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 Corvo - Corvus

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MessaggioOggetto: Corvo - Corvus   Ven 16 Apr 2010 - 10:59

Corvus

Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corvus



FONTE: http://www.photographycorner.com/galleries/data/511/MG_0073_1_Desktop_Resolution_.jpg

I corvi (Corvus, Linnaeus 1758) sono un genere che comprende diverse specie di uccelli diffuse quasi su tutto il globo. Il corvo è uno degli uccelli più longevi e può arrivare a circa 70 anni di età. In generale la sua dieta comprende semi, rifiuti di vario genere, ma è onnivoro e si ciba di carne tra cui anche le chiocciole che sono tra le sue prede preferite.

Il corvo nella leggenda e nell'iconografia
Il corvo, forse per il suo colore nero lucente, colore del principio delle cose (il buio del ventre materno e quello della terra ove germina il seme) ma anche della fine (il colore della notte e della morte), ha sempre fornito una simbologia dagli opposti significati: animale della preveggenza, messaggero di esseri soprannaturali, portatore di malasorte, etc.
Cesare Ripa nella sua opera più nota, Iconologia lo inserisce nella simbologia dell'irresolutezza (Irresolutione), ponendo due corvi in atto di gracchiare nelle mani dell'anziana donna che ne costituisce l'icona e ne spiega anche il perché: «Se le dà i Corvi per ciascuna mano in atto di cantare, il qual canto è sempre Cras, Cras, così gli huomini irresoluti differiscono di giorno in giorno, [1] quanto debbono con ogni diligenza operare, come dice Martiale»
Il corvo ha fama di "uccello del malaugurio": questa è in un certo senso certificata letterariamente anche dallo scrittore americano Edgar Allan Poe il quale, nel suo Procedimento di Composizione, con il quale descrive come giunse a comporre il suo noto poema in versi Il corvo, afferma: «Ero così giunto alla concezione di un Corvo, l'uccello di malaugurio che va reiterando con monotonia l'unica parola mai più …». [2]
La fama maleaugurante gli deriva anche dalla sua predilezione per le carogne, che ha dato origine ad espressioni come «Finire in pasto ai corvi», per indicare il morire (magari anche insepolti). [3] Avendolo il dio Apollo mutate le penne da bianche a nere per punirlo di avergli portato una brutta notizia, è divenuto anche simbolo del delatore. [3]
Secondo una leggenda un corvo soleva mangiare dalle mani di San Benedetto e nei monasteri dell'Ordine era uso tenerne uno addomesticato in ricordo del Santo [4]
Il corvo nella Bibbia

Probabilmente il Ripa si ispirò anche all'Antico Testamento, laddove Noè fà uscire per primo il corvo al fine di accertare se le acque si sono ritirate: «Esso uscì andando e tornando finché si prosciugarono sulla terra» ma il corvo non se ne andò dall'Arca e Noè fece uscire la colomba cui toccò la stessa sorte. Ma le uscite successive non furono più affidate al corvo, bensì alla colomba che finì poi con lasciare l'Arca per riprendere la propria vita. [5] Si spiega quindi anche con questo l'interpretazione di simbolo di irresolutezza.
Il corvo compare come animale immangiabile per gli ebrei e quindi con una connotazione negativa, [6], ma assume una valenza positiva nel I libro dei Re, ove il Signore incarica i corvi di portare cibo al profeta Elia. [7]I profeti Isaia [8] e Sofonia [9] invece lo indicano, insieme ad altri animali, come segno di desolazione. Nel Nuovo Testamento il corvo assume una valenza positiva sulle labbra di Gesù. «Guardate i corvi: non seminano e non mietono, non hanno ripostiglio né granaio, e Dio li nutre.» [10]

Il corvo nella letteratura

The Raven (Il Corvo) è anche il titolo di un famoso poemetto in versi di Edgar Allan Poe, scritto fra il 1843 ed il 1844, ove l'uccello rappresenta il misterioso interlocutore del poeta, affranto per la morte della sua amata, ed al quale risponde sempre e solo con la parola Nevermore (Mai più).

Note

Cras in latino significa domani
1. ^ Edgar Allan Poe, The Philosophy of Composition, comparso sul numero di aprile 1846 del The Graham's Lady's and Gentleman's Magazine di Filadelfia; da: Racconti Straordinari - Racconti grotteschi e seri, con la traduzione di Franco della Pergola, Edizioni per Il Club del Libro, 1957
2. ^ a b Alfredo Cattabiani, Volario, Mondatori, Milano, 2000, ISBN 88-04-47991-4, pag. 295
3. ^ Alfredo Cattabiani, op. cit., pag. 305
4. ^ Bibbia, Genesi, 8, 6-12
5. ^ «Ecco quello che non dovete mangiare […] ogni specie di corvo […]», Deuteronomio, 14, 14; «Fra i volatili terrete in abominio questi che non dovete mangiare, perché ripugnanti: […], ogni specie di corvo […]» (Levitico, 11, 13-15)
6. ^ «[…] ivi berrai al torrente ed i corvi per mio comando ti porteranno il tuo cibo […] I corvi gli portavano pane al mattino e carne alla sera […]» (1 Re, 17, 2-6)
7. ^ «[…] una grande ecatombe nel paede di Edom. […] per tutte le generazioni resterà deserta, mai più alcuno vi passerà. […] il gufo e il corvo vi faranno dimora», (Isaia, 34, 6-11)
8. ^ «[…] farà [il Signore] di Ninive una desolazione. […] il gufo striderà sulle finestre ed il corvo sulle soglie.», (Sofonia, 13-14)
9. ^ Luca, 12, 24




FONTE: http://irispets.it/files/2009/10/corvo2.jpg



FONTE: http://foto.dsy.it/albums/album09/corvo4.jpg


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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Corvo - Corvus   Ven 16 Apr 2010 - 11:05



FONTE: http://th00.deviantart.net/fs31/300W/i/2008/230/8/4/Mr__Crow_by_mister_fuzzy.jpg

Il corvo imperiale



FONTE: http://www.fotoplatforma.pl/foto_galeria/4738__6925kruk3.jpg

FONTE: http://digilander.libero.it/verdecammina/corvo_imperiale.htm

Ordine: Passeriformi
Famiglia: Corvidi
Genere: Corvus
Specie: Corvus corax


Caratteristiche
Il corvo imperiale (Corvus corax) è il più grande passeriforme e corvo europeo, le ali superano 1,3 metri di larghezza e dal becco alla coda è lungo tra i 62 ed i 70 cm. Raggiunge un peso di 1400 grammi ed ha neri il piumaggio ed il robusto becco, la coda è cuneiforme e la gola irsuta. Il suo piumaggio è talmente liscio che il corpo pare fuso in un unico pezzo, infatti le piume del collo si drizzano solo quando l'uccello è molto eccitato.
E' dotato di un volo elegante e quasi rettilineo ed i maschi, durante il periodo degli amori, sostengono delle lotte furiose per il possesso delle compagne.
________________________________________
Diffusione
Abita tutta l'Europa, l'Asia sino al Giappone e l'America settentrionale fino in Messico. Ovunque è sedentario, in Italia è stazionario e rarissimo fuorché in Sardegna. nel nostro paese vi sono da 3000 a 6000 coppie nidificanti distribuite su Alpi, Sardegna, Sicilia, Gargano e tutto l'Appennino Meridionale.
In Campania è presente in entrambi i parchi nazionali (Cilento e Vallo di Diano e Vesuvio) ed in particolare in quello del Vesuvio risulta essere l'uccello più grande.
________________________________________
Habitat
Preferisce le zone montane, le ampie foreste d'alto fusto e le coste rocciose di mare, dove è certo di non essere importunato da nessuno. Nel Parco Nazionale del Cilento e Vallo di Diano predilige le pareti rocciose degli Alburni, ma è anche possibile osservarlo sulle falesie che scendono a picco sulla costa cilentana.
Vive in piccole schiere che difficilmente superano i sei elementi
________________________________________
Riproduzione
Durante il mese di febbraio comincia a costruisce il nido, deponendovi poi le uova ai primi di marzo. Il nido viene collocato sulle pareti rocciose, sugli scogli e sulle cime degli alberi più alti, comunque in luoghi inaccessibili. Sovente i nidi più vecchi vengono restaurati e riutilizzati.
La covata consiste di 5 o 6 uova verdognole, macchiate di bruno e di grigio. I piccoli vengono nutriti da entrambi i genitori con lombrichi, insetti, topi, uccellini, uova e carni putrefatte.

Appena le circostanze sono favorevoli, i giovani abbandonano il nido verso la fine di maggio o l'inizio di giugno, ma solamente verso l'autunno cominciano a vivere indipendenti.
________________________________________
Alimentazione
Il corvo imperiale è onnivoro, infatti inghiotte tutto ciò che può essere inghiottito, divora ogni sorta di sostanze vegetali, e nel contempo è un accanito predatore aggredendo coraggiosamente mammiferi ed uccelli di mole anche maggiore della sua. Nei mesi estivi preda i pesci lungo le spiagge, in primavera scaccia gli adulti dai nidi e ne divora le uova ed i nidiacei. In piccoli branchi insegue le aquile, cercando di approfittare degli avanzi delle loro prede. Se si imbatte in qualche compagno ammalato o morto li divora senza alcuno scrupolo.
I corvi non mancano mai dove abbondano animali morti e molti affermano di averli visti intenti a divorare anche cadaveri umani.
________________________________________
Legislazione
Il corvo imperiale è protetto in Italia ed è vietata la detenzione e la vendita dei soggetti non anellati e sprovvisti di certificato di nascita in cattività.



FONTE: http://79.4.189.106/pdf/fauna/Corvo%20imperiale.jpg



FONTE: http://www.naturephoto-cz.eu/pic/aves/corvo-imperiale-7399.jpg




FONTE: http://www.snowfinch.it/Fot%20Gallery%20avifauna%20265.jpg


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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Corvo - Corvus   Sab 17 Apr 2010 - 7:51

Altri documenti che ci parlano della simbologia del corvo...

Buona lettura!

FONTE: http://sciamanesimo.splinder.com/tag/animali+totem

Il corvo viene considerato dagli indiani il messaggero della magia.

E' l'ambasciatore del grande vuoto che risiede oltre il tempo e lo spazio, dell'etere dal quale tutto deriva e a cui tutto fa ritorno.

Quando si teneva una cerimonia magica, il corvo era sempre presente per poter assorbire l'energia magica e recapitarla nel luogo a cui essa era mirata.

Con il suo aiuto, è possibile guarire persone ammalate che si trovino anche a grandi distanze.

Coloro che hanno fatto uso di tecniche di magia nera hanno buoni motivi per temere la presenza di un corvo, poiché esso ha il compito di riportare al mandante le energie negative causate da queste pratiche.

Il corvo può aiutarvi a modificare il vostro stato di coscienza e a trovare il coraggio di affrontare il grande mistero.

Osservate il suo manto di penne, come sembri cambiare forma e colore. Dirigete il vostro sguardo nella nera oscurità del vuoto, forse troverete le risposte alle vostre domande!


FONTE: http://animalitotem.wordpress.com/
Corvo (Badb, Rocas): Questo animale era trattato con rispetto. Il corvo era un auspicio di conflitto e di morte, associato alle divinità Macha, Badb, e Morrigan. La parola irlandese per il corvo è badb, che è anche il nome di una dea celtica della guerra. Il corvo era anche ritenuto abile, scaltro, e portatore di conoscenza. Insegna il valore dell’inganno quando questo è necessario. Insegna anche ad imparare dalle lezioni del passato, senza però aggrapparsi ad esso.




FONTE: http://www.ilcerchiodellaluna.it/central_Dee_Morrigan.htm
LA MORRIGAN, Tre Volte Nera
Ricerca di Morgan Mac Phoenix
Il Corvo, nero totem della Dea
Spesso il Corvo (corvus corax) e la Cornacchia (corvus cornix) vengono confusi a causa della loro somiglianza, ma sia biologicamente che dal punto di vista dei naturali poteri magici sono due creature che presentano lievi differenze. Gli Inuit venerano la cornacchia come portatrice di luce e non la feriscono mai per paura di perdere questo prezioso dono. Anche i Cinesi onorano una cornacchia del sole a tre zampe. Spesso il corvo è il totem di molte tribù o clan dei Veri Abitanti delle Americhe, come i Tlingit, i Niska, gli Haida, i Seneca…
A questi animali si attribuisce solitamente il potere della metamorfosi e come anche al colore nero, i Nativi d’America identificano la cornacchia con il Grande Mistero, l’abisso da cui emerge ogni cosa. Alcune tribù invece ne temono i poteri e insultano questi animali più che riverirli, mettendo gli stranieri in guardia da essi.
Poiché mangiatori di carogne, questi animali facevano parte della cosmologia indigena americana come quella antico-europea (Cool, in quanto la decontaminazione era considerata una parte necessaria della purificazione e della pulizia perché portava equilibrio nella natura.
Per i Romani la cornacchia era una guardiana e in origine era bianca. Apollo la inviò a controllare Coronide (con la quale aveva generato Asclepio), che nel frattempo lo aveva tradito con un mortale e per questo era stata trafitta dal Dio. Le bianche piume della cornacchia per tale delazione furono fatte diventare nere secondo il mito.
Per quanto riguarda le magiche corrispondenze la direzione a cui si ricollegano le energie di questi animali è il Nord e gli elementi sono l’Aria e la Terra.
I tratti che le caratterizzano sono l’intelligenze, il discernimento e l’abilità tecnica nell’uso dei manufatti.
Questo animale può essere paragonato al simbolo del tao perché è sia malevolo che benevole, sia creatore che distruttore esattamente come l’archetipo della Dea di cui è il più importante totem.
È l’animale della magia e del mistero per eccellenza, ma è anche una guida per chi si perde nella notte.
E’ l’animale della preveggenza, concede il dono della vista, l’astuzia per affrontare le avversità.


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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Corvo - Corvus   Lun 7 Giu 2010 - 15:19

Dopo aver visto questo video non ho avuto più dubbi ... gli animali sono molto più intelligenti e geniali di persone che conosco ^^



Mentre in questo articolo, in inglese, vedremo come il corvo ha avuto nell'inventario dell'uomo una simbologia di portatore del male. Per i Celtici invece la sua roca voce serve per avvisare di un pericolo imminente oppure come dichiarazione di appartenenza del territorio.

Buona lettura!

FONTE: http://wolfs_moon.tripod.com/crowtotem.html

Carrier of Lost Souls into Light

The Crow is a creature that has elicited much thought and speculation amongst all indigenous peoples and across many cultures and times.
To some, Crow is a harbinger of "evil" or portender of physical death, to others, he is one who offers the choice to fly free of the chains of the past and to soar toward self knowing, yet all seem to agree, that this Animal Totem possesses a powerful energy (Medicine) contained within his small frame.
***One who has the honor of having Crow fly by his/her side, is an individual who has the Role of carrying souls lost in pain, denial, bitterness or ill intent, into the light of forgiveness and self-awareness.
When we are reeling in the darkness of emotional pain and turmoil, confused by denying that which we don`t want to see, or feeling bitter over the actions of those who have hurt us, betrayed us or rejected us in the "past," we have become lost on our Path. It is the Role of one who has Crow as their Power Totem, to then find those lost souls and call to them to make the journey into the light of awareness, and eventually, sincere forgiveness.
For one who does not have Crow as their Power Totem (yet has lost the sense of their Life Path), it is Crow that they would call upon to carry them to re-align with their Path once more, as she is the Totem whose vision sees through the darkest of Nights to find the way back home.
Yet in order that one with Crow Totem can carry others into the Light, he/she must first find their own way free of the shadows of the past. This can be an arduous task, yet is essential to fulfilling their Role as Carrier of Lost Souls into Light, for how can they fulfill a task that they have not yet completed for themselves?
To assist them in this process, Crow Souls have been blessed with the ability of keen perception, to see right to the core of their own Self. This is reflected in Nature as the Crow is considered to be the most intelligent and perceptive of all Winged Ones, and she is renowned for her abilities in cognizant thought and strategy.
Whether turned within to gain understanding of herSelf, or reflected back as a mirror to Others so that they may know themSelves, this is a beautiful gift bestowed upon a deserving Soul.***


Shadow Within

Celtic Crow

All who hear the caw of the Crow immediately recognize that raspy voice. Yet, in reality, that particular call is only one of the sounds that Crow will utilize to make a statement, call out his territory, or alert other crows to impending danger, though without a doubt, it is his caw that most two-leggeds recognize him by.
He will also make a very distinct chirping sound when he is singing in the morning or welcoming the moon into the night sky, and he can elicit tingles along the spine of the listener when he is warning others of infringement upon his territory, or of danger approaching, with a call that is halfway between a screech and a caw.
***For anyone who is born with Power Totem of Crow, communication is an integral part of their flight along the Sacred Hoop of life. They are here to express the depth of what they feel, to alternately inspire others with their vision of Life, or to transport them, through beautifully woven words, into other realms and planes of Being.
Yet for their keen intelligence and ability to communicate the intensity, scope and beauty of their own experiences to Others, Crow Soul is one who struggles to find and define him/herself to the Self. Years, and even lifetimes, may be spent in gradually coming to an understanding and embracing of all the facets that make up their Personality, Mind and Soul.
Part of the process is in uncovering the ~Shadows Within~ that all possess along this Earth Walk. These are the areas of our Self that represent our greatest lessons and opportunities for growth, yet can remain elusive to our grasp and understanding. However, once these "shadows" have been fully understood and integrated, then the journey upward to the light of the Higher Self can be easily attained and serve as inspiration for Others.
To achieve this demands that one go Within and illuminate all of the corners of the subconscious where shadows still linger. To open the door to the corridors of pain where the past still haunts the soul, and shed the Light of awareness so that true Healing may occur. Then, Crow Soul may share his/her insight, understanding and awareness with others through words (written or spoken) in either literal or metaphorical language, that will invoke understanding and inspiration within Others to reach for the Light within themselves.
This is the Journey of the Soul from Night into Day . . . the blessing of Crow to both the Self, and the Gift to Others.***


Sentinel

Crows are known for their tendency to observe all that is happening around them and to alert other crows nearby at the first sign of an intruder or danger. Their keen eyes miss nothing, and when an approaching threat is noticed, they will sound the alarm with their throaty caws echoing in the air.

It is believed that because of their tendency to call out when intruders are around, they have been given the task of being the Messengers of the Ancestors. In other cultures and times, the belief that they are messengers of the Spirit Realm is also predominant, as in ancient Roman mythology, where a white crow was said to have delivered a foreboding message to Apollo, who then turned all ravens and crows black out of his anger at the bad news.
***Like their Power Totem, Crow Souls are Sentinels who keep silent watch over all that is happening around them. They will first observe what is occurring, making mental notes on what has been seen, heard and experienced. They will then translate these thoughts into either spoken or written format, sharing their observations with the world around them.
In esoteric astrology, the Crow would be considered to be much like Saturn, the Gatekeeper, who stands ever at the ready of the Doorway between Planes, keeping the Ancestors informed as to the progress and evolution of those who walk the Red Road. Yet Crow will also carry messages from the Ancestors to his/her fellow two-leggeds. This has earned the Crow Soul the responsibility of being the Watcher and the Sentinel, standing as a messenger between the realm of the physical, and the realm of the Spirit.
If Crow is not your personal Power Totem, yet has suddenly made an appearance in your life, then there are messages that the Ancestors are bringing to you that will likely be heralding significant changes in your life. The more crows that you encounter, the more likely the message is to be urgent and needing your acknowledgment and attention. Take the time to quietly go within, asking for clarification on the Message being delivered. Or it may be that you will be called upon to assist others in their journey from the darkness of denial into the light of awareness.
If Crow is your Power Totem and you are suddenly noticing him/her all about you, it is a time to go within, immersing yourself in quiet contemplation, listening to the messages you are to pay heed to for either your own Path, or as a message to relay to Others.***



Shapeshifting

Several creatures of the Earth Mother are believed to have been given the Gift of Shapeshifting, that is transforming from their animal state to that of a two-legged, and back again. Amongst these Beings who are said to possess this ability is the Crow.
It is said that the Elder Spirits will appear before a two-legged in the form of a Crow so that the strength, character and faith of the mortal can be ~tested~ prior to receiving a special gift or honor. For this reason, Crow can be clever, attempting to trick the two-legged into folly. If the two-legged passes the test, then the Crow will transform his shape and appear before the mortal as an Ancient One, who will then deliver a message of great importance, or bestow an ability upon the one who has triumphed in the face of challenge or adversity.
***One who flies with Power Totem Crow, is an individual blessed with great Insight.
This ability to see to the very heart of a matter, serves the Crow Soul well as he/she traverses the ~Earth Walk.~ With the keen perception and ability to grasp complex ideas and philosophies (initially on an intuitive level, followed by deductive reasoning), one with Power Totem Crow may transform the direction of their Journey, their belief system and understanding, indeed their very Life here in Physical.
More often than not, one whose Soul shares a deep bond with Crow will be an individual who may experience an especially difficult early life, wherein a certain sense of detachment or "dis-connectedness" to other two-leggeds has been felt. This general sense of ~not belonging~ will exist on some level, and at varying intensities, throughout their physical life, or until a deeper level of understanding and acceptance has been attained.
Perhaps it is because, like their Animal Totem, they exist simultaneously within two worlds, that of the Spirit and that of the Flesh, that these individuals always seem to be looking for the answer to all of their questions, and ultimately, a sense of `conection.~
Yet the true thirst for connection comes from the Soul of Crow desiring to re-connect with all that was once known, yet lost when the Soul is cast upon the blank shores of forgetfulness that is Physical Life. He/she seeks to connect all that which was known, is now known, and will one day be known, thus perhaps receiving the Answers to all of the Questions which fill their active and pondering minds.
When one with Power Totem Crow comes to realize that he/she is already connected to that vast repository of Universal Knowledge, and that the Earth Walk is the "schoolroom" of that great university, then, the process of transformation begins. This leads him/her to the discovery that one is never truly ~dis-connected~ in the first place, merely walking on a different level, plane or experience than some of the other two-leggeds.
Once this realization has been made, then Crow Soul will begin to Shapeshift from the bindings of the past, which have dictated that there must be something "wrong" with his/her way of experiencing, feeling or viewing ~Life,~ and can instead, come to Accept, Celebrate and Love the Self. This is when the integrated human (mind)/crow (soul) may truly fly free.


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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Corvo - Corvus   Ven 16 Lug 2010 - 16:43

Vediamo ancora qualcosa sulla simbologia del corvo nonchè, grazie a wikipedia, conosciamo qualche elemento in più sulla mitologia legata al corvo.

Di wikipedia riporto solo uno stralcio perciò ne consiglio la visione, per un approfondimento, al link originale....



FONTE: Animali e spiritualità. La convivenza con l'uomo. Sacrifici rituali e miti. Spiriti e simboli animali di Saunders Nicholas J. Ed. EDT

"Al principio il Corvo creò noi, poi ogni cosa, poi anche i pali totemici".

Così dicono i popoli della costa nord-occidentale dell'Amrica, per i quali il corvo è una importante figura mitica, il grande creatore o trasformatore del mondo.

In un mito degli Haida (isole Regina Carlotta) si narra di un corvo che trovò un gigantesco mollusco su una spiaggia di Naikun quando le acque della grande marea si ritirarono. Il mollusco era pieno di piccole creature terrorizzate che su consiglio di Corvo lasciarono la conchiglia ed esplorarono il mondo, crescendo fino a diventare i primi esseri umani.

Presso altre popolazioni, Corvo era colui che aveva rubato il sole e portato il primo salmone, le prime bacche e gli altri doni all'umanità.



FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corvus_corax


Il corvo ed il primo uomo, scultura raffigurante una parte del mito della Creazione dei nativi Haida.

Rapporti con l'uomo

Sebbene in alcune parti del proprio areale sia stato registrato un declino delle popolazioni, dovuto alla perdita dell'habitat naturale e in alcuni casi anche alla persecuzione diretta da parte dell'uomo, il corvo imperiale risulta un animale assai comune nel proprio areale, sebbene piuttosto difficile da avvistare ed osservare, a causa della sua naturale riservatezza: in alcune aree, come ad esempio il deserto del Mojave, la specie ha addirittura prolificato in maniera tale da risultare nociva, poiché danneggia i raccolti nutrendosi di frutti e granaglie, mentre pare abbastanza difficile che i corvi imperiali siano in grado di sopraffare agnelli, capretti e vitelli sani, come lamentato dagli allevatori[59]: probabilmente le supposizioni di attacchi ai giovani animali si basano su osservazioni di corvi imperiali intenti a banchettare con carcasse di animali morti per altre cause oppure poco vitali alla nascita, ai quali perciò essi si sono limitati a dare il colpo di grazia[60].
Le crescite esplosive della popolazione di corvi sono solitamente avvenute in zone precedentemente aride nelle quali è avvenuto l'insediamento dell'uomo, con conseguente realizzazione di pozzi e discariche, ossia fonti permanenti di cibo ed acqua per i corvi, i quali si sono moltiplicati (spesso a discapito di altre specie autoctone, da essi predate[61][62]).
Per fronteggiare l'eccessivo accrescimento delle popolazioni di corvo imperiale, i governi locali hanno proceduto spesso con programmi di abbattimento selettivo od intrappolamento e rilascio in luoghi distanti[63]: in altri Paesi, come la Finlandia, il problema è stato affrontato ponendo un premio in denaro per ciascun animale ucciso, pratica questa utilizzata sin dalla metà del XVII secolo e rimasta in uso sino al 1923, quando venne abolita[64].
[modifica]

Il corvo imperiale nella mitologia

L'abitudine dei corvi imperiali di nutrirsi di carcasse di animali (ma anche di cadaveri) ha fatto sì che nella maggior parte delle culture questo animale abbia assunto la funzione mitologica di tramite fra il mondo terreno e quello spirituale, oppure quella di psicopompo (traghettatore delle anime verso l'aldilà): a causa del suo piumaggio nero e del suo verso inquietante, inoltre, per alcune culture il corvo è stato associato alla morte ed alla sfortuna. Tuttavia, non sempre è così, anzi vi sono non poche culture nelle quali il corvo imperiale assume connotati del tutto opposti a quelli attualmente attribuitigli dalla cultura occidentale[65].
Il corvo ed il primo uomo, scultura raffigurante una parte del mito della Creazione dei nativi Haida.

Ad esempio, il corvo è un animale totemico molto importante per i nativi americani della costa pacifica: in queste culture esso assume il doppio ruolo di demiurgo e di trickster, in quanto se da una parte esso crea il mondo, dall'altra ruba ogni giorno il sole, rilasciandolo al mattino successivo. Simili abilità gli vengono attribuite anche dai popoli dell'Asia nord-orientale[66]: ad esempio, il dio corvo Kutkh viene ritenuto il creatore della penisola della Kamchatka[67].
Anche gli Eschimesi attribuiscono al corvo il ruolo di creatore dell'uomo, operazione questa eseguita dall'animale a partire da un baccello di pisello[68].

Nella mitologia cinese, un corvo dorato a tre zampe (金烏/金乌) rappresenta il sole: secondo il folklore, originariamente esistevano dieci di questi animali, che vivevano appollaiati su di un gelso nel mare dell'est, ed ogni giorno uno di essi veniva scelto per viaggiare intorno al mondo su di un carro guidato dalla dea Xihe, considerata la "madre del sole"[69]. Intorno al 2170 a.C., tutti i dieci uccelli del sole partirono per il viaggio intorno al mondo nello stesso giorno, rischiando così di incendiare la Terra; l'arciere Houyi li abbatté tutti tranne uno, il quale da quel giorno è costretto a girare costantemente attorno al mondo.
L'imperatore Jimmu con Yagatarasu, corvo sacro nella mitologia giapponese.

Nella mitologia giapponese Yatagarasu (八咫烏) è un corvo di proprietà della dea del sole Amaterasu, che funge da messaggero fra essa e gli uomini. Yatagarasu compare in numerosi Kojiki (古事記), in cui si narra, fra l'altro, che abbia combattuto e ucciso una bestia intenzionata a divorare il sole, e che sia altresì il protettore dell'imperatore Jimmu, avendolo aiutato a fuggire da un bosco circondato da nemici[70].

Nella Mitologia greca, il corvo, inizialmente di colore bianco candido, venne scelto come uccello simbolo del dio Apollo, il quale tuttavia lo punì per avergli riferito, anche se in buona fede, una cattiva notizia, vale a dire il tradimento con il mortale Ischi da parte della sua amante Coronide, anch'essa mortale: la punizione consistette nell'annerimento istantaneo del piumaggio del corvo, caratteristica questa che sarebbe stata trasmessa anche alla progenie[71]. Probabilmente da questa leggenda è derivata la concezione del corvo come uccello del malaugurio.
Odino coi due corvi Huginn e Muninn.

Anche nella mitologia norrena il corvo aveva un ruolo di spicco: Huginn e Muninn sono i due corvi del dio Odino, il quale ogni mattina li manda per il mondo ed alla sera li lascia posare sulle proprie spalle, ascoltando le notizie che essi gli sussurrano all'orecchio[72]. Ragnarr Loðbrók aveva uno stendardo del corvo detto Reafan, il quale avrebbe fornito l'invincibilità al proprietario finché il suo drappo avrebbe garrito al vento. Anche re Harald III di Norvegia possedeva uno stendardo del genere, detto Landeythan ("guasta-terra")[73], ed uno stendardo del corvo veniva portato in battaglia anche da re Canuto I d'Inghilterra[74]. Il nome hrafn ("corvo" in lingua norrena) compare spesso nei kenningar legati allo spargimento di sangue in battaglia, in quanto i corvi eraso presenze costanti in questi luoghi, così ricchi di cibo (rappresentato dalle spoglie dei guerrieri) per loro.
In generale, tuttavia, i corvi vengono ritenuti, in virtù delle loro abitudini saprofaghe, strettamente associati alla morte, pertanto in Svezia essi vengono associati alle anime dei morti in maniera violenta, mentre in Germania rappresentano le anime dei dannati.

Nella mitologia irlandese, la divinità Mórrígan si appollaia sulla spalla di Cú Chulainn sotto forma di corvo dopo la sua morte[75]. Nella mitologia gallese il corvo viene associato al dio Bran, il cui nome significa per l'appunto "corvo": proprio il fatto che Bran nelle Triadi Gallesi venga associato alla Torre di Londra potrebbe essere all'origine del mito vittoriano dei corvi in essa residenti[76]. Nella mitologia celtica in generale, invece, il corvo rappresenta, assieme al cinghiale, l'animale simbolo del dio Lug, del quale rappresenta l'ingegno e la tecnica, mentre il cinghiale ne rappresenta la forza e la tenacia.

Nella religione cristiana, il corvo non ha solitamente funzioni negative: fu proprio uno di questi animali a strappare dalle mani di San Benedetto da Norcia il pane avvelenato dagli altri frati dopo che il santo lo ebbe benedetto, portandolo dove nessuno avrebbe potuto mangiarlo[77]. Inoltre, anche se non viene esplicitato nelle Sacre Scritture, nella cultura popolare al ladrone che dubita dell'essenza divina di Gesù vengono cavati gli occhi dai corvi.

Nella religione ebraica, invece, oltre ad essere il primo animale ad uscire dall'arca dopo il diluvio universale, il corvo è anche uno dei tre esseri viventi (assieme ad un asino e una giumenta[78]) che osarono copulare a bordo di essa e pertanto viene punito: il maschio, per riprodursi, sarebbe costretto a depositare il proprio seme nella bocca della femmina.

I corvi sono fortemente legati alla cultura britannica: nella Torre di Londra da secoli ne vengono costantemente tenuti sette, accuditi da un raven master preposto. La leggenda vuole che la monarchia inglese cadrà sotto la mano di un invasore straniero il giorno in cui tutti e sette i corvi moriranno o si disperderanno in maniera permanente. La loro presenza nei pressi della Torre è talmente radicata che, quando l'astronomo di corte John Flamsteed chiese la loro rimozione, il re Carlo II d'Inghilterra fece spostare l'osservatorio reale a Greenwich piuttosto che spostare i corvi[79], oppure, dopo la morte di tutti i corvi (eccetto uno, chiamato Grip) in seguito ai bombardamenti tedeschi di Londra durante la Seconda guerra mondiale, la torre venne riaperta al pubblico solo dopo che i deceduti vennero rimpiazzati con dei nuovi corvi[80].

Sebbene sia opinione comune che la presenza dei corvi alla Torre abbia origini antichissime, in realtà si tratta molto probabilmente di un'invenzione assai recente: il primo riferimento a questi corvi, infatti, è un'immagine del 1885 sul periodico The Pictorial World[81]. A partire da questa illustrazione, durante il XIX e XX secolo si moltiplicheranno le immagini raffiguranti questi animali nei pressi del cosiddetto "pontile", ossia il luogo dove venivano eseguite le condanne a morte per decapitazione. Proprio questo particolare lascia supporre che i corvi, in virtù del fatto che si trovino con frequenza associati ai patiboli per fare incetta dei cadaveri, siano stati portati alla Torre dai beefeaters allo scopo preciso di rendere più drammatiche le storie di torture ed esecuzioni[82]. Probabilmente i corvi originali vennero donati alla torre dal Conte di Dunraven[83][84], anche se è altrettanto possibile che essi, un tempo abbondanti nella capitale inglese (in particolare attorno ai mattatoi ed ai mercati) possano essersi spostati naturalmente verso la Torre[85]. I corvi non fuggono né si allontanano dalla Torre di Londra poiché periodicamente le remiganti primarie di un'ala vengono loro spuntate, in modo tale da renderli inadatti al volo su medie e lunghe distanze.

Il corvo imperiale nella cultura

Nella Bibbia il corvo compare varie volte, soprattutto nel Vecchio Testamento: nella Genesi il primo animale che Noè fa uscire dall'arca è proprio un corvo[86], mentre nel libro dei giudici Gedeone sconfigge uno dei re Madianiti il cui nome è Oreb (עורב, "corvo"). Nei libri dei Re si legge che il profeta Elia viene nutrito da dei corvi, i quali, istruiti da Dio, gli portano il cibo.

Nel Corano, il corvo è l'animale che suggerisce a Caino il modo di seppellire il corpo di suo fratello Abele[87].

Tito Livio racconta che il generale romano Marco Valerio Corvo portava un corvo imbalsamato sul proprio elmo: proprio quest'ultimo salvò la vita al generale durante un combattimento con un Gallo di enorme stazza, staccandosi e volandogli sul volto, distraendolo il tempo necessario per permettere a Corvo di sopraffarlo[88].

I corvi sono anche gli uccelli maggiormente citati nei lavori di William Shakespeare (basti pensare all'Otello ed al Macbeth)[89], mentre nel Barnaby Rudge di Charles Dickens uno dei protagonisti è il corvo Grip: ma è sicuramente nel libro Il corvo e altre poesie di Edgar Allan Poe che il corvo assume il ruolo di protagonista, in quanto intermediario fra l'umano ed il soprannaturale.
Nel libro La regina delle fate di Edmund Spencer il corvo assume invece il ruolo di uccello del malaugurio.

Nel fumetto Il Corvo, così come nell'omonima serie di film, questo animale fa ancora una volta da tramite fra il mondo dei vivi e quello dei morti, accompagnando il giovane Eric nel suo cammino verso la vendetta.

Il corvo è anche il simbolo della squadra di football americano dei Baltimore Ravens, che da esso prende anche il nome (raven in italiano vuol dire "corvo imperiale"), mentre un corvo a tre zampe è effigiato sul simbolo della Federazione calcistica del Giappone. Il wrestler Scott Levy, infine, si è esibito per anni con lo pseudonimo di "Raven".

Il corvo imperiale dà anche il nome a una costellazione meridionale, così denominata da Tolomeo sia in onore del sopracitato mito di Ischi, che in riferimento a un corvo che aveva il compito di dissetare Apollo ma, svolgendo la propria mansione con un certo ritardo, venne scagliato in cielo nei pressi della costellazione della Coppa, per ricordargli in eterno il compito che avrebbe dovuto svolgere.


L'imperatore Jimmu con Yagatarasu, corvo sacro nella mitologia giapponese.


Ultima modifica di Tila il Mar 28 Dic 2010 - 10:55, modificato 1 volta
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Corvo - Corvus   Ven 22 Ott 2010 - 7:38

Ancora qualche notizia sul corvo provenienti da un sito molto interessante...

Vedremo che il corvo ha una importante simbologia alchemica, visto come colui che riesce a scomporre tutto e a risolvere operazioni complesse.

Messaggero di magia e di mutamento.

Anche nella tradizione dei Nativi Americani è visto come una creatura dalle sorprendenti capacità di trasformazione e cambiamento. visto da alcune tribù come un abile truffatore proprio per queste sue capacità.

Buona lettura!


FONTE: http://www.whats-your-sign.com/animal-alchemy-symbols.html

Raven:
Or rather, the Raven King in alchemical terms, the raven was the taboo bird in all alchemical traditions. It was said that three Raven Kings were associated with the bird's transforming powers of death and decay. Further, the raven was hailed for it's ability to decompose everything in its path. This was considered an attribute because putrefaction must take place so that the body can be joined with the soul. Although an emblem of death in the alchemical realm, the raven was also long relied upon for its connection with the ethereal, darker forces at work and would often be invoked during difficult transmutations and particularly complicated operations.


FONTE: http://www.whats-your-sign.com/identifying-animal-tracks.html

Raven
Raven tracks indicate a message to us beyond time and space. Long revered for being a great bearer of magic, the Raven transports the energy of messages and healing to its intended destination. When our paths cross with the Raven we are encouraged to change our perspective and admit to the magic around us as well as within us.


FONTE: http://www.symbolic-meanings.com/2007/11/15/symbolic-meaning-of-the-raven-in-native-american-indian-lore/

Symbolic Meaning of the Raven in Native American Indian Lore
Written by avenefica on November 15th, 2007

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Symbolic Meaning of the Raven in Native American Indian Lore
Written by avenefica on November 15th, 2007


The symbolic meaning of the Raven in Native American Indian lore describes the raven as a creature of metamorphosis, and symbolizes change/transformation.

In some tribes, the Raven is considered a trickster because of its transforming/changing attributes.

Often honored among medicine & holy men of tribes for its shape-shifting qualities, the Raven was called upon in ritual so that visions could be clarified. Native holy men understood that what the physical eye sees, is not necessarily the truth, and he would call upon the Raven for clarity in these matters.

Foremost, the Raven is the Native American bearer of magic, and a harbinger of messages from the cosmos. Messages that are beyond space and time are nestled in the midnight wings of the Raven and come to only those within the tribe who are worthy of the knowledge.

The Raven is also called upon in Native ritual for healing purposes. Specifically, the Raven is thought to provide long-distance healing.

The Raven is also a keeper of secrets, and can assist us in determining answers to our own “hidden” thoughts. Areas in our lives that we are unwilling to face, or secrets we keep that harm us – the Raven can help us expose the truth behind these (often distorted) secrets and wing us back to health and harmony.


FONTE: http://www.whats-your-sign.com/raven-symbolism.html

If you're looking for raven symbolism pertaining to ill omen, death or other gruesome turns of thought, look elsewhere. There are plenty sources to feed macabre minds, and malign the raven.

It's not that I'm a big advocate of raven energy, and even if I were, it wouldn't matter because the raven needs no champion. Content to move about its bizarre ways in solo-mode, the raven could care less if I'm pro or con for its symbolic status.

I just think the raven has more to offer than uneducated conjecture and superstition (most of which has only cropped up over the last few centuries).

A lot of negative raven symbolism comes about from their appearance on battlefields. They are scavengers (and curious to a fault), and are often seen picking at mangled remains of fallen warriors on battle grounds.

Spans of massacred bodies and gore besieged with glimmery black ravens with chiseled beaks driving coldly into the bloody mire can conjure some nightmarish connotations. I'm betting a lot of the darker raven symbolism came from these eerie appearances at sites with massive death tolls.

This is underscored by the raven's placement in Celtic animal symbolism because it is a bird closely connected with battle and the Celtic goddess Morrigan, who was a remarkable prophetess (connecting oracle themes with the raven).

Nevertheless, this page on raven symbolism will focus on the raven's higher attributes.

For example, the raven's intelligence is possibly its most winning feature. Indeed, these birds can be trained to speak. This speaking ability leads into the legend of ravens being the ultimate oracle.

In fact, the raven is often heard to cackle utterances that sound like "cras, cras." The actual word cras is tomorrow in Latin. This lends more fuel to the legendary fires that distinguish the raven as a bird who can foretell the future, and reveal omens and signs.

Countless cultures point to the raven as a harbinger of powerful secrets. Moreover, the raven is a messenger too, so its business is in both keeping and communicating deep mysteries.

Raven symbolism of wisdom and knowledge-keeping is connected with the Welsh hero Bran, the Blessed whose name means raven. Bran was the holder of ancestral memories, and his wisdom was legendary. So much so, that he had his head (the vessel of his powerful wisdom) removed and interred in the sacred White Mount in London. Ravens are still roosting there (in the Tower of London), and they're thought to keep Bran's wisdom protected and alive by their presence. I've written more about Bran on my Celtic skulls page here.

The raven is symbolic of mind, thought and wisdom according to Norse legend, as their god Odin was accompanied by two ravens: Hugin who represented the power of thought and active search for information. The other raven, Mugin represented the mind, and its ability to intuit meaning rather than hunting for it. Odin would send these two ravens out each day to soar across the lands. At day's end, they would return to Odin and speak to him of all they had spied upon and learned on their journeys.

Odin was also known as the Raven God. He had many daughters known as Valkyries who could transform into ravens . I like to think Valkyries would ride as ravens after a bloody battle and whisper to the souls of fallen Norse warriors to raise up from their bodies and come with them, where they would soar the skies to Valhalla. What a trip back home that would be.

There's more good news about raven symbolism from the ancient Greeks and Romans. In spite of its midnight-colored feathers, the raven was a solar animal in this culture, and was associated with both Athena and Apollo, both deities closely affiliated with the sun, and the light of wisdom .

Apollo was also a major oracular god, which makes its connection with the chatty and (and alarmingly human-like) conversational raven a smart match.

There are some Greco-Roman legends that say ravens were once all white. And, because the raven couldn't keep a secret to save its life, Apollo punished the raven by turning its bright white feathers black after it divulged too many secrets. There's also a version that said the owl replaced the raven by Athena's side as her associate of wisdom because of raven's blabber-mouthed tendencies.

Raven color changes are also mentioned in Christian lore when Noah sent a raven first to confirm the receding floodwaters. When the raven did not return, it was said God turned its feathers black for its failure, and Noah sent a dove out to do the raven's job. And since then, the raven has gotten a bad rap as being anti-mankind.

I'm not convinced. I rather think (as long as we're postulating over legends) the raven is very pro-mankind and its feathers turned black from sorrow - a heaviness in its heart to witness the floodwaters were still too high to accommodate the birthing ark.

Ravens are humanitarians in Native American symbolic legends too. In fact, the raven was a hero to many tribes. The Inuit for example believed the raven tricked a giant sea monster into submission, and to this day its body serves as the Alaskan mainland.

Other Native North American tribes saw the raven as the bringer of light. In fact, southwestern tribes (Hopi, Navajo, Zuni) felt the raven was flew out from the dark womb of the cosmos, and with it brought the light of the sun (dawning of understanding). Consequently, the raven is considered a venerated bird of creation, for without the raven, humans would forever live in darkness. I've written more about the symbolic meaning of raven from a Native American perspective here.

Dr. Carl Jung deemed raven symbolism to represent the shadow self, or the dark side of the psyche. I very much like this. Why? Because by acknowledging this dark side, we can effectively communicate with both halves of ourselves. This offers liberating balance, and facilitates tremendous wisdom (something the raven would be very pleased with).

In other words, through the consistent unveiling of inner depths, and the positive/active utilization of inner impulses the esoteric secrets become exposed to the light of our own consciousness. This is at the crux of what the raven speaks to me.

What does the raven whisper to you?


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Corvus_corax_jouveniles.jpeg


Ultima modifica di Tila il Mar 28 Dic 2010 - 11:01, modificato 1 volta
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Corvo - Corvus   Gio 18 Nov 2010 - 16:34

Ancora una volta devo ringraziare l'operosità di wikipedia nel redigere questi interessanti articoli... in questo in particolare vedremo la mitologia legata al corvo... visto in alcune culture come un truffatore e in altre come un eroe e in altre ancora come il creatore della razza umana!

Tra le culture lo vediamo legato ad esempio ad Odino, ai celtici... perciò vi consiglio anche di visionare le nostre aree dedicate allo Sciamanesimo Celtico e gli articoli legati alla cultura Norrena...

Buona lettura!



FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raven_in_mythology

Raven in mythology
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ravens are common characters in the traditional narratives and mythology around the world, notably a part of North American, Siberian, and Norse mythology. Besides being the representative spirit of actual ravens, the raven in mythology is often depicted as a trickster or culture hero figure, or even as the creator of human beings.

Contents
[hide]

* 1 North American
o 1.1 Raven creates the world
o 1.2 Raven steals the sun
o 1.3 The Regretful Chief/Origin of Death
o 1.4 Raven and Seagull
* 2 Germanic paganism
* 3 Celtic mythology
* 4 Islam, Christianity and Judaism
* 5 Context
* 6 See also
* 7 References
* 8 External links

[edit] North American

The addition of the Raven trying to succeed to capture the sun, star, and moon. The raven is doing it for his people.

[edit] Raven creates the world

A raven story from the Puget Sound region describes the "Raven" as having originally lived in the land of spirits (literally bird land) that existed before the world of humans. One day the Raven became so bored with bird land that he flew away, carrying a stone in his beak. When the Raven became tired of carrying the stone and dropped it, the stone fell into the ocean and expanded until it formed the firmament on which humans now live.

In the creator role, and in the Raven's role as the totem and ancestor of one of the four northwest clan houses, the Raven is often addressed as Grandfather Raven. It is not clear whether this form of address is intended to refer to a creator Raven who is different from the trickster Raven, or if it is just a vain attempt to encourage the trickster spirit to act respectably.

Bill Reid created the sculpture of The Raven and The First Men depicting a scene from a Haida myth that unifies the Raven as both the trickster and the creator. According to this myth, the raven who was both bored and well fed, found and freed some creatures trapped in a clam. These scared and timid beings were the first men of the world, and they were coaxed out of the clam shell by the raven. Soon the raven was bored with these creatures and planned to return them to their shell. Instead, the raven decided to search for the female counterparts of these male beings. The raven found some female humans trapped in a chiton, freed them, and was entertained as the two sexes met and began to interact. The raven, always known as a trickster, was responsible for the pairing of humans and felt very protective of them. With the Raven perceived as the creator, many Haida myths and legends often suggest the raven as a provider to mankind. Is based on the archetypes of The outcast archetypes.

[edit] Raven steals the sun

This is an ancient story told on the Queen Charlotte Islands and includes how Raven helped to bring the Sun, Moon, Stars, Fresh Water, and Fire to the world.[1]

Long ago, near the beginning of the world, Gray Eagle was the guardian of the Sun, Moon and Stars, of fresh water, and of fire. Gray Eagle hated people so much that he kept these things hidden. People lived in darkness, without fire and without fresh water.

Gray Eagle had a beautiful daughter, and Raven fell in love with her. In the beginning, Raven was a snow-white bird, and as a such, he pleased Gray Eagle's daughter. She invited him to her father's longhouse.

When Raven saw the Sun, Moon and stars, and fresh water hanging on the sides of Eagle's lodge, he knew what he should do. He watched for his chance to seize them when no one was looking. He stole all of them, and a brand of fire also, and flew out of the longhouse through the smoke hole. As soon as Raven got outside he hung the Sun up in the sky. It made so much light that he was able to fly far out to an island in the middle of the ocean. When the Sun set, he fastened the Moon up in the sky and hung the stars around in different places. By this new light he kept on flying, carrying with him the fresh water and the brand of fire he had stolen.

He flew back over the land. When he had reached the right place, he dropped all the water he had stolen. It fell to the ground and there became the source of all the fresh-water streams and lakes in the world. Then Raven flew on, holding the brand of fire in his bill. The smoke from the fire blew back over his white feathers and made them black. When his bill began to burn, he had to drop the firebrand. It struck rocks and hid itself within them. That is why, if you strike two stones together, sparks of fire will drop out.

Raven's feathers never became white again after they were blackened by the smoke from the firebrand. That is why Raven is now a black bird.

[edit] The Regretful Chief/Origin of Death

In one common North American story, Raven plays a vain and regretful Chief in a moral tale somewhat analogous to The Little Boy who Cried Wolf.

As told by the Ktunaxa[2] (Kutenai), the people tried to convince Chief Raven that everyone should get two lives. But Raven (also the bird/manitou Raven) selfishly preferred that people and animals only get one life. This is because Raven is known to like eating the eyes of carrion. As Raven was chief and had spoken, the decision was accepted.

The people were upset, however, and decided to make Raven regret his decision. Raven's son was killed in an arranged arrow target-practice mishap. A tree was felled that struck and killed his daughter.

When this happened, Raven tried in vain to reverse his decision so that everybody would get two lives. But he was reminded, "You are the chief, and you've already spoken".

[edit] Raven and Seagull

Another legend from the native peoples of the Pacific Northwest tells of how at the beginning of the world, Raven was the one who brought light to the darkness. When the Great Spirit created all things he kept them separate and stored in cedar boxes. The Great Spirit gifted these boxes to the animals who existed before humans. When the animals opened the boxes all the things that comprise the world came into being. The boxes held such things as mountains, fire, water, wind and seeds for all the plants. One such box, which was given to Seagull, contained all the light of the world.

Seagull coveted his box and refused to open it, clutching it under his wing. All the people asked Raven to persuade Seagull to open it and release the light. Despite begging, demanding, flattering and trying to trick him into opening the box, Seagull still refused. Finally Raven became angry and frustrated, and stuck a thorn in Seagull's foot. Raven pushed the thorn in deeper until the pain caused Seagull to drop the box. Then out of the box came the sun, moon and stars that brought light to the world and allowed the first day to begin.
See also: Miwok mythology

[edit] Germanic paganism

To the Germanic peoples, Odin was often associated with ravens. Examples include depictions of figures often identified as Odin appear flanked with two birds on a 6th century bracteate and on a 7th century helmet plate from Vendel, Sweden. In later Norse mythology, Odin is described as having two ravens Huginn and Muninn serving as his eyes and ears - Huginn being referred to as thought and Muninn as memory. Every day the ravens fly out from Hliðskjálf and bring Odin news from Midgard.

[edit] Celtic mythology

In Irish mythology ravens are associated with warfare and the battleground in the figures of Badb and Morrígan. Welsh mythology features Bran the Blessed, whose name means "raven" or "crow". He is depicted as giant and the King of the Britons in tale known as the Second Branch of the Mabinogi. Several other characters in Welsh mythology share his name, and ravens figure prominently in the 12th or 13th century text The Dream of Rhonabwy, as the army of King Arthur's knight Owain.

There is a story that England will fall if ever the ravens abandon the Tower of London.[3] Bran the Blessed is associated with the Tower of London in the Welsh Triads, which might be the origin of the story.

[edit] Islam, Christianity and Judaism

In the Talmud, the raven is described as having been only one of three beings on Noah's Ark that copulated during the flood and so was punished.[4] The Rabbis believed that the Raven was forced to ejaculate its seed into the female raven's mouth as a means of reproduction.[4] In I Kings 17:4-6, the prophet Elijah hides in the wilderness, where he is fed by ravens.

The Raven is also mentioned in The Quran but only once, describing the story of Cain and Abel, the sons of Adam. The Raven here teaches men how to bury dead bodies. {Surah 5:27-31} [5]

[edit] Context

Claude Lévi-Strauss, French anthropologist proposed a structuralist theory that suggests the raven (like the coyote) obtained mythic status because he was a mediator animal between life and death.[6]

References

1. ^ Clark, Ella E.: Indian Legends of the Pacific Northwest, University of California Press, 1953.
2. ^ Told by Barnaby of St Mary's Band; published in Boas, Franz (1918) "Kutenai Tales", p. 213, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 69, Washington.
3. ^ "The Tower of London". AboutBritain.com. http://www.aboutbritain.com/TowerOfLondon.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-03. "...legend has it that, if they leave, the kingdom will fall."
4. ^ a b Sanhedrin, 108b
5. ^ http://www.streetdirectory.com/travel_guide/105271/religion/the_raven_in_bible_and_quran.html
6. ^ Structural Anthropology, p. 224

* Lévi-Strauss, Claude. Structural Anthropology. Trans. Claire Jacobson. New York: Basic Books, 1963.




FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_depictions_of_ravens

There are many references to ravens in legends and literature. Most of these refer to the widespread common raven. Because of its black plumage, croaking call, and diet of carrion, the raven has long been considered a bird of ill omen and of interest to creators of myths and legends.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Symbolism
* 2 Mythology
* 3 Monotheistic Religions
o 3.1 The Hebrew Bible (Old Testament)
o 3.2 The New Testament
o 3.3 The Qur'an
o 3.4 Saint Vincent of Saragossa
* 4 The Tower of London
* 5 Classic Literature
* 6 Film
* 7 References

[edit] Symbolism

The raven is the national bird of Bhutan, and it adorns the royal hat, representing the deity Gonpo Jarodonchen (Mahakala with a Raven's head; one of the important guardian deities of Bhutanese culture.) It is the official bird of the Yukon and of the city of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. The raven was a common device used by the Vikings. Ragnar Lodbrok had a raven banner called Reafan, embroidered with the device of a raven. It was said that if this banner fluttered, Lodbrok would carry the day, but if it hung lifeless the battle would be lost. King Harald Hardrada also had a raven banner, called Landeythan (land-waster). The bird also appears in the folklore of the Isle of Man, a former Viking colony, and it is used as a symbol on their coat of arms.

As a carrion bird, ravens became associated with the dead and with lost souls. In Sweden they are known as the ghosts of murdered persons, and in Germany as the souls of the damned.[1]

[edit] Mythology

In Norse mythology, the Ravens Hugin and Munin sit on the god Odin's shoulders and bring to his ears all the news they see and hear; their names are Thought and Memory. Odin sends them out with each dawn to fly over the world, so he can learn everything that happens. The Old English word for a raven was hraefn; in Old Norse it was hrafn; the word was frequently used in combinations as a kenning for bloodshed and battle.

In Irish mythology, the goddess Morrígan alighted on the hero Cú Chulainn's shoulder in the form of a raven after his death.[2] In other ancient Celtic mythology, ravens were associated with the Welsh god Bran the Blessed (the brother of Branwen), whose name translates to "raven." According to the Mabinogion, Bran's head was buried in the White Hill of London as a talisman against invasion.[3]

The raven also has a prominent role in the mythologies of the Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast, including the Tsimishian, Haida, Heiltsuk, Tlingit, Kwakwaka'wakw, Coast Salish, Koyukons, and Inuit. The raven in these indigenous peoples' mythology is the Creator of the world, but it is also considered a trickster god.[citation needed] For instance, in Tlingit culture, there are two different raven characters which can be identified, although they are not always clearly differentiated. One is the creator raven, responsible for bringing the world into being and who is sometimes considered to be the same individual as the Owner of Daylight. The other is the childish raven, always selfish, sly, conniving, and hungry. Other notable stories tell of the Raven stealing and releasing the sun, and of the Raven tempting the first humans out of a clam shell.

According to Livy, the Roman general Marcus Valerius Corvus (c. 370-270 BC) had a raven settle on his helmet during a combat with a gigantic Gaul, which distracted the enemy's attention by flying in his face.[4]

A raven is said to have protected Saint Benedict of Nursia by taking away a loaf of bread poisoned by jealous monks after he blessed it.

Of special note is the Kwakiutl or Kwakwaka'wakw of British Columbia who exposed boys' placentas to ravens to encourage future prophetic visions, thereby associating the raven with prophecy, similar to the traditions of Scandinavia.

[edit] Monotheistic Religions

The Hebrew Bible (Old Testament)

In the Bible, the Jewish and Christian holy book, ravens are mentioned on numerous occasions throughout the Old Testament. In the Book of Judges, one of Kings of the Midianites defeated by Gideon is called "Oreb" (עורב) which means "Raven".

Genesis 8:7 shows the raven as the first bird released from the Ark. In I Kings 17:4 God commands the ravens to feed the prophet Elijah. Job ponders who feeds the ravens in Job 38:41. King Solomon is described as having hair as black as a raven in the Song of Songs 5:11.

[edit] The New Testament

In the New Testament as well, ravens are used by Jesus as an illustration of God's provision in Luke 12:24.

[edit] The Qur'an

In the Qur'an's version of the story of Cain and Abel, the two sons of Adam, a raven is mentioned in as the creature who taught Cain how to bury his murdered brother, in Al-Ma'ida (The Repast) 5:31.

[edit] Saint Vincent of Saragossa

According to the legend of the fourth-century Iberian Christian martyr Saint Vincent of Saragossa, after St. Vincent was executed ravens protected his body from being devoured by wild animals, until his followers could recover the body. His body was taken to what is now known as Cape St. Vincent in southern Portugal. A shrine was erected over his grave, which continued to be guarded by flocks of ravens. The Arab geographer Al-Idrisi noted this constant guard by ravens, for which the place was named by him كنيسة الغراب "Kanīsah al-Ghurāb" (Church of the Raven). King Afonso Henriques (1139–1185) had the body of the saint exhumed in 1173 and brought it by ship to Lisbon, still accompanied by the ravens. This transfer of the relics is depicted on the coat of arms of Lisbon.

The Tower of London

According to legend, the Kingdom of England will fall if the resident ravens of the Tower of London are removed. It had been thought that there have been at least six ravens in residence at the tower for centuries. It was said that Charles II ordered their removal following complaints from John Flamsteed, the Royal Astronomer.[5] However, they were not removed because Charles was then told of the legend. Charles, following the time of the English Civil War, superstition or not, was not prepared to take the chance, and instead had the observatory moved to Greenwich.

The earliest known reference to a Tower raven is a picture in the newspaper The Pictorial World in 1883.[6] This and scattered subsequent references, both literary and visual, which appear in the late nineteenth to early twentieth century, place them near the monument commemorating those beheaded at the tower, popularly known as the “scaffold.” This strongly suggests that the ravens, which are notorious for gathering at gallows, were originally used to dramatize tales of imprisonment and execution at the tower told to tourists by the Yeomen Warders.[7] There is evidence that the original ravens were donated to the tower by the Earls of Dunraven,[8] perhaps because of their association with the Celtic raven-god Bran.[9] However wild ravens, which were once abundant in London and often seen around meat markets (such as nearby Eastcheap) feasting for scraps, could have roosted at the Tower in earlier times.[10]

During the Second World War, most of the Tower's ravens perished through shock during bombing raids, leaving a only a mated pair named "Mabel" and "Grip." Shortly before the Tower reopened to the public, Mabel flew away, leaving Grip despondent. A couple of weeks later, Grip also flew away, probably in search of his mate. The incident was reported in several newspapers, and some of the stories contained the first references in print to the legend that the British Empire would fall if the ravens left the tower.[11] Since the Empire was dismantled shortly afterward, those who are superstitious might interpret events as a confirmation of the legend. Before the tower reopened to the public on 1 January 1946, care was taken to ensure that a new set of ravens was in place.[12]

[edit] Classic Literature

The raven is often depicted in classic literature. William Shakespeare refers to the raven more often than to any other bird; works such as Othello and Macbeth provide examples. In Charles Dickens' novel Barnaby Rudge: A Tale of the Riots of 'Eighty, the raven "Grip" is an important character. The raven is used as a supernatural messenger in Edgar Allan Poe's poem "The Raven". In this and in Dickens' book, the bird's power of speech is important. In other works of literature, Christopher Marlowe's play The Jew of Malta and Edmund Spencer's The Faerie Queene, the raven's darkly ominous image is also employed. In The Hobbit by J. R. R. Tolkien, Roäc son of Carc is the leader of the Ravens of the Lonely Mountain.[13]

In the well-known ballad The Three Ravens, a slain knight is depicted from the point of view of ravens who seek to eat him but are prevented by his loyal hawks, hounds and leman (lover).

The first name "Bram" is derived from a convergence of two separate etymological sources, one being an abbreviation of "Abraham", but the other being the Gaelic word "bran", meaning "raven".

[edit] Film

* Maleficent, the main antagonist of Disney's Sleeping Beauty, has a pet raven named Diablo.
* Damien: Omen II The titular teenage Antichrist has one as his protector.
* Edgar Allan Poe's poem, The Raven has been made into films, first in 1915, with remakes in 1935 and 1963.

[edit] References

1. ^ Schwan, Mark (January 1990). "Raven: The Northern Bird of Paradox". Alaska Fish and Game. http://www.wildlife.alaska.gov/index.cfm?adfg=birds.raven. Retrieved 2007-02-12.
2. ^ “The Death of Cu Chulainn”. Celtic Literature Collective.
3. ^ “Branwen daughter of Llŷr”. The Four Branches of the Mabinogi. Trans. for example by Patrick K. Ford, The Mabinogi and Other Medieval Welsh Tales (1977).
4. ^ Titus Livius. Periochae. Book 7:10.
5. ^ Camelot Village: Tower of London
6. ^ Boria Sax, "How Ravens Came to the Tower of London," Society and Animals 15, no. 3 (2007b), pp. 272-274.
7. ^ Boria Sax, "How Ravens Came to the Tower of London," Society and Animals 15, no. 3 (2007b), pp. 270-281.
8. ^ Maev Kennedy, "Tower’s Raven Mythology May Be a Victorian Flight of Fantasy," The Guardian, November 15, 2004, p. 1.
9. ^ Boria Sax, "Medievalism, Paganism, and the Tower Ravens," The Pomegranate:The International Journal of Pagan Studies 9, no. 1 (2007), pp. 71-73.
10. ^ Jerome, Fiona. Tales from the Tower: 2006. pp. 148-9
11. ^ Sax, Boria. "The Tower Ravens: Invented Tradition, Fakelore, or Modern Myth." Storytelling, Self, and Society 6, no. 3 (2010): p. 234.
12. ^ "Tower's raven mythology may be a Victorian flight of fantasy", The Guardian 15 November 2004.
13. ^ The Hobbit. Ballantine Books. 1985. ISBN 0345332075.

* Article in Guardian about Tower of London raven myth


Ultima modifica di Tila il Mar 28 Dic 2010 - 11:11, modificato 1 volta
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Corvo - Corvus   Mar 23 Nov 2010 - 14:44

Sempre riferito al corvo c'è un mito della cultura russa molto interessante che parla di uno sciamano "imbroglione"...vi riporto l'articolo di wikipedia buona lettura!


FONTE:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kutkh

Kutkh
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Wooden carving of Kutkh made by Koryak artisans in Kamchatka.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Kutkh.jpg

Kutkh (also Kutkha, Kootkha, Kutq and variants, Russian: Кутх), is a Raven spirit traditionally revered in various forms by various indigenous peoples of the Russian Far East. Kutkh appears in many legends: as a key figure in creation, as a fertile ancestor of mankind, as a mighty shaman and as a trickster. He is a popular subject of the animist stories of the Chukchi people and plays a central role in the mythology of the Koryak and Itelmen of Kamchatka. Many of the stories regarding Kutkh are similar to those of the Raven among the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast, indicating a long history of indirect cultural contact between Asian and North American peoples.

Contents
[hide]

* 1 Names
* 2 Myths
* 3 Attitudes
* 4 See also
* 5 References
* 6 External links
* 7 Sources


Names

Kutkh is known among a wide group of people that share a common Chukotko-Kamchatkan language family. He is known as Kutq among the Itelmen, KútqI, KútqIy, KúsqIy in the southeastern Koryak language; KúykIy or QúykIy in northwestern Koryak; and Kúrkil in the Chukchi language. In Koryak it is employed commonly in its augmentative form, (KutqÍnnaku, KusqÍnnaku, KuyÍnnaku) all meaning "Big Kutkh" and often translated simply as "God".[1]

[edit] Myths

The tales of Kutkh come in many, often contradictory versions. In some tales he is explicitly created by a Creator and lets the dawn onto the earth by chipping away at the stones surrounding her. In others he creates himself (sometimes out of an old fur coat) and takes pride in his independence from the Creator. In some, Kamchatka is created as he drops a feather while flying over the earth. In others, islands and continents are created by his defecation, rivers and lakes out of his waters. The difficult volcanic terrain and swift rivers of Kamchatka are thought to reflect Kutkh's capricious and willful nature.

The bringing of light in the form of the sun and the moon is a common theme. Sometimes, he tricks an evil spirit which has captured the celestial bodies much in the style of analogous legends about the Tlingit and Haida in the Pacific northwest. In others, it is he who must be tricked into releasing the sun and the moon from his bill.

Kutkh's virility is emphasized in many legends. Many myths concern his children copulating with other animal spirits and creating the peoples that populate the world.

In the animistic tradition of north-Eurasian peoples, Kutkh has a variety of interactions and altercations with Wolf, Fox, Bear, Wolverine, Mouse, Owl, Dog, Seal, Walrus and a host of other spirits. Many of these interactions involve some sort of trickery in which Kutkh comes out on top about as often as he is made a fool of.

An example of these contradictions is given to the Chukchi legend of Kutkh and the Mice. The great and mighty raven Kutkh was flying through the cosmos. Tired from constant flight, he regurgitated the Earth from his gut, transformed into an old man, and alighted on the empty land to rest. Out of his first footsteps emerged the first Mice. Curious, playful and fearless, they entered the sleeping Kutkh's nose. The fury of the subsequent sneeze buckled the earth and created the mountains and the valleys. Attempts to stamp them out led to the formation of the ocean. Further harassments led to a great battle between the forces of snow and fire which created the seasons. Thus, the variable world recognizable to people emerged out of the dynamic interaction between the mighty Kutkh and the small but numerous Mice.[2]

Attitudes

Although Kutkh is supposed to have given mankind variously light, fire, language, fresh water and skills such as net-weaving and copulation, he is also often portrayed as a laughing-stock, hungry, thieving and selfish. In its contradictions, his character is similar that of other trickster gods, such as Coyote.

The early Russian explorer and ethnographer of Kamchatka Stepan Krasheninnikov (1711 - 1755) summarizes the Itelmen's relationship to Kutkh as follows:
“ They pay no homage to him and never ask any favor of him; they speak of him only in derision. They tell such indecent stories about him that I would be embarrassed to repeat them. They upbraid him for having made too many mountains, precipices, reefs, sand banks and swift rivers, for causing rainstorms and tempests which frequently inconvenience them. In winter when they climb up or down the mountains, they heap abuses on him and curse him with imprecations. They behave the same way when they are in other difficult or dangerous situations.[3] ”

The image of Kutkh remains popular and iconic in Kamchatka, used often in advertising and promotional materials. Stylized carvings of Kutkh by Koryak artisans, often adorned with beads and lined with fur, are sold widely as souvenirs.


See also

* Raven (mythology)
* Ku'urkil

[edit] References

1. ^ W. Bogoras. (1902) "The Folklore of Northeastern Asia, as Compared with That of Northwestern America" American Anthropologist, 4:4, pp. 577-683.
2. ^ Menovschikov, G.A. (1974) Сказки и мифы народов Чукотки и Камчатки (Tales and myths of the people of Chukotka and Kamchatka) Nauka, Moscow. 636 pp. (in Russian)
3. ^ S.P. Krasheninninkov (1972) Description of the Land of Kamchatka E.A.P Crownhart-Vaughan, (trans.) Portland: Oregon Historical Society. (originally published in 1755). online

[edit] External links

* Animated film of Kutkh and the Mice (in Russian)

[edit] Sources

* D. Koester (2002) "When the fat raven sings: mimesis and environmental alterity in Kamchatka's environmental age." in People and the Land, Pathways to Reform in Post-Soviet Siberia, ed. E. Kasten. Berlin: Dietrich Reiner Verlag. [1]
* W. Jochelson (1908). The Koryak. Leiden, E.J. Brill.
* D.S. Worth (1961). Kamchadal Texts Collected by W. Jochelson 's Gravenhage: Mouton.
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Corvo - Corvus   Gio 25 Nov 2010 - 18:12



FONTE: http://i36.tinypic.com/i36nw9.jpg




FONTE: http://www.vancouversun.com/life/fashion-beauty/Teenage+Barefoot+Bandit+strikes+again+heads+east/3233073/3114807.bin?size=620x400


"Like the larger raven, the symbolic crow is associated withthe sun, longevity, beginnings, death, change, bad luck, prophecy,and Christian solitude. It, too, is considered a messenger ofthe gods. Among ancient Greeks and Romans there were some whoconsidered the crow a bad omen and the raven a good one.White or albino crows were so prized that fowlers tried tochange the color of their baby crows by soaking them in variousdeadly formulas. Among the Celts, the white crow was the emblemof the heroine, Branwen. Her heroic brother, Bran, was picturedas a raven. In North America, the Kiowas taught that the whitecrow turned black from eating snake eyes."

FONTE: http://users.netnitco.net/~legend01/raven.htm






Manx/Welsh Goddess oflove and fertility.
Her name means "White Breasted" (welsh:Bronwen) or "White Crow." The ancient Welsh worshipped Her as thedaughter of Sea, and as Goddess of the Moon and Love. Her story can be read inthe Mabinogion.
Discription from user email: Bran means Crow. The suffixwen, white, makes the feminine form, Branwen or White Crow.
>>Branwen ("white crow/raven") a daughterof Llyr and Penarddun, and sister of Bran, and Manawydan, and half-sister ofNisien and Efnisien. Matholwch of Ireland sued for her hand, and gave horses toBran. Efnisien mutilated the horses, nearly precipitating warfare, butMatholwch was appeased by the gift of a cauldron that could resurrect the dead.Branwen wed him, and went to Ireland, where she bore him a son, Gwern. But theIrish began to complain about their foreign queen, and she was banished to thekitchen, where she was a slave and boxed on the ears by the butcher daily. Thislasted three years, during which Branwen trained a starling to speak and sentit to Wales, where it told Bran of her plight, and he sailed to rescue her.
Matholwch was terrified at the sight of a forestapproaching Ireland across the sea: no one could make it out, until he calledfor Branwen, who explained it as Bran's navy, and Bran himself wading throughthe water. He sued for peace, they built a house big enough for Bran, andMatholwch agreed to settle the kingdom on Gwern. Some Irish lords objected, andhid themselves in flour bags to attack the Welsh. But Efnisien, scenting Irishtreachery, cast them into the fire, and then cast Gwern himself in (avoidingthe geas against shedding kinsmen's blood thereby). A war broke out, and theIrish replenished themselves through the cauldron. Efnisien, repenting,sacrificed himself by feigning death and being thrown into the cauldron, whichhe then broke, dying in the process. Only seven Welshmen survived, and Bran wasfatally wounded. His head, which remained alive and talking, was returned toWales and buried, and soon afterwards Branwen sailed to Aber Alaw and died. Sheis one of the three "matriarchs of Britain", along with (probably)Rhiannon and Arianrhod.
The Celtic goddess of love and beauty. Also of Manx andWales. She is the sister of Bran the Blessed and Manannan mac Lir, daughter ofLir, and wife of the Irish king Matholwch. She is similar to the Greek goddessAphrodite and the Roman goddess Venus. After the death of her brother Bran, dueto a war caused by Matholwch, Branwen died of a broken heart. >>(EncyclopediaMystica online)
http://www.inanna.virtualave.net/celtic.html
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Corvo - Corvus   Lun 31 Gen 2011 - 8:49

REFERENCE: http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.0040014

Living with the Trickster: Crows, Ravens, and Human Culture

Citation: Chappell J (2006) Living with the Trickster: Crows, Ravens, and Human Culture. PLoS Biol 4(1): e14. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0040014

Published: January 17, 2006

Copyright: © 2006 Jackie Chappell. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Jackie Chappell is a lecturer in Animal Behaviour at the Centre for Ornithology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom. E-mail: j.m.chappell@bham.ac.uk

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Marzluff JM, Angell T (2005) In the company of crows and ravens. Yale University Press. 408 p. ISBN (hardcover) 0-300-10076-0. US$19.80
doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0040014.g001

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Few groups of wild animals inspire such extreme opinions in the humans who observe them than members of the genus Corvus. In the book In the Company of Crows and Ravens [1], John Marzluff and Tony Angell quote Reverend Henry Ward Beecher's admiring words, “If men had wings and bore black feathers, few of them would be clever enough to be crows” (page 80 in [1]), but they also recount the opinion of their neighbour who sees crows as noisy, destructive, dirty, aggressive, and clever. Cleverness, it seems, is the only corvine attribute on which people agree.

People are rarely indifferent to crows, and this book explores the changes in opinion throughout our history of interactions with them. The authors argue—quite persuasively—that as well as affecting the biology and cultural evolution of crows, this relationship has had a significant influence on our own cultural evolution. They even suggest that there are instances of cultural coevolution between humans and crows. Perhaps such an intertwined history to some extent explains our strong feelings about crows.

The book covers an enormous amount of ground, documenting in an engaging way both the current research on ecology, social behaviour, and cognitive and communicative abilities of crows and their diverse representations in our legends, art, literature, and spiritual rituals. Consider the similarities between humans and crows: we are both highly social species, living mainly in small family groups but assembling in much larger numbers around rich resources. We are both intelligent, and adapt relatively easily to changes in environmental conditions. We are both generalists and opportunists about food, and can exploit a huge variety of resources. These similarities mean that for a large proportion of human history, crows have been a ubiquitous and prominent part of our world.

Our early interactions with crows (particularly ravens) seem to have resulted in a generally respectful—even awed—attitude towards them. Inuit legends describe how Crow brought light to the far north for his people, and the Norse god Odin was informed about the world by his two ravens, Hugin and Munin (Thought and Memory). Certainly, representing the thought and memory of a god would seem to be a fairly prestigious position. However, when humans became largely agrarian, crows became our competitors—stealing food and raiding crops—and had to be scared off with “scarecrows.” Later still, crows came to be associated with disease and death as they scavenged the corpses of the victims of the plague or of war, and for that reason, they are a convenient symbol of evil and of death in horror literature and films, to this day. In modern times, some species of crows have followed us into our cities, and their populations have boomed because they have exploited plentiful food resources, such as refuse. Once again, their adaptability brings them into conflict with humans, who have to devise ingenious methods to keep the crows out of their waste.

One odd phenomenon that surfaces repeatedly is that crows are commonly seen across cultures as tricksters, liars, and mischievous thieves. A reputation as a thief can be traced to their habit of stealing and caching small objects, but how can a nonlinguistic animal be a liar? It does, however, seem to help to have been a thief in order to catch a thief. Research by Emery and Clayton [2] showed that scrub jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens) with experience pilfering another jay's food caches moved their own caches to a new location, but only when they had been observed storing their food by another jay. Perhaps humans somehow recognise crows' intelligence, cooperation, deviousness, and sociality, and see a kind of reflection of themselves. Perhaps this might also help to explain the extreme reactions to crows; crows can change quickly from being friends and companions to competitors, opponents, and enemies (just like other humans) when we perceive that they might pose a threat to our security, food resources, or well-being.

How can a nonlinguistic animal be a liar?

The authors imply that our tangled, interwoven relationship with crows is unique. Although we do, for example, have a very close relationship with horses, and they have certainly influenced our cultural development, it is difficult to think of another nondomesticated animal with which we have such rich and varied relationships. Rats have played a large role in our history (most notably as accidental vectors of bubonic plague), but I struggle to think of any legends revering rats (or even mentioning them). Wolves and eagles often appear in our art, literature, and legends, but today most urbanised people have no contact at all with these animals themselves. So is it something about crows themselves that encourages such a unique relationship, or is it just chance that our cultural paths have crossed in this way?

Marzluff and Angell put forward the intriguing but controversial hypothesis that early interactions with crows and ravens as hunter–gatherers might have shaped our own evolutionary history. They argue that the need to defend our kills against scavenging crows might have promoted human cooperation and group living, which in turn would have pre-equipped us to deal with large mammalian predators and scavengers. They also mention a study by Vucetich and colleagues [3], which suggests that wolves might also have formed large social groups in order to defend their kills from ravens. They incur reduced foraging success because of intragroup interference, but gain more from being able to save their kills from the raven's beak. In a clever little twist, Marzluff and Angell suggest that the human/wolf association might have started with our shared interest in opposing the raven.

This book has a lot to offer. The illustrations by Angell are beautiful, and give the book a very special feel. It is engagingly written for a nonscientific audience, but endnotes and full references are there for those who are interested and would like to read further into the subject. Readers are also encouraged to observe crows for themselves and report their findings. One minor criticism is that some topics are covered in too little detail for the enthusiast, and also there is a heavy concentration on ravens (Corvus corax) and American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) at the expense of other species. However, these are an inevitable consequence of trying to cover such an enormous subject in a book suitable for nonscientific readers. Overall, In the Company of Crows and Ravens is highly recommended for the crow-fan and crow-hater alike. I find it interesting that just as scientists are beginning to probe the cognitive abilities of crows and are finding that they are much more impressive than we might have suspected, we are reminded that people seem to have known (but forgotten) how smart crows are all along.
References Top

1. Marzluff JM, Angell T (2005) In the company of crows and ravens. Yale University Press. 408 p.
2. Emery NJ, Clayton NS (2001) Effects of experience and social context on prospective caching strategies by scrub jays. Nature 414: 443–446. Find this article online
3. Vucetich VA, Peterson RO, Waite TA (2004) Raven scavenging favours group foraging in wolves. Anim Behav 67: 1117–1126. Find this article online

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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Corvo - Corvus   Lun 31 Gen 2011 - 8:55

Raven scavenging favours group foraging in wolves

JOHN A. VUCETICH*, ROLF O. PETERSON* & THOMAS A. WAITE†
*School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University
yDepartment of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology, Ohio State Univeristy
(Received 19 November 2002; initial acceptance 18 February 2003;
final acceptance 13 June 2003; MS. number: A9487)

Ref: http://www.isleroyalewolf.org/techpubs/techpubs/JAVpubs_files/V%20et%20al%202004%20raven.pdf

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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Corvo - Corvus   Mar 12 Apr 2011 - 10:57

FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huginn_and_Muninn

In Norse mythology, Huginn (from Old Norse "thought"[1]) and Muninn (Old Norse "memory"[2] or "mind"[3]) are a pair of ravens that fly all over the world, Midgard, and bring the god Odin information. Huginn and Muninn are attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources; the Prose Edda and Heimskringla, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson; in the Third Grammatical Treatise, compiled in the 13th century by Óláfr Þórðarson; and in the poetry of skalds. The names of the ravens are sometimes modernly anglicized as Hugin and Munin.
In the Poetic Edda, a disguised Odin expresses that he fears that they may not return from their daily flights. The Prose Edda explains that Odin is referred to as "raven-god" due to his association with Huginn and Muninn. In the Prose Edda and the Third Grammatical Treatise, the two ravens are described as perching on Odin's shoulders. Heimskringla details that Odin gave Huginn and Muninn the ability to speak.
Migration Period golden bracteates, Vendel era helmet plates, a pair of identical Germanic Iron Age bird-shaped brooches, Viking Age objects depicting a moustached man wearing a helmet, and a portion of the 10th or 11th century Thorwald's Cross may depict Odin with one of the ravens. Huginn and Muninn's role as Odin's messengers has been linked to shamanic practices, the Norse raven banner, general raven symbolism among the Germanic peoples, and the Norse concepts of the fylgja and the hamingja.




http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3c/Odin_hrafnar.jpg

In the Poetic Eddas poem Grímnismál, the god Odin (disguised as Grímnir) provides the young Agnarr with information about Odin's companions. He tells the prince about Odin's wolves Geri and Freki, and, in the next stanza of the poem, states that Huginn and Muninn fly daily across the entire world, Midgard. Grímnir says that he worries Huginn may not come back, yet more does he fear for Muninn.

In the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning (chapter 38), the enthroned figure of High tells Gangleri (king Gylfi in disguise) that two ravens named Huginn and Muninn sit on Odin's shoulders. The ravens tell Odin everything they see and hear. Odin sends Huginn and Muninn out at dawn, and the birds fly all over the world before returning at dinner-time. As a result, Odin is kept informed of many events. High adds that it is from this association that Odin is referred to as "raven-god". The above mentioned stanza from Grímnismál is then quoted.[6]

In the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál (chapter 60), Huginn and Muninn appear in a list of poetic names for ravens. In the same chapter, excerpts from a work by the skald Einarr Skúlason are provided. In these excerpts Muninn is referenced in a common noun for 'raven' and Huginn is referenced in a kenning for 'carrion'.[7]

In the Heimskringla book Ynglinga saga, an Euhemerized account of the life of Odin is provided. Chapter 7 describes that Odin had two ravens, and upon these ravens he bestowed the gift of speech. These ravens flew all over the land and brought him information, causing Odin to become "very wise in his lore."[8]

In the Third Grammatical Treatise an anonymous verse is recorded that mentions the ravens flying from Odin's shoulders; Huginn seeking hanged men, and Muninn slain bodies.

Scholars have linked Odin's relation to Huginn and Muninn to shamanic practice. John Lindow relates Odin's ability to send his "thought" (Huginn) and "mind" (Muninn) to the trance-state journey of shamans. Lindow says the Grímnismál stanza where Odin worries about the return of Huginn and Muninn "would be consistent with the danger that the shaman faces on the trance-state journey."[20]

Rudolf Simek is critical of the approach, stating that "attempts have been made to interpret Odin's ravens as a personification of the god's intellectual powers, but this can only be assumed from the names Huginn and Muninn themselves which were unlikely to have been invented much before the 9th or 10th centuries" yet that the two ravens, as Odin's companions, appear to derive from much earlier times.[11] Instead, Simek connects Huginn and Muninn with wider raven symbolism in the Germanic world, including the Raven Banner (described in English chronicles and Scandinavian sagas), a banner which was woven in a method that allowed it, when fluttering in the wind, to appear as if the raven depicted upon it was beating its wings.[11]

Anthony Winterbourne connects Huginn and Muninn to the Norse concepts of the fylgja—a concept with three characteristics; shape-shifting abilities, good fortune, and the guardian spirit—and the hamingja—the ghostly double of a person that may appear in the form of an animal. Winterbourne states that "The shaman's journey through the different parts of the cosmos is symbolized by the hamingja concept of the shape-shifting soul, and gains another symbolic dimension for the Norse soul in the account of Oðin's ravens, Huginn and Muninn."[21] In response to Simek's criticism of attempts to interpret the ravens "philosophically", Winterbourne says that "such speculations [...] simply strengthen the conceptual significance made plausible by other features of the mythology" and that the names Huginn and Muninn "demand more explanation than is usually provided."[21]
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Corvo - Corvus   Lun 15 Ago 2011 - 7:26

Admin riporto la versione inglese di wikipedia.

FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crow

Crow
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Crows are large passerine birds that form the genus Corvus in the family Corvidae. Ranging in size from the relatively small pigeon-sized jackdaws (Eurasian and Daurian) to the Common Raven of the Holarctic region and Thick-billed Raven of the highlands of Ethiopia, the 40 or so members of this genus occur on all temperate continents (except South America) and several offshore and oceanic islands (including Hawaii). In the United States and Canada, the word "crow" is used to refer to the American Crow.[citation needed]

The crow genus makes up a third of the species in the Corvidae family. Other corvids include rooks and jays. Crows appear to have evolved in Asia from the corvid stock, which had evolved in Australia. A group of crows is called a flock or a murder.[1]

Recent research has found some crow species capable not only of tool use, but of tool construction as well.[2] Crows are now considered to be among the world's most intelligent animals.[3] The Jackdaw and (along with its fellow corvid, the European Magpie) has been found to have a neostriatum approximately the same relative size as is found in chimpanzees and humans, and significantly larger than is found in the gibbon.[4]



FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Krummi_1.jpg

Evolutionary history and systematics

Crows appear to have evolved in central Asia and radiated out into North America, Africa, Europe, and Australia.

The latest evidence[5] regarding the crow's evolution indicates descent from the Australasian family Corvidae. However, the branch that would produce the modern groups such as jays, magpies and large predominantly black Corvus had left Australasia and were concentrated in Asia by the time the Corvus evolved. Corvus has since re-entered Australia (relatively recently) and produced five species with one recognized sub-species.[citation needed]

The genus was originally described by Linnaeus in his 18th century work Systema Naturae.[6] The name is derived from the Latin corvus meaning "raven".[7]

The type species is the Common Raven (Corvus corax); others named in the same work include the Carrion Crow (C. corone), the Hooded Crow (C. cornix), the Rook (C. frugilegus), and the Jackdaw (C. monedula). The genus was originally broader, as the Magpie was designated C. pica before later being moved into a genus of its own. There are now considered to be at least 42 extant species in this genus, and at least 14 extinct species have been described.

There is no good systematic approach to the genus at present. Generally, it is assumed that the species from a geographical area are more closely related to each other than to other lineages, but this is not necessarily correct. For example, while the Carrion/Collared/House Crow complex is certainly closely related to each other, the situation is not at all clear regarding the Australian/Melanesian species. Furthermore, as many species are similar in appearance, determining actual range and characteristics can be very difficult, such as in Australia where the five (possibly six) species are almost identical in appearance.[citation needed]

The fossil record of crows is rather dense in Europe, but the relationships among most prehistoric species are not clear. The latest evidence[8] appears to point towards an Australasian origin for the early family (Corvidae) though the branch that would produce the modern groups such as jays, magpies and large predominantly black Corvus, Crows had left Australasia and were now developing in Asia. Corvus has since re-entered Australia (relatively recently) and produced five species with one recognized sub-species.[citation needed]

A surprisingly high number of species have become extinct after human colonization, especially of island groups such as New Zealand, Hawaii and Greenland.[citation needed]


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jackdaw_-_up_close_and_personal_%28552502080%29.jpg


Behavior

Calls

Crows make a wide variety of calls or vocalizations. Whether the crows' system of communication constitutes a language is a topic of debate and study. Crows have also been observed to respond to calls of other species; this behavior is presumably learned because it varies regionally. Crows' vocalizations are complex and poorly understood. Some of the many vocalizations that crows make are a "Koww", usually echoed back and forth between birds, a series of "Kowws" in discrete units, counting out numbers, a long caw followed by a series of short caws (usually made when a bird takes off from a perch), an echo-like "eh-aw" sound, and more. These vocalizations vary by species, and within each species vary regionally. In many species, the pattern and number of the numerical vocalizations have been observed to change in response to events in the surroundings (i.e. arrival or departure of crows). Crows can hear sound frequencies lower than those that humans can hear, which complicates the study of their vocalizations.[citation needed]

Loud, throaty "caw-aw-ah"'s are usually used to indicate hunger or to mark territory. When defending a nest site or food, crows will usually enlarge their crest feathers and hunch their shoulders to increase their size.[citation needed]

Softer, gurgling sounds have also been observed as a sort of beckoning call, or a call of affection. These noises are emitted from within the throat of the bird, much like a cat's purring.[citation needed]


Intelligence

As a group, crows show remarkable examples of intelligence, and Aesop's fable of The Crow and the Pitcher shows that humans have long viewed the crow as an intelligent bird. Crows and ravens often score very highly on intelligence tests. Certain species top the avian IQ scale.[9] Wild hooded crows in Israel have learned to use bread crumbs for bait-fishing.[10] Crows will engage in a kind of mid-air jousting, or air-"chicken" to establish pecking order. Crows have been found to engage in feats such as tool use, the ability to hide and store food across seasons, episodic-like memory, and the ability to use individual experience in predicting the behavior of environmental conspecifics.[11]

One species, the New Caledonian Crow, has also been intensively studied recently because of its ability to manufacture and use its own tools in the day-to-day search for food. These tools include 'knives' cut from stiff leaves and stiff stalks of grass.[12] Another skill involves dropping tough nuts into a trafficked street and waiting for a car to crush them open.[13][14] On October 5, 2007, researchers from the University of Oxford, England presented data acquired by mounting tiny video cameras on the tails of New Caledonian Crows. It turned out that they use a larger variety of tools than previously known, plucking, smoothing and bending twigs and grass stems to procure a variety of foodstuffs.[15][16] Crows in Queensland, Australia have learned how to eat the toxic cane toad by flipping the cane toad on its back and violently stabbing the throat where the skin is thinner, allowing the crow to access the non-toxic innards; their long beaks ensure that all of the innards can be removed.[17][18]

Recent research suggests that crows have the ability to recognize one individual human from another by facial features.[19]


Disease

The American crow is very susceptible to the recently introduced North American strain of West Nile virus.[20] American crows usually die within one week of acquiring the disease with only very few surviving exposure. Crows are so affected by the disease that their deaths are now serving as an indicator of the West Nile Virus’ activity in an area.[citation needed]

In human culture

The Common Raven, Australian Raven and Carrion Crow have been blamed for killing weak lambs and are often seen eating freshly dead corpses probably killed by other means. Rooks have been blamed for eating grain in the UK and Brown-necked Raven for raiding date crops in desert countries.[22]

In Auburn, New York (USA), 25,000 to 50,000 American Crows (C. brachyrhynchos) have taken to roosting in the small city's large trees during winter since around 1993.[23] In 2003, a controversial, organized crow hunt proved ineffective at reducing their numbers and the problem (concerns for public health and the sheer noise of so many crows) continues.[24]

At a Technology Entertainment Design conference in March 2008, Joshua Klein presented the potential use of a vending machine for crows. He suggested the crows could be trained to pick up trash and the vending machine would be designed to give a reward in exchange for the trash.[25]

Crows have also been known to imitate the human voice, just like parrots. Crows that have been trained to "speak" are considered valuable in parts of East Asia, as crows are a sign of luck.[citation needed]

Some people have adopted crows as pets.[citation needed]

Though humans cannot generally tell individual crows apart, crows have been shown to have the ability to visually recognize individual humans, and to transmit information about "bad" humans by squawking.[26]

Myth and spirituality

In Irish mythology, crows are associated with Morrigan, the goddess of war and death.[27]

In Norse mythology, Huginn and Muninn are a pair of ravens that fly all over the world, Midgard, and bring the god Odin information.

In Australian Aboriginal mythology, Crow is a trickster, culture hero and ancestral being. Legends relating to Crow have been observed in various Aboriginal language groups and cultures across Australia; these commonly include stories relating to Crow's role in the theft of fire, the origin of death and the killing of Eagle's son.


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Corbeau_branche_Kyo.jpg

In the Epic of Gilgamesh, the Chaldean myth, the character Utnapishtim releases a dove and a raven to find land, however, the dove merely circles and returns. Only then does Utnapishtim send forth the raven, who does not return. Utnapishtim extrapolates from this that the raven has found land, which is why it hasn't returned.[28]

According to Ovid's Metamorphoses, in classical Greek mythology, when the crow told the god Apollo that his lover Coronis was cheating on him with a mortal, he became very angry, and part of that anger was directed at the crow, whose feathers he turned from white to black.[29]

In the Story of Bhusunda, a chapter of the Yoga Vasistha, a very old sage in the form of a crow, Bhusunda, recalls a succession of epochs in the earth's history, as described in Hindu cosmology. He survived several destructions, living on a wish-fulfilling tree on Mount Meru.[30]

Crows are mentioned often in Buddhism, especially Tibetan disciplines. The Dharmapala (protector of the Dharma) Mahakala is represented by a crow in one of his physical/earthly forms. Avalokiteśvara/Chenrezig, who is reincarnated on Earth as the Dalai Lama, is often closely associated with the crow because it is said that when the first Dalai Lama was born, robbers attacked the family home. The parents fled and were unable to get to the infant Lama in time. When they returned the next morning expecting the worst, they found their home untouched, and a pair of crows were caring for the Dalai Lama. It is believed that crows heralded the birth of the First, Seventh, Eighth, Twelfth and Fourteenth Lamas, the latter being the current Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso.[citation needed]

In Japanese mythology, a three-legged crow called Yatagarasu (八咫烏?, "eight-hand-crow")[31] is depicted.[32] In Korean mythology, there is a three-legged crow known as Samjokgo (hangul: 삼족오; hanja: 三足烏). During the period of the Goguryeo Kingdom, the Samjogo was a highly regarded symbol of power, thought superior to both the dragon and the Korean phoenix.[citation needed]

In Chinese mythology, the world originally had ten suns embodied as ten crows, which rose in the sky one at a time. When all ten decided to rise at once, the effect was devastating to crops, so the gods sent their greatest archer Houyi, who shot down nine crows and spared only one. Having a "crow beak" is a symbolic expression that one is being a jinx.[citation needed]

Compendium of Materia Medica states that crows are kind birds that feed their old and weakened parents; this is often cited as a fine example of filial piety.[citation needed]

Ancient Greek authors tell how a jackdaw, being a social creature, may be caught with a dish of oil which it falls into while looking at its own reflection.[33] The Roman poet Ovid saw them as a harbinger of rain (Amores 2,6, 34).[34] In Greek legend, a princess Arne was bribed with gold by King Minos of Crete, and was punished for her avarice by being transformed into an equally avaricious jackdaw, who still seeks shiny things.[35] In Aesop's Fables, the jackdaw embodies stupidity in one tale, by starving while waiting for figs on a fig tree to ripen, and vanity in another - the daw sought to become king of the birds with borrowed feathers, but was shamed when they fell off.[34] Pliny notes how the Thessalians, Illyrians and Lemnians cherished jackdaws for destroying grasshoppers' eggs. The Veneti are fabled to have bribed the jackdaws to spare their crops.[33] Another ancient Greek and Roman adage runs, "The swans will sing when the jackdaws are silent," meaning that educated or wise people will speak after the foolish become quiet.[36] In reality, the family of corvidae is among the most intelligent birds in the world, and this association with the ignorant is rather inaccurate.


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corvus_%28heraldry%29

Corvus (heraldry)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The genus Corvus, the True Crows, in heraldry (family coats of arms) may represent harshness, avarice, death or divine providence[1][2]. Crows and ravens are indistinguishable in use and appearance, and are depicted in heraldry with hairy feathers and is close by default. A crow speaking will have its mouth agape or open as if it were speaking. Crows may also be called corbies, as in the canting arms of Corbet, c.1312.

The Cornish chough, is also depicted in heraldry, but is only distinguishable if proper, meaning depicted as black with red beak and feet. For canting purposes, the Cornish chough is sometimes called a beckit.[2] County Dublin in Ireland, Lisbon, the capital of Portugal as well as the city of Moss in Norway have crows in their coats-of-arms.

The Hungarian family Hunyadi also used the raven in their coats of arms. Matthias Corvinus of Hungary named his famous library after the bird (Bibliotheca Corviniana). It might have inspired the uniform and name of his mercenary army (Black Army of Hungary), and his illegitimate son, János Corvinus also wore the bird's name.

The Corbet (Corbel, Corby, Corbe) family from the Channel Islands are also names having been corrupted over time from the Latin word Corvus.


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Corvus_brachyrhynchos_30157.JPG
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Corvo - Corvus   Mar 8 Nov 2011 - 13:24

Admin, oggi pomeriggio ho trovato altri miti legati al corvo...buona lettura! Very Happy


FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corvo_a_tre_zampe

Corvo a tre zampe
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

L'uccello dotato di tre zampe è una creatura che appare frequentemente nella mitologia dell'Asia, dell'Asia Minore e del Nord Africa. Spesso, questo uccello impersona o rappresenta il sole.

Le più antiche rappresentazioni di questa creatura fantastica si trovano nelle pareti di templi e piramidi dell'antico Egitto o sulle monete della Licia e della Panfilia.[1]



Classica rappresentazione dell'uccello con tre zampe.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Yatagarasu_A.jpg


L'Uccello del Sole nella mitologia dell'est asiatico

In queste zone, l'uccello dotato di tre zampe è spesso associato al sole.


Cina

Nella mitologia cinese, il sole è rappresentato da un corvo dorato con tre zampe (金烏/金乌). Secondo il folklore, in origine esistevano dieci uccelli del sole, che vivevano appollaiati su di un gelso nel mare dell'est; ogni giorno, uno dei dieci uccelli veniva scelto per viaggiare intorno al mondo su di un carro guidato dalla dea Xihe, considerata la "madre del sole".

La leggenda vuole che, intorno al 2170 a.C., tutti i dieci uccelli del sole partirono per il viaggio intorno al mondo nello stesso giorno, rischiando così di incendiare la Terra; l'arciere Houyi salvò tutti abbattendo nove corvi e lasciandone in vita uno solo.

Nella mitologia cinese, il Fènghuáng (鳳凰/凤凰) è l'equivalente dell'uccello a tre zampe, e se ne trovano tracce nell'arte e nella letteratura di quasi 7000 anni fa. Secondo le antiche scritture Erya, il Fenghuang ha il becco di un gallo, il muso di una rondine, la fronte di un pollo, il collo di un serpente, il petto di un'oca, la schiena di una tartaruga, le zampe di un cervo e la coda di un pesce. Anche se veniva comunemente rappresentato con due soli arti, esistono dipinti in cui ne ha tre. Quest'ultima versione è stata illustrata per la prima volta nell'iconografia relativa a Xi Wangmu (la Regina Madre dell'Ovest) nell'arte religiosa del periodo Han.

Giappone

Nella mitologia giapponese, questa creatura è un corvo imperiale o un corvo indiano chiamato Yatagarasu (八咫烏), uccello di proprietà della dea del Sole Amaterasu. Lo Yatagarasu compare in antichi documenti giapponesi, come il Kojiki (古事記), in cui si narra anche che abbia combattuto e ucciso una bestia intenzionata a divorare il Sole, e che sia altresì il protettore dell'imperatore Jimmu. In molte occasioni, nell'arte giapponese questa creatura viene rappresentata con tre zampe, sebbene nel Kojiki non venga mai affermato che lo Yatagarasu ne abbia più di due. Oggi, la versione a tre zampe dello Yatagarasu è utilizzata come simbolo della federazione calcistica del Giappone.

Corea

Nella mitologia coreana, questo uccello è conosciuto come Samjogo Kari-sae (hangul: 삼족오; hanja: 三足烏). Sotto la dinastia Koguryo, il Samjogo era riconosciuto come un simbolo di potere, addirittura più potente del drago cinese e della fenice. L'uccello con tre zampe è uno degli emblemi che potrebbero sostituire la fenice nello stemma nazionale coreano, che verrà rivisitato nel 2008.

Nella cultura occidentale

Nella mitologia occidentale non compaiono uccelli dotati di tre zampe.

Note

^ T. Volker. The Animal in Far Eastern Art and Especially in the Art of the Japanese, 1975, Brill, p.39




FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three-legged_crow

Three-legged crow
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The three-legged (or tripedal) crow is a creature found in various mythologies and arts of Asia, Asia Minor, and North Africa.[1][2] It is believed by many cultures to inhabit and represent the sun.

The creature has been featured in myths from Egypt, where it appears on wall murals.[2] It has also been found figured on ancient coins from Lycia and Pamphylia.[1]

In East Asian mythologies the three-legged crow is most often associated with the sun.

China

In Chinese mythology and culture, the three-legged crow is called the Sanzuwu (Chinese: 三足烏; pinyin: sānzúwū; Cantonese: sam1zuk1wu1; Shanghainese: sae tsoh u) and is present in many myths and is also mentioned in the Shanhaijing. The earliest known depiction of a three-legged crow appears in Neolithic pottery of the Yangshao culture.[3] The Sanzuwu is also of the Twelve Medallions that is used in the decoration of formal imperial garments in ancient China.[4] A silk painting from the Western Han excavated at the Mawangdui archaeological site also depicts a Sanzuwu perched on a tree.

Sun Crow in Chinese Mythology

The most popular depiction and myth of a Sanzuwu is that of a sun crow called the Yangwu (Chinese: 陽烏; pinyin: yángwū) or more commonly referred to as the Jīnwū (Chinese: 金烏; pinyin: jīnwū) or "golden crow". Even though it is described as a crow or raven, it is usually colored red instead of black.[5]

According to folklore, there were originally ten sun crows which settled in 10 separate suns. They perched on a red mulberry tree called the Fusang (Chinese: 扶桑; pinyin: fúsāng), literally meaning the Leaning Mulberry Tree, in the East at the foot of the Valley of the Sun. This mulberry tree was said to have many mouths opening from its branches.[6] Each day one of the sun crows would be rostered to travel around the world on a carriage, driven by Xihe the 'mother' of the suns. As soon as one sun crow returned, another one would set forth in its journey crossing the sky. According to Shanhaijing, the sun crows loved eating two sorts of mythical grasses of immortality, one called the Diri (Chinese: 地日; pinyin: dìrì), or "ground sun", and the other the Chunsheng (Chinese: 春生; pinyin: chūnshēng), or "spring grow". The sun crows would often descend from heaven on to the earth and feast on these grasses, but Xihe did not like this thus she covered their eyes to prevent them from doing so.[7] Folklore also held that, at around 2170 BC, all ten sun crows came out on the same day, causing the world to burn; Houyi the celestial archer saved the day by shooting down all but one of the sun birds. (See Mid-Autumn Festival for variants of this legend.)



Mural from the Han Dynasty period found in Henan province depicting a three-legged crow.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Threeleggedbird_han_dynasty.jpg


Other depictions of the Sanzuwu in Chinese Mythology

In Chinese mythology, the Fènghuáng is commonly depicted as being two legged but there are some instances in art in which it has a three legged appearance.[8][9] Xi Wangmu (Queen Mother of the West) is also said to have three green birds (Chinese: 青鳥; pinyin: qīngniǎo) that gathered food for her and in Han-period religious art they were depicted has having three-legs.[10] [11] In the Yongtai Tomb dating to the Tang Dynasty Era, when the Cult of Xi Wangu flourished, the birds are also shown as being three-legged.[12]

Japan

In Japanese mythology, this flying creature is a raven or a Jungle Crow called Yatagarasu (八咫烏?, "eight-span crow");[13] and the appearance of the great bird is construed as evidence of the will of Heaven or divine intervention in human affairs.[14]

Although Yatagarasu is mentioned in a number of places in the Shintō canon, there is very little explanation, and much of the material is contradictory. This great crow was sent from heaven as a guide for Emperor Jimmu on his initial journey from the region which would become Kumano to what would become Yamato. It is generally accepted that Yatagarasu is an incarnation of Taketsunimi no mikoto, but none of the early surviving documentary records are quite so specific.[15]

On many occasions, it appears in art as a three-legged crow, although there is no description stating that the Yatagarasu was three-legged in the Kojiki.

Both the Japan Football Association and subsequently its administered teams such as the Japan national football team use the symbol of Yatagarasu in their emblems and badges respectively.[16] The winner of the Emperor's Cup is also given the honor of wearing the Yatagarasu emblem the following season.

Korea

In Korean mythology, it is known as Samjok-o (hangul: 삼족오; hanja: 三足烏). During the period of the Koguryo Kingdom, the Samjok-o was a highly regarded symbol of power, thought superior to both the dragon and the Korean phoenix.

The three-legged crow was one of several emblems under consideration to replace the phoenix in the Korean seal of state when its revision was considered in 2008.[17] The Samjok-o is considered a symbol of Goguryeo.


Three-legged crow flanked by dragon and phoenix. Mural from the Korean Goguryeo period.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Korean_three-legged_bird_mural.jpg


In popular culture

In the Yu-Gi-Oh! trading card game, there is a well-known card called "Yata-Garasu", which is banned in the advanced format of the game. Another card, "Legacy of Yata-Garasu", is named after the famous card and features it in its artwork.
There is a Touhou Project character; a hell-raven named Utsuho Reiuji, who devoured the corpse of the Yatagarasu, who is referred to as a sun god in the series. As she was not born a yatagarasu, she does not have three legs, instead sporting a cannon-like device on her arm that is referred to as a 'third leg', in reference to the three-legged crow. She has a special attack called "Ten Evil Suns", which is a reference to Houyi's aforementioned exploits.
In the Digimon series, there is a digimon called '"Yatagaramon" (a.k.a. "Crowmon"), which resembles a giant crow with three legs.
Yatagarasu is the name of a child in the My-HiME anime, belonging to Shiho Munakata.
In the Ace Attorney Investigations: Miles Edgeworth, "Yatagarasu" is the great thief who steals to reveal the dirty secrets and seek justice. The title is given due to thief's habit of leaving the Yatagarasu symbol printed card with the notice of thief's next target.
In contemporary Korean dramas set in Goguryeo, like Jumong (TV series) or Kingdom of the Winds, the Samjoko is a symbol of power.
Yatagarasu is a persona summon in the Persona video game series that looks like a black crow with three legs. In Persona 3 and Persona 4 it is of the Sun Arcana.
In the game Genji: Dawn of the Samurai, one of the bosses is a giant, fire-wielding three-legged bird.


Notes

^ a b Volker, T. (1975). The Animal in Far Eastern Art and Especially in the Art of the Japanese. Brill. p. 39.
^ a b Chosun.com.
^ Allan, Sarah (1991), The shape of the turtle: myth, art, and cosmos in early China, SUNY Press, p. 31, ISBN 0791404609
^ Roy Bates. 10,000 Chinese Numbers. Lulu.com. p. 246. ISBN 055700621X.
^ Katherine M. Ball (2004). Animal motifs in Asian art: an illustrated guide to their meanings and aesthetics. Courier Dover Publications. p. 241. ISBN 0486433382, 9780486433387.
^ Allan 1991, p. 27
^ Lihui Yang; Deming An; Jessica Anderson Turner (2005). Handbook of Chinese mythology. ABC-CLIO. pp. 95–96. ISBN 157607806X, 9781576078068.
^ Feng Huang, Emperor of Birds
^ Ancient Spiral: The Phoenix
^ Richard E. Strassberg (2002). A Chinese bestiary: strange creatures from the guideways through mountains and seas. University of California Press. p. 195. ISBN 0520218442, 9780520218444.
^ Xi Wangmu Summary
^ China 1999 - Tang Dynasty Day
^ Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1962). Studies in Shinto and Shrines, pp. 143-152.
^ Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1963). Vicissitudes of Shinto, p. 11.
^ Ponsonby-Fane, p. 147.
^ http://www.jfa.or.jp/eng/general_info/index.html
^ "Three-Legged Bird to Replace Phoenix on State Seal," Chosun Ilbo (Soeul). January 16, 2006.


References

Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon. (1962). Studies in Shinto and Shrines. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 399449
____________. (1963). Vicissitudes of Shinto. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 36655




FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rainbow_crow

Rainbow crow
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The story of the Rainbow Crow is a Lenape legend, symbolizing the value of selflessness and service. After a long period of cold weather, the animals of the community become worried. They decide to send a messenger to the Great Sky Spirit to ask for relief. The Rainbow Crow, the most beautifully feathered bird, offers to make the arduous journey. He travels safely, and is rewarded by the Great Spirit with the gift of fire. He carries the gift in his beak back to his people, but he is not the same bird upon his return. The fire has scorched his plumage black, with only hints of his previous color, and his voice has been made rough and hoarse by the smoke. In this way, his sacrifice is commemorated.

Another name for Rainbow Crow is Many Colored Crow. This is in reference to the iridescent feathers created from the fire that scorched his plumage black, with only hints of his previous color that reflect when sun light strikes them.




FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raven_Mocker

Raven Mocker
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Raven Mocker, or ka'lanu ahkyeli'ski, is an evil being from Cherokee mythology who robs the sick and dying of their lives. Normally appearing as old, withered men and women, when they hunt a victim they take to the air in a fiery shape, and with the sounds of a raven's cry and a strong wind. After tormenting and killing their victim they consume his heart (doing so without leaving a mark on the victim's skin), and add a year to their life for every year that the slain would have still lived. Much like a banshee, the sound of a raven mocker means that someone will soon die.

Raven mockers are normally invisible when feeding, but those with strong medicine can not only spot them but cause them to die within seven days. Medicine men will sometimes stand guard over the dying to prevent raven mockers from stealing the heart of the afflicted.

Raven mockers are feared and envied by the other witches of Cherokee folklore, and their bodies may be abused by said witches after death.

In fiction

Manly Wade Wellman used raven mockers in his novel The Old Gods Waken (1979), where they were one of the many creatures of Appalachian folklore encountered by Silver John.

Scott Nicholson used withered beings much like raven mockers in his novel They Hunger (2007), where they were encountered in a gorge similar to the Linville Gorge Wilderness area of Appalachia.

P.C. Cast also used Raven Mockers as one of the main groups of villains in her House of Night Series. The story describes them as the being the few living "spirit" children of fallen angel Kalona and any one of his many human mistresses. They have the ability to annoy the living and also steal the lives of those close to death.

Raven mockers are a central theme in the book The Curse of the Raven Mocker, by Marly Youmans, where the main character, Adanta, chases a man who appears to be a raven mocker in order to rescue her enspelled mother. In doing so, she finds out more than she expected as she searches through Adantis, a land where the Cherokee legends mix with those of the early settlers in the Appalachian mountains.

References

Mooney, James (1900). Myths of the Cherokee. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications. pp. 401–403. ISBN 0-486-28907-9.


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