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 Un bel pò di ragioni per cui il 2012 è solo una bufala e speculazione economica new age

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MessaggioOggetto: Un bel pò di ragioni per cui il 2012 è solo una bufala e speculazione economica new age   Mer 9 Giu 2010 - 19:57

Fonte: http://www.skeptic.com/reading_room/2012-and-counting/

2012 and Counting
by Dr. David Morrison

A NASA Scientist Answers the Top 20 Questions About 2012
PUBLIC CONCERN ABOUT DOOMSDAY IN December 2012 has blossomed into a major new presence on the Internet. This fear has begun to invade cable TV and Hollywood, and it is rapidly spreading internationally. The hoax originally concerned a return of the fictitious planet Nibiru in 2012, but it received a big boost when conspiracy theory websites began to link it to the end of the Mayan calendar long count at the winter solstice (December 21) of 2012. Over the past year, many unrelated groups have joined the doomsday chorus, including Nostradamus advocates, a wide variety of eschatological Christian, Native American, and spiritualist sects, and those who fear comet and asteroid impacts or violent solar storms. At the time of this writing there are more than 175 books listed on Amazon.com dealing with the 2012 doomsday. The most popular topics are the Mayan calendar and spiritual predictions that the disaster in 2012 will usher in a new age of happiness and spiritual growth. Quite a few authors are cashing in with manuals on how to survive 2012.

As this hoax spreads, many more doomsday scenarios are being suggested, mostly unrelated to Nibiru. These include a reversal of the Earth’s magnetic field, severe solar storms associated with the 11-year solar cycle (which may peak in 2012), a reversal of Earth’s rotation axis, a 90- degree flip of the rotation axis, bombardment by large comets or asteroids, bombardment by gamma rays, or various unspecified lethal rays coming from the center of the Milky Way Galaxy or the “dark rift” seen in a nearby galactic spiral arm. A major theme has become celestial alignments: supposedly the Sun will align with the galactic center (or maybe with the Milky Way Dark Rift) on December 21, 2012, subjecting us to mysterious and potentially deadly forces.

Unlike most pseudoscience stories, there seems to be no factual core on which the Nibiru- 2012 hoax has been constructed. This is different from, for example, the claims of aliens and a crashed UFO at Roswell, New Mexico. The alien stories are a fabrication, but the core fact is that an instrumented balloon did crash in Roswell on July 7, 1947. There is no similar factual core to Nibiru—just dubious “predictions” from psychics, or the Mayans, or Nostradamus. The rest is pure fiction.

I answer questions from the public submitted online to a NASA website, and over the past two years the Nibiru-2012 doomsday has become the dominant topic people ask about. Many are curious about things they have seen on the Internet or TV, but many are also angry about supposed government cover-ups. As one wrote “Why are you lying about Nibiru? Everyone knows it is coming.” Others are genuinely frightened that the world will end just three years from now. My frustration in answering questions piecemeal motivates this “Twenty Questions” format to organize the facts and shine a skeptical light on this accumulation of myths and hoaxes.

1. What is the origin of the prediction that the world will end in December 2012?

The story started with claims that Nibiru, a supposed planet discovered by the Sumerians, is headed toward Earth. Zecharia Sitchin, who writes fiction about the ancient Mesopotamian civilization of Sumer, claimed in several books (e.g., The Twelfth Planet, published in 1976) that he has found and translated Sumerian documents that identify the planet Nibiru, orbiting the Sun every 3600 years. These Sumerian fables include stories of “ancient astronauts” visiting Earth from a civilization of aliens called the Anunnaki. Then Nancy Lieder, a self-declared psychic who claims she is channeling aliens, wrote on her website Zetatalk that the inhabitants of a fictional planet around the star Zeta Reticuli warned her that the Earth was in danger from Planet X or Nibiru. This catastrophe was initially predicted for May 2003, but when nothing happened the doomsday date was recalculated (a standard procedure for doomsdayers) and moved forward to December 2012. Only recently have these two fables been linked to the end of the Mayan long-count at the winter solstice in 2012—hence the predicted doomsday date of December 21, 2012.

2. The Sumerians were the first great civilization, and they made many accurate astronomical predictions, including the existence of the planets Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. So why should we not believe their predictions about Nibiru?

Nibiru is a name from Babylonian astrology sometimes associated with the god Marduk. Nibiru appears as a minor character in the Babylonian creation poem Enuma Elish as recorded in the library of Assurbanipal, King of Assyria (668–627 BCE). Sumer flourished much earlier, from about the 23rd century to the 17th century BCE. The claims that Nibiru is a planet and was known to the Sumerians are contradicted by scholars who (unlike Zecharia Sitchin) study and translate the written records of ancient Mesopotamia. Sumer was indeed a great civilization, important for the development of agriculture, water management, urban life, and especially writing. However, they left few astronomical records and they most certainly did not know about Uranus, Neptune or Pluto. They also had no understanding that the planets orbited the Sun, an idea that first developed in ancient Greece two millennia after the end of Sumer. Claims that Sumerians had a sophisticated astronomy, or that they even had a god named Nibiru, are the product of Sitchin’s imagination.

3. How can you deny the existence of Nibiru when NASA discovered it in 1983 and the story appeared in leading newspapers? At that time you called it Planet X, and later it was named Xena or Eris.

IRAS (the NASA Infrared Astronomy Satellite, which carried out a sky survey for 10 months in 1983) discovered many infrared sources, but none of them was Nibiru or Planet X or any other objects in the outer solar system. Briefly, IRAS cataloged 350,000 infrared sources, and initially many of these sources were unidentified (which was the point, of course, of making such a survey). All of these observations have been followed up by subsequent studies with more powerful instruments both on the ground and in space. The rumor about a “tenth planet” erupted in 1984 after a scientific paper was published in Astrophysical Journal Letters titled “Unidentified point sources in the IRAS minisurvey,” which discussed several infrared sources with “no counterparts.” But these “mystery objects” were subsequently found to be distant galaxies (except one, which was a wisp of “infrared cirrus”), as published in 1987. No IRAS source has ever turned out to be a planet. A good discussion of this whole issue is to be found on Phil Plait’s website. The bottom line is that Nibiru is a myth, with no basis in fact. To an astronomer, persistent claims about a planet that is “nearby” but “invisible” are just plain silly.

4. Maybe we should be asking about Planet X or Eris, not Nibiru. Why does NASA keep secret the orbit of Eris?

“Planet X” is an oxymoron when applied to a real object. The generic term has been used by astronomers over the past century for a possible or suspected object. Once the object is found, it is given a real name, as was done with Pluto and Eris, both of which were once referred to as Planet X. If a new object turns out to be not real, or not a planet, then you won’t hear about it again. If it is real, it is no longer called Planet X. Eris is one of several dwarf planets recently found by astronomers in the outer solar system, all of them on normal orbits that will never bring them near Earth. Like Pluto, Eris is smaller than our Moon. It is very far away, and its orbit never brings it closer than about 4 billion miles. There is no secret about Eris or its orbit, as you can easily verify by googling it or looking it up in Wikipedia.

5. Do you deny that NASA built a South Pole Telescope (SPT) to track Nibiru? Why else would they build a telescope at the South Pole?

There is a telescope at the South Pole, but it was not built by NASA and it is not used to study Nibiru. The South Pole Telescope is supported by the National Science Foundation, and it is a radio telescope, not an optical instrument. It cannot take visible light images or photos. You can look it up on Wikipedia. The Antarctic is a great place for astronomical infrared and short-wave-radio observations, and it also has the advantage that objects can be observed continuously without the interference of the day-night cycle. I should add that it is impossible to imagine a way in which an object can be seen only from the South Pole. Even if it were due south of the Earth, it could be seen from the entire southern hemisphere.

6. There are many photos and videos of Nibiru on the Internet. Isn’t that proof that it exists?

The great majority of the photos and videos on the Internet are of some feature near the Sun (apparently supporting the claim that Nibiru has been hiding behind the Sun for the past several years). These are actually false images of the Sun caused by internal reflections in the lens, often called lens flare. You can identify them easily by the fact that they appear diametrically opposite the real solar image, as if reflected across the center of the image. This is especially obvious in videos, where as the camera moves, the false image dances about always exactly opposite the real image. Similar lens flare is a source of many UFO photos taken at night with strong light sources such as streetlights in the frame. I am surprised that more people don’t recognize this common photo artifact. I am also amazed that these photos showing something nearly as large and bright as the Sun (a “second sun”) are accepted together with claims made on some of the same websites that Nibiru is too faint to be seen or photographed except with large telescopes.

One widely reported telescopic photo shows two views of an expanding gas cloud far beyond the solar system, which is not moving; you can see this from the fact that the stars are the same in both pictures. A sharp-eyed reader on my website identified these photos as a gas shell around the star V838 Mon. Wikipedia has a nice write-up and a beautiful photo of it from the Hubble. Another high school student was initially impressed by posted images of a red blob that were said to be of Nibiru. Then he worked out in his Photoshop class how to make just such pictures starting from scratch. One video posted in summer 2008 on YouTube shows a guy standing in his kitchen claiming that one of the objects discovered by NASA’s x-ray telescope is Nibiru. What is his evidence? That since this false-color x-ray image released by NASA is blue, this must really be a nearby planet with an ocean. This would be hilarious if it were not used to frighten people.

7. Can you explain the fact that the area at (5h 53m 27s, -6 10′ 58″) has been blackened out in Google Sky and Microsoft Telescope? People suggest that these have been blackened out because those are the co-ordinates where Nibiru is located at present.

Several people have asked me about this blank rectangle in Orion in Google Sky, which is a presentation of images from the Sloan Digital Survey. This can’t be a “hiding place” for Nibiru, since it is a part of the sky that could be seen from almost everywhere on the Earth in the winter of 2007–08 when much of the talk about Nibiru began. Plus, that would contradict the claims that Nibiru was hiding behind the Sun or that it could be seen only from the southern hemisphere. But I too was curious about this blank rectangle, so I asked a friend who is a senior scientist at Google. He replied that he “found out that the missing data is due to a processing error in the image stitching program we use to display the Sloan survey images. The team assures me that in the next run through, this will be fixed!”

8. If the government knew about Nibiru, wouldn’t they keep it a secret to avoid panic? Isn’t it the government’s job to keep the population at ease?

There are many objectives of government, but they do not include keeping the population at ease. My experience is that sometimes parts of the government do just the opposite, as in the frequent references to various terrorist threats or warnings about driving accidents on long holiday weekends, which are no more dangerous than any other time. There is a long history of associating bad things with political opponents (older readers will remember the “missile gap” in the 1960 election, younger ones will note the many current references to who is or is not keeping the U.S. safe from terrorists). Further, social scientists have pointed out that many of our concepts of public panic are the product of Hollywood, while in the real world people have a good record of helping each other in a time of danger. I think everyone also recognizes that keeping bad news secret usually backfires, making the issue even worse when the facts finally come out. And in the case of Nibiru, these facts would come out very soon indeed.

Even if it wanted to, however, the government could not keep Nibiru a secret. If Nibiru were real, it would be tracked by thousands of astronomers, amateurs as well as professionals. These astronomers are spread all over the world. I know the astronomy community, and these scientists would not keep a secret even if ordered to. You just can’t hide a planet on its way into the inner solar system!

9. Why does the Mayan calendar say the world will end in 2012? I have heard that they have been pretty accurate in the past with other planetary predictions. How can you be sure you know more than they did?

Calendars exist for keeping track of the passage of time, not for predicting the future. The Mayan astronomers were clever, and they developed a very complex calendar. Ancient calendars are interesting to historians, but of course they cannot match the ability we have today to keep track of time, or the precision of the calendars currently in use. The main point, however, is that calendars, whether contemporary or ancient, cannot predict the future of our planet or warn of things to happen on a specific date such as 2012.

I note that my desk calendar ends much sooner, on December 31, 2009, but I do not interpret this as a prediction of Armageddon. It is just the beginning of a new year.

10. What is the polar shift theory? Is it true that the Earth’s crust does a 180-degree rotation around the core in a matter of days if not hours? Does this have something to do with our solar system dipping beneath the galactic equator?

A reversal in the rotation of Earth is impossible. It has never happened and never will. There are slow movements of the continents (for example Antarctica was near the equator hundreds of millions of years ago), but that is irrelevant to claims of reversal of the rotational poles. However, many of the disaster websites pull a bait-and-switch to fool people. They claim a relationship between the rotation and the magnetic field of Earth, which does change irregularly with a magnetic reversal taking place, on average, every 400,000 years. As far as we know, such a magnetic reversal does not cause any harm to life on Earth. A magnetic reversal is very unlikely to happen in the next few millennia, anyway. But the 2012ers falsely claim that a magnetic reversal is coming soon (in 2012 of course) and that this is the same as, or will trigger, a reversal of Earth’s rotational poles. The bottom line is this: (a) rotation direction and magnetic polarity are not related; (b) there is no reason to expect a reversal of magnetic polarity any time soon, or to anticipate any bad effects on life when it does eventually happen; (c) a sudden shift in the rotational pole with disastrous consequences is impossible. Also, none of this has anything to do with the galactic equator or any of the other nonsense about alignments that appears on many of the doomsday websites.

11. When most of the planets align in 2012 and planet Earth is in the center of the Milky Way, what will the effects of this be on planet Earth? Could it cause a pole shift, and if so what could we expect?

There is no planet alignment in 2012 or any other time in the next several decades. As to the Earth being in the center of the Milky Way, I don’t know what this phrase means. If they are referring to the Milky Way Galaxy, we are some 30,000 light years from the center of this spiral galaxy. We circle the galactic center in a period of 225–250 million years, always keeping approximately the same distance. Concerning a pole shift, I also don’t know what this means. If it means some sudden change in the position of the pole (that is, the rotation axis of the Earth), then that is impossible, as noted above. What many websites do discuss is the alignment of the Earth and Sun with the center of the Milky Way in the constellation of Sagittarius. This happens every December, with no bad consequences, and there is no reason to expect 2012 to be different from any other year.

12. When the Sun and the Earth line up on the galactic plane at the same time with the black hole being in the center couldn’t that cause something to happen, due to the fact that the black hole has such a strong gravitational pull?

There is a supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy, and like any concentration of mass it exerts gravitational force on the rest of the galaxy. However, the galactic center is very far away, approximately 30,000 light years, so it has negligible effects on our solar system and Earth. There are no special forces from the galactic plane or the galactic center. The only important force that acts on the Earth is the gravitation of the Sun and Moon. As far as the influence of the galactic plane, there is nothing special about this location. The last time the Earth was in the galactic plane was several million years ago. Claims that we are about to cross the galactic plane are untrue.

13. I am scared about the fact that the Earth will enter the Dark Rift in the Milky Way. What will this do? Will the Earth be swallowed up?

The “dark rift” is a popular name for the broad and diffuse dust clouds in the inner arm of the Milky Way Galaxy, which block our view of the galactic center. The entire “galactic alignment” scare is ridiculous. Late in December the Sun is always approximately in the direction of the center of the Galaxy as seen from the Earth, but so what? Apparently the scaremongers have decided to use these meaningless phrases about “alignments” and the “dark rift” and “photon belt” precisely because they are not understood by the public. As far as the safety of the Earth is concerned, the important threats are from global warming and loss of biological diversity, and perhaps someday from collision with an asteroid or comet, not the pseudoscientific claims about 2012.

14. I have heard that the Earth’s magnetic field will flip in 2012 just when the strongest level of solar storms in history is predicted to take place. Will this kill us or destroy our civilization?

Near solar maximum (which happens approximately every 11 years), there are many more solar flares and coronal mass ejections than near solar minimum. Flares and mass ejections are no danger for humans or other life on Earth. They could endanger astronauts in deep space or on the Moon, and this is something that NASA must learn to deal with, but it is not a problem for us. Large outbursts can interrupt radio transmissions, cause bright displays of the aurora (Northern and Southern Lights), and damage the electronics of some satellites in space. Today many satellites are designed to deal with this possibility, for example by switching off some of their more delicate circuits and going into a “safe” mode for a few hours. In extreme cases solar activity can also disrupt electrical transmissions on the ground, possibly leading to electrical blackouts, but this is rare.

The last solar maximum occurred in 2001, so the next one was predicted for around 2012, 11 years later. However, the most recent solar minimum was unusual, with a period of a couple of years with almost no sunspots or other indications of solar activity, so scientists now guess that the next maximum will be delayed, perhaps to 2013. However, the details of the solar cycle remain basically unpredictable.

It is true that the Earth’s magnetic field protects us by creating a large region in space, called the Earth’s magnetosphere, within which most of the material ejected from the Sun is captured or deflected, but there is no reason to expect a reversal of magnetic polarity any time soon. These magnetic reversals happen, on average, only once in 400,000 years.

15. I am confused about a report on the Fox News website that in 2012 a “Powerful Solar Storm Could Shut Down U.S. for Months.” They referred to a report from the National Academy of Sciences that was commissioned and paid for by NASA. If nothing is going to happen as a result of the event in 2012, why would NASA allow such nonsense to be reported?

NASA is pleased with the National Research Council report on heliophysics. As noted, this report includes a worst-case analysis of what could happen today if there were a repetition of the biggest solar storm ever recorded (in 1859). The problem is the way such information can be used out of context. There is no reason to expect such a large solar storm in the near future, certainly not in 2012 specifically. The reference to “the event in 2012” illustrates this problem. There is no prediction of an “event in 2012.” We don’t even know if the next solar maximum will take place in that year. The whole 2012 disaster scenario is a hoax, fueled by ads for the Hollywood science-fiction disaster film 2012. I can only hope that most people are able to distinguish Hollywood film plots from reality.

16. All my school friends are telling me that we are all going to die in the year 2012 due to a meteor hitting Earth. Is this true?

The Earth has always been subject to impacts by comets and asteroids (as has the Moon, as you can see because it has no atmosphere to erode the impact craters), although big hits are very rare. The last big impact was 65 million years ago, and that led to the extinction of the dinosaurs. Today NASA astronomers are carrying out the Spaceguard Survey to find any large near-Earth asteroids long before they hit. We have already determined that there are no threatening asteroids as large as the one that killed the dinosaurs. All this work is done openly with the discoveries posted every day on the NASA NEO Program Office website, so anyone can see that nothing is predicted to hit in 2012.
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Un bel pò di ragioni per cui il 2012 è solo una bufala e speculazione economica new age   Mer 9 Giu 2010 - 19:58

17. If Nibiru is a hoax, why doesn’t NASA issue a denial? How can you permit these stories to circulate and frighten people? Why doesn’t the U.S. government do something about it!


If you go to the NASA home page, nasa.gov, you will see many stories that expose the Nibiru-2012 hoax. Try searching nasa.com under “Nibiru” or “2012”. There is not much more that NASA can do. These hoaxes have nothing to do with NASA and are not based on NASA data, so we as an agency are not directly involved. But scientists, both within NASA and outside, recognize that this hoax with its effort to frighten people is a distraction from more important scientific concerns, such as global warming and loss of biological diversity. We live in a country where there is freedom of speech, and that includes the freedom to lie. We should be glad there are no censors. But if we will use common sense we can recognize the lies. As we approach 2012, the lies will be come even more obvious.

18. Can you prove to me that Nibiru is a hoax? There are so many reports that something terrible will happen in 2012. I need proof because the government and NASA are keeping so much from us.

Such questions should be put to the doomsday advocates to prove that what they are saying is true, not to NASA to prove it is false. If someone claimed on the Internet that there were 50-foot tall purple elephants walking through Cleveland, would anyone expect NASA to prove this wrong? The burden of proof falls on those who make wild claims. Remember the often-quoted comment from Carl Sagan that extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence.

However, I think that astronomers have reached the point where we can offer extremely strong arguments that Nibiru does not exist. A large planet (or a brown dwarf) in our solar system would have been known to astronomers for many years, both indirectly from its gravitational perturbations on other objects and by direct detection in the infrared. The NASA Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) carried out the first allsky survey in 1983, and several subsequent surveys would also have seen Nibiru if it were there. Further, if a large mass passed through the inner solar system every 3600 years, we would see its disruptive effects on the orbits of the inner planets, and we don’t.

But don’t take my word for it. Just use common sense. Have you seen Nibiru? In 2008 many websites said it would be visible to the naked eye in spring 2009. If a large planet or brown dwarf were headed for the inner solar system in 2012, it would already be tracked by thousands of astronomers, both professional and amateur, all over the world. Do you know any amateur astronomers who are watching it? Have you seen any photos or discussion of it in the big popular astronomy magazines such as Astronomy or Sky & Telescope? Just think about it. No one could hide something like Nibiru if it existed.

19. What about the scary ads for the new film 2012? They tell us to look at these Internet sites to verify the doomsday threat.

The pseudoscientific claims about Nibiru and a doomsday in 2012, together with distrust of the government, are being amplified by publicity for the new film from Columbia Pictures titled 2012, to be released in November 2009. The film’s trailer, appearing in theaters and on their website, shows a tidal wave breaking over the Himalayas, with the following words: “How would the governments of our planet prepare 6 billion people for the end of the world? [long pause] They wouldn’t. [long pause] Find out the Truth. Google search 2012.”

The film publicity includes a faux scientific website for “The Institute for Human Continuity”, which is entirely fictitious. According to this website, the IHC is dedicated to scientific research and public preparedness. Its mission is the survival of humanity. The website explains that the Institute was founded in 1978 by international leaders of government, business, and science. They say that in 2004, IHC scientists confirmed with 94% certainty that the world would be destroyed in 2012. This website encourages people to register for a lottery to select those who will be saved; a colleague submitted the name of her cat, which was accepted. According to Wikipedia, creating this sort of fake website is a new advertising technique called “Viral Marketing,” by analogy with computer viruses.

20. Is it possible that the influx of questions you describe is part of some kind of campaign for a book or movie, in the hopes that the volume of denials is taken as more “evidence” that there is a conspiracy?

I ask myself the same questions every day, as the volume of mail I receive about Nibiru (along with various alignments and pole shifts) keeps increasing—now more than 20 per week. Clearly there is money to be made from people’s fear about an approaching doomsday. Many websites are selling books and tapes about Nibiru or even “survival kits.” It is all very sad, given the many real issues such as global warming and the financial collapse on which our attentions should be focused. In the final chapter of a new astronomy book (The Hunt for Planet X) Govert Shilling writes: “There is plenty to do for the debunkers—the archaeologists and astronomers who take a long and skeptical look at the tidal wave of Nibiru nonsense and explain with scientific precision what is wrong with this cosmic fairy-tale. They will have their work cut out in the next few years. And on December 22, 2012 there will be a new pseudoscientific cock-and-bull story making the rounds and the whole circus will start all over again, because no matter how many new celestial bodies are found in our solar system, there will always be a need for a mysterious Planet X.”

About the author
Dr. David Morrison is the Director of the NASA Lunar Science Institute and Senior Scientist in the NASA Astrobiology Institute. Dr. Morrison received his Ph.D. in astronomy from Harvard University (where Carl Sagan was his thesis advisor) and has spent most of his career working in planetary science and astrobiology. He is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of the California Academy of Sciences. He is recipient of the Dryden Medal for research of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and the Sagan Medal of the American Astronomical Society for public communication. Morrison is a leading skeptic and proponent of improving science education and literacy. Asteroid 2410 Morrison is named in his honor.
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Un bel pò di ragioni per cui il 2012 è solo una bufala e speculazione economica new age   Gio 29 Lug 2010 - 13:24

Aspettando il 2012: MARIE NOELLE URECH

Buona visione!


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Femminile Serpente
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Un bel pò di ragioni per cui il 2012 è solo una bufala e speculazione economica new age   Dom 11 Dic 2011 - 10:34

Admin ho trovato altre teorie, sul 2012 sempre dal sito skepdic.com, di cui riporto soltanto l'incipit ed il link per approfondimenti.

Buona lettura!


FONTE: http://www.skepdic.com/maya.html

The world will not end on 12-21-2012, at least not according to the Maya, who knew about as much about our planet's future demise as Gordon-Michael Scallion, St. Malachy, Edgar Cayce, Zecharia Sitchin, or Nostradamus, namely, nothing. The Maya had zero, zilch, nada, mix bá'al to say about the hoax planet Nibiru or the end of the world.


Consiglio inoltre la visione di quest'altro link dove vengono riportate altre teorie sulla fine del mondo e sul fenomeno che ne è nato.

http://www.skepdic.com/doomsday.html
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Un bel pò di ragioni per cui il 2012 è solo una bufala e speculazione economica new age   Sab 31 Dic 2011 - 8:47

Ieri sera è apparsa la notizia di alcuni sciamani del Perù, che per scongiurare le profezie Maya, hanno eseguito rituali di buon auspicio.

Qualche mese fa, invece, uno sciamano Maya rilasciò una intervista dicendo che più che apocalisse ci sarebbe stato un semplice cambiamento.

Se ne sentono di cotte e crude in questo periodo. Non oso pensare cosa accadrà tra circa un anno quando la fatidica data sarà molto vicina.

Eccovi qualche link di riferimento, comunque basta fare una ricerca e ne troverete molti altri.

http://it.notizie.yahoo.com/2012--lo-sciamano-maya-quetzasha-spiega-la-profezia.html

http://it.notizie.yahoo.com/sciamani-del-per%C3%B9-riuniti-per-sconfiggere-profezie-maya-102122219.html

Dopo aver letto i precedenti articoli di questo topic e questi ultimi voi che ne pensate?


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Phantom



Maschile Dragone
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Un bel pò di ragioni per cui il 2012 è solo una bufala e speculazione economica new age   Mar 3 Gen 2012 - 12:08

Tila ha scritto:

Dopo aver letto i precedenti articoli di questo topic e questi ultimi voi che ne pensate?

Buongiorno forum, buongiorno Tila.
Sinceramente credo che molte persone ci stanno soltanto speculando su questa fantomatica profezia. Ma non voglio polemizzare più di tanto, ognuno fa il mestiere che si sente di fare e che più gli si addice. Anche perchè se non erro si tratta della fine di un calendario, allora dovremmo temere ogni fine anno? Ricordo il caos che si era creato il 31 dicembre del 1999 (ovvio per i più giovani forse è difficile) ma i miei colleghi di corso erano terrorizzati dall'utilizzare i pc. E poi alla fine non è successo nulla. Semmai dovremmo impegnarci a non farla avverare noi, siamo noi che stiamo depauperando la terra, quindi se ci sarà una catastrofe sarà per mano di un mostro chiamato uomo.
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paperinasciamana



Femminile Capra
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Un bel pò di ragioni per cui il 2012 è solo una bufala e speculazione economica new age   Mer 22 Feb 2012 - 8:29

ciao sono d'accordo con quanto dice phantom. Ieri stavo notando che ad esempio i programmi del pacchetto cinema quale sono abbonata sono due mesi che danno gli stessi film. Ovvero: the day after tomorrow - deep impact - armageddon
O sanno qualcosa che a noi non ci è dato sapere oppure è puro commercio.
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Femminile Serpente
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Un bel pò di ragioni per cui il 2012 è solo una bufala e speculazione economica new age   Mer 22 Feb 2012 - 10:00

paperinasciamana ha scritto:

O sanno qualcosa che a noi non ci è dato sapere oppure è puro commercio.

Eheheh ciao Paperinasciamana,

come direbbe "quelo" è la seconda che hai detto. Very Happy

Guarda quasi un mese fa erano passati due asteroidi molto vicini alla terra ( http://www.ilsole24ore.com/art/tecnologie/2012-01-27/asteroide-passera-vicinissimo-terra-143435.shtml?uuid=AaBx1DjE ), per non parlare dei brillamenti solari e di tantissime altre cose...tutto cambia e si evolve, anche nel cosmo...e questo non è un male anzi.

Forse più che cercare giustificazioni in una profezia magari l'uomo dovrebbe chiedersi cosa può fare veramente per aiutare la nostra padrona di casa, la Terra.

Buona giornata.
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Femminile Serpente
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Un bel pò di ragioni per cui il 2012 è solo una bufala e speculazione economica new age   Ven 1 Giu 2012 - 7:12

Buondì a tutti,

continuo il filone sulle teorie della fine del mondo nel 2012, oggi ho trovato alcuni interessanti documenti di wikipedia che ne parlano, di cui riporto qualche stralcio perciò vi consiglio di visionare anche le fonti orginali per approfondimenti.

Buona lettura.

FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Profezie_sul_21_dicembre_2012

Profezie sul 21 dicembre 2012
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Il 21 dicembre 2012 è la data del calendario gregoriano nella quale secondo alcune aspettative e profezie si dovrebbe verificare un evento, di natura imprecisata e di proporzioni planetarie, capace di produrre una significativa discontinuità storica con il passato: una qualche radicale trasformazione dell'umanità in senso spirituale oppure la fine del mondo. L'evento atteso viene collegato temporalmente alla fine di uno dei cicli (b'ak'tun) del calendario maya.

Nessuna di queste profezie ha alcun fondamento scientifico e sono state più volte smentite dalla comunità geofisica e astronomica.[1] Anche la maggioranza degli studiosi della storia dei Maya confuta queste affermazioni.[2]


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Maya-Maske.jpg

I calendari mesoamericani

Il calendario maya

I Maya, come altre culture mesoamericane, misuravano il tempo utilizzando un sistema di tre calendari. I giorni erano organizzati attraverso un calendario religioso rituale della durata di 260 giorni (chiamato Tzolk'in), suddiviso in trecene (periodi temporali di 13 giorni) e utilizzato prevalentemente a scopo divinatorio, e un calendario solare di 365 giorni (Haab'), suddiviso in 18 periodi di 20 giorni ciascuno.[3]

I Maya non contavano gli anni; tuttavia, le date di questi due calendari erano combinate tra loro per dare luogo a cicli di 18.980 giorni (~52 anni) per un totale di 52 cicli diversi ricorrenti. Un ulteriore calendario, il cosiddetto Lungo computo, calcolava, invece, il tempo trascorso dalla data della creazione del mondo secondo la mitologia maya (che, secondo la correlazione con il calendario gregoriano seguita dalla maggior parte degli storici mesoamericani e conosciuta come correlazione di Goodman-Martinez-Thompson, corrisponderebbe all'11 agosto 3114 a.C. del calendario gregoriano).[4] Questo calendario, a differenza dei precedenti, era progressivo e suddivideva il tempo in cicli non ricorrenti (b'ak'tun) della durata di 144 000 giorni, suddivisi a loro volta, su base vigesimale, in 4 ulteriori sottocicli. Il 20 dicembre 2012 terminerà il 13º b'ak'tun (12.19.19.17.19 nella notazione originale del calendario) a cui farà seguito, il giorno successivo, il 14º b'ak'tun (13.0.0.0.0).

Secondo il Popol Vuh - uno dei principali documenti storici sul corpus mitologico dei Maya - il Lungo computo attuale è solo il quarto in ordine di tempo, poiché gli dei avrebbero distrutto le tre precedenti creazioni ritenendole fallimentari.[5] La terza creazione fu distrutta al termine del 13º b'ak'tun (12.19.19.17.19), data che ritornerà nuovamente alla fine del 2012. Questa circostanza, assieme ad un riferimento epigrafico sul "Monumento 6" di Tortuguero - un sito archeologico maya situato nella parte sud-occidentale dello stato di Tabasco in Messico - è alla base del fenomeno New Age che associa un evento di significativa discontinuità storica alla data summenzionata.

Il calendario azteco e il Sesto sole

Secondo gli aztechi il 21 dicembre 2012 arriverà l'era del "Sesto sole". L'era sarà caratterizzata da un particolare evento mitico[senza fonte].

Profezie

Sulla base di interpretazioni di impronta prevalentemente New Age, sono stati formulati due diversi scenari sulla corrispondenza di questa data: o con eventi quali la fine del mondo oppure con trasformazioni radicali del mondo stesso come l'inizio dell'Era dell'Aquario, un periodo di pace globale e profonda evoluzione spirituale.

Entrambi gli scenari profetizzati possono definirsi apocalittici, tenendo conto del duplice significato del termine: o in senso figurato come devastazione totale, cataclisma rovinoso, disastrosa sciagura, o nel suo senso etimologico di rivelazione.[6] Analogo distinguo è previsto dal termine "catastrofe", che infatti richiede una disambiguazione.[7]

Da un'iscrizione sul "Monumento 6" si ricava la data del 2012, in cui accadrebbe qualcosa che coinvolgerebbe la misteriosa divinità maya Bolon Yokte, associata in genere alla guerra e alla creazione. Da qui è stata ricavata la supposta profezia data al 2012;[8] esistono tuttavia diverse altre tavolette che riportano date anche molto successive al 2012, cosa che fa ritenere che i Maya non pensassero a questo giorno come all'ultimo giorno del mondo.[9]

Confutazioni degli studiosi degli antichi Maya

La credenza in catastrofi nel giorno 21 dicembre 2012 o in vicinanza ad esso, è una supposizione considerata sbagliata dalla corrente principale degli studiosi degli antichi Maya, eppure è comunemente citata nei mezzi di comunicazione di cultura popolare come il problema del 2012.[10]

Secondo Sandra Noble, executive director della Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies, Inc. a Crystal River in Florida, «Considerare il 21 dicembre 2012 come un giorno del giudizio o un momento di cambiamento cosmico è un'invenzione assoluta ed un'opportunità per molte persone di fare profitto.» La fine di un ciclo del calendario era infatti vista dal popolo Maya semplicemente come occasione di grandi celebrazioni per festeggiare l'ingresso nella nuova epoca, in questo caso il 14º b'ak'tun.[11]

Confutazioni scientifiche

Astronomia

Allineamento del Sole con il Centro galattico

Osservato da Terra, il Sole si sposta in prossimità di una linea ideale (l'eclittica) che corrisponde alla proiezione in cielo del piano in cui giace l'orbita della Terra. I pianeti e la Luna orbitano su piani poco inclinati rispetto all'eclittica ed anche loro, di conseguenza, appaiono in prossimità di essa se visti da Terra.[12] Storicamente alle costellazioni che si posizionano a cavallo dell'eclittica è stato dato quindi un significato speciale e sono state raccolte nello zodiaco.[13]

Nel corso dei secoli ci si è accorti che il periodo dell'anno di visibilità delle costellazioni dello zodiaco mutava. Ciò avviene a causa della cosiddetta precessione degli equinozi, moto di precessione dell'asse terrestre che determina uno spostamento di 1° circa ogni 72 anni. Conseguentemente, ogni 2160 anni cambia la costellazione dello zodiaco visibile in corrispondenza del sorgere del Sole nel giorno dell'equinozio di primavera. Nella tradizione astrologica occidentale, ciò determina la fine di un'era astrologica e l'inizio della successiva. Attualmente ci troviamo nell'Era dei Pesci, la prossima sarà l'Era dell'Acquario. La durata complessiva del ciclo è di 26 000 anni.[14]

Così come oggi l'equinozio di primavera si verifica nella costellazione dei Pesci, il solstizio d'inverno si verifica nella costellazione del Sagittario, dove si situa tra l'altro il centro della Via Lattea. Negli ultimi mille anni circa, di conseguenza, ogni anno nel giorno del solstizio d'inverno, la Terra, il Sole ed il centro galattico si sono trovati quasi allineati (il migliore allineamento prospettico nel giorno del solstizio d'inverno è avvenuto il 21 dicembre 1998)[15]. Ad ogni modo, l'allineamento in sé non comporta alcun effetto per la Terra ed il Sistema solare, dal momento che rappresenta l'attraversamento di una linea ideale, come il confine tra due comuni.[15]

John M. Jenkins verso la metà degli anni ottanta propose che l'allineamento galattico del 2012 potesse aver assunto un significato speciale entro le previsioni del calendario maya. Suggerì infatti che i Maya potessero aver basato il proprio calendario sull'osservazione della Fenditura del Cigno[16], affermò che essi sapevano che l'eclittica attraversava la Fenditura (la nebulosa termina all'altezza dell'equatore celeste) e che avessero dato a tale punto del cielo un significato speciale nella loro cosmologia.[17] Ipotizzò dunque che l'allineamento del Sole e di tale punto sarebbe avvenuto nel giorno del solstizio d'inverno del 2012.[17]

Anche con queste ulteriori restrizioni, l'allineamento indicato si verifica tuttavia nel giorno del solstizio d'inverno per un periodo di 36 anni e la convergenza di maggiore precisione è già avvenuta nel 1998.[18] Numerosi studiosi e Jenkins stesso, inoltre, hanno fatto notare che non esiste alcuna prova concreta che i Maya conoscessero il fenomeno della precessione degli equinozi.[19]

Allineamento planetario

Su La Stampa del 13 ottobre 2009 il giornalista Paolo Manzo cita un allineamento «di Marte, Giove, Saturno, uno spettacolo astronomico senza precedenti», in corrispondenza della fatidica data.[20] L'articolo non riporta o rinvia a nessuna fonte scientifica autorevole e attendibile, mentre né gli astronomi né le effemeridi (a cui si può accedere attraverso programmi di calcolo disponibili in rete) indicano alcuna congiunzione,[21] anzi, predicono che i tre pianeti si troveranno in tre posizioni ben distinte se osservati dalla Terra, come è possibile desumere dalla seguente tabella che riporta le coordinate celesti per Marte, Giove e Saturno nel sistema di riferimento geocentrico equatoriale.[22]

Già nel maggio del 2000, in occasione di un allineamento planetario, si era sviluppato un senso di ansia nell'attesa dell'evento che aveva portato i principali organi di divulgazione scientifica statunitense a rilasciare comunicati che ne confermassero l'innocuità.[23][24][25]


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:2012-dec-21.png

Astrofisica
Inversione dei poli magnetici del campo terrestre

L'attività solare segue un andamento ciclico di undici anni.[26] I periodi di intensa attività sono identificati dalla presenza di un elevato numero di macchie solari, a cui generalmente si associano altri fenomeni quali espulsioni di massa coronali le quali, se avvengono in direzione della Terra, danno luogo a quelle che sono state definite tempeste solari o geomagnetiche, disturbi temporanei della magnetosfera terrestre[27] che possono manifestarsi in modo spettacolare attraverso aurore polari.[28][29]

La magnetosfera terrestre funge da barriera protettiva e gli effetti sugli esseri viventi che abitano il pianeta sono ridotti. L'industrializzazione e l'espansione umana nello spazio, tuttavia, hanno reso questi fenomeni problematici anche per l'uomo, dal momento che possono danneggiare dispositivi elettronici in orbita e, in caso di tempeste di elevata intensità, interagire con le reti di trasmissione dell'energia elettrica e con la strumentazione degli aerei di linea.[30][31]

È stato previsto che il picco del 24º ciclo solare si verificherà nei mesi di aprile e maggio del 2013 e raggiungerà un'intensità inferiore al 23º, che si è appena concluso.[32][33] Ad un'indicazione così precisa, tuttavia, si è potuti giungere solo dopo aver osservato il minimo dell'attività solare, verificatosi nel 2009;[34] previsioni del 2007 avevano prospettato in effetti due scenari possibili: quello descritto, ed un secondo in cui il picco si sarebbe verificato nel 2012 e sarebbe stato di intensità maggiore del precedente.[34][35]

Alcune trasmissioni televisive hanno collegato questo secondo scenario con le profezie sul 21 dicembre 2012:[35] in particolare è stata ipotizzata la possibilità che un picco di attività solare particolarmente intenso possa innescare una inversione dei poli magnetici terrestri con conseguenze disastrose e imprevedibili per la nostra società. Questa ipotesi, già di per sé di scarso fondamento scientifico, è comunque confutata dalle attuali previsioni relative all'attività solare fra il 2012 e il 2013.

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Femminile Serpente
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Un bel pò di ragioni per cui il 2012 è solo una bufala e speculazione economica new age   Ven 1 Giu 2012 - 7:22

FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2012_phenomenon

2012 phenomenon
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The 2012 phenomenon comprises a range of eschatological beliefs according to which cataclysmic or transformative events will occur on 21 December 2012.[1][2][3][4] This date is regarded as the end-date of a 5,125-year-long cycle in the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar. Various astronomical alignments and numerological formulae have been proposed as pertaining to this date, though none have been accepted by mainstream scholarship.

A New Age interpretation of this transition is that this date marks the start of time in which Earth and its inhabitants may undergo a positive physical or spiritual transformation, and that 2012 may mark the beginning of a new era.[5] Others suggest that the 2012 date marks the end of the world or a similar catastrophe.[6] Scenarios suggested for the end of the world include the arrival of the next solar maximum, or Earth's collision with an object such as a black hole, a passing asteroid, or a planet called "Nibiru".

Scholars from various disciplines have dismissed the idea of such cataclysmic events occurring in 2012. Professional Mayanist scholars state that predictions of impending doom are not found in any of the extant classic Maya accounts, and that the idea that the Long Count calendar "ends" in 2012 misrepresents Maya history and culture.[3][7][8] Astronomers and other scientists have rejected the proposals as pseudoscience, stating that they conflict with simple astronomical observations[9] and amount to "a distraction from more important science concerns, such as global warming and loss of biological diversity."[10]


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:La_Mojarra_Inscription_and_Long_Count_date.jpg

Mesoamerican Long Count calendar

December 2012 marks the conclusion of a b'ak'tun—a time period in the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar which was used in Central America prior to the arrival of Europeans. Although the Long Count was most likely invented by the Olmec,[11] it has become closely associated with the Maya civilization, whose classic period lasted from 250 to 900 AD.[12] The writing system of the classic Maya has been substantially deciphered,[13] meaning that a corpus of their written and inscribed material has survived from before the European conquest.

Unlike the 52-year Calendar Round still used today among the Maya, the Long Count was linear rather than cyclical, and kept time roughly in units of 20: 20 days made a uinal, 18 uinals (360 days) made a tun, 20 tuns made a k'atun, and 20 k'atuns (144,000 days or roughly 394 years) made up a b'ak'tun. Thus, the Mayan date of 8.3.2.10.15 represents 8 b'ak'tuns, 3 k'atuns, 2 tuns, 10 uinals and 15 days.[14][15]


Apocalypse

There is a strong tradition of "world ages" in Mayan literature, but the record has been distorted, leaving several possibilities open to interpretation.[16] According to the Popol Vuh, a compilation of the creation accounts of the K'iche' Maya of the Colonial-era highlands, we are living in the fourth world.[17] The Popol Vuh describes the gods first creating three failed worlds, followed by a successful fourth world in which humanity was placed. In the Maya Long Count, the previous world ended after 13 b'ak'tuns, or roughly 5,125 years.[18][Note a] The Long Count's "zero date"[Note b] was set at a point in the past marking the end of the third world and the beginning of the current one, which corresponds to 11 August 3114 BC in the proleptic Gregorian calendar.[19][Note c] This means that the fourth world will also have reached the end of its 13th b'ak'tun, or Mayan date 13.0.0.0.0, on 21 December 2012.[1][Note c] In 1957, Mayanist and astronomer Maud Worcester Makemson wrote that "the completion of a Great Period of 13 b'ak'tuns would have been of the utmost significance to the Maya".[20] In 1966, Michael D. Coe wrote in The Maya that "there is a suggestion ... that Armageddon would overtake the degenerate peoples of the world and all creation on the final day of the 13th [b'ak'tun]. Thus ... our present universe [would] be annihilated [in December 2012][Note d] when the Great Cycle of the Long Count reaches completion."[21]

Objections

Coe's interpretation was repeated by other scholars through the early 1990s.[22] In contrast, later researchers said that, while the end of the 13th b'ak'tun would perhaps be a cause for celebration,[3] it did not mark the end of the calendar.[23] "There is nothing in the Maya or Aztec or ancient Mesoamerican prophecy to suggest that they prophesied a sudden or major change of any sort in 2012," said Mayanist scholar Mark Van Stone. "The notion of a "Great Cycle" coming to an end is completely a modern invention."[24] In 1990, Mayanist scholars Linda Schele and David Freidel argued that the Maya, "did not conceive this to be the end of creation, as many have suggested."[25] Susan Milbrath, curator of Latin American Art and Archaeology at the Florida Museum of Natural History, stated that, "We have no record or knowledge that [the Maya] would think the world would come to an end," in 2012.[3] Sandra Noble, executive director of the Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies, said, "For the ancient Maya, it was a huge celebration to make it to the end of a whole cycle," and, "The 2012 phenomenon is a complete fabrication and a chance for a lot of people to cash in."[3] "There will be another cycle," said E. Wyllys Andrews V, director of the Tulane University Middle American Research Institute. "We know the Maya thought there was one before this, and that implies they were comfortable with the idea of another one after this."[26]

Several prominent individuals representing Maya of Guatemala decried the suggestion that the world ends on b'ak'tun 13. Ricardo Cajas, president of the Colectivo de Organizaciones Indígenas de Guatemala, said the date did not represent an end of humanity or fulfillment of the catastrophic prophecies found in the Maya Chilam Balam, but that the new cycle, "supposes changes in human consciousness." Martín Sacalxot of Procurador de los Derechos Humanos (Guatemala's Human Rights Ombudsman, PDH) said that end of the calendar has nothing to do with the end of the world or the year 2012.[27]

Prior associations

The European association of the Maya with eschatology dates back to the time of Christopher Columbus, who was compiling a work called Libro de las profecias during the voyage in 1502 when he first heard about the "Maia" on Guanaja, an island off the north coast of Honduras.[28] Influenced by the writings of Bishop Pierre d'Ailly, Columbus believed that his discovery of "most distant" lands (and, by extension, the Maya themselves) was prophesied and would bring about the Apocalypse. End-times fears were widespread during the early years of the Spanish Conquest as the result of popular astrological predictions in Europe of a second Great Flood for the year 1524.[28]

In the early 1900s, German scholar Ernst Förstemann interpreted the last page of the Dresden Codex as a representation of the end of the world in a cataclysmic flood. He made reference to the destruction of the world and an apocalypse, though he made no reference to the 13th baktun or 2012 and it was not clear that he was referring to a future event.[29] His ideas were repeated by archaeologist Sylvanus Morley,[30] who directly paraphrased Förstemann and added his own embellishments, writing, "Finally, on the last page of the manuscript, is depicted the Destruction of the World ... Here, indeed, is portrayed with a graphic touch the final all-engulfing cataclysm" in the form of a Great Flood. These comments were later repeated in Morley's book, The Ancient Maya, the first edition of which was published in 1946.[28]

Mayan references to b'ak'tun 13

It is not certain what significance the classic Maya give to the 13th b'ak'tun.[31] Most classic Maya inscriptions are strictly historical and do not make any prophetic declarations.[31] One item in the Mayan classical corpus, however, does mention the end of the 13th b'ak'tun: Tortuguero Monument 6.
Tortuguero

The Tortuguero site, which lies in southernmost Tabasco, Mexico, dates from the 7th century AD and consists of a series of inscriptions mostly in honor of the contemporary ruler Bahlam Ajaw. One inscription, known as Tortuguero Monument 6, is the only inscription known to refer to b'ak'tun 13. It has been partially defaced; Sven Gronemeyer and Barbara MacLeod have given this translation:

tzuhtzjo:m uy-u:xlaju:n pik
chan ajaw u:x uni:w
uhto:m il[?]
ye'ni/ye:n bolon yokte'
ta chak joyaj



It will be completed the 13th b'ak'tun.
It is 4 Ajaw 3 K'ank'in
and it will happen a 'seeing'[?].
It is the display of B'olon-Yokte'
in a great "investiture".[32]

Very little is known about the god Bolon Yokte'. According to an article by Mayanists Markus Eberl and Christian Prager in British Anthropological Reports, his name is composed of the elements "nine", 'OK-te' (the meaning of which is unknown), and "god". Confusion in classical period inscriptions suggests that the name was already ancient and unfamiliar to contemporary scribes.[33] He also appears in inscriptions from Palenque, Usumacinta, and La Mar as a god of war, conflict, and the underworld. In one stele he is portrayed with a rope tied around his neck, and in another with an incense bag, together signifying a sacrifice to end a cycle of years.[34]

Based on observations of modern Mayan rituals, Gronemeyer and MacLeod claim that the stele refers to a celebration in which a person portraying Bolon Yokte' K'uh was wrapped in ceremonial garments and paraded around the site.[35][36] They note that the association of Bolon Yokte' K'uh with b'ak'tun 13 appears to be so important on this inscription that it supersedes more typical celebrations such as "erection of stelae, scattering of incense" and so forth. Furthermore, they assert that this event was indeed planned for 2012 and not the 7th century.[37] Mayanist scholar Stephen Houston contests this view by arguing that future dates on Mayan inscriptions were simply meant to draw parallels with contemporary events, and that the words on the stela describe a contemporary rather than a future scene.[38]

Dates beyond b'ak'tun 13

Mayan inscriptions occasionally mention predicted future events or commemorations that would occur on dates far beyond the completion of the 13th b'ak'tun. Most of these are in the form of "distance dates"; Long Count dates given together with an additional number, known as a Distance Number, which when added to them makes a future date. On the west panel at the Temple of Inscriptions in Palenque, a section of text projects forward to the 80th 52-year Calendar Round from the coronation of the ruler K'inich Janaab' Pakal. Pakal's accession occurred on 9.9.2.4.8, equivalent to 27 July 615 AD in the proleptic Gregorian calendar. The inscription begins with Pakal's birthdate of 9.8.9.13.0 (24 March, 603 AD Gregorian) and then adds the Distance Number 10.11.10.5.8 to it,[39] arriving at a date of 21 October 4772 AD, more than 4,000 years after Pakal's time.[24][39][40]

Another example is Stele 1 at Coba which gives a date of 13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.0.0.0.0, or twenty units above the b'ak'tun, placing it either 4.134105 × 1028 (41 octillion) years in the future,[25] or an equal distance in the past.[41] This date is 3 quintillion times the age of the universe as determined by cosmologists.

In 2012, researchers announced the discovery of a series of Mayan astronomical tables in Xultun, Guatemala which plot the movements of the Moon and other astronomical bodies over the course of 17 b'ak'tuns.[42][43][44]

New Age beliefs

Many assertions about the year 2012 form part of a non-codified collection of New Age beliefs about ancient Maya wisdom and spirituality.[45][46][47][48][49][50] Archaeoastronomer Anthony Aveni says that while the idea of "balancing the cosmos" was prominent in ancient Maya literature, the 2012 phenomenon does not draw from those traditions. Instead, it is bound up with American concepts such as the New Age movement, millenarianism, and the belief in secret knowledge from distant times and places.[51] Established themes found in 2012 literature include "suspicion towards mainstream Western culture", the idea of spiritual evolution, and the possibility of leading the world into the New Age by individual example or by a group's joined consciousness. The general intent of this literature is not to warn of impending doom but "to foster counter-cultural sympathies and eventually socio-political and 'spiritual' activism".[2] Aveni, who has studied New Age and SETI communities, describes 2012 narratives as the product of a "disconnected" society: "Unable to find spiritual answers to life's big questions within ourselves, we turn outward to imagined entities that lie far off in space or time—entities that just might be in possession of superior knowledge".[52]

Origins

In 1975, the ending of b'ak'tun 13 became the subject of speculation by several New Age authors, who asserted it would correspond with a global "transformation of consciousness". In Mexico Mystique: The Coming Sixth Age of Consciousness, Frank Waters tied Coe's original date of 24 December 2011,[Note d] to astrology and the prophecies of the Hopi,[53] while both José Argüelles (in The Transformative Vision)[54] and Terence McKenna (in The Invisible Landscape)[55][56] discussed the significance of the year 2012 and made reference to 21 Dec. 2012.

In 1983, with the publication of Robert J. Sharer's revised table of date correlations in the 4th edition of Morley's The Ancient Maya,[Note d] each became convinced that 21 December 2012, had significant meaning. By 1987, the year in which he organized the Harmonic Convergence event, Arguelles was using the date 21 December 2012 in The Mayan Factor: Path Beyond Technology.[57][58] He claimed that on 13 August 3113 BC the Earth began a passage through a "galactic synchronization beam" that emanated from the center of our galaxy, that it would pass through this beam during a period of 5200 tuns (Maya cycles of 360 days each), and that this beam would result in "total synchronization" and "galactic entrainment" of individuals "plugged into the Earth's electromagnetic battery" by 13.0.0.0.0 (21 Dec. 2012). He believed that the Maya aligned their calendar to correspond to this phenomenon.[59] Anthony Aveni has dismissed all of these ideas.[60]

Galactic alignment

There is no significant astronomical event tied to the Long Count's start date.[61] However, its supposed end date has been tied to astronomical phenomena by esoteric, fringe, and New Age literature that places great significance on astrology.[45][48] Chief among these is the concept of the "galactic alignment".

Precession

In the Solar System, the planets and the Sun lie roughly within the same flat plane, known as the plane of the ecliptic. From our perspective on Earth, the ecliptic is the path taken by the Sun across the sky over the course of the year. The twelve constellations that line the ecliptic are known as the zodiac and, annually, the Sun passes through all of them in turn. Additionally, over time, the Sun's annual cycle appears to recede very slowly backward by one degree every 72 years, or by one constellation every 2,160 years. This backward movement, called "precession", is due to a slight wobble in the Earth's axis as it spins, and can be compared to the way a spinning top wobbles as it slows down.[62] Over the course of 25,800 years, a period often called a Great Year, the Sun's path completes a full, 360-degree backward rotation through the zodiac.[62] In Western astrological traditions, precession is measured from the March equinox, or the point at which the Sun is exactly halfway between its lowest and highest points in the sky. Presently, the Sun's March equinox position is in the constellation Pisces and is moving back into Aquarius. This signals the end of one astrological age (the Age of Pisces) and the beginning of another (the Age of Aquarius).[63]

Similarly, the Sun's December solstice position (in the northern hemisphere, the lowest point on its annual path; in the southern hemisphere, the highest) is currently in the constellation of Sagittarius, one of two constellations in which the zodiac intersects with the Milky Way.[64] Every year, on the December solstice, the Sun and the Milky Way, from the surface of the Earth, appear to come into alignment, and every year, precession causes a slight shift in the Sun's position in the Milky Way. Given that the Milky Way is between 10° and 20° wide, it takes between 700 and 1400 years for the Sun's December solstice position to precess through it.[65] It is currently about halfway through the Milky Way, crossing the galactic equator.[66] In 2012, the Sun's December solstice will fall on 21 December.

Mysticism

Mystical speculations about the precession of the equinoxes and the Sun's proximity to the center of the Milky Way appeared in Hamlet's Mill (1969) by Giorgio de Santillana and Hertha von Deschend. These were quoted and expanded upon by Terence and Dennis McKenna in The Invisible Landscape (1975). The significance of a future "galactic alignment" was noted in 1991 by astrologer Raymond Mardyks, who asserted that the winter solstice would align with the galactic plane in 1998/1999, writing that an event that "only occurs once each 26,000 year cycle and would be most definitely of utmost significance to the top flight ancient astrologers."[67] Astrologer Bruce Scofield notes, "The Milky Way crossing of the winter solstice is something that has been neglected by Western astrologers, with a few exceptions. Charles Jayne made a very early reference to it, and in the 1970s Rob Hand mentioned it in his talks on precession but didn't elaborate on it. Ray Mardyks later made a point of it, and after that John [Major] Jenkins, myself, and Daniel Giamario began to talk about it."[68]

Adherents to the idea, following a theory first proposed by Munro Edmonson,[69] allege that the Maya based their calendar on observations of the Great Rift or Dark Rift, a band of dark dust clouds in the Milky Way, which, according to some scholars, the Maya called the Xibalba be or "Black Road."[70][dubious – discuss] John Major Jenkins claims that the Maya were aware of where the ecliptic intersected the Black Road and gave this position in the sky a special significance in their cosmology.[71] According to Jenkins, precession will align the Sun precisely with the galactic equator at the 2012 winter solstice.[71] Jenkins claimed that the classical Maya anticipated this conjunction and celebrated it as the harbinger of a profound spiritual transition for mankind.[72] New Age proponents of the galactic alignment hypothesis argue that, just as astrology uses the positions of stars and planets to make claims of future events, the Mayans plotted their calendars with the objective of preparing for significant world events.[73] Jenkins attributes the insights of ancient Maya shamans about the galactic center to their use of psilocybin mushrooms, psychoactive toads, and other psychedelics.[74] Jenkins also associates the Xibalba be with a "world tree", drawing on studies of contemporary (not ancient) Maya cosmology.[75]


The Milky Way near Cygnus showing the lane of the Dark Rift, which the Maya called the Xibalba be or "Black Road"
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Milkyway_Swan_Panorama.jpg

Criticism

Astronomers such as David Morrison argue that the galactic equator is an entirely arbitrary line and can never be precisely drawn, because it is impossible to determine the Milky Way's exact boundaries, which vary depending on clarity of view. Jenkins claims he drew his conclusions about the location of the galactic equator from observations taken at above 11,000 feet (3,400 m), an altitude that gives a clearer image of the Milky Way than Mayans had access to.[59] Furthermore, since the Sun is half a degree wide, its solstice position takes 36 years to precess its full width. Jenkins himself notes that even given this determined location for the line of the galactic equator, its most precise convergence with the center of the Sun already occurred in 1998, and so asserts that, rather than 2012, the galactic alignment instead focuses on a multi-year period centred on 1998.[76][77][78]

There is no clear evidence that the classic Maya were aware of precession. Some Maya scholars, such as Barbara MacLeod,[36] Michael Grofe,[79] Eva Hunt, Gordon Brotherston, and Anthony Aveni,[80] have suggested that some Mayan holy dates were timed to precessional cycles, but scholarly opinion on the subject remains divided.[24] There is also little evidence, archaeological or historical, that the Maya placed any importance on solstices or equinoxes.[24][81] It is possible that only the early Mesoamericans observed solstices,[82] but this is also a disputed issue among Mayanists.[24][81] There is also no evidence that the classic Maya attached any importance to the Milky Way; there is no glyph in their writing system to represent it, and no astronomical or chronological table tied to it.[83]

Other concepts

In India, the guru Kalki Bhagavan has promoted 2012 as a "deadline" for human enlightenment since at least 1998.[86] Over 15 million people consider Bhagavan to be the incarnation of the god Vishnu and believe that 2012 marks the end of the Kali Yuga, or degenerate age.[87]

In 2006, author Daniel Pinchbeck popularized New Age concepts about this date in his book 2012: The Return of Quetzalcoatl, linking b'ak'tun 13 to beliefs in crop circles, alien abduction, and personal revelations based on the use of hallucinogenic drugs and mediumship.[88][89] Pinchbeck claims to discern a "growing realization that materialism and the rational, empirical worldview that comes with it has reached its expiration date ... [w]e're on the verge of transitioning to a dispensation of consciousness that's more intuitive, mystical and shamanic."[5]

Beginning in 2000, the small French village of Bugarach, population 189, began receiving visits from "esoterics"—mystic believers who have concluded that the local mountain, Pic de Bugarach, is the ideal location to weather the transformative events of 2012. In 2011, the local mayor, Jean-Pierre Delord, began voicing fears to the international press that the small town would be overwhelmed by an influx of thousands of visitors in 2012, even suggesting he may call in the army.[90][91] "We've seen a huge rise in visitors", Delord told The Independent in March 2012. "Already this year more than 20,000 people have climbed right to the top, and last year we had 10,000 hikers, which was a significant rise on the previous 12 months. They think Pic de Bugarach is 'un garage à ovnis' [an alien garage]. The villagers are exasperated: the exaggerated importance of something which they see as completely removed from reality is bewildering. After 21 December, this will surely return to normal."[92]

Doomsday theories

A far more apocalyptic view of the year 2012 that has spread in various media describes the end of the world or of human civilization on that date. This view has been promulgated by many hoax pages on the Internet, particularly on YouTube,[93] as well as on several cable TV channels.

Other alignments

Some people have interpreted the galactic alignment apocalyptically, claiming that when it occurs, it will somehow create a combined gravitational effect between the Sun and the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy (known as Sagittarius A*), thus creating havoc on Earth.[94] Apart from the fact noted above that the "galactic alignment" already happened in 1998, the Sun's apparent path through the zodiac as seen from Earth does not take it near the true galactic center, but rather several degrees above it.[66] Even if this were not the case, Sagittarius A* is 30,000 light years from Earth, and would have to be more than 6 million times closer to cause any gravitational disruption to Earth's Solar System.[95][96] This reading of the alignment was included on the History Channel documentary, Decoding the Past. However, John Major Jenkins has complained that a science fiction writer co-authored the documentary, and he went on to characterize it as "45 minutes of unabashed doomsday hype and the worst kind of inane sensationalism".[97]

Some believers in a 2012 doomsday have used the term "galactic alignment" to describe a very different phenomenon proposed by some scientists to explain a pattern in mass extinctions supposedly observed in the fossil record.[98] According to this hypothesis, mass extinctions are not random, but recur every 26 million years. To account for this, it suggests that vertical oscillations made by the Sun on its 250-million-year orbit of the galactic center cause it to regularly pass through the galactic plane. When the Sun's orbit takes it outside the galactic plane which bisects the galactic disc, the influence of the galactic tide is weaker. However, when re-entering the galactic disc—as it does every 20–25 million years—it comes under the influence of the far stronger "disc tides", which, according to mathematical models, increase the flux of Oort cloud comets into the inner Solar System by a factor of 4, thus leading to a massive increase in the likelihood of a devastating comet impact.[99] However, this "alignment" takes place over tens of millions of years, and could never be timed to an exact date.[100] Evidence shows that the Sun passed through the plane bisecting the galactic disc only three million years ago and is now moving farther above it.[101]

A third suggested alignment is some sort of planetary conjunction occurring on 21 December 2012; however, there will be no conjunction on that date.[10] Multi-planet alignments did occur in both 2000 and 2010, each with no ill result for the Earth.[102] Jupiter is the largest planet in the Solar System; larger than all other planets combined. When Jupiter is near opposition, the Earth experiences less than 1% the gravitational force it feels daily from the Moon.[103]

Geomagnetic reversal

Another idea tied to 2012 involves a geomagnetic reversal (often incorrectly referred to as a pole shift by proponents), possibly triggered by a massive solar flare, that would release an energy equal to 100 billion atomic bombs.[104] This belief is supposedly supported by observations that the Earth's magnetic field is weakening,[105] which could precede a reversal of the north and south magnetic poles.

Critics, however, claim that geomagnetic reversals take up to 7,000 years to complete, and do not start on any particular date.[106] Furthermore, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration now predicts that the solar maximum will peak in May 2013, not 2012, and that it will be fairly weak, with a below-average number of sunspots.[107] In any case, there is no scientific evidence linking a solar maximum to a geomagnetic reversal, which is driven by forces entirely within the Earth.[108] Instead, a solar maximum would be mostly notable for its effects on satellite and cellular phone communications.[109] David Morrison attributes the rise of the solar storm idea to physicist and science popularizer Michio Kaku, who claimed in an interview with Fox News that a solar peak in 2012 could be disastrous for orbiting satellites.[93]

Planet X/Nibiru

Some believers in doomsday in 2012 claim that a planet called Planet X, or Nibiru, will collide with or pass by Earth in that year. This idea, which has appeared in various forms since 1995, initially predicted Doomsday in May 2003, but proponents later abandoned that date after it passed without incident.[110] The idea originated from claims of channeling of alien beings and has been widely ridiculed.[110][111] Astronomers have calculated that such an object so close to Earth would be visible to anyone looking up at the night sky.[110]

Other catastrophes

Author Graham Hancock, in his book Fingerprints of the Gods, interpreted Coe's remarks in Breaking the Maya Code[112] as evidence for the prophecy of a global cataclysm.[113] Filmmaker Roland Emmerich would later credit the book with inspiring his 2009 disaster film 2012.[114]

Other speculations regarding doomsday in 2012 have included predictions by the Web Bot project, a computer program that purports to predict the future using Internet chatter. However, commentators have rejected the programmers' claims to have successfully predicted natural disasters, which web chatter could never predict, as opposed to human-caused disasters like stock market crashes.[115]

Also, the 2012 date has been loosely tied to the long-running concept of the Photon Belt, which predicts a form of interaction between Earth and Alcyone, the largest star of the Pleiades cluster.[116] Critics have argued that photons cannot form belts, that the Pleiades, located more than 400 light years away, could have no effect on Earth, and that the Solar System, rather than getting closer to the Pleiades, is in fact moving farther away from them.[117]

Some media outlets have tied the fact that the red supergiant star Betelgeuse will undergo a supernova at some point in the future to the 2012 phenomenon. However, while Betelgeuse is certainly in the final stages of its life, and will die as a supernova, there is no way to predict the timing of the event to within 100,000 years.[118] To be a threat to Earth, a supernova would need to be as close as 25 light years to the Solar System. Betelgeuse is roughly 600 light years away, and so its supernova will not affect Earth.[119] In December 2011, NASA's Francis Reddy issued a press release debunking the possibility of a supernova occurring in 2012.[120]

Another claim involves alien invasion. In December 2010, an article, first published in examiner.com and later referenced in the English-language edition of Pravda[121] claimed, citing a Second Digitized Sky Survey photograph as evidence, that SETI had detected three large spacecraft due to arrive at Earth in 2012.[122] Astronomer and debunker Phil Plait noted that by using the small-angle formula, one could determine that if the object in the photo was as large as claimed, it would have had to be closer to Earth than the Moon, which would mean it would already have arrived.[122] In January 2011, Seth Shostak, chief astronomer of SETI, issued a press release debunking the claims.[121]

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Silversky



Maschile Gallo
Numero di messaggi : 14
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Un bel pò di ragioni per cui il 2012 è solo una bufala e speculazione economica new age   Ven 1 Giu 2012 - 16:38

Io credo che c'è del vero, non mi sembra poi cosi tanto bufala...alle catastrofi credo poco, ma al grande cambiamento predetto dei Maya, mi sembra che è già in atto.
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Phantom



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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Un bel pò di ragioni per cui il 2012 è solo una bufala e speculazione economica new age   Mar 26 Giu 2012 - 15:51

Silversky ha scritto:
Io credo che c'è del vero, non mi sembra poi cosi tanto bufala...alle catastrofi credo poco, ma al grande cambiamento predetto dei Maya, mi sembra che è già in atto.

Ciao Silversky,
a quale cambiamento in particolare ti riferisci che è già in atto? Non farci caso sono molto curioso, e tutto ciò che riguarda antiche civiltà o misteri mi incuriosisce ancora di più.
Ti auguro una buona giornata, a presto.
Phantom
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Silversky



Maschile Gallo
Numero di messaggi : 14
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Età : 35
Località : Roma

MessaggioOggetto: Re: Un bel pò di ragioni per cui il 2012 è solo una bufala e speculazione economica new age   Mar 26 Giu 2012 - 16:33

Non mi riferisco solo a notizie da telegiornale: l'aumento dei terremoti, disastri geologici, la crisi finanziaria, la crisi dei valori etici e morali, la religione che non da piu risposte, il lavoro che non da più certezze, il tempo che sembra velocizzato rispetto ad anni fa, una strana atmosfera nell'aria. Noi che siamo arrivati ad un punto critico. Ogni giorno succedono sempre più eventi particolari e di particolare rilievo. Situazioni che cambiano velocemente, rispetto ad altre che invece prima ci mettevano degli anni a cambiare!
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Un bel pò di ragioni per cui il 2012 è solo una bufala e speculazione economica new age   Oggi a 8:05

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