Buondì a tutti,
nell'inventario dei totem-insetti non poteva mancare la cavalletta...che trovo molto interessante...ha un qualcosa di alieno non trovate?
Quest'insetto come per altri animali ha varie sotto famiglie perciò io riporto solo una parte delle informazioni e vi consiglio di leggere sempre direttamente dai link di orgine.
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.
I Celiferi (Caelifera Ander, 1936) sono un sottordine di insetti ortotteri noti con il termine generico di cavallette o locuste.
In realtà il termine cavalletta può indicare sia i membri delle famiglie Tetrigidae (cavallette nane) e Acrididae (cavallette migratorie, più propriamente dette locuste), correttamente appartenenti al presente sottordine celiferi, sia la comune cavalletta verde, Tettigonia viridissima (Tettigoniidae), appartenente al secondo e distinto sottordine degli ortotteri, gli Ensifera.
Spesso il termine cavalletta è usato per tutti gli ortotteri che sono in grado di volare o saltare.
* 1 Caratteristiche
* 2 Biologia
* 3 Specie rappresentative
* 4 Tassonomia
* 5 Altri progetti
* 6 Collegamenti esterni
I Celiferi si distinguono per le seguenti caratteristiche:
* ovopositore breve
* antenne corte e robuste
* apparato stridulante formato dalla tegmine e dai femori posteriori, può essere presente anche nelle femmine
* organo uditivo posto nel primo segmento addominale.
Prediligono i terreni aridi e incolti, hanno un regime alimentare esclusivamente fitofago, depongono le uova soprattutto nel suolo e possono alternare fasi gregarie a fasi solitarie.
Specie rappresentative [modifica]
Le cavallette nane (Tetrigidae) sono le specie di più piccole dimensioni; le si riconosce per lo scudo dorsale (pronoto) molto allungato. Tra le specie più diffuse si cita Paratettix meridionalis. Le cavallette migratrici, o locuste propriamente dette, sono caratterizzate da antenne brevi; le femmine depongono le uova in autunno, all'interno di buchi scavati nel terreno con l'estremità dell'addome; le uova si schiudono in primavera e gli individui giovani raggiungono la maturità in luglio o agosto. Specie normalmente non migratrici possono diventare tali per necessità, ad esempio in caso di sovrappopolazione. In questo caso, prima della migrazione vanno incontro a profondi cambiamenti nella morfologia e nell'anatomia esterna. La più comune specie di locusta è Locusta migratoria.
Il sottordine dei Celiferi comprende 28 famiglie raggruppate in 8 superfamiglie:
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.
Gli Acrididi (Acrididae MacLeay, 1819) sono una famiglia di insetti ortotteri del sottordine Celiferi.
* 1 Descrizione
* 2 Tassonomia
o 2.1 Specie presenti in Italia
* 3 Note
* 4 Altri progetti
* 5 Collegamenti esterni
Le specie appartenenti a questa ampia e numerosa famiglia possiedono una unità strutturale che permette di riconoscerli nonostante la ampia varietà di forme:
* il capo è composto da 6 metameri
* il torace da 3 metameri
* l'addome da 11 metameri.
Si distinguono inoltre per 3 caratteristiche morfologiche:
* antenne brevi e formate da un ridotto numero di articoli,
* un ovopositore composto da valve robuste e corte,
* l'assenza di apparato stridulatore sulle elitre.
Euthystira brachyptera - GomphocerinaeFONTE:
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The grasshopper is an insect of the suborder Caelifera in the order Orthoptera. To distinguish it from bush crickets or katydids, it is sometimes referred to as the short-horned grasshopper. Species that change colour and behaviour at high population densities are called locusts.
* 1 Characteristics
* 2 Diversity and range
* 3 Biology
o 3.1 Diet and Digestion
o 3.2 Nervous system
o 3.3 Reproduction
o 3.4 Circulation and respiration
* 4 Other information
o 4.1 As food
o 4.2 Locusts
o 4.3 Camouflage
o 4.4 In popular culture
* 5 See also
* 6 References
* 7 External links
Grasshoppers have antennae that are almost always shorter than their body (sometimes filamentous), and short ovipositors. They also have pinchers or mandibles that cut and tear off food. Those species that make easily heard noises usually do so by rubbing the hind femurs against the forewings or abdomen (stridulation), or by snapping the wings in flight. Tympana, if present, are on the sides of the first abdominal segment. The hind femora are typically long and strong, fitted for leaping. Generally they are winged, but hind wings are membranous while front wings (tegmina) are coriaceous and not fit for flight. Females are normally larger than males, with short ovipositors. Males have a single unpaired plate at the end of the abdomen. Females have two pairs of valves ( triangles) at the end of the abdomen used to dig in sand when egg laying.
They are easily confused with the other sub-order of Orthoptera, Ensifera, but are different in many aspects, such as the number of segments in their antennae and structure of the ovipositor, as well as the location of the tympana and modes of sound production. Ensiferans have antennae with at least 20-24 segments, and caeliferans have fewer. In evolutionary terms, the split between the Caelifera and the Ensifera is no more recent than the Permo-Triassic boundary (Zeuner 1939).
 Diversity and range
Recent estimates (Kevan 1982; Günther, 1980, 1992; Otte 1994-1995; subsequent literature) indicate some 2,400 valid Caeliferan genera and about 11,000 valid species described to date. Many undescribed species exist, especially in tropical wet forests. The Caelifera are predominantly tropical.
 Diet and Digestion
Grasshoppers prefer to eat grasses, leaves and cereal crops. Some will tend to eat from a single host plant, while others will eat from a variety of sources throughout the day. Only one of the 8000 species of grasshopper will only eat a single specie of plant.
The digestive system of insects includes a foregut (stomodaeum, the mouth region), a midgut (mesenteron), and a hindgut (proctodaeum, the anal region). The mouth leads to the muscular pharynx, and through the esophagus to the crop. This leads to the malpighian tubules. These are the chief excretion organs. The hindgut includes intestine parts (including the ileum and rectum), and exits through the anus. Most food is handled in the midgut, but some food residue as well as waste products from the malpighian tubules are managed in the hindgut. These waste products consist mainly of uric acid, urea and amino acids, and are normally converted into dry pellets before being disposed of.
The salivary glands and midgut secrete digestive enzymes. The midgut secretes protease, lipase, amylase, and invertase, among other enzymes. The particular ones secreted vary with the different diets of grasshoppers.
 Nervous system
The grasshopper's nervous system is controlled by ganglia, loose groups of nerve cells which are found in most species more advanced than cnidarians. In grasshoppers, there are ganglia in each segment as well as a larger set in the head, which are considered the brain. There is also a neuropile in the centre, through which all ganglia channel signals. The sense organs (sensory neurons) are found near the exterior of the body and consist of tiny hairs (sensilla), which consist of one sense cell and one nerve fibre, which are each specially calibrated to respond to a certain stimulus. While the sensilla are found all over the body, they are most dense on the antennae, palps (part of the mouth), and cerci (near the posterior). Grasshoppers also have tympanal organs for sound reception. Both these and the sensilla are linked to the brain via the neuropile.
The grasshopper's reproductive system consists of the gonads, the ducts which carry sexual products to the exterior, and accessory glands. In males, the testes consist of a number of follicles which hold the spermatocytes as they mature and form packets of elongated spermatozoa.
During reproduction, the male grasshopper introduces sperm into the ovipositor through its aedeagus (reproductive organ), and inserts its spermatophore, a package containing the sperm, into the female's ovipositor. The sperm enters the eggs through fine canals called micropyles. The female then lays the fertilized egg pod, using her ovipositor and abdomen to insert the eggs about one to two inches underground, although they can also be laid in plant roots or even manure. The egg pod contains several dozens of tightly packed eggs that look like thin rice grains. The eggs stay there through the winter, and hatch when the weather has warmed sufficiently. In temperate zones, many grasshoppers spend most of their life as eggs through the cooler months (up to 9 months) and the active states (young and adult grasshoppers) live only up to three months. The first nymph to hatch tunnels up through the ground, and the rest follow. Grasshoppers develop through stages and progressively get larger in body and wing size. This development is referred to as hemimetabolous or incomplete metamorphosis since the young are rather similar to the adult.
Circulation and respiration
Grasshoppers have open circulatory systems, with most of the body fluid (haemolymph) filling body cavities and appendages. The one closed organ, the dorsal vessel, extends from the head through the thorax to the hind end. It is a continuous tube with two regions: the heart, which is restricted to the abdomen; and the aorta, which extends from the heart to the head through the thorax. Haemolymph is pumped forward from the hind end and the sides of the body through a series of valved chambers, each of which contains a pair of lateral openings (ostia). The haemolymph continues to the aorta and is discharged through the front of the head. Accessory pumps carry haemolymph through the wing veins and along the legs and antennae before it flows back to the abdomen. This haemolymph circulates nutrients through the body and carries metabolic wastes to the malphighian tubes to be excreted. Because it does not carry oxygen, grasshopper "blood" is green.
Respiration is performed using tracheae, air-filled tubes, which open at the surfaces of the thorax and abdomen through pairs of spiracles. The spiracle valves only open to allow oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange. The tracheoles, found at the end of the tracheal tubes, are insinuated between cells and carry oxygen throughout the body. (For more information on respiration, see Insect.)
 Other information
 As food
In certain countries, grasshoppers are eaten as a good source of protein. In Mexico for example, Chapulines are regarded for their high content of protein, minerals and vitamins. They are usually collected at dusk, using lamps or electric lighting, in sweep nets. Sometimes they are placed in water for 24 hours, after which they can be boiled or eaten raw, sun-dried, fried, flavoured with spices, such as garlic, onions, chile, drenched in lime, and used in soup or as a filling for various dishes. They are abundant in Mexican food and street markets, particularly in the central regions.
They are served on skewers in some Chinese food markets, like the Donghuamen Night Market.
Raw grasshoppers should be eaten with caution, as they may contain tapeworms.
In some countries in Africa, grasshoppers are an important food source, as are other insects, adding proteins and fats to the daily diet, especially in times of food crisis. They are often used in soup. The "grasshoppers" eaten in Uganda and neighbouring areas are called nsenene, but they are in fact bush crickets, also called katydids.
In some countries in the Middle-east, grasshoppers are boiled in hot water with salt, left in the sun to dry then eaten as snacks.
See also locust and desert locust.
Locusts are several species of short-horned grasshoppers of the family Acrididae that sometimes form very large groups (swarms); these can be highly destructive and migrate in a more or less coordinated way. Thus, these grasshoppers have solitary and gregarious (swarm) phases. Locust swarms can cause massive damage to crops. Important locust species include Schistocerca gregaria and Locusta migratoria in Africa and the Middle East, and Schistocerca piceifrons in tropical Mexico and Central America (Mesoamerica). Other grasshoppers important as pests (which, unlike true locusts, do not change colour when they form swarms) include Melanoplus species (like M. bivittatus, M. femurrubrum and M. differentialis) and Camnula pellucida in North America; the Romalea guttata (Lubber Grasshopper), Brachystola magna, and Sphenarium purpurascens in northern and central Mexico; species of Rhammatocerus in South America; and the Oedaleus senegalensis (Senegalese Grasshopper) and the Zonocerus variegatus (Variegated Grasshopper) in Africa.
The coloring of different species of Grasshopper are often dependent on environment. Many species are adapted to green fields and forests, and blend in well there to avoid predators. Others have adapted to drier, sandy environments and blend in well with the colors of dry dirt and sand.
 In popular culture
* Aesop (620–560 BC), a slave and story-teller who lived in Ancient Greece, told a tale called The Ant and the Grasshopper. In this tale, the ant worked hard preparing his shelter and stores of food all summer, while the grasshopper played. When winter came, the ant was prepared, but the grasshopper has no shelter or food. He begs to enter the ant's house, but the ant refuses and the grasshopper starves.
* As a result of the popularity of Aesop's fable in Western culture, various other human weaknesses besides improvidence began to be identified with the grasshopper's behaviour. So an unfaithful woman (hopping from man to man) became known as 'a grasshopper'. Portrayal of such women occurs, for example, in a short story by Chekhov (Poprygunya, 1892) and in Jerry Paris' 1969 film "The Grasshopper".
* Those who are unable to keep a single subject in focus but keep bringing in inappropriate associations (hopping from one thing to another) are said to have 'a grasshopper mind'.
* Partly as a result of this, 'grasshopper' has lately come to refer to a person who has much to learn. Its use originated from the television show Kung Fu (1972–1975). Caine, the young student, portrayed by Radames Pera, is receiving instruction from his Master Po (portrayed by Keye Luke) who nicknames his student "Grasshopper" as a term of endearment.
* The 1957 film Beginning of the End featured mutated giant grasshoppers attacking Chicago.
* In the 1998 movie A Bug's Life, the heroes are the members of an ant colony, and the lead villain and his henchmen are grasshoppers. In an apparent homage to the Aesop fable, The Ant and the Grasshopper, the lead villain is eaten by a bird.
* The Japanese superhero franchise "Kamen Rider" originally had a grasshopper motif, with a grasshopper based helmet and costume. Latter motifs were either not or close to being a grasshopper, although most features of the original superhero remains such as the "compound eyes".
* Firefly Encyclopedia of Insects and Spiders, edited by Christopher O'Toole, ISBN 1-55297-612-2, 2002
1. ^ National Park Service - Insect Design - Insect Mouth Parts
2. ^ Grasshoppers
3. ^ Bizarre Foods with Andrew Zimmern aired on the Travel Channel 27 April 2008.
4. ^ Survivorman television show, Sonoran Desert episode, broadcast on the Science Channel 1 November 2006
* Grasshopper species to watch for on the Canadian Prairies and Northern Great Plains, Dan Johnson
* Grasshoppers: Life Cycle, Damage Assessment and Management Strategy, Govt. of Alberta
Romalea guttata grasshoppers mating
è vero che questa è violazione della privacy Admin ma trovavo il colore di questi esemplari veramente unici e troppo belli...