Riporto la versione inglese della scheda di wikipedia e qualche curiosità riguardante il noce nero come ad esempio l'esistenza di un esemplare alto più o meno 34 metri che si trova a Sauvie Island (Oregon).
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Juglans regia, the Persian walnut, English walnut, or especially in Great Britain, Common walnut, is an Old World walnut tree species native to the region stretching from the Balkans eastward to the Himalayas and southwest China. The largest forests are in Kyrgyzstan, where trees occur in extensive, nearly pure walnut forests at 1,000–2,000 m altitude (Hemery 1998)—notably at Arslanbob in Jalal-Abad Province.
Juglans regia is a large deciduous tree attaining heights of 25–35 m, and a trunk up to 2 m diameter, commonly with a short trunk and broad crown, though taller and narrower in dense forest competition. It is a light-demanding species, requiring full sun to grow well.
The bark is smooth, olive-brown when young and silvery-grey on older branches, and features scattered broad fissures with a rougher texture. Like all walnuts, the pith of the twigs contains air spaces; This chambered pith is brownish in color. The leaves are alternately arranged, 25–40 cm long, odd-pinnate with 5–9 leaflets, paired alternately with one terminal leaflet. The largest leaflets the three at the apex, 10–18 cm long and 6–8 cm broad; the basal pair of leaflets much smaller, 5–8 cm long, the margins of the leaflets entire. The male flowers are in drooping catkins 5–10 cm long, and the female flowers terminal, in clusters of two to five, ripening in the autumn into a fruit with a green, semi-fleshy husk and a brown corrugated nut. The whole fruit, including the husk, falls in autumn; the seed is large, with a relatively thin shell, and edible, with a rich flavor.
The word 'walnut' derives from the Germanic wal- and Old English wealhhnutu, literally "foreign nut", wealh meaning "foreign" (wealh is akin to the terms Welsh and Vlach; see Walha and History of the term Vlach). For the walnut to be identified as a "foreign" nut by Anglo-Saxons arriving in the fifth century, native Britons must have passed to them the tradition that it had been introduced to England from Gaul and Italy. The Latin name for the walnut was nux Gallica, "Gallic nut"; the Gaulish region of Galatia in Anatolia lies in highlands at the western end of the tree's presumed natural distribution.
Walnut does not distinguish the tree from other species of Juglans. Other names include Common Walnut in Britain; Persian Walnut in South Africa and Australia; and English Walnut in North America, Great Britain, New Zealand, and Australia, the latter name possibly because English sailors were prominent in Juglans regia nut distribution at one time. Alternatively, Walter Fox Allen stated in his 1912 treatise What You Need to Know About Planting, Cultivating and Harvesting this Most Delicious of Nuts: "In America it has commonly been known as English Walnut to distinguish it from our native species."
In the Chinese language, the edible, cultivated walnut is called 胡桃 (hú táo in Mandarin), which means literally "Hu peach", suggesting that the ancient Chinese associated the introduction of the tree into East Asia with the Hu barbarians of the regions north and northwest of China. In Mexico, it is called nogal de Castilla, suggesting that the Mexicans associate the introduction of the tree into Mexico with Spaniards from Castile.
J. regia 'Buccaneer' Produces an abundant crop of seeds. A self-fertile cultivar, it produces pollen over a long period and is thus a valuable pollinator for other cultivars. The tree is about the same size as a seedling walnut, it comes into leaf very late and so usually avoids damage by late frosts.
Distribution and habitat
J. regia is native to the mountain ranges of Central Asia, extending from Xinjiang province of western China, parts of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and southern Kirghizia and from lower ranges of mountains in Nepal, Tibet, northern India and Pakistan, through Afghanistan, Turkmenistan and Iran to portions of Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia and eastern Turkey. In these countries, there is a great genetic variability, in particular ancestral forms with lateral fruiting. During its migration to western Europe, the common walnut lost this character by natural selection on account of competition with other vigorous forest species such as oaks. They became big trees with terminal fruiting. A small remnant population of these J. regia trees have survived the last glacial period in Southern Europe, but the bulk of the wild germplasm found in the Balkan peninsula and much of Turkey was most likely introduced from eastern Turkey by commerce and settlement several thousand years ago.
In the fourth century BC, Alexander the Great introduced this "Persian nut" (Theophrastus' καρυα ή Περσική) in Macedonia and Greece ancestral forms with lateral fruiting from Iran and Central Asia. They hybridized with terminal-bearing forms to give lateral bearing trees. These lateral bearers were spread in southern Europe and northern Africa by Romans. Recent prospections in walnut populations of the Mediterrean Basin allowed to select interesting trees of this type. In the Middle Ages, the lateral bearing character was introduced again in southern Turkey by merchants traveling along the Silk Road. J. regia germplasm in China is thought to have been introduced from Central Asia about 2 000 years ago, and in some areas has become naturalized. Cultivated distribution now includes North and South America (Chile, Argentine), Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Japan. So, the Persian walnut is grown from 30 to 50 degrees of latitude in the Northern hemisphere and from 30 to 40 degrees in the Southern hemisphere.
The walnut was introduced into western and northern Europe very early, by Roman times or earlier, and to the Americas by the 17th century, by English colonists. Important nut-growing regions include France, Serbia, Greece, Bulgaria, and Romania in Europe, China in Asia, California in North America, and Chile in South America. Lately the crop has spread to other regions: New Zealand and the southeast of Australia. It is cultivated extensively for its high-quality nuts, eaten both fresh and pressed for their richly flavored oil; numerous cultivars have been selected for larger nuts with thinner shells.
A study of ten cultivars of J. regia in Turkey showed significant variations in fatty acid content:
62% - 71% fat
saturated fat (as a percentage of total fatty acid):
5.2% - 7.3% palmitate
2.6% - 3.7% stearate
unsaturated fat (as a percentage of total fatty acid):
21.2% - 40.2% oleate (monounsaturated)
43.9% - 60.1% linoleate (diunsaturated)
6.9% - 11.5% linolenate (triunsaturated)
Potential biological effects
Walnuts and other tree nuts are important food-allergen sources that have the potential to be associated with life-threatening, IgE-mediated systemic reactions in some individuals.
The extracts of walnuts have antioxidant and antiproliferative activity due to a high phenolic content.
In vitro tests of walnut extract has shown a high anti-atherogenic potential and osteoblastic activity suggesting a potential beneficial effect of a walnut-enriched diet on cardioprotection and bone loss.
The extract from wall nut leaves is an antioxidant, decreases the blood sugar level and has a positive impact on lipid metabolism. The extract suppresses functional insufficiency of liver links synthethising enzymes, increases the antitoxic action of hepatocytes and improves the functional insufficiency of kidneys. The ethanolic extract from leaves of J. regia has an antidiabetic effect on diabetes-induced rats.
Bark and leaf crude extracts of Juglans regia ,and Juglans mollis , showed in vitro anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity.
In Skopelos, a Greek island in the Aegean Sea, local legend suggests that whoever plants a walnut tree will die as soon as the tree can "see" the sea. This has not been proven as fact; however, it might take some time to find a local arborist willing to take on the job of planting a walnut tree. Most planting is done by field rats (subfamily Murinae). In Flanders, a folk saying states: "By the time the tree is big, the planter sure will be dead" (Dutch: Boompje groot, plantertje dood). This saying refers to the relatively slow growth rate of the tree.
Walnut trees grow best in rich, deep soil with full sun and long summers, such as the California central valley. In the U.S., Juglans regia is often grafted onto a rootstock of native Black Walnut, Juglans hindsii to provide disease resistance. Other plants often will not grow under walnut trees because the fallen leaves and husks contain Juglone, a dark brown chemical which acts as a natural herbicide. Horses should not eat walnut leaves or they may develop laminitis, a hoof ailment. Mature trees may reach 50 feet in height and width, and live more than 200 years, developing massive trunks more than eight feet thick.
Walnut heartwood is a heavy, hard, open-grained hardwood. Freshly cut live wood may be Dijon-mustard color, darkening to brown over 1-3 days. The dried lumber is a rich chocolate-brown to black, with cream to tan sapwood and may feature unusual figure such as "curly," "bee's wing," "bird's eye" and "rat tail," among others. It is prized by fine woodworkers for its durability, luster and chatoyance and is used for high-end flooring, guitars, furniture, veneers, knobs and handles.
American pioneers used juglone from ground walnut husks and leaves to make a deep brown ink, paints and wood stains.
Green husk extracts of walnut have insecticidal properties. It killed 98% of Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Spider mite)
^ a b Online Etymology Dictionary - "Walnut"
^ L.C. van Zyl "Grafting of Walnut (Juglans regia L.) with Hot Callusing Techniques Under South African Conditions", University of the Free State, 2009 http://etd.uovs.ac.za/ETD-db//theses/available/etd-09172009-160603/unrestricted/VanZylLC.pdf
^ D.S. Hill, Skegness, Lincs, United Kingdom: Pests of Crops in Warmer Climates and Their Control p.651, Springer Science+Business Media, 2008
^ "?".[dead link]
^ "?".[dead link]
^ Juglans Regia (Spanish)
^ Theophrastus, Enquiry into Plants III.6.2, III.14.4
^ "FAO corporate document repository: Walnut".
^ Ozkhan, Gulcan; Koyuncu, M. Ali (2005). "Physical and chemical composition of some walnut ( Juglans regia L) genotypes grown in Turkey" (free). Grasas y Aceites (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas) 56 (2): 141–146. doi:10.3989/gya.2005.v56.i2.122.
^ Suzanne S. Teuber, Koren C. Jarvis, Abhaya M. Dandekar, W.Rich Peterson, Aftab A. Ansari "Identification and cloning of a complementary DNA encoding a vicilin-like proprotein, Jug r 2, from English walnut kernel (Juglans regia), a major food allergen" The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - December 1999 (Vol. 104, Issue 6, Pages 1311-1320)
^ Negi AS, Luqman S, Srivastava S, Krishna V, Gupta N, Darokar MP" Antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of Juglans regia fruit extracts." Pharm Biol. 2011 Jun;49(6):669-73
^ Papoutsi Z, Kassi E, Chinou I, Halabalaki M, Skaltsounis LA, Moutsatsou P "Walnut extract (Juglans regia L.) and its component ellagic acid exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in human aorta endothelial cells and osteoblastic activity in the cell line KS483." Br J Nutr. 2008 Apr;99(4):715-22
^ Authors: Dzhafarova RE, Garaev GSh, Dzhafarkulieva ZS"Antidiabetic action of extract of Juglans regia L" Georgian Med News. 2009 May;(170):110-4
^ Asgary S, Parkhideh S, Solhpour A, Madani H, Mahzouni P, Rahimi P.,"Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Juglans regia L. on Blood Sugar in Diabetes-Induced Rats." J Med Food. 2008 Sep;11(3):533-8
^ Cruz-Vega DE, Verde-Star MJ, Salinas-González N, Rosales-Hernández B, Estrada-García I, Mendez-Aragón P, Carranza-Rosales P, González-Garza MT, Castro-Garza J"Antimycobacterial activity of Juglans regia, Juglans mollis, Carya illinoensis and Bocconia frutescens." Phytother Res. 2008 Mar 13;
^ Wang YN, Wang HX, Shen ZJ, Zhao LL, Clarke SR, Sun JH, Du YY, Shi GL"Methyl palmitate, an acaricidal compound occurring in green walnut husks". J Econ Entomol. 2009 Feb;102(1):196-202
Flora Europaea: Juglans regia
Flora of Pakistan: Juglans regia
Chauhan, N., Wang, K.C., Wegiel, J. and Malik, M.N. (2004) "Walnut Extract Inhibits the Fibrillization of Amyloid Beta-Protein, and also Defibrillizes its Preformed Fibrils", Current Alzheimer Research, 1 (3), p. 183–188
Cortés, B., Núñez, I., Cofán, M., Gilabert, R., Pérez-Heras, A., Casals, E., Deulofeu, R. and Ros, E. (2006) "Acute Effects of High-Fat Meals Enriched With Walnuts or Olive Oil on Postprandial Endothelial Function", J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., 48 (October), p. 1666–1671, doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2006.06.057
Hemery, G. E. (1998). Walnut seed-collecting expedition to Kyrgyzstan in Central Asia. Quarterly Journal of Forestry 92 (2): 153-157.
Society for Neuroscience (2007). "News Release: Diet of walnuts, blueberries improve cognition; may help maintain brain function", Society for Neuroscience, 5 November 2007
eFloras, Missouri Botanical Garden & Harvard University Herbaria (FOC Vol. 4 Page 282). "Juglans regia". Retrieved 2009.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:2009-10-20_%2823%29_Tree,_Baum.JPGFONTE:
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.
Juglans nigra è una pianta della famiglia delle Juglandaceae.
Habitat e distribuzione
Originaria del continente nordamericano, da cui è stata nel corso del XX secolo importata e coltivata anche in Europa occidentale e orientale.
È un noce di media grandezza, la cui altezza può arrivare a 30 metri, con tronco eretto e corteccia rugosa, il nome deriva dai canali che trasportano clorofilla.
Caratteristiche del legno
Peso specifico 620 kg/m3 circa, alburno bianco tendente al giallo, durame color cioccolato, talora caratterizzato da striature violacee. Differenziazione molto marcata tra alburno e durame. Poro aperto e diffuso, caratteristico del genere Juglans.
Stabilità elevata, se il legname è trattato con processo di vaporizzazione, durezza medio-elevata, durabilità elevata per il durame, scarsa per l'alburno, lavorabilità molto buona. Privo di odore.
Ha elevata concentrazione di Juglone che ne determina tossicità. Richiede evaporazione preventiva all'essiccazione. Tipico è il fenomeno della crosta che caratterizza il legname essiccato ma non evaporato. Il colore scuro ne consente l'abbinamento a legname di Juglans regia (noce nazionale), dopo opportuna decolorazione con agenti sbiancanti, quale ad esempio acqua ossigenata.
La specie J. nigra produce una varietà di legname comunemente utilizzato in Italia e nel mondo. In Italia, il legname di questo albero è commercialmente noto come noce canaletto e utilizzato per mobili e impiallacciature.
Autore Jean-Pol GRANDMONT
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Juglans nigra, the Eastern Black walnut, is a species of flowering tree in the hickory family, Juglandaceae, that is native to eastern North America. It grows mostly in riparian zones, from southern Ontario, west to southeast South Dakota, south to Georgia, northern Florida and southwest to central Texas. Isolated wild trees in the Upper Ottawa Valley may be an isolated native population or may have derived from planted trees.
The black walnut is a large deciduous tree attaining heights of 30–40 metres (98–130 ft). Under forest competition it develops a tall, clear bole; the open-grown form has a short bole and broad crown. The bark is grey-black and deeply furrowed. The pith of the twigs contains air spaces. The leaves are alternate, 30–60 cm long, odd-pinnate with 15–23 leaflets, the largest leaflets located in the center, 7–10 cm long and 2–3 cm broad. The male flowers are in drooping catkins 8–10 cm long, the female flowers terminal, in clusters of two to five, ripening during the autumn into a fruit (nut) with a brownish-green, semi-fleshy husk and a brown corrugated nut. The whole fruit, including the husk, falls in October; the seed is relatively small and very hard. The tree tends to crop more heavily in alternate years.
While its primary native region is the midwest and east central United States, the black walnut was introduced into Europe in 1629. It is cultivated there and in North America as a forest tree for its high quality wood. Nuts are produced more by open-grown trees. Black walnut is more resistant to frost than the Persian walnut (also known as the English walnut), but thrives best in the warmer regions of fertile, lowland soils with a high water table. It is a light-demanding species. The wood is used to make furniture, flooring, and rifle stocks, and oil is pressed from the seeds. Nuts are harvested by hand from wild trees. About 65% of the annual wild harvest comes from the U.S. state of Missouri and the largest processing plant is in Stockton, Missouri. The black walnut nutmeats are used as an ingredient in food while the hard black walnut shell is used commercially in abrasive cleaning, cosmetics, and oil well drilling and water filtration.
Where the range of J. nigra overlaps that of the Texas black walnut J. microcarpa, the two species sometimes interbreed, producing populations with characteristics intermediate between the two species.
In addition to its use as a shade tree, J. nigra can be used for the fruits it produces, and for lumber.
Black walnut nuts are shelled commercially in the United States. The nutmeats provide a robust, distinctive, natural flavor and crunch as a food ingredient. Popular uses include ice cream, bakery goods and confections. Consumers include black walnuts in traditional treats, such as cakes, cookies, fudge, and pies during the fall holiday season. The nut’s strong nutritional profile leads to uses in other foods such as salads, fish, pork, chicken, vegetables and pasta dishes.
Nutritionally similar to the milder-tasting English walnut, the black walnut kernel is high in unsaturated fat and protein. An analysis of nut oil from five named J. nigra cultivars (Ogden, Sparrow, Baugh, Carter and Thomas) showed that the most prevalent fatty acid in J. nigra oil is linoleic acid (27.80–33.34 g/100g dry kernel), followed (in the same units) by oleic acid (14.52–24.40), linolenic acid (1.61–3.23), palmitic acid (1.61–2.15), and stearic acid (1.07–1.69). The oil from the cultivar Carter had the highest mol percent of linoleate (61.6), linolenate (5.97%), and palmitate (3.98%); the oil from the cultivar Baugh had the highest mol percent of oleate (42.7%); the oil from the cultivar Ogden has the highest mol percent of stearate (2.98%).
Tapped in spring, the tree yields a sweet sap that can be drunk or concentrated into syrup or sugar.
Nut processing by hand
The extraction of the kernel from the fruit of the black walnut is difficult. The thick hard shell is tightly bound by tall ridges to a thick husk. The husk is best removed when green as the nuts taste better if it is removed then. Rolling the nut underfoot on a hard surface such as a driveway is a common method; commercial huskers use a car tire rotating against a metal mesh. Some take a thick plywood board and drill a nut sized hole in it (from one to two inches in diameter) and smash the nut through using a hammer. The nut goes through and the husk remains behind.
While the flavor of the Juglans nigra kernel is prized, the difficulty in preparing it may account for the wider popularity and availability of the Persian walnut.
Black walnut drupes contain juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone), plumbagin (yellow quinone pigments), and tannin. The brownish-black dye was used by early settlers to dye hair. Extracts of the outer soft part of the drupe are still used as a natural dye for handicrafts. The tannins present in walnuts act as a mordant aiding in the dyeing process; usable as a dark ink or wood stain.
The roots, nut husks, and leaves secrete a substance into the soil called juglone that is a respiratory inhibitor to some plants. A number of other plants (most notably white birch) are also poisoned by juglone, and should not be planted in close proximity to a black walnut. Horses are susceptible to laminitis from exposure to black walnut wood in bedding.
The national champion black walnut is on a residential property in Sauvie Island, Oregon. It is 8 feet 7 inches (2.62 m) diameter at breast height and 112 feet (34 m) tall, with a crown spread of 144 feet (44 m).
^ Senter, S. D., Horvat, R. J., and Forbus, W. R.: "GLC-MS Analysis of Fatty Acids From Five Black Walnut Cultivars." Journal of Food Science 47(5) pp 1753, 1755 (1982)
^ Black Walnuts Drug Information
^ Nuts with High Fat Content:Black Walnuts
^ Black Walnut Basket Dye
^ Fixing natural dyes from walnuts, goldenrod, sassafras and poke weed in cotton
^ Dyeing with Tannic Acid and Iron: Walnut Husks (2005)
^ Making Walnut Ink. Madame Elizabeth de Nevell.
^ Niche Timbers Black Walnut
^ Walnut Husk Maggot, Rhagoletis suavis (Loew) and Walnut Husk Fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson
^ Walnut Husk Maggot. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs.
^ Walnut Husk Fly.
^ Barbara C. Weber, Robert L. Anderson, and William H. Hoffard. How to diagnose black walnut damage. USDA Forest Service. General Technical Report NC-57.
^ University of California. Agriculture and Natural Resources. Publication 7412. Codling Moth.
^ Purdue University: Purdue Pest & Plant Diagnostic Laboratory. Pest Alert: Walnut Twig Beetle and Thousand Cankers Disease of Black Walnut
^ Bill Poovey. Black walnut tree thousand canker first in East US. Times Union. Posted July 30, 2010.
^ "Laminitis Caused by Black Walnut Wood Residues". Purdue University. January 2005. Retrieved 03-09-2009.
^ Oregon Big Tree Registry.
Hoadley, B. (1990). Identifying Wood: Accurate Results with Simple Tools. Taunton Press. p. 240 pages. ISBN 0-942391-04-7.
Dirr, M. A. (1998). Manual of Woody Landscape Plants. Stipes Publishing. ISBN 0-87563-795-7
Petrides, G. A. and Wehr, J. (1998). Eastern Trees. Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-395-90455-2
Williams, Robert D. Juglans nigra L. In: USDA Forest Service: Silvics of Trees of North America. Volume 2: Hardwoods.
The largest known living black walnut tree on Sauvie Island, Oregon
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