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 Il Drago: animale mistico

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MessaggioOggetto: Il Drago: animale mistico   Mer 14 Apr 2010 - 16:26

Oggi vi parlo di un simpatico totem Very Happy

Nei documenti che sono riuscita a trovare vedremo insieme alcune curiosità e parte della ricca simbologia che riguarda il drago...

Buona lettura!



FONTE IMMAGINE: http://banelligustavo.splinder.com/post/17588483/Un+grande+nemico+del+cuore%3A+l%27avarizia


FONTE:
http://cittadiluce.forumattivo.eu/draghi-fiabe-e-creature-magiche-f17/il-drago-come-animale-totem-t79.htm

IL DRAGO
Simbolismo
I draghi sono creature mitico - leggendarie, presenti nell’immaginario come esseri sia malefici sia benefici. La presenza del drago in moltissime culture, fa supporre che la sua immagine emerga dall’inconscio collettivo, che conserva la memoria degli animali preistorici. In oriente il drago era una vera e propri divinità, tanto che il trono dell’imperatore cinese era detto il Trono del Drago, e la sua faccia il Volto del Drago. Le credenze cinesi affermano anche che alla morte di un imperatore, esso volasse in cielo sotto forma di drago, e che quando un drago si alza in volo la pressione delle zampe sulle nuvole provoca la pioggia. Secondo la mitologia le uova di drago si schiudevano dopo cinquecento anni, mentre, per diventare adulto impiegava ventimila anni. Al contrario dell’oriente, per l’iconografia cristiana il drago rappresenta il Diavolo e deriva da un drago babilonese, chiamato Tiamat, di sesso femminile. Nel Libro di Giobbe, è citato il Leviatano, leggendario drago marino. La leggenda più nota è quella di San Giorgio, patrono dell’Inghilterra, che a seconda delle versioni uccide il drago, liberando una fanciulla. Per i Celti invece il drago era l’animale più forte, più sacro, il simbolo del comando e della figura del leader. Pendragon è la parola celtica per indicare il capo. Simbolo di protezione e ricchezza il drago non è un mostro da superare, ma il supremo guardiano del tesoro. Nella psicologia junghiana il drago rappresenta l’ombra, la parte oscura di noi stessi che dobbiamo conoscere e integrare; alla fine, l’unico vero nemico siamo solo noi stessi.
Il drago come animale totem
Se ti piacciono i draghi, significa che sei attratto dalla magia e dal soprannaturale. Hai molta energia psichica e sei saggio e profondo. Potresti essere un catalizzatore di energie spirituali di cambiamento e trasformazione, per te stesso e per gli altri. A volte puoi sorprendere gli altri per la tua capacità intrinseca di affrontare prove o cambiamenti che sembrano impossibili. Al momento opportuno, puoi diventare un feroce protettore delle tue cause e dei tuoi diritti. Esistono quattro differenti tipi di draghi:

Drago di fuoco : trasmutazione, maestria, energia
Questo potente totem porta vitalità, entusiasmo e coraggio. Aiuta a superare gli ostacoli
e conferisce qualità di leadership e di padronanza.
Può accendere la scintilla dell’entusiasmo e della passione per dare vita a nuovi progetti.


Drago d’aria : ispirazione, intuizione, benessere
Questo totem deve essere trattato con grande rispetto. Legato alla psiche e all’intelletto, favorisce gli eventi sincronici, sviluppa la consapevolezza e porta lampi di genio e di illuminazione. Il drago d’aria risveglia l’intuizione e aiuta a risolvere i problemi, portando chiarezza. Ascolta tua voce interiore.


Drago di terra : forza, potenziale, ricchezza
Questo totem rivela il nostro potenziale, la nostra ricchezza e mette in luce i nostri talenti. Con il suo aiuto, possiamo scoprire la bellezza e la forza, che si trovano dentro di noi. Vive nel profondo della Terra e ci aiuta a canalizzare le energie per produrre risultati concreti. Quando lo si invoca, occorre visualizzarlo lento e pesante, che si muove verso di noi per portarci l’abbondanza di madre terra.


Drago d’acqua: passione, profondità, emozione
Un drago d’acqua porta alla luce emozioni, ricordi e desideri, dimenticati o rimossi. Aiuta a lavorare sulle emozioni irrisolte e offre sostegno per affrontare dolorose esperienze del passato. Questo totem può aiutarci a raggiungere un senso di pace e di equilibrio nella nostra vita. Aiuta a perdonare, ritrovando la compassione e il coraggio di lasciar andare il passato.



FONTE: http://italian.cri.cn/chinaabc/chapter14/chapter140504.htm

Perchè i cinesi sono chiamati “discedenti del drago”?
 
I cinesi sono chiamati “discedenti del drago”, il che ha origine dai totem e dalle leggende dell’ antichità.

Secondo una leggenda, prima dell’unificazione della parte centrale della Cina da parte dell’imperatore Giallo, il totem utilizzato era l’orso. Sconfitto Chiyou e unificata la parte centrale della Cina, per pacificare le tribù sottomesse, l’imperatore Giallo rinunciò al totem dell’orso ed utilizzò un nuovo totem, ossia il drago, composto dalla testa del vecchio totem, l’orso, e dal corpo di un altro totem, il serpente. In realtà il totem del drago è un’integrazione delle figure dei totem delle tribù paterna e materna dell’imperatore Giallo. La formazione della figura speciale del drago riflette la storia dello sviluppo della nazione cinese e il processo di integrazione delle varie etnie.

Da allora in poi la figura del drago, che simboleggia la nazione cinese, apparve in diverse forme, originando gradualmente il carattere scritto. Si può trovare il carattere drago negli antichi scritti su corazze di tartaruga e su ossa rinvenuti nei siti Yin-Shang, mentre motivi di drago emergono dagli antichi frammenti di terracotta. Poco tempo fa nel sito di Chahai, a Fuxin, nella provincia del Liaoning, gli archeologi hanno trovato due frammenti di terracotta con motivi di drago, uno con un drago volante e l’ altro con un drago a riposo, dalla figura vivace, mentre emergono le venature delle scaglie

Il drago è diventato il totem degli antenati cinesi e la nazione cinese si è così collegata al drago. Di conseguenza nacquero le leggende della “nascita per commozione del cielo”, secondo cui l’imperatore Yan sarebbe nato da una donna chiamata Deng che aveva commosso il divino drago celeste, l’imperatore Giallo sarebbe nato da Fubao, che commosse Beidou (l’Orsa maggiore), mentre l’imperatore Yao sarebbe nato da Qing, che commosse Chilong, ossia il “drago rosso”. Gli antenati della nazione cinese sono i figli del drago del cielo, per cui i figli della nazione cinese sono tutti discedenti del drago.


FONTE: http://animalitotem.wordpress.com/

Drago (Piastras (payshtha), Horm): Il drago nella mitologia celtica-britannica è talvolta rappresentato come un serpente d’acqua. Ci sono molti riferimenti a draghi o serpenti nei miti celtici. In molte occasioni i guerrieri Fianna hanno combattuto enormi draghi. La maggior parte delle culture ha considerato il drago come una creatura benevola che abita le grotte, i laghi, e il centro della terra. Antico simbolo di ricchezza il drago simboleggiava il potere degli elementi, in particolare, quello della Terra, ma anche il tesoro del subconscio. Appare quando è necessaria un’iniziazione.



FONTE: http://banelligustavo.splinder.com/post/17588483/Un+grande+nemico+del+cuore%3A+l%27avarizia

Un grande nemico del cuore: l'avarizia
I grandi maestri taoisti oltre a fattori fisici, alimentari, emozionali, che possono danneggiare il cuore hanno individuato in un ''drago '' un potente nemico che si nutre di energia fuoco e che, posizionandosi nel meridiano cuore, indebolisce e piega alla sua volontà l'energia dell' individuo .
La parola drago potrebbe essere tradotta con demone e nel caso in questione corrisponde a quella sorta di parassita spirituale che in occidente è stata chiamata AVARIZIA e vista come uno dei 7 vizi capitali della tradizione cristiana. Il vizio viene perciò visto come un agente esterno alla persona, capace di attaccarla e danneggiarla fino a procurare vere e proprie patologie che possono portare anche ad una morte precoce. L' infarto cardiaco per esempio, veniva visto come la vittoria finale del demone, che portando la persona a divenire schiava dei propri attaccamenti materiali, impediva all' energia fuoco di nutrire il cuore. E un cuore non più nutrito arrivava alla morte. Naturalmente è impossibile fare delle statistiche su mortalità cardiaca e avarizia, secondo i canoni occidentali, ma resta comunque il fatto che tra le persone indicate come più a rischio di patologie cardiache anche da noi si annoverino i manager, i business-man, e tutti quei ''mangiatori di mondo'' che trascurano di curare il loro cuore. La cura in questa ottica sarebbe rappresentata dalla virtù corrispondente e cioè dalla generosità, dall' amore, da quella apertura del cuore che sbloccherebbe la propria energia. Così aprirsi a gesti di amore disinteressato provocherebbe un beneficio agli altri,ma soprattutto a noi e al nostro cuore.



FONTE IMMAGINE: http://ventudnd4ed.blogspot.com/2008/08/11-quarto-giorno-esplorazione-della.html


Ultima modifica di Tila il Mar 28 Dic 2010 - 16:00, modificato 1 volta
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MessaggioOggetto: re: drago   Mer 14 Apr 2010 - 16:48

Ancora qualche curiosità...sicuramente presa da qualche gioco di ruolo e farcita con qualche stralcio della mitologia legata al drago...


FONTE: http://figliedellaluna.forumcommunity.net/?t=847006

La storia dei Draghi

L’origine dei draghi, così come tutte le storie a loro collegate, si perde nei meandri della storia dell’Uomo: infatti compaiono nelle leggende di popoli del passato, sia europei che orientali, ma la loro concezione è notevolmente differente.
Infatti, mentre nelle zone occidentali i draghi erano considerati l’incarnazione del male, portatori di distruzione e morte, in Oriente erano visti come potenti creature benefiche.
Ciò che li accomuna sono solamente le caratteristiche fisiche primarie: tranne alcuni casi, dove assumono delle forme tanto bizzarre quanto spaventose, i draghi sono sempre stati descritti come delle creature simili a enormi serpenti, con piccoli arti anteriori e posteriori, dotati di fauci enormi e artigli taglienti.
Normalmente venivano descritti con il corpo pieno di squame protettive e capaci nella maggior parte dei casi di sputare fuoco e di volare grazie a grandi e potenti ali.
Nelle leggende, i draghi sono visti come creature prodigiose: infatti si riteneva che i denti, così come il loro sangue, potessero avere elevate proprietà curative.
Il loro sviluppo poteva durare molti secoli prima di raggiungere la piena maturità.
Infatti, si narrava che un uovo di drago impiegasse non meno di un secolo per schiudersi; inoltre solamente dopo altri 500 anni il loro corpo iniziava a subire le prime mutazioni, che da esseri simili a grandi serpenti li portava ad assumere un aspetto più particolare, con la nascita delle zampe che solo dopo altre centinaia di anni potranno raggiungere la loro grandezza definitiva, e degli artigli.
Solamente dopo altri 500 anni, infine, il drago raggiungerà il suo massimo sviluppo con la crescita sulla testa di lunghe corna ramificate.
Naturalmente, grazie alla loro grande longevità, queste creature, che è estremamente riduttivo chiamare semplicemente “animali”, acquisivano una conoscenza e una saggezza senza pari.



Concezione occidentale dei Draghi

Come detto in precedenza, la figura del drago nelle zone occidentali era sinonimo di carestia, distruzione e morte.

In Europa i draghi erano simbolo di lotta, di violenza e di guerra: infatti la loro immagine veniva spesso utilizzata come araldo in battaglia; sono innumerevoli le storie e le leggende legate ai draghi, la maggior parte delle quali risalenti al medioevo.
Moltissime sono le fonti storiche ed i manoscritti che testimoniano la presenza de "la bestia per eccellenza" nel vecchio continente, nei Bestiarii ad esempio, ci sono descrizioni dettagliate sull'aspetto e sulle abitudini dei draghi, i quali erano soliti usare come tana, grotte in cima a montagne o in territori molto impervi da dove uscivano molto raramente; è anche noto che al solo ruggito del drago, tutti gli animali, compresi i leoni, correvano terrorizzati nelle loro tane. Secondo la tradizione occidentale, l'estinzione dei draghi, risale proprio al medioevo dove, cavalieri erranti, avventurieri in cerca di gloria e cacciatori di draghi dedicavano la loro vita alla lotta contro queste bestie, decretandone lo sterminio. E' molto celebre la storia di San Giorgio che uccise il drago simbolo di oppressione e terrore.

Un esempio sono i Romani, che dipingevano sui loro stendardi i Dracones; oppure i Vichinghi che chiamavano le loro imbarcazioni Drakkar, tutti nomi che indicavano la figura del drago.
Si arriverà poi al periodo successivo dove molti Dei e eroi inizieranno a cacciare i draghi, uccidendone la maggior parte e causandone l’estinzione.

In Mesopotamia è famosa la storia di due entità considerate principi dell’universo: Apsu, lo spirito dell’acqua e del vuoto, e Tiamat, un drago femmina il cui corpo derivava dall’unione dei sette diversi animali: aveva, secondo la leggenda, denti del leone, ali da pipistrello, fauci da coccodrillo, zampe di lucertola, artigli dell’aquila, corpo di serpente e corna di toro. Sempre secondo la leggenda, dall’unione di Apsu e Tiamat nacquero gli Dei, ma nel momento in cui uno di questi uccise Apsu, Tiamat generò una stirpe di mostri. Allora Gli dei scelsero un eroe, Marduk, che ingaggiò una grandissima battaglia con Tiamat e lo uccise, ma dal suo corpo martoriato vennero creati tutti gli esseri umani.

Riscontriamo la presenza di leggende sui draghi anche in Egitto, dove Ra, il Dio del Sole, affrontava ogni giorno negli inferi insieme a Seth il drago Apopi, che era a capo dell’esercito del Caos. Alla fine Seth e Ra riuscivano sempre a sconfiggere ed uccidere Apopi, distruggendone il corpo che però il giorno dopo si rigenerava e riprendeva la battaglia.

Anche in Grecia troviamo la storia di Tifone, un drago dalle 100 teste sputa-fuoco. Questo venne affrontato addirittura da Zeus, il Padre degli Dei, che lo sconfisse, lo scaraventò in fondo al Mar Ionio e lo sotterrò con un’isola: quell’isola era la Sicilia e nel punto in cui giaceva il corpo di Tifone sorse il vulcano Etna…


Concezione orientale dei Draghi

A differenza dei loro “cugini” occidentali, i draghi d’Oriente erano creature esistenti fin dalla creazione del mondo, ma pacifiche e amici dell’uomo: in Cina, per esempio, il Drago, insieme con la Tartaruga, l’Unicorno e la Fenice, rappresentava uno dei 4 spiriti benevoli!!
Inoltre, a sottolineare lo stretto rapporto esistente tra questi e il genere umano, vi sono molte leggende che narrano di grande e valorosi uomini divenuti dragoni
I draghi si dividevano in diverse categorie:

· Draghi celesti: di colore simile ad un verde molto chiaro, erano a guardia del cielo ed erano gli unici ad avere 5 artigli per zampa;
· Draghi spirituali: di colore azzurro, erano i più venerati in quanto guardiani del vento, delle nuvole e dell’acqua, e quindi da loro dipendeva il raccolto dei contadini;
· Draghi terrestri: di colore verde smeraldo, erano i guardiani dei corsi d’acqua, regolandone il flusso e vivendo nelle profondità dei fiumi;
· Draghi sotterranei: di colore dorato, erano i custodi di grandi ed immensi tesori e dispensatori di felicità eterna;
· Draghi rossi e Draghi neri: creature violente e bellicose, che si scontravano continuamente nell’aria causando con la loro energia violente tempeste.


Molti furono gli studiosi, che in ogni epoca cercavano di tracciare mappe dei vari avvistamenti oppure di studiare l’origine e lo sviluppo della stirpe dei Draghi: il risultato che ne scaturisce è una vera e propria gerarchia dei draghi.
Questa comprendeva:

· I Dragongods, cioè i Primogeniti;
· I Demigods Dragons, cioè i Secondogeniti;
· Gli Ancient Dragons, cioè i Terzogeniti;
· I Grandi Wyrm, cioè i Quartogeniti;
· I Venerabili, cioè i Quintogeniti;
· I Draghi anziani, cioè i Sestogeniti;
· I Draghi maturi, cioè i Settimogeniti;
· I Draghi giovani, cioè oli Ottavogeniti;
· I Nuovi nati, cioè i Nonogeniti;
· I Dragonet, Pseudodragons, Faerie Dragons, cioè gli Ultimogeniti;
· I Serventi.


I Dragongods, o Primogeniti, sono i draghi originari, che non presentano ancora nessuna suddivisione in sottorazze: ogni Dragongod è unico nel suo genere. Sono talmente potenti e maestosi nella loro grandezza che possono generare pazzia e talvolta morte immediata solo con la loro figura in uomini dall’animo debole. Sono praticamente immortali, ma sarebbe comunque possibile sconfiggerli e imprigionarli, anche se però sia la battaglia che il sigillo per dovrebbero essere talmente potenti che solamente gli Dei potrebbero farlo. Si ritiene che questi draghi siano talmente antiche da aver visto il primo sorgere del sole.
L’unico Dragongod che si conosce è Harsgalt.

I Demigods Dragons, o Secondogeniti, sono i più antichi draghi mortali. La loro stirpe è priva si sottorazze, anche se si iniziano ad intravedere delle caratteristiche comuni ai draghiformi, cioè Draghi, Viverne e Idre. Anche se mortali nessun essere umano può riuscire a sconfiggere un demigod dragon con le sue sole forze
L’unico secondogenito conosciuto è Shadewing

Gli Ancient Dragons, o Terzogeniti, presentano una completa divisione in razze. Solitamente intorno a questa stirpe sono nate tutte le leggende. Vivono costantemente rintanati nel loro rifugio, da dove ne escono solamente per servire una loro grande causa.

I Grandi Wyrm, o Quartogeniti, Sono stati spesso ed erroneamente ritenuti come i più potenti tra i draghi esistenti, ma in realtà lo sono limitatamente a quelli comuni. Ma la loro forza e potenza è immensa: si dice che se un grande Wyrm rappresentasse un serio pericolo per un regno, i vari regnanti potrebbero sperare di batterlo solamente organizzandosi come se dovessero intraprendere una vera e propria guerra.

I Venerabili, o Quintogeniti, sono i draghi leggendari responsabili della fine di numerosi regni. Nonostante la loro forza sia immensamente inferiore alle stirpi precedenti, questo tipo di drago sarebbe un ostacolo insormontabile anche per l’eroe più indomito e coraggioso.

I Draghi anziani, o Sestogeniti, sono la classica stirpe narrata nelle storie e nelle leggende: sono coloro che terrorizzano i villaggi e devastano le città. Contro di loro si cimentano tutti gli avventurieri desiderosi di passare alla storia, essendo molto più abbordabili dei draghi delle stirpi precedenti: sono infatti il bersagli dei vari Dragon Slayers, cioè gli Sterminatori di Draghi.

I Draghi maturi, o Settimogeniti, sono i normali draghi adulti, bersaglio degli apprendisti Dragon Stayer.

I Draghi giovani, o gli Ottavogeniti, sono quelli che non hanno raggiunto ancora i 100 anni di età, e per questo sono relativamente deboli e alla portata di qualsiasi avventuriero di medio livello.

I Nuovi nati, o Nonogeniti, sono i cuccioli di drago, che non hanno ancora imparato a usare le loro armi di difesa basilari, come il soffio per i draghi o il veleno per le viverne. Non superano i 20 anni di vita.

I Dragonet, Pseudodragons, Faerie Dragons, cioè gli Ultimogeniti, sono le ultime sottorazze dei draghi, molto più piccoli di loro.

I Serventi sono un tipo di drago molto speciale, dove la forza non dipende dall’età. Sono infatti creati da un drago più potente. Posso arrivare ad avere fino a tre generazioni, dove però ogni drago sarà meno potente di quello che lo ha creato ma più potente di quello che creerà a sua volta.
I Serventi conosciuti sono Wein, Goldark, Teiris, Mikhal, Gongos, Leon, Reinhart, Junon.


Ultima modifica di Tila il Mar 28 Dic 2010 - 16:03, modificato 1 volta
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il Drago: animale mistico   Mer 14 Apr 2010 - 17:23

A me sta stosria odora piu di gioco di ruolo che di ricerca storica o iconografica.

In ogni caso se vuoi sapere il tuo nome draconico ill link generator è

http://rumandmonkey.com/widgets/toys/namegen/3267/


Ultima modifica di Admin il Lun 20 Set 2010 - 10:26, modificato 1 volta
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: drago   Mer 14 Apr 2010 - 17:30

Admin ha scritto:
A me sta stosria odora piu di gioco di ruolo che di ricerca storica o iconografica.

In ogni caso se vuoi sapere il tuo nome draconico ill link generator è

http://rumandmonkey.com/widgets/toys/namegen/3267/


vabbè se non giochiamo un po'... Very Happy

Si anche a me dava l'idea di gioco di ruolo ma qualche notizia corrisponde al vero...tipo i vari colori e i loro significati perciò l'avevo inserito...anche il gioco di ruolo può far parte del nostro inventario collettivo.


Ultima modifica di Tila il Ven 21 Gen 2011 - 11:02, modificato 2 volte
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: drago   Mar 20 Apr 2010 - 16:58

Grazie a wikipedia possiamo beneficiare di questo documento... consiglio come sempre la visione anche alla fonte originale...

Buona lettura

FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drago


Drago
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

« Un drago non è una fantasia oziosa. Quali che possano essere le sue origini, nella realtà o nell'invenzione, nella leggenda il drago è una potente creazione dell'immaginazione, più ricca di significato che il suo tumulo d'oro. »

(John Ronald Reuel Tolkien)

Il drago è una creatura mitico-leggendaria dai tratti solitamente serpentini o comunque affini ai rettili, ed è presente nell'immaginario collettivo di tutte le culture, in quelle occidentali come essere malefico portatore di morte e distruzione, in quella orientale come creatura portatrice di fortuna e bontà. Il termine deriva dal latino draco (nominativo), draconem (accusativo), a sua volta proveniente dal greco δράϰων (drakon), con l'omologo significato di serpente. L'etimologia del termine è stata spesso discussa: connesso col verbo δέρϰεσθαι (dèrkesthai) "guardare", probabilmente in connessione ai poteri legati allo sguardo di queste bestie o alla loro presunta vista acutissima.[1]

Fra gli animali realmente esistenti, a volte vengono chiamati "draghi" le specie appartenenti al genere Varanus, come il varano di Komodo.
Indice
[nascondi]

* 1 I draghi nella cultura antica
* 2 Caratteristiche peculiari
o 2.1 Famiglie di draghi
o 2.2 Tipologie di draghi
* 3 Draghi dal mondo
* 4 Cultura moderna e contemporanea
o 4.1 I "Dragonkin"
* 5 Note
* 6 Voci correlate
* 7 Altri progetti
* 8 Collegamenti esterni

I draghi nella cultura antica [modifica]

Presso gli antichi Greci e, a seguire, presso i Romani, acquisirono questo nome tutte le specie di serpenti grossi ed innocui che potevano anche essere tenuti come animali domestici. Già con Omero si cita un "drago", un animale fantastico con una vista acuta, l'agilità di un'aquila e la forza di un leone, rappresentato come un serpente con zampe e ali[2], mentre Filostrato, nel 217 a.C., dissertava al riguardo di queste bestie ne La vita di Apollonio di Tiana (II, 17 e III, 6-Cool. L'animale è già presente nella mitologia greca in vari miti, come in quello del drago Ladone, padre delle Esperidi, ucciso da Eracle e posto nel firmamento nella costellazione del Draco[3], o del drago Pitone ucciso da Apollo.

Ampie trattazioni sul drago sono presenti anche in opere di scrittori Romani come Plinio[4], nella sua Historia Naturalis, Gaio Giulio Solino[5] e Pomponio Mela.

Nella favola di Fedro La volpe e il drago[6], il mitologico animale appare per la prima volta come guardiano di tesori nascosti.

In Cina, i draghi sono da tempo immemorabile, assieme alla fenice, simbolo della famiglia imperiale. Il drago è divenuto quindi una creatura mitico-leggendaria presente nell'immaginario collettivo di molte culture, sia come essere malefico (il drago nella Bibbia simboleggia il male supremo, il diavolo) ma anche come guardiano e difensore di antichi tesori e luoghi magici e portatore di grandissimo sapere e conoscenza. Inoltre, non è infondato pensare che queste fantasie possano essere state alimentate dal ritrovamento di fossili di dinosauro, per l'epoca impossibili da spiegare altrimenti: per esempio, già nel 300 a.C., un misterioso fossile ritrovato a Wucheng, Sichuan, in Cina, è stato etichettato come fossile di drago da un tale Chang Qu[7].
Caratteristiche peculiari [modifica]

Quando parliamo di un animale frutto della fantasia umana, può sembrare inutile trattare degli attributi fisici e delle qualità di queste creature; sta di fatto, però, che data la vastissima diffusione di questi rettili alati all'interno delle culture di tutto il mondo, è possibile catalogare e registrare differenti specie, ognuna solitamente caratterizzata da tratti distintivi ricorrenti. In linea di massima possiamo intanto affermare che tipicamente il drago è visto come una creatura appartenente alla classe dei rettili, ha sangue freddo, è carnivoro e depone le uova (ovviamente esistono eccezioni). È possibile, a grandi linee, fornire due grandi metodi di distinzione per classificare questi animali fantastici: per classi (o famiglie) o per tipologie (o specie). Poiché i due metodi di raggruppamento non sono perfettamente sovrapponibili, è necessario esaminarli separatamente.
Famiglie di draghi [modifica]

Se un drago possiede grandi ali e non ha le zampe, è un Anfither. L'Anfither vive nell'America del Sud ed è anche chiamato Serpente piumato, perchè è appunto ricoperto da piume. Il drago che ha invece due gambe ma niente ali si chiama Lindorm o Lindworm. Sono draghi che solitamente vengono rappresentati sugli stemmi araldici.

I draghi con ali e due zampe si chiamano Viverne: anche questi sono animali araldici ed compaiono in molti dipinti del Medioevo e del Rinascimento.

I draghi che possiedono quattro zampe e due ali sono definiti generalmente come draghi occidentali, mentre i draghi con quattro zampe ma senza ali sono indicati col nome di draghi orientali.

Ricordando il mito di Ercole, i draghi con più teste vengono comunemente definiti col nome di Idre.

Un drago senza né ali né zampe (oppure con due zampe) ma con due teste è chiamato Anfisbena.[8]

Infine il knucker, un drago d'acqua dagli arti piccoli, che striscia non potendo volare per via delle ali troppo corte.
Tipologie di draghi [modifica]

Prima di approfondire le varie apparizioni di queste creature magiche nei vari Paesi, è opportuno fornire una prima distinzione generale sulle principali specie, per avere un'idea di quali sono le somiglianze ma anche le differenze dei draghi nelle culture di tutto il mondo. Il seguente elenco è ricco, ma comunque non totalmente esaustivo - la maggior parte delle informazioni qui presenti derivano principalmente da una rielaborazione di svariati testi più o meno dettagliati ed attendibili sull'argomento.[8][9][10]

L'Amphitere Messicano è un dragone tipico delle zone dell'America Latina e del Messico. Si tratta di un enorme drago senza zampe e dalle ali piumate che veniva venerato dalle antiche popolazioni del continente americano, che gli elargivano doni e sacrifici dai tetti dei templi. Possiede inoltre una vista acutissima ed un soffio infuocato letale.


Il Drago Asiatico è il tipico dragone orientale, dal corpo lungo serpentiforme, ricoperto da peluria e da squame, senza ali ma comunque capace di volare - anche se si dice che questi draghi possono farsi crescere delle ali se vivono abbastanza a lungo. Ha il muso da coccodrillo, il corpo da serpente, la criniera e gli artigli da leone; tipicamente possiede sul muso dei lunghi baffi filiformi e una cresta che lo percorre in tutta la sua lunghezza, lungo la schiena.

La Coccatrice, creatura simile ad un brutto pollo, è a tutti gli effetti un drago. Diretta discendente del Basilisco, il serpente di appena 30 cm è caratterizzato da una macchia a forma di corona sulla testa, è nato dalla testa di Medusa decapitata e possiede un alito venefico in grado di trasformare i boschi in deserti. Dalla testa e le zampe di galletto e dal corpo squamoso, dotato di ali membranose, la Coccatrice rientra a tutti gli effetti nella famiglia delle Viverne. Una Coccatrice nasce quando un uovo deposto da un pollo di sette anni viene covato per altri nove da un rospo o da un serpente.

Il Drago d'India si divide principalmente in due sotto-specie: il drago di palude ed il drago di montagna. Entrambe le tipologie hanno le stesse caratteristiche fisiche, cioè due zampe e due ali, il corpo gigantesco e squamoso, una coda potentissima ed una gemma piantata nella fronte, ma mentre il primo è più lento e di colore nero, il secondo è più agile e socievole, con squame dorate ed una criniera color rosso fuoco. Le uova sono grandi e dure, di color grigio elefante. Nella prima religione Vedica, Vritra (dal Sanscrito: वृत्र (Devanāgarī) o Vṛtra (IAST)) “l'avviluppatore” era un Asura (un tipo di divinità combattivo ed assetato di potere) ed anche un "naga" o possibilmente una creatura simile ad un drago, personificazione della siccità e nemico di Indra. Vṛtra è tra l'altro conosciuto nei Veda come Ahi (serpente) e si diceva avere tre teste. Nella mitologia persiana, invece, era credenza che i draghi appena nati avessero il colore degli occhi della madre. Aži Dahāka è all'origine del moderno termine persiano azhdahā o ezhdehā اژدها (Medio Persiano Azdahāg) col significato di "drago", spesso per indicare un drago sopra i vessilli di guerra. Nel linguaggio Medio Persiano viene chiamato Dahāg o Bēvar-Asp, dove l'ultima parola significa "[colui che ha] 10000 cavalli." Molti altri draghi e creature simili a draghi, tutti malvagi, sono menzionati nelle scritture di Zoroastro (Vedi Zahhāk).

Il Dragone, gigantesca bestia serpentiforme dalla lingua triforcuta, era già famosa nella Grecia antica per la sua infinita saggezza, e spesso si diceva parlasse per bocca degli oracoli. Il mito della fondazione di Tebe contiene svariati dragoni: il dragone Pitone viveva presso una sorgente sul Parnaso, finché Apollo non lo trafisse con le sue frecce e trasformò il santuario della bestia nella sede dell'Oracolo di Delfi. L'Oracolo indicò a Cadmo dove fondare la propria città, e questi, incamminatosi presso il luogo indicatogli dall'Oracolo, si ritrovò presso una sorgente custodita da un Dragone. Sconfitta la creatura, la dea Atena disse a Cadmo di seminare i denti della bestia, e questi si tramutarono in guerrieri che iniziarono a combattersi a morte. I sopravvissuti aiutarono Cadmo a costruire Tebe. In seguito Atena diede alcuni denti del drago anche a Giasone per aiutarlo nella sua impresa alla ricerca del Vello d'Oro, sottratto ad un Dragone addormentato. Queste creature non hanno arti né ali, sono di solito giganteschi, e come i serpenti si avvolgono in spire. Le uova sono oblunghe e dorate.


Il Drago di Giaffa, mostro marino dall'aspetto simile a quello di una balena crestata e dalla lunga coda, è stato sconfitto a colpi di spada da Perseo di ritorno verso casa con gli stivali alati, mentre il drago avanzava per divorare la propria vittima sacrificale, Andromeda, legata ad uno scoglio. A poche miglia di distanza invece si trova la tomba di San Giorgio, santo patrono inglese. I crociati che combattevano a Giaffa sostenevano che il giovane aveva domato con la lancia un drago di palude (imparentato con quello di Giaffa ma "anfibio"), salvando la ragazza vittima sacrificale del mostro, che poi fu condotto in città dove gli abitanti lo uccisero. In Italia, il santo più noto per aver ucciso un drago, tanto da venir spesso rappresentato in tale atto, è San Mercuriale, primo vescovo e patrono della città e diocesi di Forlì. Altri santi alla cui figura è accostato il simbolo del drago sono, oltre a Giorgio ed all'arcangelo Michele, San Filippo, San Silvestro, Santa Marta (vedi più in basso alla sezione Tarasco), Santa Margherita, Santa Giustina ed i santi Giulio e Giuliano, il cui drago risiedeva nelle terre del lago d'Orta. L'esegesi di tali miti sembra univocamente interpretare il drago come rappresentazione di zone paludose e malsane, mentre i vari santi vittoriosi su di esso non furono altro che accorti personaggi che guidarono la bonifica dei vari territori teatro della leggenda.

Il Drago multiteste è, come suggerisce il nome, un drago con più teste serpentine attaccate allo stesso tronco. Il loro numero è variabile, ma di solito è di sette o nove. I primi nacquero dall'unione tra il multiteste Tifone e la donna-serpente Echidna. I figli dei due furono Chimera, dalla testa di leone e dal corpo di serpente-capra, Cerbero il cane a tre teste e l'Idra di Lerna, rettile con molte teste che verrà poi ucciso da Ercole, il quale sconfisse anche Ladone dalle cento teste e Scilla, dai tentacoli di piovra.


Alla stessa razza appartiene il Grande Drago Rosso dell'Apocalisse dalle sette teste coronate e dalle 10 corna, cacciato dal cielo dall'arcangelo Michele ed i suoi angeli. Esistono differenti versioni del modo in cui questi draghi si riproducono: alcuni affermano che depongano uova, altri invece che, come fanno ad esempio le stelle marine, perdano volutamente una delle loro teste dalle quali svilupperà autonomamente un altro drago – al contrario invece tagliare una testa di questa creatura ne fa sviluppare al suo posto altre due. Per quanto riguarda gli arti, questo drago presenta quattro zampe e spesso un paio di ali.

Il Mushussu, rappresentato sulla porta di Ishtar a Babilonia, è conosciuto anche col nome di Sirrush ed era il guardiano e compagno degli dei. Questo drago dall'aspetto peculiare, alto quanto un cavallo, dal collo massiccio, con zampe anteriori da leone e posteriori da aquila, risale all'origine dei tempi, quando era compagno ideale di molti dei ed era sacro al dio Marduk che sconfisse Tiamat generando dal suo corpo il cielo e la terra. Nabucodonosor in onore al dio Marduk fece rappresentare il Mushussu sulle porte già citate e lungo la Strada Sacra. Il Mushussu è sempre stato visto come un drago docile e buono, dato il suo nobile lignaggio.


Il primo a parlare del Piasa fu il prete francese Jacques Marquette. Lungo il Mississippi, nel 1673, a lui ed al suo compagno Louis Joliet, capitò di scorgere due figure grottesche su degli scogli, descrivendole in seguito come bestie “grandi come un vitello, con corna di cervo, occhi rossi, una barba da tigre ed una spaventosa espressione. La faccia sembra quella di un uomo, il corpo è coperto di squame; la coda è così lunga da circondare tutto il corpo, passando sopra la testa e tra le gambe e termina come quella di un pesce”. Una tribù di Indiani Algonchini chiamò il mostro Piasa, “l'uccello che divora gli uomini”. Pitture rupestri del mostro furono rinvenute ad Althon, nell'Illinois.

Di tutta altra natura è invece il Serpente Arcobaleno, gigantesca serpe multicolore con creste sfarzose lungo tutto il corpo. Già seimila anni fa gli aborigeni australiani lo dipinsero come una bestia gigantesca che, strisciando sul terreno, creò monti, valli e fiumi. Aido Hwedo, invece, modellò l'Africa occidentale. Fu la prima creatura del dio Mawu ed ancora oggi secondo le tradizioni locali resta attorcigliata sul fondo dell'oceano a sorreggere il mondo. Un'altra leggenda vuole che un giorno, nel Tempo dei Sogni, un pescatore disturbò un Serpente Arcobaleno dormiente e che questi, adirato, causò il grande diluvio che sommerse la terra e distrusse villaggi. Le loro uova sono iridescenti ed a forma di goccia.

La Salamandra assomiglia alla sua omonima controparte reale: piccola, a quattro zampe, di forma simile ad un geco, nasconde però una saliva letale ed è invulnerabile alle fiamme. Si dice che il suo corpo sia così gelido che se si rotola nel fuoco, riesca perfino a spegnerlo. Le Salamandre inoltre producono un materiale peculiare, simile all'amianto per le proprietà ignifughe, chiamato “lana di Salamandra”. Le salamandre, a causa della loro saliva schiumosa altamente velenosa, possono portare la distruzione ad interi villaggi, avvelenando i frutti degli alberi su cui salgono o cadendo nelle pozze di acqua potabile rendendola venefica. Sono solite realizzare i loro nidi nel fuoco.
Serpente di mare, illustrazione dell'Historia de Gentibus Septentrionalibus

I Draghi marini o Serpenti marini sono creature senza arti né ali che vivono in acqua, come si può evincere dal nome. Nuotano tenendo la testa crestata alta, e varie spire emergono dai flutti dietro di essi. Uno dei più famosi è quello riportato sulla mappa della Scandinavia di Olaus Magnus nel 1539: lungo 60 metri, si avvolge attorno ad una nave con un marinaio nelle fauci. Tali mostri marini sono stati avvistati sia nei mari del Nord che nell'Atlantico, ma anche nei laghi scozzesi ed in altre parti del globo.

Il Drago occidentale è forse il più noto e diffuso, tant'è che è probabilmente la prima immagine che ci viene alla mente sentendo la parola drago. Questo tipo di drago infatti è quanto di più classico ci possiamo aspettare: corna puntute, quattro zampe, ali membranose, aspetto da “lucertolone” e squame e scaglie su tutto il corpo, nonché l'innata capacità di sputare fuoco: questo grazie a delle ghiandole nella mascella inferiore che secernono fosforo. Quando il drago contrae queste ghiandole e spalanca la bocca, il fosforo si incendia a contatto con l'aria e la saliva emettendo la tipica fiamma. In modo simile l'insetto bombardiere può spruzzare getti bollenti sui propri predatori in natura.
Statua di Tarrasco.

Ogni anno a Tarascona, in Francia, si celebra la vittoria degli antenati sul mostruoso Tarasco portando per le vie della città una bandiera con raffigurata la bestia. L'anfibio Tarasco, grande quanto un grosso bue, ha la testa di leone ed un corpo corazzato rigido e coperto da spuntoni, sovrastante il corpo squamoso. Ha sei zampe simili a quelle dell'orso e la coda di serpente. Il Tarasco ha come antenati il Leviatano, un mostro marino gigantesco citato nell'Antico Testamento (nel libro di Giobbe) e nell'Apocalisse, ed il Bonaso, una creatura bovina che uccideva grazie ai suoi escrementi di fuoco. Portatore di grossi danni, il Tarasco scatenò la rabbia dei villaggio che invocò l'aiuto di Santa Marta. Questa si recò nel bosco e trovò il Tarrasco alle prese con la sua ennesima vittima, lo asperse con l'acqua santa, lo legò con la cintura e lo portò in città dove gli abitanti uccisero il mostro, e cambiarono il nome del paese da Nerluc a Tarascona per ricordare l'evento.

Fafnir, il drago tedesco che custodiva l'Anello dei Nibelunghi, e che Sigfrido, nella saga dei Volsunghi, uccise e mangiandone il cuore per poter capire il linguaggio degli uccelli, era a tutti gli effetti un Verme (Wurm o Wyrm). Sempre nella mitologia nordica è possibile trovare altri di questi dragoni: Niðhöggr che cerca di distruggere il mondo rosicchiando le radici dell'albero Yggdrasill. Altro mostro serpentiforme è Miðgarðsormr, figlio di Loki e della gigantessa Angrboða, gettato da Odino nell'oceano. Miðgarðsormr è talmente grande da riuscire a circondare tutta la terra e a mordersi la coda da solo. Abbocca all'amo di Thor, mentre quest'ultimo è a pesca; dopo una cruenta lotta il dio riesce a mettere in fuga il mostro. Jormungand è predestinato ad uccidere ed a essere ucciso da Thor al momento del Ragnarök. Uno dei draghi della letteratura tradizionale germanico-norrena che maggiormente descrive lo stereotipo successivamente accolto dall'immaginario popolare e dal fantasy è quello del poema anglosassone Beowulf: si tratta di una serpe alata, che sputa fiamme e custodisce un antico tesoro. Altra caratteristica del drago nella mitologia norrena è la sua capacità linguistica. Esso è in grado di parlare tutte le lingue, di cui si serve per mentire ed ingannare. Questi draghi, mastodontici lucertoloni solitamente senza ali e dai corpi allungati e sinuosi, sono la versione britannica del drago Occidentale: hanno squame dure come l'acciaio, denti affilatissimi e come i cugini possono sputare fuoco. Un altro Verme famoso fu quello che affrontò Beowulf ormai vecchio, morendo assieme a lui. Il Verme di Lambton e il Drago di Wantley furono entrambi uccisi da cavalieri, e la collina di WormHill [11] prende proprio il nome dal Verme di Lambton. Re Artù adottò questa razza come suo stemma, ed i Vermi diventarono simbolo araldico dei re britannici.


Ultima modifica di Tila il Mar 28 Dic 2010 - 16:05, modificato 1 volta
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Drago   Mar 20 Apr 2010 - 17:05

Vi invito anche a leggere la nostra area dedicata alla mitologia norrena ...


FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/F%C3%A1fnir

Fáfnir a guardia del tesoro, illustrazione di Arthur Rackham per l'opera Sigfrido di Richard Wagner.

Fáfnir

Fáfnir (o Fáfner, lett: "il serpe che avvince", o [colui che] abbraccia [il tesoro?] cfr l'etimologia fornita in "Snorri Sturluson, Edda, a cura di Gianna Chiesa Isnardi", edizioni TEA) è un personaggio ambiguo della mitologia norrena, talvolta descritto come un drago talvolta come un serpente. Figlio del re nano Hreidmar e fratello di Reginn e Otr, Fáfnir era un nano dotato di un potente braccio e uno spirito coraggioso, era il più forte e aggressivo dei tre fratelli. Dopo che Loki uccise per sbaglio Ótr, Hreidmar ricevette l'anello di Andvari dal dio per rimediare alla perdita del figlio. Fáfnir, saputo dell'anello magico, Andvaranautr, uccise il padre per impossessarsene, senza dividere l'oro del padre col fratello Reginn che aveva partecipato all'omicidio.

Trasformato in un drago dall'anello, viene ucciso da Sigfrido, figlio adottivo di Reginn, che bagnatosi del suo sangue diviene invulnerabile ed abbeveratosi dello stesso impara il linguaggio degli uccelli (secondo la mitologia norrena, infatti, i draghi sono in grado di parlare tutte le lingue, delle quali si servono per mentire ed ingannare).

Prima di morire Fáfinr ammonisce Sigfrido che l'anello sarà la sua rovina; naturalmente questi non lo ascolta.
Altro [modifica]

Fáfnir è anche il nome del drago di Paperino nella saga Wizards of Mickey.


Ultima modifica di Tila il Mar 28 Dic 2010 - 16:14, modificato 1 volta
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Maschile Capra
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il Drago: animale mistico   Mar 20 Apr 2010 - 17:26

Tila ha scritto:
FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/F%C3%A1fnir

Fáfnir a guardia del tesoro, illustrazione di Arthur Rackham per l'opera Sigfrido di Richard Wagner.

Fáfnir

Fáfnir (o Fáfner, lett: "il serpe che avvince", o [colui che] abbraccia [il tesoro?] cfr l'etimologia fornita in "Snorri Sturluson, Edda, a cura di Gianna Chiesa Isnardi", edizioni TEA) è un personaggio ambiguo della mitologia norrena, talvolta descritto come un drago talvolta come un serpente. Figlio del re nano Hreidmar e fratello di Reginn e Otr, Fáfnir era un nano dotato di un potente braccio e uno spirito coraggioso, era il più forte e aggressivo dei tre fratelli. Dopo che Loki uccise per sbaglio Ótr, Hreidmar ricevette l'anello di Andvari dal dio per rimediare alla perdita del figlio. Fáfnir, saputo dell'anello magico, Andvaranautr, uccise il padre per impossessarsene, senza dividere l'oro del padre col fratello Reginn che aveva partecipato all'omicidio.

Trasformato in un drago dall'anello, viene ucciso da Sigfrido, figlio adottivo di Reginn, che bagnatosi del suo sangue diviene invulnerabile ed abbeveratosi dello stesso impara il linguaggio degli uccelli (secondo la mitologia norrena, infatti, i draghi sono in grado di parlare tutte le lingue, delle quali si servono per mentire ed ingannare).

Prima di morire Fáfinr ammonisce Sigfrido che l'anello sarà la sua rovina; naturalmente questi non lo ascolta.
Altro [modifica]

Fáfnir è anche il nome del drago di Paperino nella saga Wizards of Mickey.

l'ultimo quote è molto interessante afro

mi ha colpito il fatto che in molti miti si dica che i draghi sappiano parlare tutte le lingue...e in fondo anche nella bibbia il serpente tentatore non sapeva parlare con gli umani?

Penso che simbolicamente dietro a questa caratteristica, cosi come il fatto di acquisire capacità particolari dopo aver vinto un drago in battaglia, esista una simbolica precisa, bisogna però contestualizzare l'analisi...si potrebbe dire che essendo il drago un simbolo delle nostre forze inconscie, il vincerlo e soggiogarlo significa divenire forti nella consapevolezza e incanalare il potere auto/distruttivo delle prorpie energie psichiche.

In fondo, a parte gli ultimi santi massacratori, molti cavalieri prima di san giorgio vincevano e soggiogavano il drago, non lo uccidevano affatto.

Ora, se esso fosse stato anche nella iconografia popolare solo il simbolo del maligno, perché lasciarlo in vita? Perché usarlo?

perchéSalomone avrebbe dovuto chiedere ai demoni di costruire il tempio sacro?

Forse perché dietro ai secoli di polvere e rimaneggiamenti simbolici, dietro queste figure il senso originario era un altro rispetto a quello letterale che di volta in volta diviene manifesto politico delle forme culturali dominanti?
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: drago mistico   Mar 20 Apr 2010 - 18:19

Admin ha scritto:

l'ultimo quote è molto interessante afro

mi ha colpito il fatto che in molti miti si dica che i draghi sappiano parlare tutte le lingue...e in fondo anche nella bibbia il serpente tentatore non sapeva parlare con gli umani?

Penso che simbolicamente dietro a questa caratteristica, cosi come il fatto di acquisire capacità particolari dopo aver vinto un drago in battaglia, esista una simbolica precisa, bisogna però contestualizzare l'analisi...si potrebbe dire che essendo il drago un simbolo delle nostre forze inconscie, il vincerlo e soggiogarlo significa divenire forti nella consapevolezza e incanalare il potere auto/distruttivo delle prorpie energie psichiche.

In fondo, a parte gli ultimi santi massacratori, molti cavalieri prima di san giorgio vincevano e soggiogavano il drago, non lo uccidevano affatto.

Ora, se esso fosse stato anche nella iconografia popolare solo il simbolo del maligno, perché lasciarlo in vita? Perché usarlo?

perchéSalomone avrebbe dovuto chiedere ai demoni di costruire il tempio sacro?

Forse perché dietro ai secoli di polvere e rimaneggiamenti simbolici, dietro queste figure il senso originario era un altro rispetto a quello letterale che di volta in volta diviene manifesto politico delle forme culturali dominanti?

Ciao Admin,
i grandi saggi draghi hanno molto da dirci, soprattutto se vengono in sogno.
L'aver sognato un drago è una cosa che, guarda caso, ho riscontrato in molte persone. Non è un caso che stia avvenendo così spesso negli ultimi decenni. Tutto sta ad ascoltarli.

Un abbraccio cherry


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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il Drago: animale mistico   Mar 14 Set 2010 - 16:48

Aggiungo alcune immagini molto belle di draghi dal web



FONTE: http://images2.alphacoders.com/415/41518.jpg




FONTE: http://www.wallpapers10.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/Fire_Dragon.jpg
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il Drago: animale mistico   Mar 14 Set 2010 - 19:42

Bellissime queste immagini, grazie Admin.

Mentre ci sono riporto ancora una notizia su questo mitico animale dai molti volti e dai molti significati....

Drago di fuoco : trasmutazione, maestria, energia

Drago d’aria : ispirazione, intuizione, benessere

Drago di terra : forza, potenziale, ricchezza

Drago d’acqua: passione, profondità, emozione

Buona lettura....


FONTE: http://www.linsdomain.com/totems/pages/dragon.htm



DRAGON


Protection, Elemental Magic
Powers of Change and Transformation



Dragon represents the supernatural,
infinity itself and the spiritual powers of change and transformation.
It is a fierce protector and adds extra power to any magic you may perform.


Fire Dragon
Transmutation, Mastery, Energy

This powerful totem brings vitality, enthusiasm and courage.
He will help you overcome obstacles
and give you qualities of leadership and mastery.
He can fuel your inner fires.
He can be a powerful protector.


Air Dragon
Inspiration, Insight, Vitality

This totem must be treated with great respect.
Great flashes of illumination in intellect and psyche
are possible with this totem.
The air dragon brings insight and clarity to all problems.
Trust your inner voice.


Earth Dragon
Power, Potential, Riches

This totem shows us our potential, our riches: what we are capable of.
With his help, we can discover the beauty and power that lies in all of us.
He lives deep within the Earth and can help you ground scattered energies.
When you call him, think of a slow moving, heavy Dragon pulling himself toward you.
Feel his weight around you. He will nurture you as Mother Earth does.


Water Dragon
Passion, Depth, Connection

A water dragon totem brings memories and wishes,
perhaps long hidden, to the surface.
By facing painful past experiences,
we can achieve a sense of peace and balance in our lives.
This totem gives us the courage and compassion
in this challenge.




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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il Drago: animale mistico   Ven 1 Ott 2010 - 16:11


Riporto ancora qualche stralcio da wikipedia....

FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drago

Draghi dal mondo

Drago cinese

Lóng (Loong, o Lung)
Il Drago cinese è una creatura mitologica cinese che appare anche in altre culture asiatiche. È spesso collegato con la famiglia imperiale ed è molto diffuso nel folklore e nell'arte locali.


Naga indiano
Nāga
Un drago serpentino comune a tutte le culture influenzate dall'Induismo. Ha spesso un cappuccio simile ai cobra e possono avere più teste a seconda del grado. Solitamente non hanno né braccia né gambe ma quelli articolati ricordano i draghi orientali.



Drago indonesiano/malese
Naga o Nogo
Derivato dal Naga indiano, il credo nel drago Indo-Malese si è diffuso in tutta la Malesia attraverso l'induismo. La parola naga è sempre il termine malese comune per draghi in generale. Come la controparte indiana, il naga è considerato come una creatura divina, benevolente, e spesso associato con montagne sacre, foreste e alcune parti del mare.


Drago giapponese

Ryū
Simili ai draghi cinesi ma con tre artigli invece di quattro. Sono solitamente buoni, associati all'elemento acqua e possono esaudire i desideri.


Drago Khmer

Neak
I draghi Khmer 'Neak' derivano dal nāga indiano. Come la loro controparte indiana, i neak spesso presentano caratteristiche riprese dal cobra. Possono avere fino a nove teste, con l'incrementare del rango. Un numero di teste dispari rappresenta la mascolinità mentre un numero di teste pari la femminilità. Tradizionalmente, un neak differisce dai solitamente serpentini Makar e Tao poiché il primo possiede tratti da coccodrillo ed il secondo tratti felini. Una principessa drago è la protagonista del mito della creazione in Cambogia.


Draghi coreani
Yong (Mireu)
Un drago dei cieli, praticamente identico al Lóng cinese. Come il lóng, lo yong e gli altri draghi coreani sono attribuiti solitamente all'acqua ed al tempo atmosferico. In coreano puro, è anche noto come Mireu.

Imoogi
Un drago degli oceani senza corna, di solito paragonato ai serpenti marini. Imoogi significa letteralmente "grande lucertola". La leggenda dell'Imoogi dice che il dio del sole ha dato all'Imoogi i loro poteri attraverso una ragazza umana, che sarebbe diventata un Imoogi il giorno del suo 17º compleanno. La leggenda dice anche che un marchio a forma di drago può essere visto sulla spalla della ragazza, rivelando la sua vera identità di Imoogi in forma umana.

Gyo
Un drago di montagna. In effetti, l'ideogramma cinese usato per questo drago è lo stesso dell'Imoogi.


Drago delle Filippine

Bakunawa Il Bakunawa appare come un serpente gigante che vive nel mare. I nativi del passato credevano che il Bakunawa causasse le eclissi di sole e di luna. Si diceva anche che durante certi periodi dell'anno, il bakunawa emergesse dall'oceano per ingoiare la luna intera. Per far sì che il Bakunawa non divorasse completamente la luna, i nativi uscivano di notte con pentole e padelle in mano a fare rumore per spaventare il Bakunawa e fargli sputare di nuovo la luna nel cielo. C'è anche ci dice che il Bakunawa possa uccidere le persone a distanza sotto contatto visivo immaginandone la morte.


Drago Vietnamita

Rồng o Long
I corpi di questi draghi si piegano nella forma di 12 creste d'onda per simboleggiare i mesi dell'anno. Possono cambiare il tempo atmosferico e sono responsabili dei raccolti. Lungo tutta la schiena del drago vi sono delle piccole squame ininterrotte. La testa ha una folta criniera, baffi, occhi prominenti, una cresta sul naso ma non presenta corna. La mascella è ampia ed aperta, con una lingua lunga e sottile. Portano sempre con sé una châu (gemma/gioiello) nella bocca (un simbolo di umanità, nobiltà e conoscenza).


Drago gallese

Y ddraig goch ("il drago rosso")
Nella mitologia gallese dopo una lunga battaglia (alla quale assiste il re Vortigern) un drago rosso sconfigge un drago bianco sassone; Merlino spiega a Vortigern che il drago rosso simboleggia i Gallesi, mentre il drago bianco simboleggia i Sassoni — predicendo perciò la vittoria del Galles sugli inglesi. Il draig goch appare sulla bandiera nazionale del Galles.


Draghi ungheresi (Sárkányok)

Zomok
Un grande serpente che vive nelle paludi, che uccide regolarmente maiali o pecore. Un gruppo di pastori può ucciderlo facilmente.

Sárkánykígyó
Un gigantesco serpente alato, che in effetti è uno zomok cresciuto. Spesso serve da cavalcatura ai garabonciás (una sorta di mago). Il sárkánykígyó governa le tempeste ed il maltempo.

Sárkány
Un drago in forma umana. Spesso sono giganti con più teste. La loro forza risiede nelle teste, e si indeboliscono mano a mano che le perdono. Nell'ungherese odierno la parola sárkány è usata per riferirsi in generale ad ogni tipo di drago.


Drago slavo

Zmey, Zmiy, Zmij, змей, or Zmaj, or Drak, or Smok
Simile al drago europeo convenzionale ma con più teste. Sputano fuoco e possono creare poderose turbolenze quando volano. Nella tradizione slava il drago rappresenta il diavolo. A specifici draghi vengono spesso dati nomi turchi (vedi Zilant più sotto), simboleggiando il sempiterno conflitto tra Slavi e Turchi. Comunque, nel folklore serbo e bulgaro, i draghi sono difensori dei raccolti delle loro terre, combattendo contro un demone distruttivo chiamato Ala, che colpiscono coi loro fulmini.[12][13]


Drago asturiano
Cuélebre
Nella mitologia asturiana i Cuélebre sono serpenti giganti alati che vivono in cave dove sorvegliano tesori e xana (esseri simili a ninfe) rapite. Possono vivere per secoli ed in vecchiaia possono usare le ali per volare. Il loro alito è venefico e spesso uccidono bestiame per cibarsi. Il termine asturiano Cuelebre viene dal latino colŭbra, "serpente".


Drago tataro

Zilant
Molto simile ad una viverna, lo Zilant è il simbolo del Kazan. Zilant è un derivato russo del tataro yılan, serpente.


Drago turco
Ejderha or Evren
Il drago turco secerne fuoco dalla coda e non c'è alcuna menzione nelle leggende riguardo la presenza di ali o arti. In effetti, molti racconti turchi (ed in seguito islamici) riportano questi draghi come enormi serpenti.


Drago della Lituania
Drakonas
Questo drago somiglia più ad un'Idra con più teste, anche se a volte appare con una testa sola.


Drago scandinavo e tedesco
Lindworm(Vandalo)
I Lindworm (o Worm) sono draghi serpentiformi spesso associati, nell'araldica nordica e tedesca, con le viverne.


Drago inglese e italiano
Viverna

Le viverne sono comuni nell'araldica medioevale, solitamente raffigurati in posizione stante. È un drago provvisto di due ali che fungono anche da zampe anteriori quando si trova a terra e ha due zampe posteriori ed una lunga coda serpentiforme. Soprattutto si trova con frequenza in due culture: nella cultura medioevale italiana e in quella inglese. Una delle viverne più famose del folklore medioevale italiano è il Thyrus (nome in latino) o Tiro di Terni. Una terribile viverna che affliggeva il comune umbro nell'alto Medioevo. Un giorno un giovane e valoroso cavaliere, stanco di assistere alla morte dei suoi concittadini e allo spopolamento di Terni, affrontò il drago e lo uccise. Il comune da quel giorno in poi assunse la creatura nel proprio stemma cittadino. Lo dimostra anche la scritta in latino: "Thyrus et amnis dederunt signa Teramnis" che campeggia sotto il gonfalone del Comune di Terni. L'Italia e l'Umbria in particolar modo è sempre stato un territorio molto fertile per l'habitat di queste creature. Un'altra epopea narra di un altro drago che viveva ancora nelle zone dell'Umbria meridionale sempre vicino alle zone del ternano. La leggenda narra dell'esistenza di uno spaventoso drago che minacciava i luoghi intorno al paese di Fornole. S.Silvestro il famoso papa romano, giunto in Umbria liberò la popolazione fornolese dalla terribile ferocia del drago, rendendolo docile. Per ringraziamento la popolazione, devota al Santo, costruì nel corso del XIII Sec. una chiesetta in cima al monte, proprio vicino alla tana del temutissimo drago. Nell'abside della chiesetta si trova un affresco che rappresenta l'iconografia del Santo.

Ancora oggi la devozione a S.Silvestro è forte tra gli abitanti del paese. Un altro famoso drago italiano è quello sconfitto da Umberto Visconti. Pare che Visconti avesse deciso di far diventare il drago lo stemma della sua famiglia, infatti lo stemma è tutt'oggi visibile al Castello Sforzesco di Milano. Il potente drago è rappresentato nell'atto di divorare un bambino.



I "Dragonkin"

Esistono al mondo persone che sentono il proprio spirito legato a quello di alcuni animali, arrivando alla convinzione di essere reincarnazioni di lupi, gatti, uccelli ed altro, sentendosi quindi legati a tali specie animali ed a tutto il mondo naturale in genere. Queste persone si definiscono “Otherkin” (dall'inglese: Other = altro e kin = amico stretto, fratello). Spesso però questo tipo di legame si verifica anche con creature mitologiche, come i draghi, per l'appunto. L'amore e l'interesse di alcune persone nei riguardi di questi animali fantastici ha portato alla creazione di una vera e propria filosofia di vita, per cui si ha la certezza che la propria anima sia di origine draconica: questi sono i “Dragonkin”.

Il Dragonkin è quindi una persona che crede, in un modo o nell'altro, di essere un drago, o comunque di stirpe draconica: avendo vissuto come draghi in vite precedenti, affermano di possedere ricordi appartenenti al passato. Inoltre, secondo il loro credo, la loro anima appartiene ad un drago. Solitamente un “dragonkin” non vede gli altri come “esseri inferiori che necessitino di essere distrutti”, dato che, dopotutto, la loro attuale famiglia, i loro amici ed il loro stesso corpo sono umani; in ogni caso, il dragonkin apprende il proprio stato tramite un processo chiamato “Risveglio”. Di solito è un processo che richiede del tempo, e permette al drago di riprendere possesso dei propri atavici ricordi. Spesso bersaglio di scherno su internet, queste persone si “difendono” con l'espressione FYIAD (acronimo per “Fuck you, I'm a dragon”), che ormai viene utilizzata largamente sulla rete un po' da chiunque, per chiudere qualsiasi argomento di discussione con una specie di “dì pure quello che vuoi tanto a me non interessa”.


FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drago_giapponese

Drago giapponese
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.
Il drago giapponese è una creatura leggendaria nella mitologia e nel folklore giapponese. Il drago giapponese è una fusione, come per moltri altri aspetti del Giappone, del patrimonio culturale importato da Cina, Corea e India con il folklore e le tradizioni autoctone del Giappone. Come gli altri draghi asiatici, molti di quelli giapponesi sono associati alle precipitazioni e all'acqua, e sono tipicamente rappresentati come grandi creature serpentine, in grado di volare e con zampe munite di artigli.



FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viverna
Viverna
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.



Viverna è il nome di una creatura leggendaria, rappresentata come un rettile alato, spesso trovato nell'araldica medievale, dove è solitamente rappresentata sollevata da terra e con le ali aperte.

La viverna è simile al drago della tradizione europea, ma differisce per il fatto che ha solo due zampe, solitamente non soffia fuoco ed è di dimensioni inferiori. È dotato di una coda uncinata o simile ad un serpente. Nell'araldica rappresenta la peste, la conquista o simili concetti. La viverna può essere rappresentata in modo simile ad una coccatrice o a un basilisco.

Le viverne tradizionalmente hanno intelligenza e comportamento simili a quelli dei gatti: durante il medioevo erano considerati il tipo di drago più utile per la stregoneria, per la loro affinità con gli incantamenti.

Presenti anche nella mitologia africana, dove sono considerate presagio di sventura, si crede tradizionalmente che si nutrano di elefanti, rinoceronti, ippopotami o occasionalmente gruppi di nomadi umani.

'Wyvern' è anche un termine usato nell'Herefordshire e nel Worcestershire per unire le due città principali, siccome il fiume Wye e il Severn attraversano le due contee. Una delle stazioni radio della città si chiama "Wyvern FM", e il suo primo logo è stato una viverna.

Una viverna dorata dipinta sulla bandiera del Wessex è presente nello storico Arazzo di Bayeux.

La viverna è stato anche il simbolo della Midland Railway, che operò in Gran Bretagna fino al 1923. Il Midland Railway Centre nel Derbyshire, Inghilterra, pubblica un giornale per i soci chiamato The Wyvern.

Una coppia di viverne compaiono anche nel simbolo del Leyton Orient Football Club (originario dell'est di Londra), che gioca nella seconda serie.

La viverna nella cultura popolare

Le viverne sono presenti anche in molte ambientazioni fantasy. La loro rappresentazione non è uniforme: in alcune opere hanno quattro zampe invece che due, in altre (come nel gioco Dungeons & Dragons) sono dotate di una coda velenosa.

Nel videogioco The Witcher sono presenti viverne e viverne reali; quest'ultime sono di un colore più sgargiante rispetto alle prime, entrambe si trovano nei paesaggi paludosi.

Nella versione inglese del videogioco di Nintendo Fire Emblem ci sono alcune unità volanti denominate "Wyvern Rider", "Wyvern Lord" e "Wyvern Knight": nella versione originale giapponese si tratta di cavalieri e signori dei draghi. Di questi solo il Wyvern Knight rappresenta una viverna. Nintendo ha tradotto il "drago" originale con "viverna" per evitare la confusione con i "dragoni" rinchiusi a Dragon's Gate con il diverso tipo di creatura che il personaggio può cavalcare.

Le viverne nel MMORPG Final Fantasy XI appaiono in due forme diverse, adulte (grandi, nere con due zampe e due ali ma che non possono volare) o cucciolo (più piccola, con 4 zampe e in grado di volare, con la pelle blu e gialla e il soffio magico o guaritore).

Sono anche presenti nella serie Warcraft, dove appaiono meno simili a rettili, con la testa e il corpo di leone, simbolo di onore e coraggio, lunghe corna ricurve, coda simile ad uno scorpione e ali da pipistrello. Nel MMORPG World of Warcraft sono usate come mezzo di trasporto.

Nel gioco di Warhammer alcuni Kapoguerra orchi cavalcano delle viverne. Gli umani e gli elfi, quando ne vedono una, si spaventano (la viverna è un terribile presagio), ma i pelleverde se la vedono la salutano facendo ciao con le mani.

Nel videogioco per Playstation 2 Monster Hunter sono presenti alcuni mostri chiamati Wyvern. Sono simili ai draghi e sono la preda più ambita di tutto il videogioco.

Nel primo atto del videogioco "X-Men Legengs II-Rise of Apocalipse", ambientato nell'isola di Genosha nell'oceano Indiano, compaiono delle viverne di energia, più simili a pipistrelli che a draghi, create in laboratorio dal malvagio genetista Sinistro, uno dei cavalieri di Apocalisse.

Esiste anche un videogioco online chiamato "Wyvern". Esiste anche un gruppo di musica "power metal" in Italia ,tutt'ora attivo, che utilizza il nome "Wyvern" dal 1985.



FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lindworm


Il lindwurm Brunnen nel centro di Klagenfurt.

Lindworm
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.
I Lindworm (anche Lindorm in Scandinavia e Lindwurm in Germania) sono draghi della mitologia nord-europea, anche se descrizioni di simili creature si trovano in molte altre tradizioni, e sono descritte anche da Marco Polo nel libro Il MilioneIl lindworm viene anche citato nell'opera di carattere storico le Gesta Danorum. Non hanno ali, e talvolta sono dotati di solo due zampe, o nessuna. Si crede che simboleggiassero la guerra, le pestilenze e simili sciagure.Il lindorm nelle Gesta Danorum viene sconfitto dall'eroe Ragnar.La storia narra di Herodd re di Svezia che regalò due serpenti alla figlia.Le serpi crebbero diventando dei lidorm e iniziarono a devastare le campagne.Il re promise a chiunque fosse riuscito a uccidere le due bestie avrebbe avuto in sposa la sua figlia Thora.Il re scandinavo Ragnar che vole va sposare la principessa partì e con una maglia di lana coperta da cristalli ,una lancia,e uno scudo riuscì ha uccidere i due lambton e a sposare la principessa.

Curiosità

* Il Lindwurm appare in Final Fantasy XII con l'aspetto di un colossale drago, dotato di ali ma incapace di volare.
* Nel videogioco Kingdom Hearts 2 le Lindworm sono delle lance brandite da Xaldin, membro dell'Organizzazione XIII.
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il Drago: animale mistico   Ven 15 Ott 2010 - 10:59

Consiglio la lettura di questo link sulle caratteristiche iconografiche del drago cinese

http://www.tuttocina.it/tuttocina/simbologia/drago.htm




http://fc06.deviantart.net/fs70/i/2010/108/5/7/Orientals_by_irkendragon.jpg




http://fc09.deviantart.net/fs19/f/2007/266/8/5/85c19d7d19db6f9a.jpg




http://fc06.deviantart.net/fs29/i/2010/251/6/2/chinese_dragon___water_by_dracoapocalyptis-d1chfn0.jpg





http://fc05.deviantart.net/fs50/i/2009/257/8/6/Tian_xia__the_dragon_rises_by_MarcSimonetti.jpg
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il Drago: animale mistico   Gio 21 Ott 2010 - 18:58

ancora qualche notizia sul drago...tra i più importanti simboli cinesi di buona fortuna vedremo insieme anche altre curiosità

buona lettura

FONTE: http://www.whats-your-sign.com/Chinese-dragons.html

Chinese Dragons


Ancient Chinese Dragons are ultimate symbols of cosmic Chi (energy). It is said to be the most potent symbol of good fortune in the Chinese pantheon of symbols. As one of the four creatures of the world's directions, the Dragon stands for new beginnings. The Dragon also has the power to release water to parched lands, and which in turn stands for abundance and relief. Continued success, high achievement, and prosperity are also listed among the Dragon's arsenal of good qualities, which rank it one of the most popular of Asian signs.


Sempre dalla stessa fonte una interessante leggenda...quella dei nove draghi... buona lettura!

FONTE: http://www.whats-your-sign.com/Chinese-dragons.html

The Legend of The Nine Dragons

The mainland overlooking Hong Kong is called Kowloon, which means Nine Dragons. Legend states the mainland was named this by a Chinese Emperor who fled there after the Sung Dynasty. Originally, he named it after the eight hills predominantly located on the land. His servant observed that the Emperor should also be counted among the regal figures. Hence, the "Gau-lung" or Nine Dragons nomenclature was born.

Characteristics of the Nine Dragons:

1. P'u-lao:
Alerts one to danger, and serves as a protector. Often engraved on bells, sacred singing bowls, and gongs.

2. Ch'iu-niu:
Creator of Yang energy through the use of ancient dragon music.

3. Pi-his:
Provider of knowledge, luck and upholds the virtue of finer education.

4. Pa-hsia:
Provider of strength and support when called upon during times of need.

5. Chao-feng:
Guardian of the holy places, sacred lands, and holy temples.

6. Chih wen:
Symbolizes the power of water over fire.

7. Suan-ni:
Mighty protector and emblem against theft, loss or betrayal of any kind.

8. Yai-tzu:
Protector and guardian against any physical harm.

9. Pi-kau:
Defends again litigation, verbal disputes, or false accusations.


Classic Chinese Dragon

The Dragon has always served me well as a symbol of self-confidence and courage. Dragons can make the heart beat stronger instill fire within, and may enable you to stand taller both physically and spiritually speaking.



Secondo questo articolo quando nella nostra vita si presenta il drago ci vuole comunicare coraggio, la forza d'animo, e sarà per noi un guardiano e una guida...

FONTE: http://www.whats-your-sign.com/dragon-totem.html

Dragon totem is one of the most powerful totems, representing a huge range of qualities, emotions, and traits. When Dragons come to us, it could mean many things.

The most common message a Dragon totem carry to us is a need for strength, courage, and fortitude. Dragons are also messengers of balance, and magic - encouraging us to tap into our psychic nature and see the world through the eyes of mystery and wonder.

More specifically, Dragons are the embodiment of primordial power - the ultimate ruler of all the elements. This is because the Dragon is the master of all the elements: Fire, Water, Earth, and Wind.

As a totem, the Dragon serves as a powerful guardian and guide. Encourage communication with your Dragon, and acknowledge your Dragon's presence as often as possible.

In Chinese culture, the season of the Dragon is mid-spring, its direction is east-southeast, and its fixed element is wood. See Chinese Dragon page for more inforamation on the Dragons within the Asian culture.

There are many ways to strengthen your bond with your Dragon totem. Here are a few suggestions:

* Meditation upon your Dragon totem.
* Begin collecting Dragon images that resonate with you. Keep these images close, and easily available to you. Look upon these images whenever you wish to communicate with your Dragon totem.
* Better yet, begin drawing while communicating with your Dragon. Ask your Dragon to reveal itself to you through your drawing. Check out my friend Barbara's webpage offering free tips on how to draw dragons here!
* Begin a Dragon totem journal
* Read everything you can on Dragons. This will broaden your horizons, and expand your imagination. A warning though: By all means, never be limited by the scope of what you read. Ultimately, it is you and your Dragon that will create the perfect understanding. There is never a limit in matters of spirit - that includes matters concerning our totems (especially strong totems like the Dragon!).

A Dragon totem can be a powerful ally in our daily effort to live our lives. When we call upon the amazing restorative and potent qualities of the Dragon, we are able to effectively live our lives with the honestly, courage, and strength of a peaceful warrior.

Utilizing the symbolic power of the dragon totem is an internal process cultivated by contemplating the attributes of the dragon we admire and meditating upon these.

We can also honor the dragon totem externally by little actions like including dragon imagery in our lives. It solidifies my connection with the magic the dragon offers.

Whether you are an artist who looks to dragons for inspiration, or a business mogul identifying with a solid symbol of strength or luck - it's clear dragons speak to those special places within us, stoking the fires of our hearts.




Ultima modifica di Tila il Mar 28 Dic 2010 - 16:24, modificato 1 volta
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Tila
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Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il Drago: animale mistico   Ven 22 Ott 2010 - 20:27

Ancora sul drago cinese...

Se ne consiglia la visione anche al link originale....

Buona lettura!


FONTE:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_dragon

Chinese dragon
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Chinese dragons are legendary creatures in Chinese mythology and folklore, with mythic counterparts among Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, Bhutanese, Western and Turkic dragons. In Chinese art, dragons are typically portrayed as long, scaled, serpentine creatures with four legs. In yin and yang terminology, a dragon is yang (male) and complements a yin (female) fenghuang "Chinese phoenix".

In contrast to European dragons that are considered evil, Chinese dragons traditionally symbolize potent and auspicious powers, particularly control over water, rainfall, and floods. The dragon is also a symbol of power, strength, and good luck.

In Chinese culture today, it is mostly used for decorative purposes. It is a taboo to disfigure a depiction of a dragon; for example, an advertisement campaign commissioned by Nike, which featured the American basketball player LeBron James slaying a dragon (as well as beating up an old Kung Fu master), was immediately banned by the Chinese government after public outcry over disrespect.[1]

In Chinese daily language, excellent and outstanding people are compared to the dragon while incapable people with no achievements are compared with other, disesteemed creatures, such as the worm. A number of Chinese proverbs and idioms feature references to the dragon, for example: "Hoping one's son will become a dragon" (望子成龍, i.e. be as a dragon).
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Symbolic value
* 2 Regional variations across Asia
* 3 Dragon worship
o 3.1 Origin
o 3.2 Mythical creature
o 3.3 Ruler of weather and water
o 3.4 Symbol of imperial authority
o 3.5 Modern belief
* 4 Depictions of the dragon
o 4.1 Neolithic depictions
o 4.2 Classical depictions
o 4.3 Children of Dragon
o 4.4 Dragon toes
* 5 Cultural references
o 5.1 Number nine
o 5.2 Chinese zodiac
o 5.3 Constellations
o 5.4 Dragonboat racing
o 5.5 Dragon dancing
o 5.6 Dragons and Nāgas
o 5.7 Dragons and Tigers
* 6 Chinese dragons in popular culture
* 7 See also
* 8 References
* 9 Sources

[edit] Symbolic value

Historically, the dragon was the symbol of the Emperor of China. In the Zhou Dynasty, the 5-clawed dragon was assigned to the Son of Heaven, the 4-clawed dragon to the Zhuhou (seigneur), and the 3-clawed dragon to the Daifu. In the Qing Dynasty, the 5-clawed dragon was assigned to represent the Emperor while the 4-clawed and 3-clawed dragons were assigned to the commoners. The dragon in the Qing Dynasty appeared on national flags.[2]

The dragon is sometimes used in the West as a national emblem of China. However, this usage within both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China on Taiwan as the symbol of nation is not common. Instead, it is generally used as the symbol of culture. In Hong Kong, the dragon is part of the design of Brand Hong Kong, a symbol used to promote Hong Kong as an international brand name.[3]

In European-influenced cultures, the dragon has aggressive, warlike connotations and it is conjectured that the Chinese government wishes to avoid using it as a symbol, but most Chinese disagree with this decision.[4] Westerners only sometimes confuse the disposition of the benevolent Chinese dragon with the aggressive Western dragon.

Many Chinese people often use the term "Descendants of the Dragon" (simplified Chinese: 龙的传人; traditional Chinese: 龍的傳人; pinyin: lóng de chuán rén) as a sign of ethnic identity, as part of a trend started in the 1970s when different Asian nationalities were looking for animal symbols for representations.[2] The wolf was used among the Mongols, the monkey among Tibetans.[2]

[edit] Regional variations across Asia

While depictions of the dragon in art and literature is largely consistent throughout the cultures in which it is found, there are some regional differences. The remainder of this article deals with aspects common across cultures, as well as features peculiar to cultural China.

For more information on peculiarities in the depiction of the dragon in other Asian cultures, see:

* Druk, the Thunder Dragon of Bhutanese mythology
* Japanese dragon
* Korean dragon
* Nāga (or Naga), a Hindu or Buddhist deity often depicted as a king cobra
* Vietnamese dragon

[edit] Dragon worship

The origin of Chinese dragon is not certain, but some scholars believe that it originated from totems of different tribes in China. Some have suggested that it comes from a stylized depiction of existing animals, such as snakes, fish, or crocodiles. For example, the Banpo site of the Yangshao culture in Shaanxi featured an elongated, snake-like fish motif. The theory of snakes or fish as the origin of the Chinese dragon is not widely accepted.

An alternative view, advocated by He Xin, is that the early dragon depicted a species of crocodile, specifically, Crocodylus porosus, the saltwater crocodile, which is the largest living reptile, and once ranged into China during ancient times. The crocodile is known to be able to accurately sense changes in air pressure, and be able to sense coming rain. This may have been the origin of the dragon's mythical attributes in controlling the weather, especially the rain. The association with the crocodile is also supported by the view in ancient times that large crocodiles are a variety of dragon. For example, in the Story of Zhou Chu, about the life of a Jin Dynasty warrior, he is said to have killed a "dragon" that infested the waters of his home village, which appears to have been a crocodile.

Others have proposed that its shape is the merger of totems of various tribes as the result of the merger of tribes. The coiled snake or dragon form played an important role in early Chinese culture. Legendary figures like Nüwa (女媧) and Fuxi (伏羲) are depicted as having snake bodies. Some scholars have noted that a myth arose that the first legendary Emperor of China Huang Di (黃帝,Yellow Emperor) used a snake for his coat of arms. According to the myth, every time he conquered another tribe, he incorporated his defeated enemy's emblem into his own, thus explains why the dragon appears to have features of various animals.

Jade badges of rank in coiled form have been dated to the Hongshan culture.[5]

[edit] Mythical creature

From its origins as totems or the stylized depiction of natural creatures, the Chinese dragon evolved to become a mythical animal. The Han Dynasty scholar Wang Fu recorded Chinese myths that long dragons had nine anatomical resemblances.

The people paint the dragon's shape with a horse's head and a snake's tail. Further, there are expressions as 'three joints' and 'nine resemblances' (of the dragon), to wit: from head to shoulder, from shoulder to breast, from breast to tail. These are the joints; as to the nine resemblances, they are the following: his horns resemble those of a stag, his head that of a camel, his eyes those of a demon, his neck that of a snake, his belly that of a clam (shen, 蜃), his scales those of a carp, his claws those of an eagle, his soles those of a tiger, his ears those of a cow. Upon his head he has a thing like a broad eminence (a big lump), called [chimu] (尺木). If a dragon has no [chimu], he cannot ascend to the sky.[6]

Further sources give variant lists of the nine animal resemblances. Sinologist Henri Doré lists these characteristics of an authentic dragon: "The horns of a deer. The head of a camel. A demon's eyes. The neck of a snake. A tortoise's viscera. A hawk's claws. The palms of a tiger. A cow's ears. And it hears through its horns, its ears being deprived of all power of hearing."[7] He notes that, "Others state it has a rabbit's eyes, a frog's belly, a carp's scales." The anatomy of other legendary creatures, including the chimera and manticore, is similarly amalgamated from fierce animals.

Chinese dragons were considered to be physically concise. Of the 117 scales, 81 are of the yang essence (positive) while 36 are of the yin essence (negative). Initially, the dragon was benevolent but the Buddhists introduced the concept of malevolent influence among some dragons. Just as water destroys, they said, so can some dragons destroy via floods, tidal waves and storms. They suggested that some of the worst floods were believed to have been the result of a mortal upsetting a dragon.

Many pictures of oriental dragons show a flaming pearl under their chin. The pearl is associated with wealth, good luck, and prosperity.

Chinese dragons are occasionally depicted with bat-like wings growing out of the front limbs, but most do not have wings, as their ability to fly (and control rain/water, etc.) are mystical and not seen as a result of their physical attributes.

This description accords with the artistic depictions of the dragon down to the present day. The dragon has also acquired an almost unlimited range of supernatural powers. It is said to be able to disguise itself as a silkworm, or become as large as our entire universe. It can fly among the clouds or hide in water (according to the Guanzi). It can form clouds, can turn into water, can change color as an ability to blend in with their surroundings, as an effective form of camouflage or glow in the dark (according to the Shuowen Jiezi).

In Singapore and many other countries, folktales speak of the dragon having all the attributes of the other 11 creatures of the zodiac, this includes the whiskers of the rat, the face and horns of an ox, claws and teeth of a tiger, belly of a rabbit, body of a snake, legs of a horse, the beard of a goat, wit(or brain) of a monkey, crest of a rooster, ears of a dog, the snout of a pig.

In some circles, it is considered bad luck to depict a dragon facing downwards, as it is seen as disrespectful to place a dragon in such manner that it cannot ascend to the sky. Also, depictions of dragons in tattoos are prevailent as they are symbols of strength and power, especially criminal organisations where dragons hold a meaning all on their own. As such, it is believed that one must be fierce and strong enough, hence earning the right to wear the dragon on his skin, lest his luck be consumed by the dragon.

[edit] Ruler of weather and water

Chinese dragons are strongly associated with water in popular belief. They are believed to be the rulers of moving bodies of water, such as waterfalls, rivers, or seas. They can show themselves as water spouts (tornado or twister over water). In this capacity as the rulers of water and weather, the dragon is more anthropomorphic in form, often depicted as a humanoid, dressed in a king's costume, but with a dragon head wearing a king's headdress.

There are four major Dragon Kings, representing each of the four seas: the East Sea (corresponding to the East China Sea), the South Sea (corresponding to the South China Sea), the West Sea (sometimes seen as the Indian Ocean and beyond), and the North Sea (sometimes seen as Lake Baikal).

Because of this association, they are seen as "in charge" of water-related weather phenomenon. In premodern times, many Chinese villages (especially those close to rivers and seas) had temples dedicated to their local "dragon king". In times of drought or flooding, it was customary for the local gentry and government officials to lead the community in offering sacrifices and conducting other religious rites to appease the dragon, either to ask for rain or a cessation thereof.

The King of Wu-Yue in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period was often known as the "Dragon King" or the "Sea Dragon King" because of his extensive hydro-engineering schemes which "tamed" the sea.

[edit] Symbol of imperial authority

According to Chinese legend, both Chinese primogenitors, the earliest Emperors Yan Di and Huang Di were closely related to 'Long' (Chinese Dragon). At the end of his reign, the first legendary Emperor, Huang Di, was said to have been immortalized into a dragon that resembled his emblem, and ascended to Heaven. The other legendary Emperor, Huang Di's brother, Yan Di was born by his mother's telepathy with a mythic dragon. Since the Chinese consider Huang Di and Yan Di as their ancestors, they sometimes refer to themselves as "the descendants of the dragon". This legend also contributed towards the use of the Chinese dragon as a symbol of imperial power.

The dragon, especially yellow or golden dragons with five claws on each foot, was a symbol for the emperor in many Chinese dynasties. The imperial throne was called the Dragon Throne. During the late Qing Dynasty, the dragon was even adopted as the national flag. The dragon is featured in the carvings on the steps of imperial palaces and tombs, such as the Forbidden City in Beijing.

In some Chinese legends, an Emperor might be born with a birthmark in the shape of a dragon. For example, one legend tells the tale of a peasant born with a dragon birthmark who eventually overthrows the existing dynasty and founds a new one; another legend might tell of the prince in hiding from his enemies who is identified by his dragon birthmark.

In contrast, the Empress of China was often identified with the Fenghuang.
[edit] Modern belief

In modern times, belief in the dragon appears to be sporadic at best. There appear to be very few who would see the dragon as a literally real creature. The worship of the Dragon Kings as rulers of water and weather continues in many areas, and is deeply ingrained in Chinese cultural traditions such as Chinese New Year celebrations. Dragon kites are also used in these celebrations.[citation needed]

[edit] Depictions of the dragon


An ancient seal script form of the character for "dragon" that is now written 龍 or 龙 and pronounced lóng in Mandarin Chinese.

Neolithic depictions

Dragons or dragon-like depictions have been found extensively in neolithic-period archaeological sites throughout China. The earliest depiction of dragons was found at Xinglongwa culture sites. Yangshao culture sites in Xi'an have produced clay pots with dragon motifs. The Liangzhu culture also produced dragon-like patterns. The Hongshan culture sites in present-day Inner Mongolia produced jade dragon amulets in the form of pig dragons.

One such early form was the pig dragon. It is a coiled, elongated creature with a head resembling a boar[8]. The character for "dragon" in the earliest Chinese writing has a similar coiled form, as do later jade dragon amulets from the Shang period.
[edit] Classical depictions

Chinese literature and myths refer to many dragons besides the famous long. The linguist Michael Carr analyzed over 100 ancient dragon names attested in Chinese classic texts.[9] Many such Chinese names derive from the suffix -long:

* Tianlong (Chinese: 天龍; pinyin: tiānlóng; Wade–Giles: t'ien-lung; literally "heavenly dragon"), celestial dragon that guards heavenly palaces and pulls divine chariots; also a name for Draco (constellation)
* Shenlong (Chinese: 神龍; pinyin: shénlóng; Wade–Giles: shen-lung; literally "god dragon"), thunder god that controls the weather, appearance of a human head, dragon's body, and drum-like stomach
* Fucanglong (Chinese: 伏藏龍; pinyin: fúcánglóng; Wade–Giles: fu-ts'ang-lung; literally "hidden treasure dragon"), underworld guardian of precious metals and jewels, associated with volcanoes
* Dilong (Chinese: 地龍; pinyin: dìlóng; Wade–Giles: ti-lung; literally "earth dragon"), controller of rivers and seas; also a name for earthworm
* Yinglong (Chinese: 應龍; pinyin: yìnglóng; Wade–Giles: ying-lung; literally "responding dragon"), winged dragon associated with rains and floods, used by Huangdi to kill Chi You
* Jiaolong (Chinese: 蛟龍; pinyin: jiāolóng; Wade–Giles: chiao-lung; literally "crocodile dragon"), hornless or scaled dragon, leader of all aquatic animals
* Panlong (Chinese: 蟠龍; pinyin: pánlóng; Wade–Giles: p'an-lung; literally "coiled dragon"), lake dragon that has not ascended to heaven
* Huanglong (Chinese: 黃龍; pinyin: huánglóng; Wade–Giles: huang-lung; literally "yellow dragon"), hornless dragon symbolizing the emperor
* Feilong (Chinese: 飛龍; pinyin: fēilóng; Wade–Giles: fei-lung; literally "flying dragon"), winged dragon that rides on clouds and mist; also a name for pterosaur (compare Feilong kick and Fei Long character)
* Qinglong (Chinese: 青龍; pinyin: qīnglóng; Wade–Giles: ch'ing-lung; literally "Azure Dragon"), the animal associated with the East in the Chinese Four Symbols, mythological creatures in the Chinese constellations
* Qiulong (Chinese: 虯龍; pinyin: qíulóng; Wade–Giles: ch'iu-lung; literally "curling dragon"), contradictorily defined as both "horned dragon" and "hornless dragon"
* Chilong (Chinese: 螭龍; pinyin: chīlóng; Wade–Giles: ch'ih-lung; literally "demon dragon"), a hornless dragon or mountain demon

Fewer Chinese dragon names derive from the prefix long-:

* Longwang (Chinese: 龍王; pinyin: lóngwáng; Wade–Giles: lung-wang; literally "Dragon Kings") divine rulers of the Four Seas
* Longma (Chinese: 龍馬; pinyin: lóngmǎ; Wade–Giles: lung-ma; literally "dragon horse"), emerged from the Luo River and revealed Bagua (concept) to Fu Xi

Some additional Chinese dragons are not named with long 龍, for instance,

* Hong (Chinese: 虹; pinyin: hóng; Wade–Giles: hung; literally "rainbow"), a two-headed dragon or rainbow serpent
* Shen (Chinese: 蜃; pinyin: shèn; Wade–Giles: shen; literally "giant clam"), a shapeshifting dragon or sea monster believed to create mirages
* Bashe (Chinese: 巴蛇; pinyin: bāshé; Wade–Giles: pa-she; literally "ba snake") was a giant python-like dragon that ate elephants
* Teng (simplified Chinese: 螣; traditional Chinese: 螣; pinyin: téng; Wade–Giles: t'eng) or Tengshe (simplified Chinese: 腾蛇; traditional Chinese: 騰蛇; pinyin: téngshé; Wade–Giles: t'eng-she; lit. "soaring snake") is a flying dragon without legs

Chinese scholars have classified dragons in diverse systems. For instance, Emperor Huizong of Song canonized five colored dragons as "kings".

* The Azure Dragon [Qinglong 青龍] spirits, most compassionate kings.
* The Vermillion Dragon [Zhulong 朱龍] spirits, kings that bestow blessings on lakes.
* The Yellow Dragon [Huanglong 黃龍] spirits, kings that favorably hear all petitions.
* The White Dragon [Bailong 白龍] spirits, virtuous and pure kings.
* The Black Dragon [Xuanlong 玄龍] spirits, kings dwelling in the depths of the mystic waters.[10]

With the addition of the Yellow Dragon of the Center to Azure Dragon of the East, these Vermillion, White, and Black Dragons coordinate with the Four Symbols, including the Vermilion Bird of the South, White Tiger of the West, and Black Tortoise of the North.

[edit] Children of Dragon

Several Ming Dynasty texts list what were claimed as the Nine Offspring of the Dragon (龍生九子), and subsequently these feature prominently in popular Chinese stories and writings. The scholar Xie Zhaozhe (謝肇淛, 1567-1624) in his work Wu Za Zu (五雜俎, ca. 1592) gives the following listing, as rendered by M.W. de Visser:

A well-known work of the end of the sixteenth century, the Wuzazu 五雜俎, informs us about the nine different young of the dragon, whose shapes are used as ornaments according to their nature. The [pulao 蒲牢], dragons which like to cry, are represented on the tops of bells, serving as handles. The [qiuniu 囚牛], which like music, are used to adorn musical instruments. The [chiwen 螭吻/鴟吻], which like swallowing, are placed on both ends of the ridgepoles of roofs (to swallow all evil influences). The [chaofeng 嘲風], lion-like beasts which like precipices, are placed on the four corners of roofs. The [yazi 睚眦/睚眥], which like to kill, serve as ornaments of sword-grips. The [bixi 贔屭], which have the shape of the [chilong 螭龍], and are fond of literature, are represented on the sides of grave-monuments. The [bi'an 狴犴], which like litigation, are placed over prison gates (in order to keep guard). The [suanni 狻猊], which like to sit down, are represented upon the bases of Buddhist idols (under the Buddhas' or Bodhisattvas' feet). The [baxia 霸下], finally, big tortoises which like to carry heavy objects, are placed under grave-monuments. Further, the same author enumerates nine other kinds of dragons — there are so many, says he, because the dragon's nature is very lewd, so that he copulates with all animals —, which are represented as ornaments of different objects or buildings according to their liking prisons, water, the rank smell of newly caught fish or newly killed meat, wind and rain, ornaments, smoke, shutting the mouth (used for adorning key-holes), standing on steep places (placed on roofs), and fire.[11]

The Sheng'an waiji (升庵外集) collection by the poet Yang Shen (楊慎, 1488-1559) gives different 5th and 9th names for the dragon's nine children: the taotie (饕餮), which loves to eat and is found on food-related wares, and the jiaotu (椒圖), which looks like a conch or clam, does not like to be disturbed, and is used on the front door or the doorstep. Yang's list is bixi, chiwen or cháofēng, pulao, bi'an, taotie, qiuniu, yazi, suanni, and jiaotu.[12]

Oldest known attestation of the "children of the dragon" list is found in the Shuyuan Zaji (椒园杂记, Miscellaneous records from the bean garden) by Lu Rong (1436-1494); however, he noted that the list enumerates mere synonyms of various antiques, not children of a dragon. [13]

[edit] Dragon toes

The first Ming Emperor copied the Yuan ruling and decreed that the dragon would be his emblem and that it would have five toes (or claws) The four-clawed dragon was typically for imperial nobility and certain high ranking officials. The three clawed dragon was used by lower ranks and the general public (widely seen on various Chinese goods in Ming Dynasty). The Long, however, was only for select royalty closely associated with the Imperial family, usually in various symbolic colors, while it was a capital offense for anyone - other than the emperor himself - to ever use the completely gold-colored, five-clawed Long dragon motif. Improper use of claw number and/or colors was considered treason, punishable by execution of the offender's entire clan. Since most East Asian nations at one point or another were considered Chinese tributaries, they were only allowed four-clawed dragons.

The five toes rule was first enforced in AD 1336 (Yuan the second year). "(For commoners) It is forbidden to wear any cloth with patterns of Qilin, Male Fenghuang (Chinese phoenix), White rabbit, Lingzhi, Five-Toe Two-Horn Long, Eight Longs, Nine Longs, 'Ten thousand years', Fortune-longevity character and Golden Yellow etc." ("禁服麒麟、鸾凤、白兔、灵芝、双角五爪龙、八龙、九龙、万寿、福寿字、赭黄等服")[14]

[edit] Cultural references

[edit] Number nine

The number nine is special in China as it is the largest possible single digit, and Chinese dragons are frequently connected with it. For example, a Chinese dragon is normally described in terms of nine attributes and usually has 117 scales - 81 (9x9) Yang and 36 (9x4) Yin. This is also why there are nine forms of the dragon and the dragon has nine offspring (see Classical depictions above). The "Nine Dragon Wall" is a screen wall with images of nine different dragons, and is found in imperial palaces and gardens. The wall has 9 large dragons, as well as small dragons that cover the edge. In all there are 635 dragons on it. As nine was considered the number of the emperor, only the most senior officials were allowed to wear nine dragons on their robes - and then only with the robe completely covered with surcoats. Lower-ranking officials had eight or five dragons on their robes, again covered with surcoats; even the emperor himself wore his dragon robe with one of its nine dragons hidden from view.

There are a number of places in China called "Nine Dragons", the most famous being Kowloon (in Cantonese) in Hong Kong. The part of the Mekong in Vietnam is known as Cửu Long, with the same meaning.
[edit] Chinese zodiac
Main article: Dragon (Zodiac)

The dragon is one of the 12 animals in the Chinese zodiac which is used to designate years in the Chinese calendar. It is thought that each animal is associated with certain personality traits. Dragon years are usually the most popular to have babies. There are more babies born in Dragon years than in any other animal years of the Zodiac.
[edit] Constellations

The Azure Dragon - Qing Long - 青龍 is considered to be the primary of the four celestial guardians, the other three being the Zhu Que - 朱雀 (Vermilion Bird), Bai Hu - 白虎 (White Tiger), Xuan Wu - 玄武 (Black Tortoise-like creature). In this context, the Azure Dragon is associated with the East and the element of Wood.
See also: Five elements (Chinese philosophy)
[edit] Dragonboat racing

Main article Dragon boat

At special festivals, especially the Duan Wu festival, dragon boat races are an important part of festivities. Typically, these are boats rowed by a team of up to 12 rowers, and with a carved dragon as the head of the boat. Dragon boat racing is also an important part of celebrations outside of China, such as at Chinese New Year.
[edit] Dragon dancing

Main article Dragon dance

On auspicious occasions, including Chinese New Year and the opening of shops and residences, festivities often include dancing with dragon puppets. These are "life sized" cloth-and-wood puppets manipulated by a team of people, supporting the dragon with poles. They perform choreographed moves to the accompaniment of drums and music.

[edit] Dragons and Nāgas

In many Buddhist countries, the concept of the nāga has been merged with local traditions of great and wise serpents or dragons, as depicted in this stairway image of a mufti-headed nāga emerging from the mouth of a Makara in the style of a Chinese dragon at Phra Maha Chedi Chai Mongkol on the premises of Wat Pha Namthip Thep Prasit Vararam in Thailand's Roi Et Province Nong Phok District.

[edit] Dragons and Tigers

Tigers have always been an eternal rival to the dragon, thus various artworks depict a dragon and tiger fighting an epic battle. A well used Chinese idiom to describe equal rivals (often in sports nowadays) is "Dragon versus Tiger". In Chinese martial arts, "Dragon style" is used to describe styles of fighting based more on understanding movement, while "Tiger style" is based on brute strength and memorization of techniques.

Ironically India has long been represented by a tiger. Tiger has much symbolic importance throughout Indosphere, and along with Garuda, it has been the most used animal in Indic heraldry. While Royal Bengal Tiger is the national animal of India and Bangladesh, and Malayan Tiger of Malaysia. It was also symbol of many royal houses of South and SE Asia region and in modern times even revolutionary activities are represented by tigers like Indische Legion or LTTE. Tiger's close cat relatives, the Asiatic lion is also widely used in region as in flag of Sri Lanka, national emblem of India and many other nations around like Cambodia, Singapore, etc., and is also national animal of Singapore. The snow panther is the national mammal of Pakistan and the snow lion was the national animal of Tibet.
[edit] Chinese dragons in popular culture

As a part of traditional folklore, dragons appear in a variety of mythological fiction. In the classical story Journey to the West, the son of the Dragon King of the West was condemned to serve as a horse for the travellers because of his indiscretions at a party in the heavenly court. The Monkey King's cudgel Rú Yì Bàng was stolen from the Eastern (Donghai) Dragon King áo guǎng. In Fengshen Yanyi and other stories, Nezha, the boy hero, defeats the Dragon Kings and tames the seas. Chinese dragons also appear in innumerable Japanese anime movies and TV shows, manga, and in Western political cartoons as a personification of the People's Republic of China. The Chinese respect for dragons is emphasized in Naomi Novik's Temeraire novels, where they were the first people to tame dragons and are treated as equals, intellectuals or even royalty, rather than beasts solely bred for war in the West.

References

1. ^ Robertson, Benjamin (2004-12-17). "The Dragon battles back to beat Nike". Asia Times Online. http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China/FL17Ad01.html. Retrieved 2007-03-20.
2. ^ a b c Sleeboom, Margaret. [2004] (2004). Academic Nations in China and Japan: Framed in concepts of Nature, Culture and the Universal. Routledge publishing. ISBN 0-415-31545-X
3. ^ "Brand Overview", Brand Hong Kong, 09-2004. Retrieved on 23-02-2007.
4. ^ BBC Article: Fiery Debate Over China's Dragon, an article covering China's decision not to use a dragon mascot and the resulting disappointment.
5. ^ Teaching Chinese Archeology, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC
6. ^ de Visser, Marinus Willem (1913), The Dragon in China and Japan, Verhandelingen der Koninklijke akademie van wetenschappen te Amsterdam. Afdeeling Letterkunde. Nieuwe reeks, deel xiii, no. 2, Amsterdam: Johannes Müller, p. 70, http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924021444728 (Also available at University of Georgia Library)
7. ^ Doré, Henri. 1917. Researches into Chinese Superstitions. M. Kennelly, D.J. Finn, and L.F. McGreat, trs. T'usewei. Ch'eng-wen reprint 1966, 681.
8. ^ "Jade coiled dragon, Hongshan Culture (c. 4700-2920 B.C.)", National Gallery of Art, Washington DC. Retrieved on 23-02-2007.
9. ^ Carr, Michael. 1990. "Chinese Dragon Names", Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 13.2:87-189. He classified them into seven categories: Rain-dragons, Flying-dragons, Snake-dragons, Wug-dragons [wug refers to "worms, bugs, and small reptiles"], Crocodile-dragons, Hill-dragons, and Miscellaneous dragons.
10. ^ Adapted from Doré 682.
11. ^ de Visser 1913, pp. 101–102. The primary source is Wu Za Zu, chapter 9, beginning with "龍生九子...". The title of Xie Zhaozhe's work, Wu Za Zu, has been variously translated into English as Five Assorted Offerings (in Xie Zhaozhe), Five Sundry Bands (in "Disease and Its Impact on Politics, Diplomacy, and the Military ...") or Five Miscellanies (in Changing clothes in China: fashion, history, nation, p. 48).
12. ^ 吾三省 (Wu Sansheng) (2006), 中國文化背景八千詞 (Eight thousand words and expressions viewed against the background of Chinese culture), 商務印書館(香港) (Commercial Press, Hong Kong), p. 345, ISBN 9620718461, http://books.google.com.au/books?id=KQJ_tIU1ixoC&pg=PA345 (Chinese)
13. ^ 九、龙的繁衍与附会——龙生九子 (1) ("Chapter 9, Dragon's derived and associated creatures: Nine children of the dragon (1)"), in Yang Jingrong and Liu Zhixiong (2008). The full text of Shuyuan Zaji, from which Yang and Liu quote, is available in electronic format at a number of sites, e.g. here: 菽園雜記
14. ^ The Twenty-Four Histories: The History of Yuan-Dress Code (zh:元史·舆服), compiled under Song Lian (宋濂), AD 1370.




Ultima modifica di Tila il Mar 28 Dic 2010 - 16:26, modificato 1 volta
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il Drago: animale mistico   Sab 6 Nov 2010 - 14:31

Dopo aver visto la simbologia e i miti legati al drago cinese esploriamo insieme le tradizioni giapponesi...

Buona lettura


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_dragon

Japanese dragon
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Dragon, by Hokusai.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hokusai_Dragon.jpg

Japanese dragons are diverse legendary creatures in Japanese mythology and folklore. Japanese dragon myths amalgamate native legends with imported stories about dragons from China, Korea and India. The style of the dragon was heavily influenced by the Chinese dragon. Like these other Asian dragons, most Japanese ones are water deities associated with rainfall and bodies of water, and are typically depicted as large, wingless, serpentine creatures with clawed feet. The modern Japanese language has numerous "dragon" words, including indigenous tatsu from Old Japanese ta-tu, Sino-Japanese ryū or ryō 竜 from Chinese lóng 龍, nāga ナーガ from Sanskrit nāga, and doragon ドラゴン from English dragon.

Contents
[hide]

* 1 Indigenous Japanese dragons
* 2 Sino-Japanese dragons
* 3 Indo-Japanese dragons
* 4 Dragon temples
* 5 Images
* 6 Dragon shrines
* 7 Dragons in modern culture
* 8 Other Asian dragons
* 9 References
* 10 External links

[edit] Indigenous Japanese dragons

The ca. 680 CE Kojiki and the ca. 720 CE Nihongi mytho-histories have the first Japanese textual references to dragons. "In the oldest annals the dragons are mentioned in various ways," explains de Visser (1913:135), "but mostly as water-gods, serpent- or dragon-shaped." The Kojiki and Nihongi mention several ancient dragons:

* Yamata no Orochi 八岐大蛇 "8-branched giant snake" was an 8-headed and 8-tailed dragon slain by the god of wind and sea Susanoo, who discovered the Kusanagi-no-Tsurugi (legendary sword of the Imperial Regalia of Japan) in one of its tails.
* Watatsumi 海神 "sea god" or Ryūjin 龍神 "dragon god" was the ruler of seas and oceans, and described as a dragon capable of changing into human form. He lived in the undersea Ryūgū-jō 龍宮城 "dragon palace castle", where he kept the magical tide jewels.
* Toyotama-hime 豊玉姫 "Luminous Pearl Princess" was Ryūjin's daughter. She purportedly was an ancestress of Emperor Jimmu, Japan's legendary first emperor.
* Wani 鰐 was a sea monster that is translated as both "shark" and "crocodile". Kuma-wani 熊鰐 "bear (i.e., giant or strong) shark/crocodile" are mentioned in two ancient legends. One says the sea god Kotoshiro-nushi-no-kami transformed into an "8-fathom kuma-wani" and fathered Toyotama-hime, the other says a kuma-wani piloted the ships of Emperor Chūai and his Empress Jingū.
* Mizuchi 蛟 or 虯 was a river dragon and water deity. The Nihongi records legendary Emperor Nintoku offering human sacrifices to mizuchi angered by his river engineering projects.

These myths about Emperor Jimmu descending from Toyatama-hime evidence the folklore that Japanese Emperors are descendants of dragons. Compare the ancient Chinese tradition of dragons symbolizing the Emperor of China.

Dragons in later Japanese folklore were influenced by Chinese and Indian myths.

* Kiyohime 清姫 "Purity Princess" was a teahouse waitress who fell in love with a young Buddhist priest. After he spurned her, she studied magic, transformed into a dragon, and killed him.
* Nure-onna 濡女 "Wet Woman" was a dragon with a snake's body and a woman's head. She was typically seen while washing her hair on a riverbank and would sometimes kill humans when angered.
* Zennyo Ryūō 善如龍王 "goodness-like dragon king" was a rain-god depicted either as a dragon with a snake on its head or as a human with a snake's tail.
* In My Lord Bag of Rice, the Ryūō "dragon king" of Lake Biwa asks the hero Tawara Tōda 田原藤太 to kill a giant centipede.
* Urashima Tarō rescued a turtle which took him to Ryūgū-jō and turned into the attractive daughter of the ocean god Ryūjin.
* Inari, the god of fertility and agriculture, was sometimes depicted as a dragon or snake instead of a fox.

[edit] Sino-Japanese dragons

Chinese dragon mythology is central to Japanese dragons. Japanese words for "dragon" are written with kanji "Chinese characters", either simplified shinjitai 竜 or traditional kyūjitai 龍 from Chinese long 龍. These kanji can be read tatsu in native Japanese kun'yomi and ryū or ryō in Sino-Japanese on'yomi.

Many Japanese dragon names are loanwords from Chinese. For instance, the Japanese counterparts of the astrological Four Symbols are:

* Seiryū < Qinglong 青龍 "Azure Dragon"
* Suzaku < Zhuque 朱雀 "Vermilion Bird"
* Byakko < Baihu 白虎 "White Tiger"
* Genbu < Xuanwu 玄武 "Black Tortoise"

Japanese Shiryū 四竜 "4 dragon [kings]" are the legendary Chinese Longwang 龍王 "Dragon Kings" who rule the four seas.

* Gōkō < Aoguang 敖廣 "Dragon King of the East Sea"
* Gōkin < Aoqin 敖欽 "Dragon King of the South Sea"
* Gōjun < Aorun 敖閏 "Dragon King of the West Sea"
* Gōjun < Aoshun 敖順 "Dragon King of the North Sea"

Some authors differentiate Japanese ryū and Chinese long dragons by the number of claws on their feet. "In Japan," writes Gould (1896:248), "it is invariably figured as possessing three claws, whereas in China it has four or five, according as it is an ordinary or an imperial emblem."

During World War II, the Japanese military named armaments after Chinese dragons. The Kōryū 蛟竜 < jiaolong 蛟龍 "flood dragon" was a midget submarine and the Shinryū 神竜 < shenlong 神龍 "spirit dragon" was a rocket kamikaze aircraft.

[edit] Indo-Japanese dragons

When Buddhist monks from other parts of Asia brought their faith to Japan they transmitted dragon and snake legends from Buddhist and Hindu mythology. The most notable examples are the nāga ナーガ or 龍 "Nāga; rain deity; protector of Buddhism" and the nāgarāja ナーガラージャ or 龍王 ”Nāgaraja; snake king; dragon king". De Visser (1913:179) notes that many Japanese nāga legends have Chinese features. "This is quite clear, for it was via China that all the Indian tales came to Japan. Moreover, many originally Japanese dragons, to which Chinese legends were applied, were afterwards identified with nāga, so that a blending of ideas was the result." For instance, the undersea palace where nāga kings supposedly live is called Japanese ryūgū 龍宮 "dragon palace" from Chinese longgong 龍宮. Compare ryūgū-jō 龍宮城 "dragon palace castle", which was the sea-god Ryūjin's undersea residence. Japanese legends about the sea-god's tide jewels, which controlled the ebb and flow of tides, have parallels in Indian legends about the nāga's nyoi-ju 如意珠 "cintamani; wish-fulfilling jewels".

Some additional examples of Buddhistic Japanese dragons are:

* Hachidai ryūō 八大龍王 "8 great naga kings" assembled to hear the Buddha expound on the Lotus Sutra, and are a common artistic motif.
* Mucharinda ムチャリンダ "Mucalinda" was the Nāga king who protected the Buddha when he achieved bodhi, and is frequently represented as a giant cobra.
* Benzaiten 弁才天 is the Japanese name of the goddess Saraswati, who killed a 3-headed Vritra serpent or dragon in the Rigveda. According to the Enoshima Engi, Benzaiten created Enoshima Island in 552 CE in order to thwart a 5-headed dragon that had been harassing people.
* Kuzuryū 九頭龍 "9-headed dragon", deriving from the multi-headed Naga king シェーシャ or 舍沙 "Shesha", is worshipped at Togakushi Shrine in Nagano Prefecture.

[edit] Dragon temples

Dragon lore is traditionally associated with Buddhist temples. Myths about dragons living in ponds and lakes near temples are widespread. De Visser (1913:181-184) lists accounts for Shitennō-ji in Osaka, Gogen Temple in Hakone, Kanagawa, and the shrine on Mount Haku where the Genpei Jōsuiki records that a Zen priest saw a 9-headed dragon transform into the goddess Kannon. In the present day, the Lake Saiko Dragon Shrine at Fujiyoshida, Yamanashi has an annual festival and fireworks show.

Temple names, like Japanese toponyms, frequently involve dragons. For instance, the Rinzai sect has Tenryū-ji 天龍寺 "Heavenly Dragon Temple", Ryūtaku-ji 龍沢寺 "Dragon Swamp Temple", Ryōan-ji 竜安寺 "Dragon Peace Temple". According to legend (de Visser 1913:180), when the Hōkō-ji 法興寺 or Asuka-dera 飛鳥寺 Buddhist temple was dedicated at Nara in 596, "a purple cloud descended from the sky and covered the pagoda as well as the Buddha hall; then the cloud became five-coloured and assumed the shape of a dragon or phoenix".

The Kinryū-no-Mai "Golden Dragon Dance" is an annual Japanese dragon dance performed at Sensō-ji, a Buddhist temple in Asakusa. The dragon dancers twist and turn within the temple grounds and outside on the streets. According to legend, the Sensō Temple was founded in 628 after two fishermen found a gold statuette of Kannon in the Sumida River, at which time golden dragons purportedly ascended into heaven. The Golden Dragon Dance celebrates the temple founding and allegedly provides good fortune and prosperity.


The Buddha riding a sea-dragon, by Kunisada.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Kunisada_II_The_Dragon.jpg



Sea-dragon, by Utagawa Kuniyoshi
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Kuniyoshi_Utagawa,_Dragon_2.jpg


Dragon shrines


Japanese Dragon shrine in Fujiyoshida.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dragonn3.jpg


Japanese dragons are associated with Shinto shrines as well as Buddhist temples.

Itsukushima Shrine on Miyajima or Itsukushima Island in Japan's Inland Sea was believed to be the abode of the sea-god Ryūjin's daughter. According to the Gukanshō and The Tale of Heike (Heinrich 1997:74-75), the sea-dragon empowered Emperor Antoku to ascend the throne because his father Taira no Kiyomori offered prayers at Itsukushima and declared it his ancestral shrine. When Antoku drowned himself after being defeated in the 1185 Battle of Dan-no-ura, he lost the imperial Kusanagi sword (which legendarily came from the tail of the Yamata no Orochi] dragon) back into the sea. In another version, divers found the sword, and it is said to be preserved at Atsuta Shrine. The great earthquake of 1185 was attributed to vengeful Heike spirits, specifically the dragon powers of Antoku.

Ryūjin shinkō 竜神信仰 "dragon god faith" is a form of Shinto religious belief that worships dragons as water kami. It is connected with agricultural rituals, rain prayers, and the success of fisherman.

[edit] Dragons in modern culture

Dragons are a familiar motif in Japanese art and architecture, literature, and popular culture. Some alphabetically-arranged examples include:

* Chunichi Dragons are a professional baseball team.
* Dragon Ball is a manga and anime metaseries.
* Dragon Quest is a popular videogame series.
* Kamen Rider Ryuki (English Kamen Rider Dragon Knight) is a show in the Kamen Rider Series.
* Long is the main villain of the Gekiranger Super Sentai series, americanized in Power Rangers: Jungle Fury as Dai Shi and Scorch.
* King Ghidorah is a three-headed golden dragon that has taken many forms in the kaiju films, specifically in the Godzilla series.
* Manda is a dragon in kaiju films.
* Nāsu ナース is a dragon robot in the Ultraman series.
* "Ryū 龍" or "Dragon: the Old Potter's Tale" is a short story by Ryūnosuke Akutagawa
* Haku/Kohaku from the film Spirited Away is a river spirit whose true form is that of a white dragon.
* Natsu, the main character of the anime/mangá series Fairy Tail was raised by a Dragon, and can use fire for attacks.
* Breath of Fire IV shows a tale of Ryu and Fou-Lu being able to transform into ancient dragons.

[edit] Other Asian dragons

* Chinese dragon
* Druk
* Korean dragon
* Nāga
* Vietnamese dragon

[edit] References

* Aston, William George, tr. 1896. Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A.D. 697. 2 vols. Kegan Paul. 1972
* Chamberlain, Basil H., tr. 1919. The Kojiki, Records of Ancient Matters.
* Gould, Charles. 1896. Mythical Monsters". W. H. Allen & Co.
* Heinrich, Amy Vladeck. 1997. Currents in Japanese Culture: Translations and Transformations. Columbia University Press.
* Ingersoll, Ernest. 1928. "Chapter Nine: The Dragon in Japanese Art", in Dragons and Dragon Lore, Payson & Clarke.
* Smith, G. Elliot. 1919. The Evolution of the Dragon. Longmans, Green & Company.
* Visser, Marinus Willern de. 1913. The Dragon in China and Japan. J. Müller.

[edit] External links

* Dragons, Dragon Art, and Dragon Lore in Japan, A to Z Photo Dictionary of Japanese Buddhism
* Dragons of Fame: Japan, The Circle of the Dragon
* The Japanese Dragon, Dragonorama
* Ryūjin shinkō, Encyclopedia of Shinto
* The Azure Dragon of the East, Steve Renshaw and Saori Ihara
* Ryuu 龍, Japanese Architecture & Art Net User System
* Lucky Motifs on a Dragon Robe, Kyoto National Museum


Ultima modifica di Tila il Mar 28 Dic 2010 - 16:28, modificato 1 volta
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Tila
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Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il Drago: animale mistico   Gio 11 Nov 2010 - 14:06

Prima di riportare altre notizie sul drago vorrei rendervi partecipi di immagini meravigliose di animali che hanno del drago soltanto il nome...

chissà Admin se queste stupende creature hanno qualche similitudine da un punto di vista totemico?


Phyllopteryx taeniolatus - drago marino comune
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Phyllopteryx_taeniolatus1.jpg


Phycodurus eques - dragone foglia
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cavalo_marinho1804.JPG


Varanus komodoensis - Drago di Komodo
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Varanus_komodoensis6.jpg

Di quest'ultimo, cioè del drago di Komodo, ad esempio so' che da un punto di vista totemico è simile a quello della lucertola...comunque dopo questa parentesi continuo a parlarvi del drago... buona lettura.


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dragon

Dragon
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dragons are legendary creatures, typically with serpentine or otherwise reptilian traits, that feature in the myths of many cultures.

There are two distinct cultural traditions of dragons: the European dragon, derived from European folk traditions and ultimately related to Greek and Middle Eastern mythologies, and the Chinese dragon, with counterparts in Japan, Korea and other Asian countries. The two traditions may have evolved separately, but have influenced each to a certain extent, particularly with the cross-cultural contact of recent centuries. The English word "dragon" derives from Greek δράκων (drákōn), "dragon, serpent of huge size, water-snake", which probably comes from the verb δρακεῖν (drakeîn) "to see clearly".[1]
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Overview
* 2 Origin and etymology
* 3 By region
o 3.1 Greek mythology
o 3.2 European
o 3.3 Chinese
o 3.4 Japanese
o 3.5 Vedic
o 3.6 Indian
o 3.7 Persian
o 3.8 Jewish
* 4 Modern depictions
o 4.1 Creationists' assertions
* 5 Cartography
* 6 See also
* 7 References
* 8 Sources
* 9 Further reading
* 10 External links

Overview

Dragons are usually shown in modern times with a body like a huge lizard, or a snake with two pairs of lizard-type legs, and able to emit fire from their mouths. The European dragon has bat-type wings growing from its back. A dragon-like creature with no front legs is known as a wyvern. Following discovery of how pterosaurs walked on the ground, some dragons have been portrayed without front legs and using the wings as front legs pterosaur-fashion when on the ground.

Although dragons occur in many legends around the world, different cultures have varying stories about monsters that have been grouped together under the dragon label. Some dragons are said to breathe fire or to be poisonous. They are commonly portrayed as serpentine or reptilian, hatching from eggs and possessing typically scaly or feathered bodies. They are sometimes portrayed as having especially large eyes or watching treasure very diligently, a feature that is the origin of the word dragon (Greek drakeîn meaning "to see clearly").[2] Some myths portray them with a row of dorsal spines. European dragons are more often winged, while Chinese dragons resemble large snakes. Dragons can have a variable number of legs: none, two, four, or more when it comes to early European literature.

Dragons are often held to have major spiritual significance in various religions and cultures around the world. In many Asian cultures dragons were, and in some cultures still are, revered as representative of the primal forces of nature, religion and the universe. They are associated with wisdom—often said to be wiser than humans—and longevity. They are commonly said to possess some form of magic or other supernatural power, and are often associated with wells, rain, and rivers. In some cultures, they are also said to be capable of human speech. In some traditions dragons are said to have taught humans to talk.

The term dragoon, for infantry that moved around on horseback yet still fought as foot soldiers, is derived from their early firearm, the "dragon", a wide-bore musket that spat flame when it fired, and was thus named for the mythical creature.

Origin and etymology

The word dragon derives from Greek δρακων, via Latin draco. It is attested in Middle English from the 13th century, in the context of medieval bestiaries and legends.

The Greek and Latin term referred to any great serpent, not necessarily mythological, and this usage was also current in English up to the 18th century. Today the great komodo lizard Varanus komodoensis is also known in English as the Komodo dragon. The King James Bible uses the words "serpent", "dragon" and "Devil" in a fairly interchangeable manner.

The association of the serpent with a monstrous opponent overcome by a heroic deity has its roots in the mythology of the Ancient Near East, including Canaanite (Hebrew, Ugaritic), Hittite and Mesopotamian. The Chaoskampf motif entered Greek mythology and ultimately Christian mythology, although the serpent motif may already be part of prehistoric Indo-European mythology as well, based on comparative evidence of Indic and Germanic material.

The "European dragon" (and its Near Eastern and Indic cognates) myth has quite different characteristics and origins from those of the Chinese dragon.[citation needed]

Dinosaur and mammalian fossils were occasionally mistaken for the bones of dragons and other mythological creature; for example, a discovery in 300 BC in Wucheng, Sichuan, China, was labeled as such by Chang Qu.[3] Adrienne Mayor has written on the subject of fossils as the inspiration for myths in her book The First Fossil Hunters, and in an entry in the Encyclopedia of Geology she wrote: "Fossil remains generated a variety of geomyths speculating on the creatures' identity and cause of their destruction. Many ancient cultures, from China and India to Greece, America, and Australia, told tales of dragons, monsters, and giant heroes to account for fossils of animals they had never seen alive."[4] In Australia, stories of such creatures may have referred to the land crocodiles, Quinkana sp., a terrestrial crocodile which grew from 5 to possibly 7 metres in length, or the 4 tonne monitor lizard Varanus priscus (formerly Megalania prisca) a giant, carnivorous goanna that might have grown to as long as 7 metres, and weighed up to 1,940 kilograms, or rainbow serpents (possibly Wonambi naracoortensis) that were part of the extinct megafauna of that continent.[5]

In the book An Instinct for Dragons[6] anthropologist David E. Jones suggests a hypothesis that humans just like monkeys have inherited instinctive reactions to snakes, large cats and birds of prey. Dragons have features that are combinations of these three. Our instinctive fear for these three would explain why dragons with similar features occur in stories from independent cultures on all continents. Other authors have suggested that especially under the influence of drugs or in dreams, this instinct may give raise to fantasies about dragons, snakes, spiders, etc., which would explain why these symbols are popular in drug culture. The traditional mainstream explanation to the folklore dragons does however not rely on human instinct, but on the assumption that fossil remains of dinosaurs gave rise to similar speculations all over the world.
By region
Greek mythology
Main article: Dragons in Greek mythology

In Ancient Greece the first mention of a "dragon" is derived from the Iliad where Agamemnon is described as having a blue dragon motif on his sword belt and a three-headed dragon emblem on his breast plate.[7] However, the Greek word used (δράκων drákōn, genitive δράκοντοϛ drákontos) could also mean "snake". δράκων drákōn is a form of the aorist participle active of Greek δέρκομαι dérkomai = "I see", derkeîn = "to see", and originally likely meant "that which sees", or "that which flashes or gleams" (perhaps referring to reflective scales). This is the origin of the word "dragon". (See also Hesiod's Theogony, 322.)

In 217 A.D., Philostratus discussed dragons (δράκων, drákōn) in India in The Life of Apollonius of Tyana (II,17 and III,6-Cool. The Loeb Classical Library translation (by F.C. Conybeare) mentions (III,7) that “In most respects the tusks resemble the largest swine’s, but they are slighter in build and twisted, and have a point as unabraded as sharks’ teeth.”

According to Aelian's On Animals, Ethiopia was inhabited by a species of dragon that hunted elephants. It could grow to a length of 180 feet and had a lifespan rivaling that of the most enduring of animals.[8]

European
Main articles: European dragon and Saint George and the Dragon

European dragons exist in folklore and mythology among the overlapping cultures of Europe. Despite having wings, the dragon is generally depicted as having an underground lair or cave, making it an ancient creature of the earth element. European dragons are usually depicted as malevolent though there are exceptions (such as Y Ddraig Goch, the Red Dragon of Wales).

Chinese

Chinese dragons (simplified Chinese: 龙; traditional Chinese: 龍; pinyin: lóng) can take on human form and are usually seen as benevolent. Dragons are particularly popular in China and the five-clawed dragon was a symbol of the Chinese emperors, with the mythical bird fenghuang the symbol of the Chinese empress. Dragon costumes manipulated by several people are a common sight at Chinese festivals.
Japanese
Main article: Japanese dragon

Japanese dragon myths amalgamate native legends with imported stories about dragons from China, Korea and India. Like these other Asian dragons, most Japanese ones are water deities associated with rainfall and bodies of water, and are typically depicted as large, wingless, serpentine creatures with clawed feet. Gould writes (1896:248),[9] the Japanese dragon is "invariably figured as possessing three claws".
Vedic

In the early Vedic religion, Vritra (Sanskrit: वृत्र (Devanāgarī) or Vṛtra (IAST)) "the enveloper", was an Asura and also a "naga" (serpent) or possibly dragon-like creature, the personification of drought and enemy of Indra. Vritra was also known in the Vedas as Ahi ("snake"), and he is said to have had three heads.
Indian

The following detailed account comes from the Life of Apollonius of Tyana by Flavius Philostratus:[10]

The whole of India is girt with dragons of enormous size; for not only the marshes are full of them, but the mountains as well, and there is not a single ridge without one. Now the marsh kind are sluggish in their habits and are thirty cubits long, and they have no crest standing up on their heads, but in this respect resemble the she-dragons. Their backs however are very black, with fewer scales on them than the other kinds; and Homer has described them with deeper insight than have most poets, for he says that the dragon that lived hard by the spring in Aulis had a tawny back; but other poets declare that the congener of this one in the grove of Nemea also had a crest, a feature which we could not verify in regard to the marsh dragons.

And the dragons along the foothills and the mountain crests make their way into the plains after their quarry, and prey upon all the creatures in the marshes; for indeed they reach an extreme length, and move faster than the swiftest rivers, so that nothing escapes them. These actually have a crest, of moderate extent and height when they are young; but as they reach their full size, it grows with them and extends to a considerable height, at which time also they turn red and get serrated backs. This kind also have beards, and lift their necks on high, while their scales glitter like silver; and the pupils of their eves consist of a fiery stone, and they say that this has an uncanny power for many secret purposes. The plain specimen falls the prize of the hunters whenever it draws upon itself an elephant; for the destruction of both creatures is the result, and those who capture the dragons are rewarded by getting the eyes and skin and teeth. In most respects they resemble the largest swine, but they are slighter in build and flexible, and they have teeth as sharp and indestructible as those of the largest fishes. Now the dragons of the mountains have scales of a golden colour, and in length excel those of the plain, and they have bushy beards, which also are of a golden hue; and their eyebrows are more prominent than those of the plain, and their eye is sunk deep under the eyebrow, and emits a terrible and ruthless glance. And they give off a noise like the clashing of brass whenever they are burrowing under the earth, and from their crests, which are all fiery red, there flashes a fire brighter than a torch. They also can catch the elephants, though they are themselves caught by the Indians in the following manner. They embroider golden runes on a scarlet cloak, which they lay in front of the animal's burrow after charming them to sleep with the runes; for this is the only way to overcome the eyes of the dragon, which are otherwise inflexible, and much mysterious lore is sung by them to overcome him. These runes induce the dragon to stretch his neck out of his burrow and fall asleep over them : then the Indians fall upon him as he lies there, and despatch him with blows of their axes, and having cut off the head they despoil it of its gems. And they say that in the heads of the mountain dragons there are stored away stones of flowery colour, which flash out all kinds of hues, and possess a mystical power if set in a ring, like that which they say belonged to Gyges. But often the Indian, in spite of his axe and his cunning, is caught by the dragon, who carries him off into his burrow, and almost shakes the mountains as he' disappears. These are also said to inhabit the mountains in the neighbourhood of the Red Sea, and they say that they heard them hissing terribly and that they saw them go down to the shore and swim far out into the sea.
—Flavius Philostratus, The Life of Apollonius of Tyana

Persian

Aži Dahāka is the source of the modern Persian word azhdahā or ezhdehā اژده ها (Middle Persian azdahāg) meaning "dragon", often used of a dragon depicted upon a banner of war. The Persians believed that the baby of a dragon will be the same color as the mother's eyes. In Middle Persian he is called Dahāg or Bēvar-Asp, the latter meaning "[he who has] 10,000 horses." Several other dragons and dragon-like creatures, all of them malevolent, are mentioned in Zoroastrian scripture. (See Zahhāk).
Jewish

In Jewish religious texts, the first mention of a dragon-like creature is in the Biblical works of Job (26:13), and Isaiah (27:1) where it is called Nachash Bare'ach, or a "Pole Serpent".[11] This is identified in the Midrash Rabba to Genesis 1:21 as Leviathan from the word Taninim (תנינים) "and God created the great sea-monsters."[12] In modern Hebrew the word Taninim is used for Crocodiles but this is a 20th century usage unconnected with the original Biblical meaning.[citation needed]

In Jewish astronomy this is also identified with the North Pole, the star Thuban which, around 4,500 years ago, was the star in the Draco constellation's "tail".[11] However this can also have been either the celestial pole or the ecliptic pole. The ancient observers noted that Draco was at the top of the celestial pole, giving the appearance that stars were "hanging" from it, and in Hebrew it is referred to as Teli, from talah (תלה) - to hang.[13] Hebrew writers from Arabic-speaking locations identified the Teli as Al Jaz'har, which is a Persian word for a "knot" or a "node" because of the intersection of the inclination of the orbit of a planet from the elliptic that forms two such nodes. In modern astronomy these are called the ascending node and the descending node, but in medieval astronomy they were referred to as "dragon's head" and "dragon's tail".[14]

Rahab, as described in Psalms 89:9-10 and Isaiah 51:9-10, also has "dragon-like" characteristics.[original research?]

The Merthyr Synagogue features a dragon on the front gable.[15]

Modern depictions

In the early 20th century sculpture of the Norwegian artist Gustav Vigeland, inspired by Medieval art, dragons are a frequent theme—as symbols of sin but also as a nature force, fighting against man.

There are numerous examples of dragons in modern literature, especially the fantasy genre. In the 1937 fantasy novel The Hobbit by J.R.R. Tolkien, the major antagonist is a dragon named Smaug. Smaug hoards a great treasure but is ultimately shot down with an arrow by an archer who was told about a soft patch in Smaug's underbelly armor. Other dragons appearing in Tolkien's works include Glaurung, the "father of dragons" created by Morgoth, along with Ancalagon the Black and Scatha. Also, in Tolkien's Farmer Giles of Ham, a dragon named Chrysophylax Dives is encountered.

Dragons also appear frequently in the Harry Potter novels by J. K. Rowling, and are described in the Harry Potter related book Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them by the same author.

Dragonriders of Pern is an extensive science fiction series of novels and short stories created and primarily written by Anne McCaffrey. Since 2004, McCaffrey's son Todd McCaffrey has also published Pern novels, both in collaboration with Anne and on his own. The Pernese use intelligent firebreathing creatures called "dragons" who have a telepathic bond with their riders, formed by mental impressions which the dragons receive when they hatch from their eggs.

Some modern pseudo-biological accounts of dragons give them the generic name Draco, although the generic name Draco is used in real-world biology for a genus of small gliding agamid lizard. An infectious disease called Dracunculiasis, caused by infection with the Guinea worm which grows up to 3 feet (0.91 m) long before emerging from its host, also derives its name from dragons (literally "infestation with little dragons"), based on the burning pain experienced by sufferers.
Creationists' assertions

Some creationists believe that dragons of mythology were actually dinosaurs, and that they died out with other creatures around the end of the ice age.[16][17]
Cartography

There is a widespread belief that earlier cartographers used the Latin phrase hic sunt dracones, i.e., "the dragons are here", or "here be dragons", to denote dangerous or unexplored territories, in imitation of the infrequent medieval practice of putting sea serpents and other mythological creatures in blank areas of maps. However the only known use of this phrase is in the Latin form "HC SVNT DRACONES" on the Lenox Globe (ca. 1503-07).[18]
See also
Ddraig.svg Mythology portal

* Bat (heraldry)
* Ichneumon (In medieval zoology)
* Komodo Dragon
* List of dragons in mythology and folklore
* List of dragons in literature
* Saint George and the Dragon

References

1. ^ Δράκων, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus project
2. ^ Wiktionary.org
3. ^ "Dinosaurs And Cave People". Abc.net.au. 2005-04-14. http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2005/04/14/1334145.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-11.
4. ^ Adrienne Mayor in Encyclopedia of Geology, ed. Richard Selley, Robin Cocks, and Ian Palmer. Elsevier:2004
5. ^ Mackness, B.S. 2009. Reconstructing Palorchestes (Marsupialia: Palorchestidae) — from Giant Kangaroo to Marsupial ‘Tapir’. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 130: 21-36.
6. ^ David E. Jones (2000). An Instinct for Dragons. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92721-8. http://books.google.com/books?id=P1uBUZupE9gC&lpg=PP1&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q=&f=false.
7. ^ p.79, Drury, Nevill, The Dictionary of the Esoteric, books.google.com
8. ^ Theoi.com
9. ^ Gould, Charles. 1896. Mythical Monsters". W. H. Allen & Co.
10. ^ Flavius Philostratus, The Life of Apollonius of Tyana, translated by F. C. Conybeare, volume I, book III. chapters VI, VII, VIII, 1921, pp. 243- 247.
11. ^ a b p. 233, Kaplan
12. ^ p.51, Freedman
13. ^ p. 1670, Jastrow ref to Genesis 38:14, Y.Sot.I 16d (bot.)
14. ^ p. 235, Kaplan
15. ^ Kadish, Sharman (2006) Jewish Heritage in England: an architectural guide. Swindon: English Heritage ISBN 190562428X; p. 203
16. ^ Unlocking the secrets of creation by Dennis R. Peterson
17. ^ The Genesis Flood by John C. Whitcomb Jr.
18. ^ Erin C. Blake (1999). "Where Be "Here be Dragons"?". MapHist Discussion Group. Maphist.nl. http://www.maphist.nl/extra/herebedragons.html. Retrieved February 10, 2006.

Sources
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Dragon

* Drury, Nevill, The Dictionary of the Esoteric, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 2003 ISBN 8120819896
* Freedman, Rabbi Dr. H. (translation), Simon M., editor, Midrash Rabbah: Genesis, Volume one, The Soncino Press, London, 1983
* Littleton, C. Scott. Mythology: The Illustrated Anthology of World Myth and Storytelling. Thunder Bay Press (CA). ISBN 1571458271.
* Rosanna M. Giammanco Frongia; Giorgi, Rosa; Giammanco Frongia, Rosanna M.; Zuffi, Stefano (2005). Angels and demons in art. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum. ISBN 0892368306.

Further reading

* Knight, Peter. "Sacred Dorset - On the Path of the Dragon", 1998.
* Manning-Sanders, Ruth (1977). A Book of Dragons. London: Methuen. ISBN 0416581102.
* Mayor, Adrienne (2000). The First Fossil Hunters: Paleontology in Greek and Roman Times. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-08977-9.
* Shuker, Karl (1995). Dragons: a natural history. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0684814439.


FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drago_%28zodiaco_cinese%29

Drago (zodiaco cinese)
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Il Drago ( 龍 ) è l'unica creatura mitologica dello Zodiaco cinese. In Cina, i draghi sono associati alla forza, alla salute, all'armonia e alla fortuna; vengono posti al di sopra delle porte o sui tetti per bandire i demoni e gli spiriti maligni. L'Anno del Drago è associato al simbolo della divisione dell'anno 辰.

Nella cultura Cinese, durante gli anni del Drago sono nati più bambini rispetto agli altri anni.

Indice
[nascondi]

* 1 Gli anni e i Cinque Elementi
* 2 Attributi
* 3 Attributi tradizionali del Drago e associazioni
* 4 Voci correlate
* 5 Collegamenti esterni

Gli anni e i Cinque Elementi [modifica]


Un drago Cinese
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Japanese_dragon,_Chinese_school,_19th_Century.jpg

Le persone nate in questi periodi sono nate nell'anno del Drago, aggiungendo il seguente segno elementale:

* 16 febbraio, 1904 - 3 febbraio, 1905: Legno
* 3 febbraio, 1916 - 22 gennaio, 1917: Fuoco
* 23 gennaio, 1928 - 9 febbraio, 1929: Terra
* 8 febbraio, 1940 - 26 gennaio, 1941: Metallo
* 27 gennaio, 1952 - 13 febbraio, 1953: Acqua
* 13 febbraio, 1964 - 1 febbraio, 1965: Legno
* 31 gennaio, 1976 - 17 febbraio, 1977: Fuoco
* 17 febbraio, 1988 - 5 febbraio, 1989: Terra
* 5 febbraio, 2000 - 23 gennaio, 2001: Metallo
* 2012 - 2013: Acqua
* 2024 - 2025: Legno

Attributi [modifica]

Il Drago è onnipotente. È vistoso, attraente e pieno di forza e vitalità. In Cina, il Drago è il segno dell'Imperatore cinese o l'elemento maschile Yang. Il Drago è il simbolo del potere e della ricchezza.

È giusto dire che le persone nate nell'anno del Drago hanno un naturale carisma e sono sicuramente dotate di potenza e fortuna. È improbabile che passino inosservati ad una festa o ottengano il secondo posto in una competizione. Il Drago ha una mente attiva e mostra un forte interesse per il mondo che lo circonda. È una persona sicura di sé al punto da sapere come dare una buona impressione. Siccome sono più grandi della vita stessa, i Draghi fanno qualsiasi cosa su larga scala. Sono egoisticamente egocentrici e ambiziosi, al limite della megalomania. Non si fermano di fronte ad alcun ostacolo per ottenere ciò che desiderano. Una persona nata in questo anno indossa la corona del destino ed è capace di ottenere grossi risultati, se sa come sfruttare la sua straordinaria energia, l'intelligenza e il talento. Pur amando essere al centro dell'attenzione, queste persone hanno anche un aspetto coraggioso e caritatevole. Se un amico di un Drago si trova di fronte ad un problema, egli offrirà aiuto, e quando gli altri lasciano il campo di battaglia, il drago fa un passo avanti per risolvere il problema dell'autorità e della dignità. I Draghi richiedono che le azioni, per loro o per gli altri, siano efficienti e sono sorpresi quando gli altri non riescono ad occuparsi di un compito; sono così trasportati dal processo di azioni che non vedono le debolezze delle altre persone.

Impieghi ideali per i Draghi sono: re, ufficiale militare, politico, musicista, poeta, artista, ingegnere biologico e ambientale, operatore di borsa, atleta, direttore di compagnia, esploratore e avvocato.

Il Drago è molto compatibile con il Topo, la Scimmia, il Serpente e il Gallo.
Tornare in alto Andare in basso
Tila
Iniziato Sciamano
Iniziato Sciamano


Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il Drago: animale mistico   Gio 11 Nov 2010 - 22:16

Grazie ancora a questa fonte sempre ben documentata vediamo un elenco di draghi presenti nella storia dell'uomo....come vedremo il drago assume vari volti e vari significati..mentre a volte anche se le culture sono differenti si trovano delle similitudini..

Buona lettura!

List of dragons in mythology and folklore
Asian dragons


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_dragons_in_mythology_and_folklore



Chinese dragon


Lóng (or Loong. Lung2 in Wade-Giles romanization.)
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chinese_Dragon_Banner.svg

The Chinese dragon, is a mythical Chinese creature that also appears in other Asian cultures, and is sometimes called the Oriental (or Eastern) dragon. Depicted as a long, snake-like creature with four claws, it has long been a potent symbol of auspicious power in Chinese folklore and art. This type of dragon, however, is sometimes depicted as a creature constructed of many animal parts. It might have the fins of some fish, or the horns of a stag.



Indian dragon

Nāga

A serpentine dragon common to all cultures influenced by Hinduism. They are often hooded like a cobra and may have several heads depending on their rank. They usually have no arms or legs but those with limbs resemble the Chinese dragon.



Indonesian/Malay dragon

Naga or Nogo

Derived from the Indian nāga, belief in the Indo-Malay dragon spread throughout the entire Malay Peninsula along with Hinduism. The word naga is still the common Malay term for dragons in general.[citation needed] Like its Indian counterpart, the naga is considered divine in nature, benevolent, and often associated with sacred mountains, forests, or certain parts of the sea


Japanese dragon


Ryū
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Okyo_Dragon.jpg

Similar to Chinese dragons, with three claws instead of four. They are usually benevolent, associated with water, and may grant wishes.



Khmer Dragon


Neak
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Linteau_Mus%C3%A9e_Guimet_25973.jpg

The Khmer dragon, or neak is derived from the Indian nāga. Like its Indian counterpart, the neak is often depicted with cobra like characteristics such as a hood. The number of heads can be as high as nine, the higher the number the higher the rank. Odd-headed dragons are symbolic of male energy while even headed dragons symbolize female energy. Traditionally, a neak is distinguished from the often serpentine Makar and Tao, the former possessing crocodilian traits and the latter possessing feline traits. A dragon princess is the heroine of the creation myth of Cambodia.



Korean dragon

Yong (Mireu)
A sky dragon, essentially the same as the Chinese lóng. Like the lóng, yong and the other Korean dragons are associated with water and weather. In pure Korean, it is also known as 'mireu'.

Imoogi
A hornless ocean dragon, sometimes equated with a sea serpent. Imoogi literally means, "Great Lizard". The legend of the Imoogi says that the sun god gave the Imoogi their power through a human girl, which would be transformed into the Imoogi on her 17th birthday. Legend also said that a dragon-shaped mark would be found on the shoulder of the girl, revealing that she was the Imoogi in human form.

Gyo
A mountain dragon. In fact, the Chinese character for this word is also used for the imoogi.



Philippine Dragon

Bakunawa

The Bakunawa appears as a gigantic serpent that lives in the sea. Ancient natives believed that the Bakunawa caused the moon or the sun to disappear during an eclipse. It is said that during certain times of the year, the Bakunawa arises from the ocean and proceeds to swallow the moon whole. To keep the Bakunawa from completely eating the moon, the natives would go out of their houses with pots and pans in hand and make a noise barrage in order to scare the Bakunawa into spitting out the moon back into the sky. Some say that the Bakunawa is known to kill people by imagining their death and remote in eye contact.



Vietnamese dragon


Rồng or Long (Ly dynasty, Daiviet X)
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dragonvietnam.gif


These dragons' bodies curve lithely, in sine shape, with 12 sections, symbolising 12 months in the year. They are able to change the weather, and are responsible for crops. On the dragon's back are little, uninterrupted, regular fins. The head has a long mane, beard, prominent eyes, crest on nose, but no horns. The jaw is large and opened, with a long, thin tongue; they always keep a châu (gem/jewel) in their mouths (a symbol of humanity, nobility and knowledge).







FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_dragon

Korean dragon
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Yongsan_Dragon_4.jpg

Korean dragons are legendary creatures in Korean mythology and folklore. Although generally comparable with Chinese dragons in appearance and symbolic significance, Korean dragons have unique culture-specific properties that differentiate them from dragons in other cultures.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Korean dragons
* 2 Korean cockatrice
* 3 Further reading
* 4 Other Asian dragons
* 5 External links

[edit] Korean dragons

Whereas most dragons in European mythology are generally related to the elements of fire and destruction, dragons in Korean mythology are mostly viewed as benevolent beings related to water and agriculture, often considered bringers of rain and clouds. Hence, many Korean dragons are said to have resided in rivers, lakes, oceans, or even deep ponds within mountains.

The symbol of the dragon has been used extensively, both in Korean mythology and ancient Korean art.

Ancient texts sometimes mention sentient speaking dragons, capable of understanding such complex emotions such as devotion, kindness, and gratitude. One particular Korean legend speaks of the great King Munmu, who on his deathbed wished to become a "Dragon of the East Sea in order to protect Korea".

The Korean dragon was said to have certain specific traits, generally like the Chinese dragon, but it developed a longer beard. It is in many ways very similar in appearance to dragons of Chinese and Japanese mythology.

Very occasionally a dragon may be depicted as carrying a dragon orb known as the Yeouiju (여의주) in one or more of its claws. Modeled after the mythical Cintamani jewel or pearl, it was said that whoever could wield the Yeouiju was blessed with the abilities of omnipotence and creation at will, and that only four-toed dragons (who had thumbs with which to hold the orbs) were both wise and powerful enough to wield these orbs, as opposed to the lesser, three-toed dragons.

As with China, the number nine is significant and auspicious in Korea, and dragons were said to have 81 (9x9) scales on their backs, representing yang essence.

Korean folk mythology states that most dragons were originally Imugis, or lesser dragons, which were said to resemble gigantic serpents. It was thought that an Imugi could become a true dragon, or yong/mireu, if it caught a Yeouiju which had fallen from heaven.

[edit] Korean cockatrice

The Korean cockatrice is known as a gye-ryong (계룡/鷄龍), which literally means chicken-dragon; they do not appear as often as dragons. They are sometimes seen as chariot-pulling beasts for important legendary figures or for the parents of legendary heroes. One such legend involves the founding of the Kingdom of Silla, whose princess was said to have been born from a cockatrice egg.
[edit] Further reading

Bates, Roy, Chinese Dragons, Oxford University Press, 2002

Bates, Roy, All About Chinese Dragons, China History Press, 2007.



FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippine_Dragon

Bakunawa
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Bakunawa, also known as Bakonawa, Baconaua, or Bakonaua, is a deity in Philippine mythology that is often represented as a gigantic sea serpent. It is believed to be the god of the underworld and is often considered to be the cause of eclipses.

It appears as a giant sea serpent with a mouth the size of a lake, a red tongue, whiskers, gills, small wires at its sides, and two sets of wings, one is large and ash-gray while the other is small and is found further down its body.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Mythology
* 2 Literature
* 3 Similar creatures
* 4 Sword hilt ornaments
* 5 Games
o 5.1 Objective
* 6 See also
* 7 References

[edit] Mythology

Tales about the Bakunawa say that it is the cause of eclipses. During ancient times, Filipinos believe that there are seven moons created by Bathala to light up the sky. The Bakunawa, amazed by their beauty, would rise from the ocean and swallow the moons whole, angering Bathala and causing them to be mortal enemies.

To keep the Bakunawa moons from completely being swallowed, ancient Filipinos would go out of their homes with pans and pots, and would make noise in order to scare the Bakonawa into spitting out the moon back into the sky. Some of the people in the villages would play soothing sounds with their musical instruments, in hopes that the dragon would fall into a deep sleep. Thus, the brave men of the village hoped that while the dragon was hypnotized by the musical sounds they could somehow slay the dragon. Although the dragon was known as a "moon eater" it was also known as a "man eater".

Other tales tell that the Bakunawa has a sister in the form of a sea turtle. The sea turtle would visit a certain island in the Philippines in order to lay its eggs. However, locals soon discovered that every time the sea turtle went to shore, the water seemed to follow her, thus reducing the island's size. Worried that their island would eventually disappear, the locals killed the sea turtle.

When the Bakunawa found out about this, it arose from the sea and ate the moon. The people were afraid so they prayed to Bathala to punish the creature. Bathala refused but instead told them to bang some pots and pans in order to disturb the serpent. The moon is then regurgitated while the Bakunawa disappeared, never to be seen again.

The island where the sea turtle lays its eggs is said to exist today. Some sources say that the island might just be one of the Turtle Islands.

[edit] Literature
[edit] Similar creatures

Other serpentine/dragon deities are also found in other myths in the Philippines. These include the Bawa, the Bauta, Mameleu or Mamelen or Nanreben, and Marcupo or Macupo of Hiligaynon mythology, Buwaya or Nono of Tagalog mythology, and Mikonawa or Mikunawa or Minokawa of Bagobo mythology.

[edit] Sword hilt ornaments

Figures of the Bakunawa's head decorate the hilts of many ancient Filipino swords. These swords that originate in Panay are said to bestow upon the hangaway or mandirigma (sacred warriors) the fearful presence and power of the Bakunawa (or whatever deity/animal they have on their deity hilt) when they wield their swords in combat.

[edit] Games

A children's game called Bulan Bulan, Buwan Buwan, or Bakunawa is played in the Philippines. It has 8-6 players arranged in a circle.

A player acts as the buwan/bulan (moon) while another player act as the Bakunawa (eclipse), chosen either through Jack-en-poy, “maalis taya”, or “maiba taya.” The other participants stand in a circle facing the center and holding each other's hands. The buwan/bulan stands inside the circle while the Bakunawa stands outside.

[edit] Objective

The object of the game is for the Bakunawa to tag or touch the buwan/bulan. The rest of the players try to prevent the bakunawa from doing so by holding on to each other and running around the circle as fast as they can while not letting go of the ones next to them.

For the Bakunawa to get into the circle, he or she asks one of the players, "What chain is this?" and when the player replies, "This is an iron chain," the Bakunawa should ask another player because an iron chain is supposed to be unbreakable. A player who wants to let the bakunawa in can say, "This is an abaca chain," and should let go of his or her hold. This is usually done when the player playing as the bakunawa is tired from running around.

The Bakunawa can also try to get in by going under the linked hands. If the player chosen as the bakunawa is fast and small enough, this can be done easily. As soon as the bakunawa succeeds in getting in, the players forming the circle should let the buwan out of the circle.

The Bakunawa then tries to break out of the linked hands to try to get out to catch the buwan/bulan. When the Bakunawa succeeds in catching the buwan/bulan, they exchange places, or if both of them are too tired, another pair from the circle of players is chosen as the new Bakunawa and buwan/bulan.



FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnamese_dragon


Dragon roof detail, imperial enclosure, Huế
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Roof_detail,_dragon.jpg


One of four dragons in front of Ngu Long Mon
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ngulongmon4.JPG

Vietnamese dragon
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Vietnamese dragons (Vietnamese: rồng or long 龍) are symbolic creatures in the folklore and mythology of Vietnam. According to an ancient creation myth, the Vietnamese people are descended from a dragon and a fairy.

To Vietnamese people, the dragon brings rain, essential for agriculture. It represents the emperor, the prosperity and power of the nation. Like the Chinese dragon, the Vietnamese dragon is the symbol of yang, representing the universe, life, existence, and growth.

The acients relics of Vietnamese Dragon is not many nowadays. The reasons are the fierce changes in history and the Hanization of the Nguyễn dynasty.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 The legend
* 2 Historical development of Vietnamese dragon image
o 2.1 Prehistory
o 2.2 Ngô Dynasty (938–965)
o 2.3 Lý Dynasty (1010–1225)
o 2.4 Trần Dynasty (1225–1400)
o 2.5 Lê Dynasty
o 2.6 Nguyễn Dynasty
* 3 Dragon in literature
* 4 Vietnamese place-names, and other things, named after dragons
* 5 Other Asian dragons
* 6 References

[edit] The legend

The 5th-generation grandson of Shennong, Lạc Long Quân- king of the dragonkind living near the Đông sea, married a goddess, Âu Cơ who was the daughter of the birdkind king Đế Lai. Âu Cơ bore 100 eggs, which hatched into 100 sons. The first-born son became the king of Lạc Việt, the first dynasty of Vietnam, and proclaimed himself Emperor Hùng Vương. The First was followed by Hùng Vương The Second, Hùng Vương The Third and so on, through 18 reigns. This is the origin of the Vietnamese proverb: "Con Rồng, cháu Tiên" ("Children of Dragon, Grandchildren of Gods").

[edit] Historical development of Vietnamese dragon image


[edit] Prehistory

The Vietnamese dragon is the combined image of crocodile, snake, lizard and bird. Historically, the Vietnamese people lived near rivers, so they venerated crocodiles as "Giao Long", the first kind of Vietnamese dragon.

There are some kinds of dragons found on archaeological objects. One group is that of the crocodile-dragons, with the head of a crocodile and the body of a snake. The cat-dragon excavated on a glazed terracotta piece in Bac Ninh has some features of Đại Việt period dragon: it does not have a crocodile head, its head is shorter and it has a long neck, its wing and backfin are long lines, and its whiskers and fur are found in the Đại Việt dragon image.

[edit] Ngô Dynasty (938–965)

On the brick from this period found in Co Loa, the dragon is short, with a cat-like body and a fish's backfin.

[edit] Lý Dynasty (1010–1225)

The Lý Dynasty is the dynasty which laid the foundation of Vietnamese feudal culture. Buddhism was widespread and Van Mieu, the first feudal university, was opened. The slender, flowing dragon of this period represents the King, and is literature dragon.

These dragons' perfectly rounded bodies curve lithely, in a long sinuous shape, tapering gradually to the tail. The body has 12 sections, symbolising 12 months in the year. On the dragon's back are small, uninterrupted, regular fins. The head, held high, is in proportion with the body, and has a long mane, beard, prominent eyes, crest on nose (pointing forwards), but no horns. The legs are small and thin, and usually 3-toed. The jaw is opened wide, with a long, thin tongue; the dragons always keep a châu (gem/jewel) in their mouths (a symbol of humanity, nobility and knowledge). These dragons are able to change the weather, and are responsible for crops.

[edit] Trần Dynasty (1225–1400)

The Trần Dynasty dragon was similar to that of the Ly dynasty but looked more intrepid. The Tran dragon has new details: arms and horns. Its fiery crest is shorter. Its slightly curved body is fat and smaller toward the tail. There are many kinds of tail (straight and pointed tail, spiral tail) as well as many kinds of scale (a regular half-flower scale, slightly curved scale).

The Tran dragon symbolised the martial arts, because the Tran kings were descended from a Mandarin commander. The Vietnamese had to fight Mongol invaders in this age.

[edit] Lê Dynasty

In this period, the Vietnamese dragon's image was influenced by the Chinese dragon, because of Confucianism's expansion policy. Differing from those of the previous dynasty, dragons in this age are not only represented in a curved posture among clouds but also in others. These dragons were majestic, with lion-heads. Instead of a fiery crest, they have a large nose. Their bodies only curve in two sections. Their feet have five sharp claws.

Nguyễn Dynasty

(1802–1883) During the early part of the Nguyễn Dynasty, the dragon is represented with a spiral tail and a long fiery sword-fin. Dragons were personified by a mother with her children or a pair of dragons. Its head and eyes are large. It has stag horns, a lion's nose, exposed canine teeth, regular flash scale, curved whiskers. Images of the Dragon King have 5 claws, while images of lesser dragons have only 4 claws.

(1883–1945) In this later period, the dragon image degenerated and became unrefined, losing its natural and majestic shape, and was seen as a signal of the decline in art of the last Vietnamese dynasty.

[edit] Dragon in literature

Some proverbs and sayings mention dragons but imply something else:

"Rồng gặp mây": "Dragon meets clouds" – In favourable condition.

"Đầu rồng đuôi tôm": "Dragon's head, shrimp's tail" – Good at first and bad at last; something which starts well but ends badly.

"Rồng bay, phượng múa": "Dragon flight, phoenix dance" – Used to praise the calligraphy of someone who writes Chinese ideograms well.

"Rồng đến nhà tôm": "Dragon visits shrimp's house" – A saying used by a host to (or of) his guest: the host portrays himself as a humble shrimp and his guest as a noble dragon.

"Ăn như rồng cuốn, nói như rồng leo, làm như mèo mửa": "Eating as dragon scrolls, talking as dragon climbs, working as cat vomits" – A criticism of someone who eats too much and talks a lot, but is lazy.


Vietnamese dragon ceramic picture at Chuong Duong bridge
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:ThangLong-ConDuongGomSuvenSongHong.JPG

Vietnamese place-names, and other things, named after dragons

Ha Noi (Vietnamese: Hà Nội), a large city of Vietnam, was known in ancient times as Thăng Long (from Thăng, meaning "to grow, to develop, to rise, to fly, or to ascend" and Long, meaning "dragon"); the capital is still referred to by this name in literature. In 1010, King Lý Thái Tổ moved the capital from Hoa Lư to Đại La, which decision was explained in his Chiếu dời đô (Royal proclamation of moving capital): he saw a Rồng vàng (yellow dragon) fly around on the clear blue sky, so he changed the name of Đại La to Thăng Long, meaning "Vietnam's bright and developed future". Furthermore, one of Thăng Long Four Defense Deity (Vietnamese: Thăng Long Tứ Trấn) is Long Đỗ Deity (literally: dragon's navel- where is the center, the place that Earth and Sky meet each other- according to orient's view, the belly has a role which is as important as the heart is in western view). Long Đỗ Deity helped Lý Thái Tổ to build Thăng Long citadel.

Many place-names in Vietnam incorporate the word Long, or Rồng (also meaning dragon): Ha Long Bay (vịnh Hạ Long), the section of the Mekong river flowing through Vietnam contains 9 branches and is called Cửu Long (meaning nine dragons); Hàm Rồng bridge, Long Biên bridge. Other things named after dragons include: Thanh Long (dragonfruit), vòi rồng (waterspout), xương rồng (Cactaceae), long nhãn (dragon eyes: Vietnamese cognate word for longan fruit).


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Druk

Druk
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Druk (Dzongkha: འབྲུག་) is the "Thunder Dragon" of Bhutanese mythology and a Bhutanese national symbol. A druk appears on the Bhutanese Flag, holding jewels to represent wealth. In the Dzongkha language, Bhutan is called Druk Yul, or Land of Druk, and Bhutanese leaders are called Druk Gyalpo, Dragon Kings - because of Druk. During the Bhutanese mock election in 2007, all four mock parties were called the Druk colour Party[1]. The national anthem of Bhutan, Druk Tsendhen, translates into English as 'The Kingdom of Druk'.



FONTE:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N%C4%81ga

Nāga
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nāga (Sanskrit: नाग, IAST: nāgá, Burmese: နဂါး, IPA: [nəɡá]; Indonesian: naga, Javanese: någå, Khmer: នាគ neak, Thai: นาค nak, Chinese: 那伽) is the Sanskrit and Pāli word for a deity or class of entity or being, taking the form of a very great snake—specifically the King Cobra, found in Hinduism and Buddhism. The use of the term nāga is often ambiguous, as the word may also refer, in similar contexts, to one of several human tribes known as or nicknamed "Nāgas"; to elephants; and to ordinary snakes, particularly the King Cobra and the Indian Cobra, the latter of which is still called nāg in Hindi and other languages of India. A female nāga is a nāgī or nāginī.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Etymology
* 2 In the Mahabharata
o 2.1 Enmity with Garuda
o 2.2 The curse of Kadru
o 2.3 Other mentions in the Mahabharata
* 3 In Hinduism
* 4 In Buddhism
* 5 Well-known nāgas
* 6 Where nāga live
* 7 Other traditions
o 7.1 In Lake Chinni
o 7.2 In Cambodia
o 7.3 In the Mekong
* 8 In popular culture
* 9 See also
* 10 Notes
* 11 References
* 12 External links

[edit] Etymology

In Sanskrit, a nāgá (नाग) is a cobra, a specific type of snake (hooded snake). A synonym for nāgá is phaṇin (फणिन्). There are several words for "snake" in general, and one of the very commonly used ones is sarpá (सर्प). Sometimes the word nāgá is also used generically to mean "snake".[1][2] The word is cognate with English 'snake', Germanic: *snēk-a-, Proto-IE: *(s)nēg-o-.[3]
[edit] In the Mahabharata

In the great epic Mahabharata, the depiction of Nagas tends toward the negative, and they are portrayed as the deserving victims of the snake sacrifice and of predation by the eagle-king Garuda. The epic calls them "persecutors of all creatures", and tells us "the snakes were of virulent poison, great prowess and excess of strength, and ever bent on biting other creatures" (Book I: Adi Parva, Section 20). At the same time, nagas are important players in many of the events narrated in the epic, frequently no more evil nor deceitful than the other protagonists, and sometimes on the side of good.

The epic frequently characterizes Nagas as having a mixture of human and serpent-like traits. Sometimes it characterizes them as having human traits at one time, and as having serpent-like traits at another. For example, the story of how the Naga prince Sesha came to hold the world on his head begins with a scene in which he appears as a dedicated human ascetic, "with knotted hair, clad in rags, and his flesh, skin, and sinews dried up owing to the hard penances he was practising." Brahman is pleased with Shesha, and entrusts him with the duty of carrying the world. At that point in the story, Shesha begins to exhibit the attributes of a serpent. He enters into a hole in the Earth and slithers all the way to bottom, where he then loads the Earth onto his head. (Book I: Adi Parva, Section 36.)
[edit] Enmity with Garuda

The great nemesis of the Nagas in the Mahabharata is the gigantic eagle-king Garuda. Garuda and the Nagas began life as cousins. The sage Kasyapa had two wives, Kadru and Vinata, the former of whom desired many offspring, and the latter of whom desired few but powerful offspring. Each got her wish. Kadru laid 1000 eggs which hatched into snakes, and Vinata laid two, which hatched into the charioteer of Surya the sun god and Garuda. Through a foolish bet, Vinata became enslaved to her sister, and as a result Vinata's son Garuda was required to do the bidding of the snakes. Though compliant, he chafed and built up a grudge that he would never relinquish. When he asked the snakes what he would have to do in order to be released from his bondage, they told him he would have to bring them amrita, the elixir of immortality. Garuda stole the elixir from the gods and brought it to the serpents in fulfillment of their requirement, but through a ruse prevented them from partaking of it and achieving immortality. From that point onward, he regarded them as enemies and as food. (Book I: Adi Parva, Sections 16ff.)
[edit] The curse of Kadru

Kadru, the ancestral mother of snakes, made a bet with her sister Vinata, the stakes being that the loser would be enslaved to the winner. Eager to secure victory, Kadru requested the cooperation of her offspring in order to fix the bet so that Kadru would win. When her offspring balked at the request, Kadru grew angry and cursed them to die a fiery death in the snake-sacrifice of King Janamejaya, the son of Parikshit, who was the son of Abhimanyu the son of Arjuna. The king of the snakes Vasuki was aware of the curse, and knew that his brethren would need a hero to rescue them from it. He approached the renowned ascetic Jaratkaru with a proposal of marriage to a snake-goddess, Manasa, Vasuki's own sister. Out of the union of the ascetic and the snake-maiden was born "a son of the splendor of a celestial child." This son was named Astika, and he was to be the savior of the snakes.

In accordance with Kadru's curse, Janamejaya prepared a snake sacrifice of a type described in the scriptures, the Puranas. He erected a sacrificial platform and hired priests and other professionals needed for the rites. Following the proper form, the priests lit the sacrificial fire, duly fed it with clarified butter, uttered the required mantras, and began calling the names of snakes. The power of the rite was such that the named snakes were summoned to the fire and were consumed by it. As the sacrifice took on genocidal proportions, Astika came to the rescue. He approached Janamejaya and praised the sacrifice in such eloquent terms that the king offered to grant him a boon of his choosing. Astika promptly requested that the sacrifice be terminated. Though initially regretful of his offer, Janamejaya was true to his word, and the sacrifice came to an end. (Book I: Adi Parva, Sections 13-58.)
[edit] Other mentions in the Mahabharata

* The serpent king Vasuki helped the gods to recover amrita, the elixir of immortality, from the Ocean of Milk by serving as the cord they wrapped around Mount Mandara in order to churn up the depths of the ocean. (Book I: Adi Parva, Section 18.)
* The naga princess Ulupi had a son Iravat by the Pandava hero Arjuna. (Book I: Adi Parva, Section 216.) Though he had the support of many nagas, Iravat was eventually slain by the Rakshasa Alamvusha at the battle of Kurukshetra. (Book VI: Bhishma Parva, Section 91.)
* Matali, the charioteer of the god Indra, sought a husband for his daughter Gunakesi. He approached the naga Aryaka and proposed the marriage of Gunakesi with the naga's handsome grandson Sumukha. Alas, Aryaka replied, Garuda had already declared his intent to devour the comely youth, having previously murdered his father. Matali, however, persuaded Indra and Vishnu to give Sumukha a draught of amrita, the elixir of immortality. Sumukha drank the potion, and thus was rendered impervious to any assault by the lord of the birds. The young couple were happily married. (Book V: Udyoga Parva, Section 103.)

[edit] In Hinduism
Stories involving the nāgas are still very much a part of contemporary cultural traditions in predominantly Hindu regions of Asia (India, Nepal, and the island of Bali). In India, nāgas are considered nature spirits and the protectors of springs, wells and rivers. They bring rain, and thus fertility, but are also thought to bring disasters such as floods and drought. According to traditions nāgas are only malevolent to humans when they have been mistreated. They are susceptible to mankind's disrespectful actions in relation to the environment. They are also associated with waters—rivers, lakes, seas, and wells—and are generally regarded as guardians of treasure. According to Beer (1999),[page needed] Naga and cintamani are often depicted together and associated directly in the literature.

They are objects of great reverence in some parts of southern India where it is believed that they bring fertility and prosperity to their venerators. Expensive and grand rituals like Nagamandala[4] are conducted in their honor (see Nagaradhane). In India, certain communities called Nagavanshi consider themselves descendants of Nagas.

Varuna, the Vedic god of storms, is viewed as the King of the nāgas. Nāgas live in Pātāla, the seventh of the "nether" dimensions or realms.[5] They are children of Kashyapa and Kadru. Among the prominent nāgas of Hinduism are Manasa, Shesha or Sesa, and Vasuki.

The nāgas also carry the elixir of life and immortality. Garuda once brought it to them and put a cup with elixir on the ground but it was taken away by Indra. However, few drops remained on the grass. The nāgas licked up the drops, but in doing so, cut their tongues on the grass, and since then their tongues have been forked.[6]

Vishnu is originally portrayed in the form sheltered by a Shesha naga or reclining on Shesha, but the iconography has been extended to other deities as well. The serpent is a common feature in Ganesha iconography and appears in many forms: around the neck,[7] use as a sacred thread (Sanskrit: yajñyopavīta)[8] wrapped around the stomach as a belt, held in a hand, coiled at the ankles, or as a throne.[9] Shiva is often shown garlanded with a snake.[10]

Nagas are also snakes that may take human form. They tend to be very curious.
Patanjali as Adi-Sesha

Maehle (2007: p.?) affirms that according to tradition, Patañjali is held to be an incarnation of Ādi S'esha.
[edit] In Buddhism

Traditions about nāgas are also very common in all the Buddhist countries of Asia. In many countries, the nāga concept has been merged with local traditions of great and wise serpents or dragons. In Tibet, the nāga was equated with the klu, wits that dwell in lakes or underground streams and guard treasure. In China, the nāga was equated with the lóng or Chinese dragon.

The Buddhist nāga generally has the form of a great cobra-like snake, usually with a single head but sometimes with many. At least some of the nāgas are capable of using magic powers to transform themselves into a human semblance. In Buddhist painting, the nāga is sometimes portrayed as a human being with a snake or dragon extending over his head. One nāga, in human form, attempted to become a monk; when telling it that such ordination was impossible, the Buddha told it how to ensure that it would be reborn a man, able to become a monk.

Nāgas are believed to both live on Mount Sumeru, among the other minor deities, and in various parts of the human-inhabited earth. Some of them are water-dwellers, living in streams or the mer; others are earth-dwellers, living in underground caverns. Some of them sleep on top of anthills. Their food includes frogs and they love milk.[citation needed]

The nāgas are the servants of Virūpākṣa (Pāli: Virūpakkha), one of the Four Heavenly Kings who guards the western direction. They act as a guard upon Mount Sumeru, protecting the devas of Trāyastriṃśa from attack by the Asuras.

Among the notable nāgas of Buddhist tradition is Mucalinda, protector of the Buddha. In the Vajrayana and Mahasiddha traditions according to Beer (1999),[page needed] many notable fully enlightened nagas also transmitted and/or transported terma into and out of the human realm that had been elementally encoded by adepts.

Norbu (1999: p.?) states that according to tradition the Prajnaparamita terma teachings are held to have been conferred upon Nagarjuna by Nagaraja, the King of the nagas, who had been guarding them at the bottom of a lake. Refer Lotus Sutra.

Well-known nāgas

* Ananta-Sesha, ("Limitless-Eternal") the world serpent with a thousand heads[11] serving as a bed of Vishnu.
* Balarama, origin of Ananta-Sesha.[12]
* Karkotaka controls weather.
* Mucalinda protects the Buddha.
* Padmavati, the Nāgī queen & companion of Dharanendra.
* Paravataksha, his sword causes earthquakes and his roar caused thunder.
* Takshaka, king of the Nāgas.
* Ulupi, a companion of Arjuna in the epic Mahabharata.
* Vasuki, king of the Nagas who helped the devas recover amrita from the Ocean of Milk.
* Kaliya, a snake conquered by Krishna

[edit] Where nāga live

* Patala (or Nagaloka), the seventh of the "nether" dimensions or realms, Bhoga-vatī being its capital.[13]
* Lake Manosarowar, lake of the Great Nāgas.
* Mount Sumeru
* Nagaland in India
* Kacha Naga/Duplicate Naga, the Naga tribes outside Nagaland.
* Naggar, village in the Himalayas, Tibet, that derives its name from Naga (Cobra).
* Nagpur, Indian city derived from Nāgapuram, literally "city of nāgas".
* Pacific Ocean (Cambodian myth)
* Sheshna's well in Benares, India, said to be an entrance to Patala.
* Nagadaa, where naag-yaGYa was performed.
* Mekong river
* Anantnag, Indian city (Kashmir) named after one of 12 prominent divine naga king mentioned in Bhavishyapuran.
* Takshila, an ancient place in Pakistan named after one of 12 prominent divine naga king in Bhavishyapuran.

[edit] Other traditions

For Malay sailors, nāgas are a type of dragon with many heads; in Thailand and Java, the nāga is a wealthy underworld deity. In Laos they are beaked water serpents. Phaya Naga, Water Dragon, is a well-known dragon in Thailand. People in Thailand see it as a holy creature and worship it in the temple. It allegedly lives in Mekong river.
[edit] In Lake Chinni

In Malay and Orang Asli traditions, the lake Chinni, located in Pahang is home to a naga called Sri Gumum. Depending on legend versions, her predecessor Sri Pahang or her son left the lake and later fought a naga called Sri Kemboja. It should be noted that Kemboja is the former name of what is Cambodia. Like the naga legends there, there are stories about an ancient empire in lake Chinni, although the stories are not linked to the naga legends.[14][15]
[edit] In Cambodia
Cambodian Naga at the Royal Palace in Phnom Penh

In a Cambodian legend, the nāga were a reptilian race of beings who possessed a large empire or kingdom in the Pacific Ocean region. See Kaliya. The Nāga King's daughter married an Indian Brahmana named Kaundinya, and from their union sprang the Cambodian people. Therefore still Cambodians say that they are "Born from the Nāga".

The Seven-Headed Nāga serpents depicted as statues on Cambodian temples, such as Angkor Wat, apparently represent the seven races within Nāga society, which has a mythological, or symbolic, association with "the seven colors of the rainbow". Furthermore, Cambodian Nāga possess numerological symbolism in the number of their heads. Odd-headed Nāga symbolise the Male Energy, Infinity, Timelessness, and Immortality. This is because, numerologically, all odd numbers come from One (1). Even-headed Nāga are said to be "Female, representing Physicality, Mortality, Temporality, and the Earth."
[edit] In the Mekong

The legend of the Nāga is a strong and sacred belief held by Thai and Lao people living along the Mekong River. Many pay their respects to the river because they believe the Nāga still rule in it, and locals hold an annual sacrifice for the Nāga. Each ceremony depends on how each village earns its living from the Mekong River — for instance, through fishing or transport. Local residents believe that the Nāga can protect them from danger, so they are likely to make a sacrifice to Nāga before taking a boat trip along the Mekong River.[citation needed]

Also, every year on the night of 15th day of 11th month in the Lao lunar calendar at the end of Vassa, an unusual phenomenon occurs in the area of the Mekong River stretching over 20 kilometres between Pak-Ngeum and Phonephisai districts in Nong Khai province, Thailand. Fireballs appear to rise from the river into the nighttime sky. Local villagers believe that Nāga under Mekong River shoot the fireballs into the air to celebrate the end of Vassa, because Nāga meditate during this time.[16]

A photograph on display in bars, restaurants, guesthouses, and markets around Thailand captioned, Queen of Nagas seized by American Army at Mekhong River, Laos Military Base on June 27, 1973 with the length of 7.80 meters is a hoax. The photograph is actually that taken by USN LT DeeDee Van Wormer, of an oarfish found in late 1996 by US Navy SEAL trainees on the coast of Coronado, California[17][18]

In 2000, Richard Freeman from the Centre for Fortean Zoology visited the area and talked with witnesses who claimed to have seen gigantic snakes far larger than any python. The general description was of a 60 foot serpent with black scales that had a greenish sheen. Freeman speculated that the nāga legend was based on a real animal, possibly a giant madtsoiid snake.[19]
[edit] In popular culture

Several Bollywood films have been made on the theme of Nagin (female nāga), including Nagin (1954 film), Nagin (1976 film), Nagina (1986 film), Hisss (2010 film) and the television series Naaginn (2007-9).

World of Warcraft has a faction populated by Nagas.


Naga emerging from the mouth of a Makara in the style of a Chinese dragon
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Phra_Maha_Chedi_Chai_Mongkol_Naga_emerging_from_mouth_of_Chinese_dragon.jpg


A naga at the steps of a building in the Wat Phra Kaew in Bangkok
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wat_Phra_Kaew_Naga.JPG


Ultima modifica di Tila il Mar 28 Dic 2010 - 16:31, modificato 1 volta
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Tila
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Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
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Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il Drago: animale mistico   Ven 12 Nov 2010 - 15:40

List of dragons in mythology and folklore
European dragons



FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_dragons_in_mythology_and_folklore

Catalan dragon
drac

Catalan dragons are serpent-like creatures with two legs (rarely four) and, sometimes, a pair of wings. Their faces can resemble that of other animals, like lions or cattle. They have a burning breath. Their breath is also poisonous, the reason by which dracs are able to rot everything with their stench. A víbria is a female dragon.


French dragons

Dragon
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Meddragon_Liber_Floridus_Lambert_of_sint_Omaars_1460.jpg

The French representation of dragons spans much of European history, and has even given its name to the dragoons, a type of cavalry.


Sardinian dragon
scultone

The dragon named "scultone" or "ascultone" appears in legends in Sardinia, Italy. It had the power to kill human beings with its gaze. It was a sort of basilisk, lived in the bush and was immortal.



Scandinavian & Germanic dragons

Lindworm

Lindworms are serpent-like dragons with either two or no legs. In Nordic and Germanic heraldry, the lindworm looks the same as a wyvern. The dragon Fafnir was a lindworm.


English dragons
Wyvern

Wyverns are common in medieval heraldry. Their usual blazon is statant. Wyverns are normally shown as dragons with two legs and two wings.



Welsh dragons

FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Welsh_dragon.svg

In Welsh mythology, after a long battle (which the Welsh King Vortigern witnesses) a red dragon defeats a white dragon; Merlin explains to Vortigern that the red dragon symbolizes the Welsh, and the white dragon symbolizes the Saxons — thus foretelling the ultimate defeat of the English by the Welsh. The ddraig goch appears on the Welsh national flag.



Gaelic dragons
Bheithir

In Celtic Mythology Ben Vair in Scotland takes its name from the dragon that used to live in a great hollow in the face of a mountain known as Corrie Lia. The dragon was tricked into walking along a pontoon bridge with hidden spikes.


Hungarian dragons (Sárkányok)

zomok
A great snake living in a swamp, which regularly kills pigs or sheep. A group of shepherds can easily kill them.

sárkánykígyó
A giant winged snake, which is in fact a full-grown zomok. It often serves as flying mount of the garabonciás (a kind of magician). The sárkánykígyó rules over storms and bad weather.

sárkány
A dragon in human form. Most of them are giants with multiple heads. Their strength is held in their heads. They become gradually weaker as they lose their heads.
In contemporary Hungarian the word sárkány is used to mean all kinds of dragons.



Slavic dragons

zmey, zmiy, żmij, змей, or zmaj, or drak, or smok

FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dragon_Crop.svg

Similar to the conventional European dragon, but multi-headed. They breathe fire and/or leave fiery wakes as they fly. In Slavic and related tradition, dragons symbolize evil. Specific dragons are often given Turkic names (see Zilant, below), symbolizing the long-standing conflict between the Slavs and Turks. However, in Serbian and Bulgarian folklore, dragons are defenders of the crops in their home regions, fighting against a destructive demon Ala, whom they shoot with lightning.[1][2]



Armenian dragon
Vishap
Related to European dragons


Siberian dragon
Yilbegan
Related to European Turkic and Slavic dragons



Romanian dragons
Balaur, Zburator
Balaur are very similar to the Slavic zmey: very large, with fins and multiple heads.



Chuvash dragons
Vere Celen
Chuvash dragons represent the pre-Islamic mythology of the same region.



Asturian and Leonese dragons
Cuélebre
In Asturias and León mythology the Cuélebres are giant winged serpents, which live in caves where they guard treasures and kidnapped xanas. They can live for centuries and, when they grow really old, they use their wings to fly. Their breath is poisonous and they often kill cattle to eat. Leonese language term Cuelebre comes from Latin colŭbra, i.e., snake.


Albanian Dragon
Dragua
In the Albanian mythology the Draguas have four legs and two bat wings. They have a single horn in their head and they have big ears. They live in the forests and cannot be seen unless they want to be. A Dragua can live up to 100 years and cannot be killed by humans. After the Ottoman invasion, the Draguas became protectors of the highlanders.



Portuguese dragons
Coca
In Portuguese mythology coca is a female dragon that fights with Saint George. She loses her strength when Saint George cuts off one of her ears.



Greek dragons
Drákōn - δράκων

FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Kadmos_dragon_Louvre_E707.jpg

Cadmus fighting the Ismenian dragon (which guarded the sacred spring of Ares) is a legendary story from the Greek lore dating to before ca. 560–550 B.C. Greek dragons commonly had a role of protecting important objects or places. For example, the Colchian dragon watched the Golden Fleece and the Nemean dragon guarded the sacred groves of Zeus.[3] The name comes from the Greek "drakeîn" meaning "to see clearly".[4]



Tatar dragons
Zilant
Really closer to a wyvern or cockatrice, the Zilant is the symbol of Kazan. Zilant itself is a Russian rendering of Tatar yılan, i.e., snake.



Turkish dragons
Ejderha or Evren
The Turkish dragon secretes flames from its tail, and there is no mention in any legends of its having wings, or even legs. In fact, most Turkish (and later Islamic) sources describe dragons as gigantic snakes.



Lithuanian Dragons
Slibinas
This dragon is more of a hydra with multiple heads, though sometimes it does appear with one head.


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_dragon#Dragons_in_Catalan_mythology

European dragon
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

European dragons are legendary creatures in folklore and mythology among the overlapping cultures of Europe.

In European folklore, a dragon is a serpentine legendary creature. The Latin word draco, as in constellation Draco, comes directly from Greek δράκων, (drákōn, gazer). The word for dragon in Germanic mythology and its descendants is worm (Old English: wyrm, Old High German: wurm, Old Norse: ormr), meaning snake or serpent. In Old English wyrm means "serpent", draca means "dragon". Finnish lohikäärme directly translated means "salmon-snake", but the word lohi- was originally louhi- meaning crags or rocks, a "mountain snake". The word lohi- in lohikäärme is also thought to derive from the ancient Norse word lógi, meaning 'fire' as in the Finnish mythology, there is also mentions of "tulikäärme" meaning firesnake, or fireserpent. Though a winged creature, the dragon is generally to be found in its underground lair, a cave that identifies it as an ancient creature of earth. Likely, the dragons of European and Mid Eastern mythology stem from the cult of snakes found in religions throughout the world.

In Western folklore, dragons are usually portrayed as evil, with the exceptions mainly in Welsh folklore and modern fiction. In the modern period the dragon is typically depicted as a huge fire-breathing, scaly and horned dinosaur-like creature, with leathery wings, with four legs and a long muscular tail. It is sometimes shown with feathered wings, crests, fiery manes, ivory spikes running down its spine and various exotic colorations.

Many modern stories represent dragons as extremely intelligent creatures who can talk, associated with (and sometimes in control of) powerful magic. In stories a dragon's blood often has magical properties: for example in the opera Siegfried it let Siegfried understand the language of the Forest Bird. The typical dragon protects a cavern or castle filled with gold and treasure and is often associated with a great hero who tries to slay it, but dragons can be written into a story in as many ways as a human character, including as wise beings whom heroes can approach for help and advice; in such cases they resemble Asian rather than European dragons.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Roman dragons
* 2 Dragons in Germanic mythology
* 3 Dragons in Celtic mythology
* 4 Dragons in Slavic mythology
* 5 Dragons in Iberian Mythology
o 5.1 Dragons in Asturian and Cantabrian mythology
o 5.2 Dragons in Aragonese mythology
o 5.3 Dragons in Basque mythology
o 5.4 Dragons in Catalan mythology
o 5.5 Dragons in Portuguese mythology
* 6 Dragons in Italian mythology
* 7 Notes
* 8 See also
* 9 External links

[edit] Roman dragons

Roman dragons evolved from serpentine Greek ones, combined with the dragons of the Near East, in the mix that characterized the hybrid Greek/Eastern Hellenistic culture. From Babylon, the musrussu was a classic representation of a Near Eastern dragon. John's Book of Revelation—Greek literature, not Roman—describes Satan as "a great dragon, flaming red, with seven heads and ten horns". Much of John's literary inspiration is late Hebrew and Greek, but John's dragon is more likely to have come originally through the Near East.[1] Perhaps the distinctions between dragons of western origin and Chinese dragons are arbitrary, since the later Roman dragon was certainly of Iranian origin: in the Roman Empire, where each military cohort had a particular identifying signum, (military standard), after the Parthian and Dacian Wars of Trajan in the east, the Dacian Draco military standard entered the Legion with the Cohors Sarmatarum and Cohors Dacorum (Sarmatian and Dacian cohorts)—a large dragon fixed to the end of a lance, with large gaping jaws of silver and with the rest of the body formed of colored silk. With the jaws facing into the wind, the silken body inflated and rippled, resembling a windsock.[2] This signum is described in the surviving epitome of Vegetius De Re Militari 379 CE—"The first sign of the entire legion is the eagle, which the eagle-bearer carries. In addition, dragons are carried into battle by each cohort, by the 'dragoneers'"[3]—and in Ammianus Marcellinus, xvi. 10, 7.[4] Parthia lies athwart the Silk Road, the cultural thread between East and West:[5] it is hard to deny all connection between this Romanized Parthian dragon and distant Chinese origins.

Several vague incarnations of evil in the Old Testament were given the translation draco in Jerome's Vulgate, to undergo changes in meaning and become broad embodiments of evil.[6]
[edit] Dragons in Germanic mythology

The most famous dragons in Norse and Germanic mythology are:

* Níðhöggr who gnawed at the roots of Yggdrasil itself.
* Jörmungandr, midgårdsormen (Swedish and Danish), Midgardsormen (Norwegian), the giant sea serpent which surrounds Miðgarð the world of mortal men;
* The dragon encountered by Beowulf;
* Fafnir, who was killed by Sigurd. Fafnir had turned into a dragon because of his greed.
* Lindworms are monstrous serpents of Germanic myth and lore, often interchangeable with dragons.
* The landvættur dragon whom King Harald's servant met in Vopnafjörður according to Heimskringla. The dragon is now depicted on the Icelandic Coat of Arms.

Of these, J.R.R. Tolkien wrote:

And dragons, real dragons, essential both to the machinery and the ideas of a poem or tale, are actually rare. In northern literature there are only two that are significant. If we omit from consideration the vast and vague Encircler of the World, Miðgarðsormr, the doom of the great gods and no matter for heroes, we have but the dragon of the Völsungs, Fáfnir, and Beowulf's bane.[7]

Many European stories of dragons have them guarding a treasure hoard. Both Fafnir and Beowulf's dragon guarded earthen mounds full of ancient treasure. The treasure was cursed and brought ill to those who later possessed it.

English "dragon" derives (via Middle English, Old French, and Latin) from Greek dracon, "serpent, dragon"; the Greek word derives from Indo-European *derk-, "to see", and may originally have meant something like "monster with the evil eye." Notwithstanding their folkloric associations, there is no etymological connection between dragons and the ghoulish figures known as draugar in Old Norse, who haunt rich burial mounds.

The emblem books popular from late medieval times through the 17th century often represent the dragon as an emblem of greed. The prevalence of dragons in European heraldry demonstrates that there is more to the dragon than greed.

The poem Beowulf describes a draca (= dragon) also as wyrm (= worm, or serpent) and its movements by the Anglo-Saxon verb bugan = "to bend", and says that it has a venomous bite; all of these indicate a snake-like form and movement rather than with a lizard-like or dinosaur-like body as in later belief (though the dragon of Beowulf does show several features that would later become popularized with dragons; namely, it breathes fire, lives underground, and collects treasure).

[edit] Dragons in Celtic mythology

In Britain, the dragon is now more commonly associated with Wales, as its national flag features a red dragon (Y Ddraig Goch). This may originate in Arthurian Legend where Myrddin, employed by Gwrtheyrn, had a vision of the red dragon[8] (representing the Britons) and the white dragon (representing the invading Saxons) fighting beneath Dinas Emrys. This particular legend also features in the Mabinogion in the story of Lludd and Llefelys.[9] The legendary house of Pendragon and Celtic Britain in general have become associated with the Welsh dragon standard after the fact.

According to Fox-Davies, the red dragon of Wales originated with the standard of the 7th century king Cadwaladr, and was used as a supporter by the Tudor dynasty (who were of Welsh origin).[10] Queen Elizabeth, however, preferring gold, changed the royal mantle and the dragon supporter from red to gold, and some Welsh scholars still hold that the dragon of Wales is properly ruddy gold rather than gules.[10] There may be some doubt of the Welsh origin of the dragon supporter of the Royal arms, but it certainly was used by King Henry III.[10] It has also been speculated that the red dragon of Wales may have even earlier origins in the Sarmatian-influenced Draco standards carried by Late Roman cavalry, who would have been the primary defence against the Saxons.[citation needed]

The Welsh flag is parti per fess Argent and Vert; a dragon Gules passant. Welsh rugby teams include the Newport Gwent Dragons and the Cardiff City Blue Dragons.

The Merthyr Synagogue in Merthyr Tydfil, Wales, features a dragon on the front gable.[11]

[edit] Dragons in Slavic mythology

Dragons of Slavic mythology hold mixed temperaments towards humans. For example, dragons (дракон, змей, ламя, (х)ала) in Bulgarian mythology are either male or female, each gender having a different view of mankind. The female dragon and male dragon, often seen as sister and brother, represent different forces of agriculture. The female dragon represents harsh weather and is the destroyer of crops, the hater of mankind, and is locked in a never ending battle with her brother. The male dragon protects the humans' crops from destruction and is generally loving to humanity. Fire and water play major roles in Bulgarian dragon lore; the female has water characteristics, whilst the male is usually a fiery creature. In Bulgarian legend, dragons are three headed, winged beings with snake's bodies.

In Bulgarian, Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian and Serbian lore, a dragon, or "змей" (Bulgarian: Змей), zmey (Russian: Змей), smok (Belarusian: Цмок), zmiy (Ukrainian: Змій), zmaj (Serbian: Змај) is generally an evil, four-legged beast with few if any redeeming qualities. Zmeys are intelligent, but not very highly so; they often place tribute on villages or small towns, demanding maidens for food, or gold. Their number of heads ranges from one to seven or sometimes even more, with three- and seven-headed dragons being most common. The heads also regrow if cut off, unless the neck is "treated" with fire (similar to the hydra in Greek mythology). Dragon blood is so poisonous that Earth itself will refuse to absorb it. In Bulgarian mythology these dragons are sometimes good, opposing the evil Lamya /ламя/, a beast that shares a likeness with the zmey.

The most famous Polish dragon (Polish: Smok) is the Wawel Dragon or Smok Wawelski, the Dragon of Wawel Hill. It supposedly terrorized ancient Kraków and lived in caves on the Vistula river bank below the Wawel castle. According to lore based on the Book of Daniel, it was killed by a boy who offered it a sheepskin filled with sulphur and tar. After devouring it, the dragon became so thirsty that it finally exploded after drinking too much water. A metal sculpture of the Wawel Dragon is a well-known tourist sight in Kraków. It is very stylised but, to the amusement of children, noisily breathes fire every few minutes. The Wawel dragon also features on many items of Kraków tourist merchandise. Dragon is the coat of arms of the Polish princes- Piastów of czersk [12].

Other dragon-like creatures in Polish folklore include the basilisk, living in cellars of Warsaw, and the Snake King from folk legends.
[edit] Dragons in Iberian Mythology
[edit] Dragons in Asturian and Cantabrian mythology
Main article: Cuélebre

The Cuélebre, or Culebre, is a giant winged serpent in the mythology of Asturias and Cantabria, in the north of Spain. It usually lives in a cave, guards treasures and keeps nymph-like beings called xanas or anjanas as prisoners. They are immortal, but grow old. They can be tricked in particular ways, especially on certain days.
[edit] Dragons in Aragonese mythology

There is a legend that a dragon dwelled in the Peña Uruel mountain near Jaca. It says that it could mesmerize people with his glance, so the young man who decided to kill the beast equipped himself with a shiny shield, so that the dragon's glance would be reflected. So, when the young man arrived the cave where the dragon lived, he could kill it easily because the dragon mesmerized itself. This legend is very similar to the Greek myth of Medusa.

The king of Peter IV of Aragon used a dragon on his helmet to show that he was the king of Aragon, as a heraldic pun (Rei d'Aragón, dragón).
[edit] Dragons in Basque mythology

Herensuge is the name given to the dragon in Basque mythology, meaning apparently the "last serpent". The best known legend has St. Michael descending from Heaven to kill it but only once God agreed to accompany him in person.

Sugaar, the Basque male god, is often associated with the serpent or dragon but able to take other forms as well. His name can be read as "male serpent".

A. Xaho, a romantic myth creator of the 19th century, fused these myths in his own creation of Leherensuge, the first and last serpent, that in his newly coined legend would arise again some time in the future bringing the rebirth of the Basque nation.

[edit] Dragons in Catalan mythology

Dragons are well-known in Catalan myths and legends, in no small part because St. George (Catalan Sant Jordi) is the patron saint of Catalonia. Like most dragons, the Catalan dragon (Catalan drac) is an enormous serpent with two legs, or, rarely, four, and sometimes a pair of wings. As in many other parts of the world, the dragon's face may be like that of some other animal, such as a lion or bull. As is common elsewhere, Catalan dragons are fire-breathers, and the dragon-fire is all-consuming. Catalan dragons also can emit a fetid odor, which can rot away anything it touches.

The Catalans also distinguish a víbria or vibra (cognate with English viper and wyvern), a female dragon with two prominent breasts, two claws and an eagle's beak.
[edit] Dragons in Portuguese mythology

In Portuguese mythology, coca[13] is a female dragon that battles Saint George on the Corpus Christi holiday. The fighting has a symbolic meaning: when the coca defeats Saint George the crops will be bad and there will be famine and death. When Saint George defeats the coca he cuts off her tongue and ears; the crops will have a good year and it announces prosperity. Still, she is called "saint" coca just like George is called saint and the people cheer for her. Another dragon called drago is also represented in Portuguese mythology and used to take part in celebrations during the Middle Ages.

[edit] Dragons in Italian mythology

The legend of Saint George and the dragon is well-known in Italy, but other Saints are depicted fighting a dragon. For instance, the first bishop of the city of Forlì, named Saint Mercurialis, was said to have killed a dragon and saved Forlì, so he often is depicted killing a dragon. Likewise, the first patron saint of Venice, Saint Theodore of Tyro, was a dragon-slayer, and a statue representing his slaying of the dragon still tops one of the two columns in St. Mark's square. St. Michael, the patron saint of paratroopers, is also frequently depicted slaying a dragon. Many dragons of the European Middle Ages were thought to be demonic or of evil status.

According to the Golden Legend, compiled by the Italian Jacobus de Voragine, Saint Margaret the Virgin was swallowed by Satan in the shape of a dragon, from which she escaped alive when the cross she carried irritated the dragon's innards. The Golden Legend, in an atypical moment of scepticism, describes this last incident as "apocryphal and not to be taken seriously" (trans. Ryan, 1.369) - which did not prevent the legend from being popuar and getting artistic treatments.

But many more are the legends about dragons in Italy, particularly in Umbria. One of the most famous dragons of Italian folklore is Thyrus, a wyvern that besieged Terni in the Middle Ages. One day, a young and brave knight, tired of witnessing the death of his fellow citizens and depopulation of Terni, faced the dragon and killed him. From that day, the town assumed the creature in its coat of arms. Also a Latin inscription supports this: "Thyrus et amnis dederunt signa Teramnis" that stands under the banner of the town of Terni.

Another poem tells of another dragon that yet lived near the village of Fornole, near Terni in the south of Umbria. Pope Saint Sylvester arrived in Umbria and freed the population of Fornole from the ferocity of the dragon, making him become mild. In gratitude, the population built, in the 13th century, a little church dedicated to the Saint on the top of the mountain, near the dragon's lair. In the apse of the church there is a fresco representing the iconography of the Saint.
[edit] Notes

1. ^ The various Near Eastern sources for the dragon and the Beast are summarized, for example in Howard Wallace, "Leviathan and the Beast in Revelation" The Biblical Archaeologist 11.3 (September 1948), pp. 61-68; the origins of draco in mistranslations of the Septuagint and Jerome's Vulgate, engendering shifts in emblemmatic significance for Christians, are analyzed in Nicolas K. Kiessling, "Antecedents of the Medieval Dragon in Sacred History" Journal of Biblical Literature 89.2 (June 1970), pp. 167-177.
2. ^ Helmut Nickel, "Of Dragons, Basilisks, and the Arms of the Seven Kings of Rome" Metropolitan Museum Journal 24, (1989:25-34) p. 25.
3. ^ Primum signum totius legionis est aquila, quam aquilifer portat. Dracones etiam per singulas cohortes a draconariis feruntur ad proelium (Vegetius, ii, ch XIII. 'De centuriis atque vexillis peditum').
4. ^ Harry Thurston Peck, Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, 1898, s.v. 'Signum' .
5. ^ Frances Wood, The Silk Road: Two Thousand Years in the Heart of Asia (University of California Press) 2002.
6. ^ The transformation is examined in Nicolas K. Kiessling, "Antecedents of the Medieval Dragon in Sacred History", Journal of Biblical Literature 89.2 (June 1970:167-177).
7. ^ J.R.R. Tolkien, "Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics." Proceedings of the British Academy, 22 (1936), 245–95.
8. ^ Thomas Jones, ed. and trans., "The Story of Myrddin and the Five Dreams of Gwenddydd in the Chronicle of Elis Gruffydd", Etudes celtiques 8 (1958-59:315-345).
9. ^ The dragon is one of three plagues in the land, which "can be seen as variants on the theme of the historical invaders who threatened the sovereignty of the Island of Britain" (Sioned Davies, tr. The Mabinogion (Oxford University Press, 2007) "Introduction" p. xii); see also Sabine Heinz, Celtic Symbols, 2008, s.v. "Dragon".
10. ^ a b c Fox-Davies, Arthur Charles (1909). A Complete Guide to Heraldry. New York: Dodge Pub. Co. ISBN 0517266431. LCCN 09-023803 pp. 225-6.
11. ^ Kadish, Sharman (2006). Jewish Heritage in England : An Architectural Guide. English Heritage., p. 203
12. ^ Wojciech Górczyk, "Ślady recepcji legend arturiańskich w heraldyce Piastów czerskich i kronikach polskich", Kultura i Historia, Uniwersytet Marii Curie Skłodowskiej w Lublinie, 17/2010 http://www.kulturaihistoria.umcs.lublin.pl/archives/1793 .
13. ^ [1]

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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il Drago: animale mistico   Lun 7 Feb 2011 - 7:49

Riporto il seguente link ad un articolo che tratta questo tema

http://www.airesis.net/IlGiardinoDeiMagi/Giardino%201/cardini_drago_5.htm
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il Drago: animale mistico   Sab 12 Mar 2011 - 9:03

Admin, mi domando del perchè certi animali della realtà o che fanno parte solo della mitologia siano sempre visti come sinonimi del male, il drago come essere antico e saggio non dovrebbe essere visto invece come una guida?

Il motivo sarà perchè in realtà l'uomo ha paura della conoscenza?

Riporto grazie a wikipedia, di cui consiglio la visione anche alla fonte originale poichè io ne riporto solo uno stralcio, la leggenda legata a San Giorgio e l'uccisione (ahimè) del drago.

Buona lettura!

FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Giorgio

«La Leggenda Aurea»

[modifica] Il racconto

Si narra che in una città chiamata Selem, in Libia, vi era un grande stagno , tale da poter nascondere un drago, che, avvicinandosi alla città, uccideva con il fiato tutte le persone che incontrava. Gli abitanti gli offrivano per placarlo due pecore al giorno, ma quando queste cominciarono a scarseggiare furono costretti a offrirgli una pecora e un giovane tirato a sorte.

Un giorno fu estratta la giovane figlia del re, la principessa Silene. Questi terrorizzato offrì il suo patrimonio e metà del regno, ma la popolazione si ribellò, avendo visto morire tanti suoi figli. Dopo otto giorni di tentativi, il re alla fine dovette cedere e la giovane si avviò verso lo stagno per essere offerta al drago.

In quel momento passò di lì il giovane cavaliere Giorgio, il quale, saputo dell'imminente sacrificio, tranquillizzò la principessa, promettendole il suo intervento per evitarle la brutale morte. Quando il drago uscì dalle acque, sprizzando fuoco e fumo dalle narici, Giorgio non si spaventò e lo trafisse con la sua lancia , ferendolo e facendolo cadere a terra.

Poi disse alla principessa Silene di non aver timore e di avvolgere la sua cintura al collo del drago; il quale prese a seguirla docilmente come un cagnolino, verso la città. Gli abitanti erano atterriti nel vedere il drago avvicinarsi, ma Giorgio li tranquillizzò dicendo loro di non aver timore poiché «Iddio mi ha mandato a voi per liberarvi dal drago: se abbraccerete la fede in Cristo, riceverete il battesimo e io ucciderò il mostro».

Allora il re e la popolazione si convertirono e il cavaliere uccise il drago e lo fece portare fuori dalla città trascinato da quattro paia di buoi.

[modifica] Origine della leggenda

La leggenda era sorta al tempo delle Crociate, e probabilmente, fu influenzata da una falsa interpretazione di un'immagine dell'imperatore cristiano Costantino, trovata a Costantinopoli, in cui il sovrano schiacciava col piede un enorme drago, simbolo del «nemico del genere umano».

La fantasia popolare ricamò sopra tutto ciò, e il racconto, passando per l'Egitto, dove San Giorgio ebbe dedicate molte chiese e monasteri, divenne una leggenda affascinante, spesso ripresa nell'iconografia.

San Giorgio non è l'unico personaggio che uccide un drago: anche ad altri le leggende riconoscono simili imprese, come ad esempio in Italia san Mercuriale, protovescovo e patrono di Forlì, spesso raffigurato nell'atto di rinchiudere appunto un drago in un pozzo. È facile anche confondere san Giorgio, soprattutto nelle icone greche, con san Demetrio: le differenze tra i due santi sono, sempre per quanto riguarda l'iconografia greca, il colore del cavallo (Giorgio lo ha bianco, Demetrio nero) e il "bersaglio" del cavaliere (Giorgio uccide un drago, Demetrio un moro). Anche san Teodoro martire d'Amasea nell'iconografia è rappresentato a cavallo o a piedi in atto di uccidere un drago o un serpente.

Nell'iconografia San Giorgio spesso compare con l'epiteto "O Τροπαιοφόρος" (il vittorioso).


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Reggio_calabria_icona_san_giorgio_martire.jpg


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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il Drago: animale mistico   Mer 20 Apr 2011 - 9:57

Oggi vedremo qualche drago della mitologia cinese...

Il nome Tianlong, come leggeremo più avanti, può avere diverse interpretazioni ma sempre riconducibili al divino: "drago celeste", " drago degli Dei", "drago del cielo"...

FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tianlong

Tianlong
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tianlong (simplified Chinese: 天龙; traditional Chinese: 天龍; pinyin: tiānlóng; Wade–Giles: t'ien lung; lit. "heavenly dragon") is a flying dragon in Chinese mythology, a star in Chinese astrology, and a proper name.


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dragon_gods_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_15250.jpg

Word

The term tianlong combines tian 天 "heaven" and long 龍 "dragon". Since tian literally means "heaven; the heavens; sky" or figuratively "Heaven; God; gods", tianlong can denote "heavenly dragon; celestial dragon" or "holy dragon; divine dragon".

Tianlong 天龍 is homophonous with another name in Chinese folklore. Tianlong 天聾 "Heavenly Deaf" (with the character long 聾 "deaf" combining the "ear radical" 耳 and a long 龍 phonetic element) and Diya 地啞 "Earthly Dumb" are legendary attendants to Wenchang 文昌, the patron deity of literature.

Meanings

From originally denoting "heavenly dragon", Tianlong 天龍 semantically developed meanings as Buddhist "heavenly Nāgas" or "Devas and Nāgas", "centipede", and "proper names" of stars, people, and places.
[edit] Dragons

Among Chinese classic texts, tian "heaven" and long "dragon" were first used together in Zhou Dynasty (1122 BCE-256 BCE) writings, but the word tianlong was not recorded until the Han Dynasty (207 BCE-220 CE).

The ancient Yijing "Book of Changes" exemplifies using tian "heaven" and long "dragon" together. Qian 乾 "The Creative", the first hexagram, says (tr. Wilhelm 1967:9), "Nine in the fifth place means: Flying dragons in the heavens. It furthers one to see the great man." The "Commentary on the Decision" (彖傳, tr. Wilhelm 1967:371) explains, "Because the holy man is clear as to the end and the beginning, as to the way in which each of the six stages completes itself in its own time, he mounts on them toward heaven as though on six dragons." And the "Commentary on the Images" (象傳, tr. Wilhelm 1967:371) says, "'Flying dragon in the heavens.' This shows the great man at work."

The earliest usage of tianlong 天龍 "heavenly dragon", according to the Hanyu Da Cidian, is in the Xinxu 新序 "New Prefaces" by Liu Xiang (79-8 BCE). It records a story (Yuan 2006:213) about a man named Ye Zigao 葉子高 who professed to love dragons. After he carved and painted dragon images throughout his house, a [天龍] heavenly dragon [or fulong 夫龍 in some editions] came to visit, but Ye was scared and ran away.

The Fangyan 方言 dictionary (12) by Yang Xiong (53 BCE-18 CE) has another early usage of tian and long. It defines panlong 蟠龍 "coiled dragon" as 未陞天龍, syntactically meaning either "Dragons which do not yet ascend to heaven" (Visser 1913:73) or "Heavenly Dragons which do not yet ascend" (Carr 1990:113).
[edit] Asterisms

Tianlong Heavenly Dragon names both the Western constellation Draco and a star in the Chinese constellation Azure Dragon.

Tianlongza 天龍座 "Heavenly Dragon Seat/Constellation" is the Chinese translation of Draco (from Latin "Dragon"), a constellation near the North Celestial Pole. The (1578 CE) Bencao Gangmu pharmacopeia's entry for long "dragon" describes (Read 1934:301) "a pearl under its chin", and Read notes,

The constellation Draco has the appearance of guarding and encircling the northern pole which is the centre of the movement of the fixed stars. The Chinese paintings of the Dragon straining after a mystical "Pearl" undoubtedly relate to this relationship to the North Pole Star, though other explanations are given for this. (1934:306-7)

Tianlong 天龍 "Heavenly Dragon" is the 3rd star in Fangxiu 房宿 "Room (Chinese constellation)" and corresponds to the Western constellation Scorpius. "Room" is the 4th of the Twenty-eight mansions in the Azure Dragon, which is one of the celestial Four Symbols. Wolfram Eberhard (1968:243) notes, "When the dragon star appeared in the sky it was customary to make a sacrifice supplicating for rain," and this springtime dragon festival occurs on the 2nd day of the 2nd month.
[edit] Centipede

The Bencao Gangmu entry for wugong 蜈蚣 "centipede" lists tianlong 天龍 "heavenly dragon" as an alternate name. Li Shizhen's commentary reviews earlier Chinese commentators and texts. The Zhuangzi (2, tr. Mair 1994:20-21) says, "People eat meat, deer eat grass, [蝍且] giant centipedes savor snakes, hawks and crows relish mice." The Huainanzi (17, tr. Carr 1990:111) says, "The [騰蛇] ascending snake can drift in the mist, yet it is endangered by the [蝍蛆] centipede." The Erya dictionary (15) defines jili 蒺蔾 "thorns; puncture vine; bramble" as jieju 蝍蛆 "centipede; cricket"; which Guo Pu's commentary says resembles a huang 蝗 "locust" with a large abdomen, long horns, and which eats snake brains. Although jieju can also mean xishuai 蟋蟀 "cricket", Li concludes it means the snake-controlling wugong "centipede" that the Fangyan dictionary (11) also calls maxian 馬蚿 "horse/giant millipede" or juqu 蛆蟝. According to Eberhard (1968:159), centipedes were snake predators, and "the enmity between snake and centipede occurs in many folktales and customs."
[edit] Buddhist usages

In Chinese Buddhist terminology, tianlong means either "heavenly Nāgas (dragon gods)" or "Devas (heavenly gods) and Nāgas".

First, tianlong 天龍 means "heavenly dragon/nāga" as the first of four nāga classes in Mahayana tradition (tr. Visser 1913:21-2).

1. Heavenly Nāgas (天龍), who guard the Heavenly Palace and carry it so that it does not fall.
2. Divine Nāgas (神龍), who benefit mankind by causing the clouds to rise and the rain to fall.
3. Earthly Nāgas (地龍) who drain off rivers (remove the obstructions) and open sluices (outlets).
4. Nāgas who are lying hidden (伏藏龍) guarding the treasuries of the "Kings of the Wheel" (輪王, Cakravarti-rājas) and blessing mankind.

Hangzhou Tianlong 杭州天龍 "Heavenly Dragon from Hangzhou" was a 9th-century Chan Buddhist master who enlightened Juzhi Yizhi by holding up one finger. The Blue Cliff Record (tr. Cleary 1977:123-Cool calls this "Chu Ti's One-Finger Ch'an" kōan.

Second, tianlong 天龍 translates Sanskrit deva-nāga "Devas and Nāgas", the 2 highest categories of the Tianlong Babu 天龍八部 "8 kinds of beings that protect the Dharma". The lower 6 categories are yecha 夜叉 "Yaksha; cannibalistic devils; nature spirits", gantapo 乾闥婆 "Gandharva; half-ghost music masters", axiuluo 阿修羅 "Asura; evil and violent demigods", jialouluo 迦樓羅 "Garuda; golden bird-like demons that eat dragons", jinnaluo 緊那羅 "Kinnara; half-human half-bird celestial music masters", and maholuluojia 摩睺羅迦 "Mahoraga; earthly snake spirits".

Tianlong Babu 天龍八部 is also the title of a 1963 wuxia novel by Jin Yong, translated as English Demi-Gods and Semi-Devils. This Chinese title is further used by movies, television series, and a Massively multiplayer online role-playing game.
[edit] Proper names

Tianlong is a common name in Standard Chinese. Tianlongshan 天龍山 "Heavenly Dragon Mountain", which is located near Taiyuan in Shanxi, is famous for the Tianlongshan Shiku 天龍山石窟 Grottoes. The commercial name Tianlong "Heavenly Dragon" is used by companies, hotels, and gungfu schools.

Japanese Tenryū 天龍 or 天竜, a loanword from Chinese Tianlong, is a comparable proper name. A famous example is Tenryū-ji 天龍寺 "Heavenly Dragon Temple" in Kyoto, which is headquarters of the Tenryū-ji Branch of the Rinzai sect. Tenryū place names include a waterway (Tenryū River 天竜川), a city (Tenryū, Shizuoka 天竜市), and a village (Tenryū, Nagano 天龍村). Further examples include Imperial Japanese Navy names (Japanese cruiser Tenryū 天龍), and personal names (Genichiro Tenryu 天龍源一郎, a wrestler).

References

* Carr, Michael. 1990. "Chinese Dragon Names", Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 13.2:87-189.
* Cleary, Thomas and J. C. Cleary. 1977. The Blue Cliff Record. Shambhala.
* Eberhard, Wolfram. 1968. The Local Cultures of South and East China. E. J. Brill.
* Mair, Victor H. 1990. Tao Te Ching: The Classic Book of Integrity and the Way, by Lao Tzu; an entirely new translation based on the recently discovered Ma-wang-tui manuscripts. Bantam Books.
* Read, Bernard E. 1934. "Chinese Materia Medica VII; Dragons and Snakes," Peking Natural History Bulletin 8.4:279-362.
* Visser, Marinus Willern de. 1913. The Dragon in China and Japan. J. Müller.
* Wilhelm, Richard and Cary F. Baynes. 1967. The I Ching or Book of Changes. Bollingen Series XIX, Princeton University Press.
* Yuan, Haiwang. 2006. The Magic Lotus Lantern and Other Tales from the Han Chinese. Libraries Unlimited.




Shenlong (spirito di drago) viene consoderato secondo la mitologia cinese lo spirito della pioggia, il padrone delle tempeste.

FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shenlong

Shenlong
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Shenlong, also Shen-lung, (simplified Chinese: 神龙; traditional Chinese: 神龍; pinyin: shén lóng, literally "spirit dragon", Japanese: 神竜 Shinryū) is a spiritual dragon from Chinese mythology who is the master of storms and also a bringer of rain. He is of equal significance like Tianlong, the celestial dragon.

The spiritual dragons are azure-scaled and govern the wind, clouds and rain, on which all agricultural life depends.[1][2] Chinese people would take great care to avoid offending them, for if they grew angry or felt neglected, the result was bad weather, drought, flood or thunderstorms.

Apart from this Shenlong appears to a special ranking in splendid robes and regalia of Chinese emperors. He was also a five-clawed and therefore an imperial dragon.

Shenlong is also name of the unmanned space shuttle program of P.R.China. The scale-down prototype had made free flight test from a H-6 bomber flight testbed.[3]

References

1. ^ Shuker, Karl. (1995). Dragons. A Natural History. Simon & Schuster, New York 1995, ISBN 0-684-81443-9, p. 89
2. ^ Guter, Josef. (2004). Lexikon der Götter und Symbole der Alten Chinesen. Marix Verlag, Wiesbaden 2004, ISBN 3-937715-04-5, p. 106
3. ^ "Shenlong Unmanned Space Shuttle Program". AirForceWorld.com. http://airforceworld.com/pla/shen_long.htm. Retrieved 18 April 2011.

Sources

* Karl Shuker: Dragons. A Natural History. Simon & Schuster, New York 1995, ISBN 0-684-81443-9, p. 89




Il Dilong era associato alla terra, dal suo nome deriva, come leggeremo più avanti, non solo il nome di un dinosauro ma anche una forma di arte marziale ...

FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dilong

Dilong
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dilong (simplified Chinese: 地龙; traditional Chinese: 地龍; pinyin: dìlóng; Wade–Giles: ti-lung; lit. "earth dragon") is a Chinese dragon name that is also used to mean "earthworm" in Traditional Chinese Medicine and "Geosaurus" in Zoological nomenclature.

Dragon

In Chinese mythology, dilong 地龍 "earth dragon" is one of many types of -long 龍 dragons such as shenlong 神龍 "divine dragon" and huanglong 黃龍 "yellow dragon". Since dì 地 "earth; land; soil; ground" semantically contrasts with tian 天 "heaven; sky" (e.g., tiandi 天地 "heaven and earth; universe", see Tiandihui), the dilong is paired with the tianlong 天龍 "heavenly dragon". Chinese dragons were supposedly able to fly, and thus were considered celestial creatures rather than terrestrial ones like the "earthbound" dilong. Two other exceptions are panlong 蟠龍 "coiled/curled dragon; a dragon that has not ascended to heaven" and tulong 土龍 "soil/earth dragon", which refers to the tuo 鼉 "Chinese Alligator" (cf. Japanese mogura 土竜 "mole").

Dilong first occurs in the mid 7th-century CE History of Southern Dynasties biography of Liang Dynasty Admiral Wang Sengbian 王僧辯 (d. 555 CE). It says witnesses saw lianglong 兩龍 "two/paired dragons" that ascended into the sky, and this dilong "earth dragon" leaving Liang territory was interpreted as a portent of their defeat in 550 CE. Ronan and Needham (1995:308) cite another context in Wang's biography that says his boat had shuanglong 雙龍 "two dragons" on the side, which they construe as a "literary emendation" for shuanglun 雙輪 "two wheels" describing an early paddleboat.

Earthworm

Dilong or dilongzi 地龍子 "earth dragon child" is an elegant name for the "earthworm; worm", which is usually called qiuyin 蚯蚓. "Long 龍 is employed in Chinese zoological nomenclature in much the same way that English dragon is used in dragonfly or dragonfish"[1] First, "long names lifeforms thought to resemble dragons" (e.g., hailong 海龍 "sea dragon" "sea otter; pipefish" or longluozi 龍落子 "dragon fall child" "seahorse"); second, "long 龍 is closely associated with dinosaurs" (e.g., oracle bones were originally called longgu 龍骨 "dragon/dinosaur bones").

Dilong first means "earthworm" in the Qixiu Leigao 七修類稿 written by the Ming Dynasty scholar Lang Ying 郎瑛 (1487-1566 CE). The 1578 Bencao Gangmu pharmacological entry for qiuyin 蚯蚓 "earthworm" lists alternate names of dilong and tulong 土龍 (see above). Li Shizhen notes these names derive from the myth that earthworms (like dragons) can create yinqing 陰晴 "cloudy and clear; unsettled weather".

Dilongsan 地龍散 "earth dragon powder" or Di Long (extract) is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. It is prepared from the abdomen of the Red earthworm, Lumbricus rubellus, and has many purported medicinal uses.

Other meanings

Dilong 地龍 "earth dragon" is the modern Chinese term for the Mesozoic crocodilian Geosaurus (from Greek "earth lizard"). Contrast the feathered tyrannosaurid Dilong (dinosaur) that was named from Chinese dilong 帝龍 "emperor dragon".

Chinese dilong or Japanese chiryū 地龍 is the name of a chess piece in Shogi. In Taikyoku shogi, this piece has 地龍 "earth dragon" written on one side and yulong or uryū 雨龍 "rain dragon" on the obverse.

One variety of Ditangquan martial arts is called Shaolin dilongquan 少林地龙拳 "Shaolin Earth Dragon Boxing".

In the Sexagenary cycle and Chinese astrology, duchen 土辰 "The Year of the Earth Dragon" is a recurring combination of Dragon (zodiac) with the Five Elements/Phases, see Chinese calendar correspondence table and Tibetan calendar.

References

1. ^ Carr (1990:99-100)

* Carr, Michael. 1990. "Chinese Dragon Names", Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 13.2:87-189.
* Ronan, Colin Alistair and Joseph Needham. 1995. The Shorter 'Science and Civilisation in China', vol. 5. Cambridge University Press.
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il Drago: animale mistico   Mar 20 Set 2011 - 14:53

Knucker

FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knucker

Knucker is a dialect word for a kind of water dragon, living in knuckerholes in Sussex, England. The word comes from the Old English nicor which means "water monster" and is used in the poem Beowulf.
[edit] Knuckers in folklore

The most famous Knucker lived, according to legend, at Lyminster. The Knucker apparently caused a lot of trouble, consuming local livestock and even villagers, and so it was decided to slay the monster. A number of different legends recount how this was done.

Inevitably one version has the dragon slain by a knight-errant after the king of Sussex offered his daughter's hand in marriage to whoever rid them of the beast. Legend says that after marrying the princess the knight settled in Lyminster and his gravestone, the Slayer's Slab, can be seen in Lyminster church.

An alternative legend has the dragon outwitted by a local farmer's boy, called Jim Pulk or Jim Puttock, said in some versions to be from Wick, after the Mayor of Arundel offered a reward. He killed the dragon by cooking it a giant poisoned pie, which he took to the knuckerhole on a horse and cart. The dragon ate up pie, horse and cart. When it had expired the boy returned and cut off its head. In some versions he then dies himself, probably of the same poison he used on the dragon, though this is probably a later addition designed to explain the Slayer's Slab.

It was believed that knuckers could be found at knuckerholes in various places in Sussex, including Lyminster, Lancing, Shoreham and Worthing.[1]
[edit] Pop-culture References

On the cartoon Dragon Tales which airs on PBS Kids Sprout (SPRT), the characters Zak and Wheezie use Knuckerholes to slide underground as a means of quick travel.

"The Knucker" was the name of a dragon used as a mount by the 2000 AD comic character Sláine.

The Knucker is one of the various dragon species included in the Dragonology series of books.
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il Drago: animale mistico   Sab 8 Ott 2011 - 16:06

Ancora qualche curiosità su questo animale mitologico...

FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guivre

Vuivre
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

La Guivre (o Vuivre) è un drago dalla foggia serpentina della mitologia cristiana.

Storia

Secondo le leggende, le Guivre infestavano la Francia, devastando i campi e uccidendo la gente. Numerose persone avevano tentato di mettere fine a questo flagello, ma le Guivre non temevano il combattimento e avevano quasi sempre la meglio.




FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guivre

Guivre
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A guivre is a mythical creature similar to a dragon. In legend they were portrayed as serpentine creatures who possessed venomous breath and prowled the countryside of Medieval France.[1] The words "guivre" (wurm, wyvern (which is derived from it),[2] or serpent) and "givre" are spelling variations of the more common word "vouivre". Vouivre, in Franc-Comtois, is the equivalent of the old French word "guivre." All these forms are derived ultimately from Latin vīpera, as is English viper.[3]


Vouivre. Liber Floridus, 1448.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wyvern_Liber_Floridus.jpg


Description and habits

Guivres were said to possess a long, serpentine body and a dragon's head. The guivre had horns in its forehead in some accounts, as well.[4] Locally in France it was known as an extremely aggressive creature that would sometimes attack without being provoked.[4] They were afraid of naked humans, and when saw them, blushed and looked away.[5] Documentation points to their residence as being in small bodies of water like pools and lakes, forests, and any damp place.[4]


La Guivre

Samson of Dol was present at an encounter between a small dragon-like creature (known as "La Guivre") and a priest. Samson had come to visit Saint Suliao with an entourage of followers. Suliao was impoverished but sought to provide a meal as best as possible for the group. One priest, uneasy with the low quality of food, took a bread roll and hid it under his robe. Almost instantaneously he started convulsing and Suliao pulled apart his bosom, seeing what the man had done. He admonished the priest and removed a hideous serpentine creature from the robe. There he exorcised it and then compelled another man to throw it from the roof of a building in Garot.[6]


Vouivre

Guivres are also well known as vouivres, and the terms have become synonymous. For example, in The Drac: French Tales of Dragons and Demons, the vouivre is depicted as a female creature with dazzling, green scales which emanate sound as the vouivre flies. The vouivre is depicted as greedy, her head crowned with pearls and a golden ring about her tail. The beast in this story stayed in a cave for most of her time, then left to bathe only for a few minutes.


Literary use

In Steve Alten's The Loch the Loch Ness Monster is originally thought to be a guivre which got into Loch Ness through Moray Firth. In the 1989 film La Vouivre, the vouivre was a wood nymph.


References

^ Shuker 2003, p. 16.
^ "wyvern". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University. 1989. Retrieved 2009-05-29.
^ "viper". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University. 1989. Retrieved 2009-05-29.
^ a b c Rose, p. 159.
^ Shuker 2003, p. 17.
^ Dickens 1864, p. 319.



Bibliography

Shuker, Karl (2003). Dragons: A Natural History. New York: Barnes & Noble Books.
Rose, Carol. Giants, Monsters, and Dragons. W. W. Norton & Company.
Dickens, Charles (1864). All The Year Round. X. Oxford University.
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il Drago: animale mistico   Mer 12 Ott 2011 - 15:27

Altre leggende sul drago...

FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illuyanka

Illuyanka
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Nella mitologia ittita, Illuyanka (o Illuyankas) era un dragone ucciso da Tarhunta, dio della tempesta del cielo e massimo dio del pantheon eteo. È conosciuto grazie alle tavolette ittite cuneiformi scoperte a Çorum-Boğazköy, la precedente capitale ittita Hattusha.

Esistono due versioni di questo mito, come illustrato dai testi ittiti: In una versione meno recente, nella lotta tra i due dei e il dragone a vincere fu quest'ultimo. Teshub poi si recò dalla dea hattica Inaras per farsi consigliare. Essa, dopo essersi fatta promettere il suo amore a un mortale chiamato Hupasiyas come ricompensa per il suo aiuto, escogitò una trappola per il dragone. Andò da esso con una grande quantità di cibo e liquori, e lo adescò per farlo bere fino a riempirsi. Una volta ubriaco, il dragone venne legato da Hupasiyas con una fune. Successivamente il dio Teshub comparve assieme agli altri dei e uccise Illuyanka.

In una versione più recente, dopo che i due dei combatterono e Teshub venne sconfitto, Illuyanka prese gli occhi e il cuore di Teshub, simboli della compassione e della comprensione. Per vendicarsi del dragone, Teshub sposò la dea Hebat, figlia di un mortale, chiamato Arm. Essi ebbero un figlio, Sarruma, che crebbe e sposò la figlia del dragone Illuyanka. Teshub disse a suo figlio di domandare come dono di nozze i suoi occhi e il suo cuore ed egli lo fece. Con i suoi occhi e il suo cuore ripristinati, Teshub andò nuovamente ad affrontare Illuyanka. Nel momento in cui il dragone stava per essere sconfitto, Sarruma venne a sapere della battaglia e comprese che era stato sfruttato per i propositi del padre. Domandò quindi a quest'ultimo di prendere la sua vita insieme a quella di Illuyanka, e così Teshub li uccise entrambi con una pioggia tuonante e un fulmine. Questa versione è illustrata nel bassorilievo scoperto a Malatya (datato 1050 - 850 a.C.) conservato nel museo delle civiltà anatoliche ad Ankara, in Turchia.

I testi ittiti vennero presentati nel 1930 da W. Porzig, che per primo fece il confronto tra la battaglia di Teshub contro Illuyanka e lo scontro tra il dio del cielo Zeus contro con il mostro serpentiforme Tifone, narrato nella Bibliotheca di Pseudo-Apollodoro (I.6.3); i parallelismi ittito-greci trovarono pochi sostenitori a quei tempi, il mito ittita della castrazione del dio del paradiso Kumarbi, che è un chiaro parallelo col mito greco, non è stato ancora decifrato e ripubblicato.

Il mito riprende il concetto basico del dualismo: Bene contro il male.

Illuyanka è probabilmente un nome composto, consistente di due parole per "serpente", Proto-Indoeuropeo *illu- e l'urrico *anka-. Gli stessi termini, invertiti, appaiono nel latino anguilla. La parola *illu- è affine all'inglese eel (anguilla), la parola anka- al sanscrito ahi. Un'altra etimologia suggerisce che il nome originariamente era *Eluy-anka (Il serpente di El), guardiano dell'Elohim (il pantheon degli dei semitici occidentali). Nella mitologia canaanita appare come Lotan.

Bibliografia

Porzig, W. "Illuyankas und Typhon", Kleinasiatische Forschung I.3 (1930) pp379-86.
Beckman, Gary. "The Anatolian Myth of Illuyanka," Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society 14 (1982) pp 11- 25.
J. Katz, 'How to be a Dragon in Indo-European: Hittite illuyankas and its Linguistic and Cultural Congeners in Latin, Greek, and Germanic', in: Mír Curad. Studies in Honor of Calvert Watkins, ed. Jasanoff, Melchert, Oliver, Innsbruck 1998, 317–334.
Rizza, A., Due protagonisti della mitologia anatolica. Intorno a CTH 321, in G. Borghi, R. Ronzitti, L. Busetto (ed.s), Atti del III, IV, V incontro genovese di Studî vedici e Pāṇiniani, Milano 2006, pp. 321-356.



Il dio Teshub uccide il dragone Illuyanka. Dietro di lui suo figlio Sarruma.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Museum_of_Anatolian_Civilizations082_kopie1jpg.jpg



FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illuyanka

Illuyanka
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In Hittite mythology, Illuyanka was a serpentine dragon slain by Tarhunt (dIM), the Hittite incarnation of the Hurrian god of sky and storm. It is known from Hittite cuneiform tablets found at Çorum-Boğazköy, the former Hittite capital Hattusa. The context is a ritual of the Hattian spring festival of Puruli.

The myth is found in Catalogue des Textes Hittites 321, which gives two consecutive versions.

Name

See also Etymology of eel. Illuyanka is probably a compound, consisting of two words for "snake", Proto-Indo-European *h₁illu- and *h₂eng(w)eh₂-. The same compound members, inverted, appear in Latin anguilla "eel". The *h₁illu- word is cognate to English eel, the anka- word to Sanskrit ahi. Also this dragon is known as Illujanka and Illuyankas.

Narrative

In the first version, the two gods fight and Illuyanka wins. Teshub then goes to the Hattian goddess Inaras for advice. Having promised her love to a mortal named Hupasiyas in return for his help, she devises a trap for the dragon. She goes to him with large quantities of food and drink, and entices him to drink his fill. Once drunk, the dragon is bound by Hupasiyas with a rope. Then the Sky God Teshub appears with the other gods and kills the dragon.

In the second version, after the two gods fight and Teshub loses, Illuyanka takes Teshub's eyes and heart. To avenge himself upon the dragon, the Sky God Teshub marries the goddess Hebat, daughter of a mortal, named Arm. They have a son, Sarruma, who grows up and marries the daughter of the dragon Illuyanka. The Sky God Teshub tells his son to ask for the return of Teshub's eyes and heart as a wedding gift, and he does so. His eyes and heart restored, Teshub goes to face the dragon Illuyanka once more. At the point of vanquishing the dragon, Sarruma finds out about the battle and realizes that he had been used for this purpose. He demands that his father take his life along with Illuyanka's, and so Teshub kills them both with thundery rain and lightning. This version is illustrated on a relief which was discovered at Malatya (dating from 1050-850 BC) and is on display in the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations in Ankara, Turkey.

Interpretation

The Hittite texts were introduced in 1930 by W. Porzig, who first made the comparison of Teshub's battle with Illuyankas with the sky-god Zeus' battle with serpent-like Typhon, told in Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheke (I.6.3); the Hittite-Greek parallels found few adherents at the time, the Hittite myth of the castration of the god of heaven by Kumarbi, with its clearer parallels to Greek myth, not having yet been deciphered and edited.


Manuscripts

Catalogue des Textes Hittites 321 consists of the following tablets (Beckman 1982, p. 12):

A. KBo III 7
B. KUB XVII 5
C. KUB XVII 6
D. KUB XII 66
E. KUB XXXVI 54
F. KBo XII 83
G. KBo XII 84, XIII 84
H. KBo XXII 99
J. KUB XXXVI 53

None of the individual versions is complete. Text A is the most complete, including 30 out of 36 paragraphs.


References

Porzig, W. "Illuyankas und Typhon", Kleinasiatische Forschung I.3 (1930) pp379–86.
Beckman, Gary. "The Anatolian Myth of Illuyanka," Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society 14 (1982) pp 11– 25.[1]
J. Katz, 'How to be a Dragon in Indo-European: Hittite illuyankas and its Linguistic and Cultural Congeners in Latin, Greek, and Germanic', in: Mír Curad. Studies in Honor of Calvert Watkins, ed. Jasanoff, Melchert, Oliver, Innsbruck 1998, 317–334.


Sources

Translation of Illuyanka myth
History of the Ancient Hittites: Hittite Gods

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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Il Drago: animale mistico   Lun 31 Ott 2011 - 14:36

Ancora una volta il drago visto come un mostro...

FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drago_dell%27Apocalisse

Drago dell'Apocalisse
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.


Il Drago dell'Apocalisse con in groppa Babilonia
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:BambergApocalypseFolio043WhoreOfBabylon.JPG

Il Drago dell'Apocalisse è un mostro mitologico, nominato al capitolo 12 dell'Apocalisse di Giovanni.

Descrizione

Il Drago dell'Apocalisse viene descritto come un grande drago rosso, con sette teste e dieci corna, e un diadema sopra ogni testa.
Le corna generalmente sono considerate distribuite in tre possibili modi:

quattro su una testa, sulle altre una;
su tre teste due corna, sulle altre una;
dieci su ogni testa, con forme diverse;

Viene presentato subito dopo la descrizione della donna vestita di sole. Questo mostro non è da confondere con la Bestia del mare, con cui ha in comune alcune caratteristiche fisiche, perché si tratta di creature differenti.


Il Drago dell'Apocalisse e la Bestia del mare
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:La_B%C3%AAte_de_la_Mer.jpg

Simbolismo

Se la donna vestita di sole viene presentata con simbologia celeste (sole, luna e stelle) il Drago è descritto con simbologia terrestre. Infatti viene identificato con il serpente[1].

Interpretazione

Generalmente il Drago viene identificato con Satana, anche seguendo un'indicazione dell'Apocalisse stessa[2].

Iconografia medievale

Nell'iconografia medievale legata al pensiero di Gioacchino da Fiore, ciascuna testa del drago apocalittico può trovarsi associata a una figura storica.

Nel Liber Figurarum di Gioacchino, manoscritto al Corpus Christi College dell'Università di Oxford (mss. 255A - fol. 7r), sei delle sette teste sono associate in sequenza a Erode, Nerone, Costanzo II (figlio di Costantino Magno e seguace dell'Arianesimo), Maometto, Mesemotus (forse identificabile con il sultano ‛Abd al-Mu’min?) e Saladino, mentre la settima testa è di un Anticristo anonimo[3][4].

Nelle Praemissiones e super Esaiam, alla Biblioteca Vaticana (mss. Vaticano Latino 4959, fol. 2r), un commento a Isaia attribuito apocrifamente a Gioacchino, redatto dopo la sua morte da qualcuno del suo séguito, spariscono Maometto e Mesemoto, ora sostituiti da Cosroe II e da Henricus primus (Enrico IV o, più probabilmente, Enrico II[3]), mentre la testa del settimo e ultimo Anticristo, precedentemente anonimo, si trova ora attribuita a Federico II di Svevia[4].

Nel Liber de oneribus prophetarum, altro scritto apocrifo di Gioacchino da Fiore (Biblioteca Vaticana, mss. Vaticano Latino 3822, fol. 5r), si ripete la medesima sequenza offerta dalle Praemissiones: Herodes, Nero, Constantius arrianus, Cosroe, Henricus primus, Saladinus, Fredericus secundus[3][4].

Note

^ cfr. Apocalisse 12,9.
^ cfr Apocalisse 12,9.
^ a b c Hubert Houben, Anticristo o novello Messia? Il mito di Federico II, da stupormundi.it
^ a b c Hubert Houben, Federico II. Imperatore, uomo, mito, Il Mulino, 2009 (pp. 96-97)



L'arcangelo Michele combatte il Drago dell'Apocalisse
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Saint_Michel_combattant_le_dragon.jpg
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