thonglongyai, Hill 1974) è un pipistrello della famiglia dei Craseonycteridae, è l'unica specie di questa famiglia.

Tassonomia

L'analisi genetica pone questa famiglia nella superfamiglia dei Rhinopomatoidea. All'interno di questo gruppo, le famiglie più vicine ai Craseonycteridae sono Hipposideridae e Rhinopomatidae.

Descrizione

Dimensioni

È considerato, insieme al mustiolo etrusco, il più piccolo mammifero esistente, pesando solo circa 2 grammi. La lunghezza complessiva del corpo e della testa è di 29-33 mm, la lunghezza dell'avambraccio è di 22-26 mm ed è privo di coda.

Morfologia

La caratteristica distintiva di questa specie è il muso che ricorda quello dei maiali, con le narici a forma di mezzaluna. Ha orecchie relativamente grandi e piccoli occhi normalmente nascosti dal pelo. Altra caratteristica è la totale assenza di coda, nonostante la presenza di due vertebre caudali, e la presenza di una larga membrana interfemorale, che, insieme alle ali relativamente larghe, permettono a questo pipistrello di librarsi come un colibrì.

Colore

Il Craseonycteris thonglongyai ha il pelo della parte superiore color bruno-rossastro o grigio, più pallido nella parte inferiore. Le ali e la membrana interfemorale sono invece più scure.

Biologia

Il Craseonycteris thonglongyai vive in colonie, ma ogni individuo di una colonia è solitario. Gli individui di un gruppo dormono appesi vicini tra loro ma non attaccati l'uno all'altro.

È attivo principalmente al crepuscolo, quando vola intorno alle cime dei bambù e degli alberi di teak.

È un pipistrello insettivoro, la sua dieta comprende i Ditteri (per l'80%) e gli Imenotteri e più raramente gli Psocopteri.

Distribuzione e habitat

Questo piccolo chirottero è tipico delle foreste decidue umide vicino a caverne.

Vive solamente in una piccola area presso il fiume Kwai nel Sai Yok National Park e in zone vicine in Thailandia, nella provincia Kanchanaburi. Ma ci sono stati avvistamenti anche del sud-est della Birmania.

Si stima che rimangano circa 2000 pipistrelli in Thailandia, e probabilmente altrettanti in Birmania.

Status e conservazione

La Zoological Society of London, in base a criteri di unicità evolutiva e di esiguità della popolazione, considera Craseonycteris thonglongyai una delle 100 specie di mammiferi a maggiore rischio di estinzione.

Bibliografia

(EN) Craseonycteris thonglongyai sul sito del progetto EDGE (Evolutionary Distinct and Globally Endangered) - Zoological Society of London
(EN) Hill, J. E. A new family, genus and species of Bat (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from Thailand. Bulletin of British Museum (Natural History), Zoology, 27: 301-336.[1]


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kitti%27s_Hog-nosed_Bat

Kitti's Hog-nosed Bat
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kitti's Hog-nosed Bat (Craseonycteris thonglongyai), also known as the bumblebee bat, is a vulnerable species of bat and the only extant member of the family Craseonycteridae. It occurs in western Thailand and southeast Burma, where it occupies limestone caves along rivers.

Kitti's Hog-nosed Bat is the smallest species of bat and arguably the world's smallest mammal. It has a reddish-brown or grey coat, with a distinctive pig-like snout. Colonies range greatly in size, with an average of 100 individuals per cave. The bat feeds during short activity periods in the evening and dawn, foraging around nearby forest areas for insects. Females give birth annually to a single offspring.

Although the bat's status in Burma is not well known, the Thai population is restricted to a single province and may be at risk for extinction. Its potential threats are primarily anthropogenic, and include habitat degradation and the disturbance of roosting sites.[1]

Description

Kitti's Hog-nosed Bat is about 29 to 33 mm (1.1 to 1.3 in) in length and 2 g (0.071 oz) in mass,[2] hence the common name of "bumblebee bat". It is the smallest species of bat and may be the world's smallest mammal, depending on how size is defined. The main competitors for the title are small shrews; in particular, the Etruscan shrew may be lighter at 1.2 to 2.7 g (0.042 to 0.095 oz) but is longer, measuring 36 to 53 mm (1.4 to 2.1 in) from its head to the base of the tail.[3]

The bat has a distinctive swollen, pig-like snout[2] with thin, vertical nostrils.[4] Its ears are relatively large, while its eyes are small and mostly concealed by fur.[5] Its teeth are typical of an insectivorous bat.[5] The dental formula is 1:1:1:3 in the upper jaw and 2:1:2:3 in the lower jaw,[4] with large upper incisors.[5]

The bat's upperparts are reddish-brown or grey, while the underside is generally paler.[5] The wings are relatively large and darker in colour, with long tips that allow the bat to hover.[2] Despite having two caudal vertebrae, Kitti's Hog-nosed Bat has no visible tail.[5] There is a large web of skin between the hind legs (the uropatagium) which may assist in flying and catching insects, although there are no tail bones or calcars to help control it in flight.[2][5][6]

Range and distribution

Kitti's Hog-nosed Bat occupies the limestone caves along rivers, within dry evergreen or deciduous forests.[2] In Thailand, Kitti's Hog-nosed Bat is restricted to a small region of Kanchanaburi Province, within the drainage basin of the Khwae Noi River.[2][7] While the Sai Yok National Park contains much of the bat's range, some Thai populations occur outside the park and are therefore unprotected.[2]

Since the 2001 discovery of a single individual in Burma, at least nine separate sites have been identified in the limestone outcrops outside the Thanlwin, Ataran, and Gyaing Rivers of Kayin and Mon States.[7] The Thai and Burmese populations are morphologically identical, but their echolocation calls are distinct.[7] It is not known whether the two populations are reproductively isolated.[7]

Behavior

Kitti's Hog-nosed Bat roosts in the caves of limestone hills, far from the entrance. While many caves contain only 10 to 15 individuals, the average group size is 100, with a maximum of about 500. Individuals roost high on walls or roof domes, far apart from each other.[8] Bats also undertake seasonal migration between caves.[8]

Kitti's Hog-nosed Bat has a brief activity period, leaving its roost for only 30 minutes in the evening and 20 minutes at dawn. These short flights are easily interrupted by heavy rain or cold temperatures.[8] During this period, the bat forages within fields of cassava and kapok or around the tops of bamboo clumps and teak trees, within one kilometre of the roosting site.[2][8] The wings seem to be shaped for hovering flight, and the gut contents of specimens include spiders and insects that are presumably gleaned off foliage. Nevertheless, most prey is probably caught in flight.[8] Main staples of the bat's diet include small flies (Chloropidae, Agromyzidae, and Anthomyiidae), hymenopterans, and psocopterans.[8]

Late in the dry season (around April) of each year, females give birth to a single offspring. During feeding periods, the young either stays in the roost or remains attached to the mother at one of her two vestigial pubic nipples.[5][8]

Taxonomy

Kitti's Hog-nosed Bat is the only extant species in the family Craseonycteridae, which is grouped in the superfamily Rhinolophoidea as a result of molecular testing. Based on this determination, the bat's closest relatives are members of the families Hipposideridae and Rhinopomatidae.[4]

Kitti's Hog-nosed Bat was unknown to the world at large prior to 1974. Its common name refers to its discoverer, Thai zoologist Kitti Thonglongya. Thonglongya worked with a British partner, John E. Hill, in classifying bats of Thailand; after Thonglongya died suddenly in February 1974, Hill formally described the species, giving it the binomial name Craseonycteris thonglongyai in honour of his colleague.[9][10]

Conservation

As of the species' most recent review in 2008, Kitti's Hog-nosed Bat is listed by the IUCN as vulnerable, with a downward population trend.[1]

Soon after the bat's discovery in the 1970s, some roosting sites became disturbed as a result of tourism, scientific collection, and even the collection and sale of individuals as souvenirs. However, these pressures may not have had a significant effect on the species as a whole, since many small colonies exist in hard-to-access locations, and only a few major caves were disturbed. Another potential risk is the activity of local monks, who have occupied roost caves during periods of meditation.[8]

Currently, the most significant and long-term threat to the Thai population could be the annual burning of forest areas, which is most prevalent during the bat's breeding season. In addition, the proposed construction of a pipeline from Burma to Thailand may have a negative impact.[8] Threats to the Burmese population are not well known.[2]

In 2007, Kitti's Hog-nosed Bat was identified by the Evolutionarily Distinct and Globally Endangered (EDGE) project as one of its Top 10 "focal species".[11]

References

^ a b c Bates, P., Bumrungsri, S. & Francis, C. (2008). Craseonycteris thonglongyai. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 28 January 2009. Listed as Vulnerable
^ a b c d e f g h i "Bumblebee bat (Craseonycteris thonglongyai)". EDGE Species. Retrieved 2008-04-10.
^ "Mammal record breakers: The smallest!". The Mammal Society. Archived from the original on July 13, 2007. Retrieved 2008-04-10.
^ a b c Hulva & Horáček (2002). "Craseonycteris thonglongyai (Chiroptera: Craseonycteridae) is a rhinolophoid: molecular evidence from cytochrome b". Acta Chiropterologica 4 (2): 107–120.
^ a b c d e f g Goswami, A. 1999. Craseonycteris thonglongyai, Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved on 11 April 2008.
^ Meyers, P. 1997. Bat Wings and Tails, Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved on 12 April 2008.
^ a b c d MJR Pereira et al., Maria João Ramos; Rebelo, Hugo; Teeling, Emma C.; O'Brien, Stephen J.; MacKie, Iain; Bu, Si Si Hla; Swe, Khin Maung; Khin, Mie Mie et al. (2006-10). "Status of the world’s smallest mammal, the bumble-bee bat Craseonycteris thonglongyai, in Myanmar". Oryx 40 (4): 456–463. doi:10.1017/S0030605306001268.
^ a b c d e f g h i Hutson, A. M., Mickleburgh, S. P. and Racey, P. A. (Compilers). 2001. Microchiropteran Bats: Global Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Chiroptera Specialist Group. IUCN: Gland, Switzerland.
^ J. E. Hill and Susan E. Smith (1981-12-03). "Craseonycteris thonglongyai". Mammalian Species 160: 1–4.
^ Schlitter, Duane A. (1975-02). "Kitti Thonglongya, 1928-1974". Journal of Mammalogy 56 (1): 279–280.
^ "Protection for 'weirdest' species". BBC. 2007-01-16. Retrieved 2007-05-22.
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Pipistrello: transizione e iniziazione   Ven 23 Set 2011 - 7:49

Admin aggiungo altri documenti sulla sua simbologia. Buona lettura!

FONTE: http://animalitotem.wordpress.com/

Pipistrello (Ialtag): Associato con il viaggio nel regno degli spiriti vi conduce ad affrontare le vostre ombre interiori per rinascere a nuova vita; grazie al suo radar il pipistrello aiuta a evitare gli ostacoli e le barriere, fisiche e spirituali.



Molto interessante è questo articolo in particolare, dove scopriremo oltre a varie curiosità anche il simbolismo per i nativi americani.

FONTE: http://www.whats-your-sign.com/animal-symbolism-bat.html

Bat Animal Symbolism

Let's face it, the bat isn't the most popular of animal totems. In fact, it's largely misunderstood and so therefore many of its symbolic meanings are inappropriately fear-based.

However, the very savvy Native Americans approached the realm of animals from a position of honor - knowing that all things are connected. They understood that seeing the bat with fear in the heart would be the same as being terrified of their own children. Ridiculous.

The Native American animal symbolism of the bat comes from a keen observation of this magnificent animal. These people recognized that the bat was highly sensitive to their surroundings and so therefore was considered a symbol of intuition, dreaming and vision. This made the bat a powerful symbol for Native American shamans and medicine people. Often the spirit of the bat would be invoked when special energy was needed, like "night-sight" which is the ability to see through illusion or ambiguity and dive straight to the truth of matters.

It is a symbol of communication because the Native Americans observed the bat to be a highly social creature. Indeed, the bat has strong family ties. They are very nurturing, exhibiting verbal communication, touching, and sensitivity to members of their group.

Here is a quick-list of bat animal symbolism:

Illusion
Rebirth
Dreams
Intuition
Initiation
Journeying
Inner Depth
Communication

The bat is a symbol of rebirth and depth because it is a creature that lives in the belly of the Mother (Earth). From the womb-like caves it emerges every evening at dusk. And so - from the womb it is reborn every evening.

If you have the bat as your totem you are extremely aware of your surroundings. Sometimes you can be overly sensitive to the feelings of others. Additionally, you are quite perceptive on a psychic level, and are prone to have prophetic dreams.

If you work with the bat as your totem, you will be put to the test, because it is demands only 100% commitment to spiritual growth. The bat will never accept half-hearted or lukewarm attempts at self-improvement. Indeed, if the bat senses that you are slacking in your psychic/spiritual training it will likely move on to someone else who is more willing to learn the lessons the bat has to offer.

As with most of our hardest challenges, working with the demanding bat will reap some of the most profound rewards you could ever dream of. But be warned, the bat asks a lot of us, like:

Dying to our ego
Loving our enemies as ourselves
Going within to touch our inner demons
Exploring the underworlds of reality (which can be scary)
Renewing our thoughts and beliefs on a moment-to-moment basis

All of these tasks can be harrowing experiences. This is why the Native American symbolism of the bat deals with initiation; because this creature takes us to outlandish extremes. But rest assured, the bat is never leaves our side while we are journeying.

Furthermore, once we are tested to satisfaction, the devotion of the bat will never fade. It will eternally support us on our spiritual path - ever faithful and forever loving us on our journey to maintain our highest potential.

You can begin your journey with the bat by viewing the excellent 4.11 minute video from the Cave Biota evolving "webumentary." Narrated by Dr. John O. Whitaker, video by Ravenswood Media. Informative and enriching for anyone marveled by the bat:




Quando un pipistrello si presenta nella nostra vita è ora di cambiare, di iniziare una nuova vita.
E' arrivata l'ora di affrontare l'oscurità che vi si presenta davanti per ritrovare la luce della rinascita.

FONTE: http://www.linsdomain.com/totems/pages/bat.htm

BAT

Dark night flyer, lift me higher
Realms of life where loved ones go,
That I might find joy mind to mind,
My heart hurt less. I miss them so.
Teach me that death can hurt much less
If I accept it as no end,
But see it true, just another view
Of life continuing round a bend.

Transition, Rebirth

A Bat totem appearing in your life
is a call for the end of a way of life and the beginning of another.

You must face your greatest fears
and get rid of the part of your life that no longer is needed.
This transition is very frightening for many:
"better the devil you know..."
But you will not grow spiritually until the old parts are gone.

Face the darkness before you and you will find the light in rebirth.

All images are public domain.

Some of the information on this webpage was derived from the following sources:
Sans, Jamie & Carson, David. Medicine Cards: the Discovery of Power Through the Way of Animals. Santa Fe, NM. 1988. Print.
Andrews, Ted. Animal-speak: the Spiritual & Magical Powers of Creatures Great & Small. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 1993. Print.
Andrews, Ted. Animal-Wise: the Spirit Language and Signs of Nature. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 1999. Print.
D. J. Conway. Animal Magick: the Art of Recognizing & Working with Familiars. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 2003. Print.
Farmer, Steven D. Animal Spirit Guides. Hayhouse Inc., 2006. Print.
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Pipistrello: transizione e iniziazione   Ven 30 Set 2011 - 9:12

Admin riporto altri articoli sulle leggende e i miti legati al pipistrello.

Buona lettura!


FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camazotz

Camazotz
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Il camazotz è un vampiro della mitologia maya, più precisamente una divinità dalle sembianze di pipistrello dei Quiche del Guatemala. La sua iconografia principale è un pipistrello con un coltello sacrificale in una mano e la sua vittima dall'altra parte.

Il suo nome compare ovunque nella mitologia dell’America latina. La leggenda narra che sia stata la sua sete di sangue a causare il declino della civiltà Maya. Quanto più il suo culto si diffondeva, tanto più venivano richiesti sacrifici umani e i suoi vampiri si nutrivano della popolazione. Tant’è che infine non rimasero più abbastanza persone per nutrire tutte quelle bestiacce e soddisfare la sete di sangue di quella terrificante divinità.




FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahool

Ahool
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The ahool is a flying cryptid, supposedly a giant bat,[citation needed] or by other accounts, a living pterosaur or flying primate.[citation needed] Such a creature is unknown to science and there is no objective evidence that it exists as claimed.

Details

Like many cryptids, it is not well documented, and little reliable information - and in this case, no material evidence - exists. Named for its distinctive call A-hool (other sources render it ahOOOooool), it is said to live in the deepest rainforests of Java. It is described as having a monkey/ape-like head with large dark eyes, large claws on its forearms (approximately the size of an infant), and a body covered in gray fur. Possibly the most intriguing and astounding feature is that it is said to have a wingspan of 3 m (10 ft). This is almost twice as long as the largest (known) bat in the world, the common flying fox.

According to Loren Coleman and Jerome Clark[1], it was first described by Dr. Ernest Bartels. [2] Bartels published regular accounts of his work down there --> while exploring the Salak Mountains on the island of Java.

One speculation on its existence by the cryptozoologist Ivan T. Sanderson is that it might be a relative of Kongamato in Africa[citation needed]. Others have suggested it were a living fossil pterosaur, on account of its supposedly leathery wings[citation needed]. As is known today, most pterosaurs seem to have had wings that were covered with a downy fluff to prevent heat loss; this may or may not have been necessary in a tropical environment depending on these animals' metabolism. On the other hand, there might be an entirely mundane explanation:

Two large earless owls exist on Java, the Spotted Wood-owl (Strix seloputo) and the Javan Wood-owl (Strix (leptogrammica) bartelsi[3]). They are intermediate in size between the Spotted Owl of North America or the Tawny Owl of Eurasia, and an eagle owl (horned owl), being 40–50 cm (16–20 in) long and with a wingspan of perhaps 1.20 meters (4 ft). Despite this discrepancy, wingspans are usually overestimated[verification needed]in flying animals not held in hand (see also Thunderbird), especially by frightened observers.

Size nonwithstanding, the Javan or Bartels's Wood-owl seems an especially promising candidate to resolve the ahool enigma[4]: it has a conspicuous flat "face" with large dark eyes exaggerated by black rings of feathers and a beak that protrudes but little, and it appears greyish-brown when seen from below. Its call is characteristic, a single shout, given intermittently, and sounding like HOOOH![5]. Like most large owls, it is highly territorial in breeding season and will frighten away intruders by mock attacks from above and behind. Its flight, being an owl, is nearly completely silent, so that the victim of such sweeps usually becomes aware of the owl when it is homes in snarling and with outstretched talons (held at "breast" height to the observer), and would just have time to duck away. The Javan Wood-owl is a decidedly rare and elusive bird not often observed even by ornithologists[6], and hides during day. It is found in remote montane forest at altitudes of probably around 1,000-1,500 meters, and does not tolerate well human encroachment, logging and other disturbances.

From its appearance and behavior, the Javan Wood-owl matches the characteristics of the ahool surprisingly well, despite the cryptid at first glance giving the impression of a mammal. Observer error due to the circumstances of being dive-bombed in a remote gloomy forest by a fierce snarling and clawing bird may well account for the apparent discrepancies. Notwithstanding, the wood-owls of Java are not generally mentioned in cryptozoological discussions of the ahool, and most authors of cryptozoologial works seem to be entirely unaware of the birds' existence. Be that as it may, it is not resolved how well the owls are known to locals, especially the local name - if any - and whether they are present in locations of ahool reports would seem to be highly relevant. It is also possible[verification needed] that the cry and the flying animal are not identical; even the local population is sometimes unaware which jungle animal makes which vocalization (see for example Satanic Eared-nightjar).

Speculative Depictions

In Peter Jackson's book, The World of Kong: A Natural History of Skull Island, a species of flying Voluceriictid Rat called the Howler, Allegerattus bombus, is very similar in appearance and description as the Ahool.

Footnotes

^ Coleman & Clark (1999), page 26.
^ http://www.unknownexplorers.com/ahool.php
^ Named in honor of M.E.G. Bartels, the father of Ernest
^ Description details from Holt et al. (1999)
^ Bats, including megabats, are either silent to the human ear or produce high-pitched shrieks; if threatened they may also snarl. The known bats are physically incapable to produce the loud calls ascribed to the ahool
^ For example, though it can be reasonably well conjectured from its relatives little actual field data exists at which altitudes they are found (Holt et al. 1999).


References

Coleman, Loren & Clark, Jerome (1999): Cryptozoology A to Z: the encyclopedia of loch monsters, Sasquatch, Chupacabaras, and other authentic mysteries of nature. Fireside, New York. ISBN 0-684-85602-6
Holt, Denver W., Berkley, Regan; Deppe, Caroline; Enríquez Rocha, Paula L.; Olsen, Penny D.; Petersen, Julie L.; Rangel Salazar, José Luis; Segars, Kelley P. & Wood, Kristin L. (1999): Family Strigidae (typical owls). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A. & Sargatal, J. (eds): Handbook of Birds of the World, Volume 5: Barn-owls to Hummingbirds: 76-242, plates 4-20. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ISBN 84-87334-25-3
Shuker, Karl (2003): The Beasts That Hide From Man. Paraview, New York.ISBN 1-931044-64-3



FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olitiau

Olitiau
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An Olitiau (also known as the Death Bat or Night Flyer) is a gigantic humanoid cryptid bat (or flying reptile) hypothesized to exist in Central Africa. The word, Olitiau likely comes from a fusion of the Ipulo words “Ole” and “Ntya”, a name for ceremonial dance masks used to represent demons.

Description

Olitiau are said to have 6–12 ft (2–4 m) wingspans. Their body is allegedly black, though their wings have been described as either dark brown or red. Their lower jaws are said to contain 2-inch (50 mm) long, serrated teeth with equal spacing between each tooth.

Claimed Sightings

While hunting Hammer-headed fruit bats in southern Cameroon, Ivan T. Sanderson claimed that an Olitiau swooped down on him and his hunting companion, Gerald Russel along a mountain stream in 1932. He called it "the granddaddy of all bats".[citation needed]

Possibilities

Hammer-headed fruit bats have the largest wingspan of any bat in Africa: up to 3 ft (1 m). It is possible that a large Hammer-headed fruit bat, when viewed close up for an instant, can appear larger.
Yellow-winged bats has the largest wingspan of any insectivorous bat in Africa. Although it is only up to 16 inches (40 cm), the scenario mentioned earlier could play a part in explaining size and the serrated teeth of an Olitiau. Yellow-winged bats are known for their yellow, sometimes orange, wings. Sighting a bat with orange wings is not far from the red wings Olitiau are reported to have.[original research?]
An unknown large bat species - Karl Shuker followed Sanderson in suggesting the animal may belong to the suborder Microchiroptera.
There is also the possibility that a member of one of the larger species of bats could experience abnormal growth, becoming larger than average size.
A surviving Pterosaur. Although Ivan Sanderson insisted that what he saw was a bat there is some evidence to suggest that pterosaurs had hair or hairlike structures, though there is no evidence that any were still alive in the Paleogene, let alone today.


Popular culture

The Sanderson incident is often used as an example of a Kongamato sighting.
The olitiau was the subject of Lost Tapes, described as "Cave Demons". It was shown as a giant bat. Curiously, it is described as coming from the Tora Bora caves in Afghanistan, rather than Cameroon.
It also appeared in the video game The Secret Saturdays: Beasts of the 5th Sun as an ally.


References

George M. Eberhart. Mysterious Creatures: A Guide to Cryptozoology. Volume Two N-Z Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2002. Pp. 405-406.
Ivan T. Sanderson. Animal Treasure. New York: Viking, 1937. Pp. 300-301.
Ivan T. Sanderson. Investigating the Unexplained. Englewood cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1972. Pp. 39-44.
Bernard Heuvelmans. Les Derniers Dragons d’Afrique. Paris: Plon, 1978. Pp. 436-445.
Karl Shuker. The Beasts That Hide From Man. New York: Paraview, 2003. Pp. 84-107. ISBN 1-931044-64-3

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