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Forum di sciamanesimo, antropologia e spirito critico

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Tila
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Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Le popolazioni   Sab 2 Ott 2010 - 15:02

Tra le varie culture siberiane troviamo i Ket, si pensa che questo popolo sia l'unico vero superstite di una popolazione di nomadi che vivevano originariamente nel centro della Siberia...in loro è ancora molto viva la cultura sciamanica...ma conosciamoli meglio grazie a wikipedia...

FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ket_people

Ket people
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Modern-day Ket family

Kets (Кеты in Russian) are a Siberian people who speak the Ket language. In Imperial Russia they were called Ostyaks, without differentiating them from several other Siberian peoples. Later they became known as Yenisey ostyaks, because they lived in the middle and lower basin of the Yenisei River in the Krasnoyarsk Krai district of Russia.[1] The modern Kets lived in the eastern middle areas of the river before being assimilated politically into the Russia or Siberia during the 17th through 19th centuries.[2]

Contents
[hide]

* 1 History
* 2 Language
* 3 Culture
* 4 See also
* 5 Notes
* 6 References
* 7 External links

History

The Ket are thought to be the only survivors of an ancient nomadic people believed to have originally lived throughout central southern Siberia. In the 1960s the Yugh people were distinguished as a separate though similar group. Today's Kets are the descendants of the tribes of fishermen and hunters of the Yenisey taiga, who adopted some of the cultural ways of those original Ket-speaking tribes of South Siberia. The earlier tribes engaged in hunting, fishing, and even reindeer breeding in the northern areas.[2]

The Ket were incorporated into the Russian state in the 17th century. Their efforts to resist were futile as the Russians deported them to different places to break up their resistance. This also broke up their strictly organized patriarchal social system and their way of life disintegrated. The Ket people ran up huge debts with the Russians. Some died of famine, other of diseases imported from Europe. By the 19th century the Kets could no longer survive without food support from the Russian state.[3]

In the 20th century, the Soviets forced collectivization upon the Ket. They were officially recognized as Kets in 1930s when the Soviet Union started to implement the self-definition policy with respect to indigenous peoples. However, Ket traditions continued to be suppressed and self-initiative was discouraged. Collectivization was completed by the 1950s and the Russian lifestyle and language forced upon the Ket people.

The population of Kets has been relatively stable since 1923. According to the 2002 census, there were 1494 Kets in Russia. This compares with 1200 in the 1970 census. Today the Ket live in small villages along riversides and are no longer nomadic.

Culture

The Ket traditional culture was researched by Matthias Castrén, Vasiliy Ivanovich Anuchin, Kai Donner, Hans Findeisen, and Yevgeniya Alekseyevna Alekseyenko.[8] Shamanism was a living practice into the 1930s, but by the 1960s almost no authentic shamans could be found. Shamanism is not a homogeneous phenomenon, nor is shamanism in Siberia. As for shamanism among Kets, it shared characteristics with those of Turkic and Mongolic peoples.[9] Additionally, there were several types of Ket shamans,[10][11] differing in function (sacral rites, curing), power and associated animals (deer, bear).[11] Also, among Kets (as with several other Siberian peoples such as the Karagas,[12][13][14]) there are examples of the use of skeleton symbolics.[9] Hoppál interprets this as a symbol of shamanic rebirth,[15] although it may symbolize also the bones of the loon (the helper animal of the shaman, joining air and underwater world, just like the shaman who travelled both to the sky and the underworld as well).[16] The skeleton-like overlay represented shamanic rebirth also among some other Siberian cultures.[17]

Some authors hypothesize that the Kets may descend from the ancient Dingling of the Tashtyk culture[citation needed]. According to Leonid Kyzlasov, the Kets were described by Chinese imperial historians as blue-eyed and fair-haired people of Siberia, but Kyzlasov does not mention to which particular Chinese source he was referring, and thus this statement is unsubstantiated.[18] Western Washington University historical linguist Edward Vajda offers better substantiated findings into the origins of the Ket people, where DNA claims show genetic affinities with that of Tibetan, Burmese, and others [1]. Edward Vajda spent a year in Siberia studying the Ket people, and finds a relationship of Ket language to that of Native American languages, and also suggests the tonal system of the Ket language is closer that that of Vietnamese than any of the native Siberian languages [2].

Vyacheslav Vsevolodovich Ivanov and Vladimir Toporov compared the mythology of Kets with that of Uralic peoples, assuming in the studies that they are modelling semiotic systems in the compared mythologies. They have made also typological comparisons.[19][20] Among other comparisons, possibly from Uralic mythological analogies, the mythologies of Ob-Ugric peoples[21] and Samoyedic peoples[22] are mentioned. Other authors have discussed analogies (similar folklore motifs, purely typological considerations, and certain binary pairs in symbolics) may be related to a dualistic organization of society—some dualistic features can be found in comparisons with these peoples.[23] However, for Kets, neither dualistic organization of society[24] nor cosmological dualism[25] has been researched thoroughly. If such features existed at all, they have either weakened or remained largely undiscovered.[24] There are some reports on a division into two exogamous patrilinear moieties,[26] folklore on conflicts of mythological figures, and also on cooperation of two beings in the creation of the land,[25] the motif of earth-diver.[27] This motif is present in several cultures in different variants. In one example, the creator of the world is helped by a water fowl as the bird dives under the water and fetches earth so that the creator can make land out of it. In some cultures, the creator and the earth-fetching being (sometimes named as devil, or taking shape of a loon) compete with one another; in other cultures (including the Ket variant), they do not compete at all but rather collaborate.[28]

However, if dualistic cosmologies are defined in broad sense, and not restricted to certain concrete motifs, then their existence is more widespread; they exist not only among some Uralic peoples, but there are examples in each inhabited continent.[29]


Ket shaman, 1914.

Notes

1. ^ "Ket: Bibliographical guide". Institute of Linguistics (Russian Academy of Sciences) & Kazuto Matsumura (Univ. of Tokyo). http://www.tooyoo.l.u-tokyo.ac.jp/Russia/bibl/Ket.html. Retrieved 2006-10-20.
2. ^ a b c Vajda, Edward G.. "The Ket and Other Yeniseian Peoples". http://pandora.cii.wwu.edu/vajda/ea210/ket.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-29.
3. ^ "THE KETS". The Peoples of the Red Book. http://www.eki.ee/books/redbook/kets.shtml. Retrieved 2006-08-05.
4. ^ http://www.orbis-quintus.net/?p=3136
5. ^ http://www.uaf.edu/anlc/vajda.html
6. ^ http://www.uaf.edu/anlc/dy2008.html
7. ^ http://talkingalaska.blogspot.com/2010/04/arctic-athabaskan-council-and-ket.html
8. ^ Hoppál 2005: 170–171
9. ^ a b Hoppál 2005: 172
10. ^ Alekseyenko 1978
11. ^ a b Hoppál 2005: 171
12. ^ Diószegi 1960: 128, 188, 243
13. ^ Diószegi 1960: 130
14. ^ Hoppál 1994: 75
15. ^ Hoppál 1994: 65
16. ^ Hoppál 2005: 198
17. ^ Hoppál 2005: 199
18. ^ Leonid Kyzlasov. Tashtyk Era (Таштыкская эпоха). Moscow, 1953. Page 13.
19. ^ Ivanov & Toporov 1973
20. ^ Ivanov 1984:390, in editorial afterword by Hoppál
21. ^ Ivanov 1984: 225, 227, 229
22. ^ Ivanov 1984: 229, 230
23. ^ Ivanov 1984: 229–231
24. ^ a b Zolotaryov 1980: 39
25. ^ a b Zolotaryov 1980: 48
26. ^ Zolotaryov 1980: 37
27. ^ Ivanov 1984: 229
28. ^ Paulson 1975 :295
29. ^ Zolotarjov 1980: 56

[edit] References

* Alekseyenko, E. A. (1978). "Categories of Ket Shamans". in Diószegi, Vilmos & Hoppál, Mihály. Shamanism in Siberia. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó.
* Diószegi, Vilmos (1960) (in Hungarian). Sámánok nyomában Szibéria földjén. Egy néprajzi kutatóút története. Budapest: Magvető Könyvkiadó. http://mek.oszk.hu/02100/02181. The book has been translated to English: Diószegi, Vilmos (1968). Tracing shamans in Siberia. The story of an ethnographical research expedition. Translated from Hungarian by Anita Rajkay Babó. Oosterhout: Anthropological Publications.
* Hoppál, Mihály (1994) (in Hungarian). Sámánok, lelkek és jelképek. Budapest: Helikon Kiadó. ISBN 963 208 298 2. The title means “Shamans, souls and symbols”.
* Hoppál, Mihály (2005) (in Hungarian). Sámánok Eurázsiában. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó. ISBN 963-05-8295-3 2. The title means “Shamans in Eurasia”, the book is written in Hungarian, but it is published also in German, Estonian and Finnish. Site of publisher with short description on the book (in Hungarian)
* Ivanov, Vyacheslav; Vladimir Toporov (1973). "Towards the Description of Ket Semiotic Systems". Semiotica (The Hague • Prague • New York: Mouton) IX (4): 318–346.
* Ivanov, Vjacseszlav (=Vyacheslav) (1984). "Nyelvek és mitológiák" (in Hungarian). Nyelv, mítosz, kultúra. Collected, appendix, editorial afterword by Hoppál, Mihály. Budapest: Gondolat. ISBN 963 281 186 0. The title means: “Language, myth, culture”, the editorial afterword means: “Languages and mythologies”.
* Ivanov, Vyacheslav (=Vyacheslav) (1984). "Obi-ugor és ket folklórkapcsolatok" (in Hungarian). Nyelv, mítosz, kultúra. Collected, appendix, editorial afterword by Hoppál, Mihály. Budapest: Gondolat. pp. 215–233. ISBN 963 281 186 0. The title means: “Language, myth, culture”, the chapter means: “Obi-Ugric and Ket folklore contacts”.
* Middendorff, A. Th., von (1987). Reis Taimхrile. Tallinn.
* Paulson, Ivar (1975). "A világkép és a természet az észak-szibériai népek vallásában". in Gulya, János (in Hungarian). A vízimadarak népe. Tanulmányok a finnugor rokon népek élete és műveltsége köréből. Budapest: Európa Könyvkiadó. pp. 283–298. ISBN 963 07 04145. Chapter means: “The world view and the nature in the religion of the North-Siberian peoples”; title means: “The people of water fowls. Studies on lifes and cultures of the Finno-Ugric relative peoples”.

* Zolotarjov, A.M. (1980). "Társadalomszervezet és dualisztikus teremtésmítoszok Szibériában". in Hoppál, Mihály (in Hungarian). A Tejút fiai. Tanulmányok a finnugor népek hitvilágáról. Budapest: Európa Könyvkiadó. pp. 29–58. ISBN 963 07 2187 2. Chapter means: “Social structure and dualistic creation myths in Siberia”; title means: “The sons of Milky Way. Studies on the belief systems of Finno-Ugric peoples”.


Ultima modifica di Tila il Sab 2 Ott 2010 - 15:11, modificato 1 volta
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Tila
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Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Re: Le popolazioni   Sab 2 Ott 2010 - 15:07

I Khanty

FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khanty_people

Khanty people
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Khanty / Hanti (obsolete: Ostyaks) are an indigenous people calling themselves Khanti, Khande, Kantek (Khanty), living in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, a region historically known as "Yugra" in Russia, together with Mansi peoples. In the autonomous okrug, the Khanty and Mansi languages are given co-official status with Russian. In the 2002 Census, 28,678 persons identified themselves as Khanty. Of those, 26,694 were resident in Tyumen Oblast, of which 17,128 were living in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug and 8,760—in Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. 873 were residents of neighbouring Tomsk Oblast, and 88 lived in the Komi Republic.

Contents
[hide]

* 1 History
* 2 Economy
* 3 Organisation
* 4 Religion
* 5 Language
* 6 See also
* 7 External links


History

Khanty appear most likely in Russian records under the name Yugra (ca. 11th century), when they had contact with Russian hunters and merchants. The name comes from Komi-Zyrian language jögra (Khanty). It is also possible that they were first recorded by the English King Alfred the Great (ca. 9th century), who located Fenland (wetland) to the east of the White Sea in Western Siberia.

The Khanty duchies were partially included in the Siberia Khanate from the 1440s–1570s.

In the 11th century, Yugra was actually a term for numerous tribes, each having its own centre and its own chief. Every tribe had two exogamic phratries, termed mon't' and por, and all members were considered to be blood relatives. This structure was later replaced with clans, where each clan leader (knyazets) negotiated with the Russian realm. They also participated in Russian campaigns, and received the right to collect yasaq (tribute) from two Khanty volosts (districts) respectively. When this structure was no longer needed, Russia deprived them of their privileges.

Between the 17th and 19th centuries, there were attempts to introduce Christianity, but the Khanty lifestyle did not undergo any real changes. In the second half of 19th century, they gradually accepted state law.

During the Soviet period the Khanty were one of the few indigenous minorities of Siberia to be granted an autonomy in the form of an okrug (autonomous district). The establishment of autonomy has played a considerable role in consolidation of the ethnos (the Western Khants called their eastern neighbours Kantõk [the Other People]). However, in the 1930s concerted efforts were made by the Soviet state to collectivise them. The initial stages of this meant the execution of tribal chiefs who were labelled "kulaks" followed by the execution of shamans. The abduction by the state of the children who were sent to Russian speaking boarding schools provoked a national revolt in 1933 called the Kazym rebellion.

After the end of the Stalin period this process was relaxed and efforts were intensified in the 1980s and '90s to protect their common territory from industrial expansion of various ministries and agencies. The autonomy has also played a major role in preserving the traditional culture and language.

Some consider the Khanty's ancestors to be the prehistoric metalworking Andronovo Culture.

Anthropologically, characteristics of the Khants (particularly in the Beryozovo region) may include broad-shouldered stocky trunks with characteristic convexity, high cheek-bones, and dark eyes and hair. The average height for men is 158 cm; for women, 146 cm.

Economy

The Khanty's traditional occupations were fishery, taiga hunting and reindeer herding. They lived as trappers, thus gathering was of major importance.

[edit] Organisation

The Khanty are one of the indigenous minorities in Siberia with an autonomy in the form of an okrug (autonomous ashley).

[edit] Religion

Khanty are today Orthodox Christians, mixed with traditional beliefs (shamans, reincarnation).

Their historical shaman wore no special clothes except a cap.

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Tila
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Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Re: Le popolazioni   Sab 2 Ott 2010 - 15:27

Come si suol dire: chi cerca trova...

Wikipedia come sempre si presenta come una fonte inesauribile e sempre in crescita...riporto un suo articolo molto interessante:


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shamanism_in_Siberia

Shamanism in Siberia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Northern Asia, particularly Siberia is regarded as the locus classicus of shamanism.[1] It is inhabited by many different ethnic groups. Many of its Uralic, Altaic, and Paleosiberian peoples observe shamanistic practices even in modern times. Many classical ethnographic sources of “shamanism” were recorded among Siberian peoples.

These cultures are far from being alike. The same applies for their shamanistic beliefs and practice.[2]

Contents
[hide]

* 1 Terms for 'shaman' and 'shamaness' in Siberian languages
* 2 Spirit-Journey
* 3 Songs, music
* 4 Grouped by linguistic relatedness
o 4.1 Uralic
+ 4.1.1 Samoyedic
# 4.1.1.1 Nenests
# 4.1.1.2 Nganasan
# 4.1.1.3 Sayan Samoyedic
+ 4.1.2 Finno-Ugric
# 4.1.2.1 Finno-Permic
# 4.1.2.2 Ugric
* 4.1.2.2.1 Obi-Ugric
* 4.1.2.2.2 Hungarian
o 4.2 Ket
o 4.3 Turkic
o 4.4 Tungusic
o 4.5 Koryak and Chukchi
o 4.6 Eskimo
* 5 Unsettled classifications or complex problematics of origin
o 5.1 Sayan
* 6 Demographics
* 7 See also
* 8 Notes
* 9 References
* 10 External links

Terms for 'shaman' and 'shamaness' in Siberian languages

'shaman' : /saman/ (Nedigal, Nanay, Ulcha, Orok), /sama/ (Manchu) -- these have been compared[3] with Sanskṛt /sāman/ 'chant'. The variant /šaman/ (i.e., pronounced "shaman") is Evenk (whence it was borrowed into Russian) : this Evenk pronunciation may have had its origin in "/ṣāman/ 'name of Sāman (in Lāṭyāyana Śrauta Sūtra)'"[4]

'shaman' : /alman, olman, wolmen/[5] (Yukagir) -- with these possibly cf. Latin /alma/ 'soul'.

'shaman' : /qam/ (Tatar, Shor, Oyrat), /xam/ (Tuva, Tofalar)[6] -- these are related to Japanese /kami/ 'god' and to Nanay /qömio/ 'helping spirit'[7]

'shamaness' : /itako/[8] (Japanese), /iduˠan/ (Mongol), /udaˠan/ (Yakut), udagan (Buryat), /udugan/ (Evenki

Spirit-Journey

Siberian shamans' spirit-journeys (re-acting their dreams wherein they had rescued the soul of the client) were conducted in, e.g., Oroch, Altai, and Nganasan healing séances.


Songs, music
See also: Imitation of natural sounds related to various shamanistic beliefs or practice
See also: Shamanic music

As mentioned above, shamanistic practice shows great diversity,[2] even if restricted to Siberia. In some cultures, the music or song related to shamanistic practice may intend to mimic natural sounds, sometimes with onomatopoiea.[9]

This holds e. g. for shamanism among Sami groups. Although the Sami groups live outside of Siberia, many of their shamanistic beliefs and practice shared important features with those of some Siberian cultures.[10] The Yoiks of the Sami were sung on shamanistic rites.[11] Recently, yoiks are sung in two different styles, one of these are sung only by young people. But the traditional one may be the other, the “mumbling” style, resembling to magic spells.[12] Several surprising characteristics of yoiks can be explained by comparing the music ideals, as observed in yoiks and contrasted to music ideals of other cultures. Some yoiks intend to mimic natural sounds. This can be contrasted to bel canto, which intends to exploit human speech organs on the highest level to achieve an almost “superhuman” sound.[13]

The intention to mimic natural sounds is present in some Siberian cultures as well: overtone singing, and also shamanic songs of some cultures can be examples.

* In a Soyot shamanic song, sounds of bird and wolf are imitated to represent helping spirits of the shaman.[14]
* The seance of Nganasan shamans were accompanied by women imitating the sounds of the reindeer calf, (thought to provide fertility for those women).[15] In 1931, A. Popov observed the Nganasan shaman Dyukhade Kosterkin imitating the sound of polar bear: the shaman was believed to have transformed into polar bear.[16]

The intention to mimic natural sounds is not restricted to Siberian cultures. And it is not necessarily liked to shamanistic beliefs or practices. See for example katajjaq, a game played by women, an example of music of some Inuit groups. This applies overtone singing, and in some cases, sounds of nature (mostly those of animals, e.g. geese) is imitated.[17][18] Imitation of animal sounds can serve also such practical reasons like luring game in hunt.[17]

Grouped by linguistic relatedness

Uralic

Uralic languages are proven to form a genealogical unit, a language family. The two main branches of Uralian family are Samoyedic and Finno-Ugric.

Not all Uralic peoples live in Siberia or have shamanistic features any more. Saami people had kept living shamanistic practice for a long time. They live in Europe, they practiced shamanism till cca the 18th century.[20] Most other Finno-Ugric peoples (e.g. Hungarian, Finnic, Mari) have only remnant elements of shamanism.[20] Majority of Uralic population lives outside Siberia. Some of them used to live in Siberia, have wandered to their present locations since then. The original location of the Proto-Uralic peoples (and its extent) is debated. Combined phytogeographical and linguistic considerations (distribution of various tree species and the presence of their names in various Uralic languages) suggest that this area was north of Central Ural Mountains and on lower and middle parts of Ob River.[21]

Samoyedic


Among several Samoyedic peoples shamanism was a living tradition also in modern times, especially at groups living in isolation until recent times (Nganasans).[22] Enets people, Selkups There were distinguished several types of shamans among Nenets people,[23] Enets people,[24] Selkups.[25] (The Nganasan shaman used three different crowns, according to the situation: one for upper world, one for underneath word, one for occasion of childbirth.)[26]

Nenets people, Enets people, Nganasan people speak Northern Samoyedic languages. They live in North Siberia (Nenets live also in European parts), they provide classical examples. Selkups are the only ones who speak Southern Samoyedic languages nowadays. They live more to the south, shamanism was in decline also at the beginning of 20th century, although folklore memories could be recorded even in the 1960s.[25] Other Southern Samoyedic languages were spoken by some peoples living in the Sayan Mountains, but language shift has finished completely, making all these languages extinct.[27][28]

Nenests
Main article: Tadibya

There were several types of shamans distinguishing ones contacting upper world, ones contacting underneath world, ones contacting the dead.[23]

Nganasan

The isolated location of Nganasan people enabled that shamanism was a living phenomenon among them even in the beginning of 20th century,[29] the last notable Nganasan shaman's seances could be recorded on film in the 1970s.[29][30]

One of the occasions in which the shaman partook was the clean tent rite. held after the polar night, including sacrifice.[22][31]

Sayan Samoyedic

Some peoples of the Sayan Mountains spoke once Southern Samoyedic languages. Most of them underwent a language shift in the beginning and middle of the 19th century, borrowing the language of neighboring Turkic peoples. The Kamassian language survived longer: 14 old people spoke it yet in 1914. In the late 20th century, some old people had passive or uncertain knowledge of the language, but collecting reliable scientific data was no longer possible.[27][28] Today Kamassian is regarded as extinct.

The shamanism of Samoyedic peoples in the Sayan Mountains survived longer (if we regard Karagas as a Samoyedic people,[27][28][32] although such approaches have been refined: the problem of their origin may be more complex[33]). Diószegi Vilmos could record not only folklore memories in the late 1950s, but he managed also to talk personally to (no longer practicing) shamans, record their personal memories, songs, some of their paraphernalia.[34]

A interesting question here: is this shamanism borrowed entirely from neighboring Turkic peoples, or does it have some ethnic features, maybe remnant of Samoyedic origin? Comparative considerations suggest, that

* certainly, there are influences. Karagas shamanism is affected by Abakan-Turkic and Buryat influence.[35] Among the various Soyot cultures, the central Soyot groups, keeping cattle and horses, show Khalkha-Mongolian phenomena in their shamanism,[36] the shamanism of Western Soyots, living on the steppe, is similar to that of Altai Turkic peoples.[37] A shaman story narrates contacts between Soyots and Abakan Turkic peoples in a mythical form.[38]
* Karagas and Eastern (reindeer-breeding, mountain-inhabiting) Soyots. have many similarities in their culture[39] and shamanism.[40] It was these two cultures who presented some ethnic features, phenomena lacking among neighboring Turkic peoples. E.g., the structure of their shamanic drum showed such peculiarity: it had two transoms.[41] It was also these two cultures who showed some features, which could be possibly of Samoyedic origin: the shaman's headdress, dress and boots has the effigies symbolizing human organs, mostly bones;[42] in the case of headdress, representation of human face.[43] Also the dress-initiating song of the Karagas shaman Kokuyev contained the expression “my shamanic dress with seven vertebrae”.[44] Hoppál interprets the skeleton-like overlay of the Karagas shaman-dress as symbol of shamanic rebirth,[45] similar remark applies for the skeleton-like iron ornamentation of the (not Samoyedic, but genealogically unclassified, Paleosiberian) Ket shamanic dress,[46] although it may symbolize also the bones of the loon (the helper animal of the shaman).[47] (The theory of Ket origin of the Karagas has already been mentioned above.[33]) The skeleton-like overlay symbolized shamanic rebirth also among some other Siberian cultures

Finno-Ugric

[edit] Finno-Permic
Further information: Finnic mythology

As mentioned, not all Finno-Ugric peoples practiced shamanism in the modern times. Many of Finno-Ugric peoples (including those of the largest population: Hungarian people, Finnish people) live outside Siberia. Others live in the western part of Siberia (if we define this area in the broadest sense).

[edit] Ugric
[edit] Obi-Ugric

Although folklore narratives preserved many memories of shamanism, but its practice remained only in fragments by in 1930s among Khanty people, Mansi people. There was more types of shamans.[49] Ugric shamanism is largely Khanty.

Hungarian
Main article: Shamanistic remnants in Hungarian folklore

Hungarian people have wandered to from the Proto-Uralic area to the Pannonian Basin, thus they have they left Siberia. Shamanism is no more a widespread living practice among them, but some remnants have been reserved as fragments of folklore. Comparative methods can reveal, that some motifs of folktales, some fragments of songs or rhymes of folk customs preserved fragments of the old belief system. Some records narrate us about shaman-like figures directly. Shamanistic remnants in Hungarian folklore was researched among others by Diószegi Vilmos, based on ethnographic records of Hungarian and neighboring peoples, and comparative works with various shamanisms of some Siberian peoples.[50] Hoppál continued his work of studying Hungarian shamanistic belief rem
nants,[51] comparing shamanistic beliefs of Uralic peoples[52] with those of several non-Uralic Siberian peoples as well.[53][54]

Ket

Traditional culture of Ket people was researched by Matthias Castrén, Vasiliy Ivanovich Anuchin, Kai Donner, Hans Findeisen, Yevgeniya Alekseyevna Alekseyenko.[55] Shamanism was a living practice in the 1930s yet, but by the 1960s almost no authentic shaman could be found. Ket shamanism shared features with those of Turkic and Mongolic peoples.[56] Besides that, there were several types of shamans,[57][58] differing in function (sacral rites, curing), power and associated animal (deer, bear).[58] Also among Kets (like at several other Siberian peoples, e.g. Karagas[59][60][61]), there are examples of using skeleton symbolics,[56] Hoppál interprets it as a symbol of shamanic rebirth,[46] although it may symbolize also the bones of the loon (the helper animal of the shaman, joining air and underwater world, just like the shaman who travelled both to the sky and the underworld as well).[47] The skeleton-like overlay reresented shamanic rebirth also among some other Siberian cultures.[48]

Turkic
Further information: Turkic mythology

Turkic peoples spread over large territories, and are far from alike. In some cases, shamanism has been widely amalgamated with Islam, in others with Buddhism, but there are surviving traditions among the Siberian Tatars, Tuvans and Tofalar. See the photos of Tuvan Shamans by Stanislav Krupar www.krupar.com

Tungusic



This is a photo of Chuonnasuan (1927-2000), the last shaman of the Oroqen people, taken by Richard Noll in July 1994 in Manchuria near the Amur River border between the People's Republic of China and Russia (Siberia). Oroqen shamanism is now extinct.

Among the Tungusic peoples of Siberia, shamanism is also widespread.

The Tale of the Nisan Shaman, a famous piece of folklore which describes the resurrection of a rich landowner's son by a female shaman, is known among various Tungusic peoples including the Manchu, Evenk, and Nanai.[62][63]

Koryak and Chukchi

Linguistically, Koryak and Chukchi are close congeners of Eskimo. Koryak shamanism is known.

Eskimo

Main article: Shamanism among Eskimo peoples

Eskimo groups comprise a huge area stretching from Eastern Siberia through Alaska and Northern Canada (including Labrador Peninsula) to Greenland. Shamanistic practice and beliefs have been recorded at several parts of this vast area crosscutting continental borders.[64][65][66]

Like Eskimo cultures themselves, shamanistic practices reveal diversity. Some mosaic-like examples from various cultures: the soul concepts of the various cultures were diverse as well, some groups believed that the young child had to be taken for by guardian names inherited from a recently deceased relative. Among some groups, this belief amounted to a kind of reincarnation. Also shamanism might include beliefs in soul dualism, where the free-soul of the shaman could fly to celestial or underneath realms, contacting mythological beings, negotiating with them in order to cease calamities or achieve success in hunt. If their wrath was believed to be caused by taboo breaches, the shaman asked for confessions by members of the community.

In most cultures, shamanism could be refused by he candidate: calling could be felt by visions, but generally, becoming a shaman followed conscious considerations.


Unsettled classifications or complex problematics of origin

The linguistical grouping used in this article does not include unsettled classifications, like Altaic and Paleosiberian hypotheses. Aside from this, the origin of several peoples is not a simple question: some groups may have been born through merging people of different origin, other groups underwent a language shift.

[edit] Sayan

The problem of origin of peoples of the Sayan Mountains has already been mentioned above (Sayan Samoyedic). Also some other peoples living near the Altai may have some relatedness to Uralic (namely Ugric, Samoyedic), Ket, Mongolic peoples.[68][69][70] There may be also ethnographic traces of such past of these nowadays Turkic-speaking peoples of the Altai. For example, some of them have phallic-erotic fertility rites, and that can be compared to similar rites of Obi-Ugric peoples.[69][70]



An Altai Kizhi or Khakas shaman woman — it cannot be decided exactly from the image alone, which of the two is the exact origin of the shaman. Early 20th century.[67]

Demographics

The 2002 census of the Russian Federation reports 123,423 (0.23% of the population) people of ethnic groups which dominantly adhere to "traditional beliefs"
Traditional beliefs in Russia, based on 2002 Russian Census and Ethnic Group predominant religion Ethnic Group↓ Population (2002)↓
Evenks 35,527
Nanais 12,160
Evens 19,071
Chukchi 15,767
Mansi 11,432
Koryaks 8,743
Nivkhs 5,162
Itelmeni 3,180
Ulchs 2,913
Eskimo 1,750
Udege 1,657
Ket 1,494
Chuvans 1,087
Tofalar 837
Nganasans 834
Orochs 686
Aleut 540
Oroks 346
Enets 237
Total &Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ",".Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","123,423
[edit] See also

* Indigenous peoples of the Russian North

[edit] Notes

1. ^ Hoppál 2005:13
2. ^ a b Hoppál 2005: 15
3. ^ http://www.oocities.com/amuse_amenace/ancient_09.htm s.v. "4th century AD"
4. ^ Monier Monier-Williams : Sanskrit-English Dictionary. p. 1306a http://books.google.com/books?id=8KFPBl9lLRcC&pg=PA1306&lpg=PA1306&dq=shaman+etymology+%22sama+veda%22&source=web&ots=5NNBdPpjgK&sig=bbTlPj9AFVOSkUccskC_4bhAe9w&hl=en&ei=WOaLSfmOFJaitgen1aSRCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=6&ct=result
5. ^ http://listserv.linguistlist.org/cgi-bin/wa?A2=ind9811b&L=aztlan&D=1&P=5218&F=P
6. ^ http://www.indo-european.nl/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=config&morpho=0&basename=\data\alt\turcet&first=321 # 340
7. ^ http://starling.rinet.ru/cgi-bin/response.cgi?single=1&basename=/data/alt/tunget&text_number=2277&root=config
8. ^ Juha Janhunen : "Tracing the Bear Myth in Northeast Asia". http://src-h.slav.hokudai.ac.jp/publictn/acta/20/asi20-001-janhunen.pdf p. 19, n. 50
9. ^ Hoppál 2006: 143
10. ^ Voigt 1966: 296
11. ^ Szomjas-Schiffert 1996: 56, 76
12. ^ Szomjas-Schiffert 1996: 64
13. ^ Szomjas-Schiffert 1996: 74
14. ^ Diószegi 1960: 203
15. ^ Hoppál 2005: 92
16. ^ Lintrop, Aarno. "The Clean Tent Rite". Studies in Siberian shamanism and religions of the Finno-Ugric peoples. http://haldjas.folklore.ee/~aado/tent.htm.
17. ^ a b Nattiez: 5
18. ^ Deschênes 2002
19. ^ Vaba, Lembit. "The Yukaghirs". The Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian Empire. NGO Red Book. http://www.eki.ee/books/redbook/yukaghirs.shtml.
20. ^ a b Hoppál 2005:84
21. ^ Hajdú 1975:35
22. ^ a b Hoppál 2005:92–93
23. ^ a b Hoppál 2005:88
24. ^ Hoppál 2005:89
25. ^ a b Hoppál 2005:94
26. ^ Hoppál 2005:207–208
27. ^ a b c Hajdú 1975:12
28. ^ a b c Hajdú 1982:10
29. ^ a b Hoppál 2005:92
30. ^ Hoppál 1994:62
31. ^ The Clean Tent Rite
32. ^ Diószegi 1960:102,154,243
33. ^ a b Viikberg, Jüri. The Tofalars. NGO Red Book. ISBN 9985-936922. http://www.eki.ee/books/redbook/tofalars.shtml.
34. ^ Diószegi 1960
35. ^ Diószegi 1960:243
36. ^ Diószegi 1960:226
37. ^ Diószegi 1960:238
38. ^ Diószegi 1960:62–63
39. ^ Diószegi 1960:242
40. ^ Diószegi 1960:164
41. ^ Diószegi 1960:198,243
42. ^ Diószegi 1960:128,188,243
43. ^ Diószegi 1960:110,113
44. ^ Diószegi 1960:130
45. ^ Hoppál 1994:75
46. ^ a b Hoppál 1994:65
47. ^ a b Hoppál 2005: 198
48. ^ a b Hoppál 2005: 199
49. ^ Hoppál 2005:96
50. ^ Diószegi 1998
51. ^ Hoppál 1998
52. ^ Hoppál 1975
53. ^ Hoppál 2005
54. ^ Hoppál 1994
55. ^ Hoppál 2005: 170–171
56. ^ a b Hoppál 2005: 172
57. ^ Alekseyenko 1978
58. ^ a b Hoppál 2005: 171
59. ^ Diószegi 1960: 128, 188, 243
60. ^ Diószegi 1960: 130
61. ^ Hoppál 1994: 75
62. ^ Richtsfeld 1989, p. 200
63. ^ Heissig 1997, p. 200
64. ^ Kleivan & Sonne 1985
65. ^ Merkur 1985
66. ^ Gabus 1970
67. ^ Hoppál 2005:77,287
68. ^ "The Altaics". The Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian Empire. http://www.eki.ee/books/redbook/altaics.shtml.
69. ^ a b Vajda, Edward J. "The Altai Turks". http://pandora.cii.wwu.edu/vajda/ea210/Altai.htm.
70. ^ a b Hoppál 2005:106

[edit] References

* Balzer, M. M. (ed) (1990). Shamanism: Soviet Studies of Traditional Religion in Siberia and Central Asia. Armonk NY.
* Deschênes, Bruno (2002). "Inuit Throat-Singing". Musical Traditions. The Magazine for Traditional Music Throughout the World. http://www.mustrad.org.uk/articles/inuit.htm.
* Diószegi, Vilmos (1960) (in Hungarian). Sámánok nyomában Szibéria földjén. Egy néprajzi kutatóút története. Budapest: Magvető Könyvkiadó. http://mek.oszk.hu/02100/02181. The book has been translated to English: Diószegi, Vilmos (1968). Tracing shamans in Siberia. The story of an ethnographical research expedition. Translated from Hungarian by Anita Rajkay Babó. Oosterhout: Anthropological Publications.
* Diószegi, Vilmos (1998) [1958] (in Hungarian). A sámánhit emlékei a magyar népi műveltségben [Remnants of shamanistic beliefs in Hungarian folklore] (1. reprint kiadás ed.). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó. ISBN 963 05 7542 6.
* Gabus, Jean (1970) (in Hungarian). A karibu eszkimók [Vie et coutumes des Esquimaux Caribous]. Budapest: Gondolat Kiadó.
* Hajdú, Péter (1975). "A rokonság nyelvi háttere [“Linguistical background of the relationship]". in Hajdú, Péter (in Hungarian). Uráli népek. Nyelvrokonaink kultúrája és hagyományai [Uralic peoples. Culture and traditions of our linguistic relatives]. Budapest: Corvina Kiadó. pp. 11–43. ISBN 963 13 0900 2.
* Hajdú, Péter (1982) [1968] (in Hungarian). Chrestomathia Samoiedica (Second ed.). Budapest: Tankönyvkiadó. ISBN 963 17 6601 2.
* Heissig, Walther (1997). Zu zwei evenkisch-daghurischen Varianten des mandschu Erzählstoffes "Nisan saman-i bithe". 200–230. ISBN 978-3-447-09025-4
* Hoppál, Mihály (1975). "Az uráli népek hiedelemvilága és a samanizmus [The belief system of Uralic peoples and the shamanism]". in Hajdú, Péter (in Hungarian). Uráli népek. Nyelvrokonaink kultúrája és hagyományai [Uralic peoples / Culture and traditions of our linguistic relatives]. Budapest: Corvina Kiadó. pp. 211–233. ISBN 963 13 0900 2.
* Hoppál, Mihály (1994) (in Hungarian). Sámánok, lelkek és jelképek [Shamans, souls and symbols]. Budapest: Helikon Kiadó. ISBN 963 208 298 2.
* Hoppál, Mihály (2005) (in Hungarian). Sámánok Eurázsiában [Shamans in Eurasia]. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó. ISBN 963-05-8295-3. , also in German, Estonian and Finnish. Site of publisher with short description on the book (in Hungarian).
* Hoppál, Mihály (2006c). "Music of Shamanic Healing". in Gerhard Kilger. Macht Musik. Musik als Glück und Nutzen für das Leben. Köln: Wienand Verlag. ISBN 3879098654. http://dasa.baua.de/nn_35984/sid_2C8A99B3F31A58C62BBE3312986DC568/nsc_true/de/Presse/Pressematerialien/Sonderausstellung_20Macht_20Musik/Schamanen-Musik.pdf.
* Kleivan, I.; B. Sonne (1985). Eskimos: Greenland and Canada. Iconography of religions, section VIII, "Arctic Peoples", fascicle 2. Leiden, The Netherlands: Institute of Religious Iconography • State University Groningen. E.J. Brill. ISBN 90-04-07160-1.
* Merkur, Daniel (1985). Becoming Half Hidden: Shamanism and Initiation among the Inuit. : Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis / Stockholm Studies in Comparative Religion. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.
* Nattiez, Jean Jacques. Inuit Games and Songs • Chants et Jeux des Inuit. Musiques & musiciens du monde • Musics & musicians of the world. Montreal: Research Group in Musical Semiotics, Faculty of Music, University of Montreal . The songs are online available from the ethnopoetics website curated by Jerome Rothenberg.
* Richtsfeld, Bruno (1989). "Die Mandschu-Erzählung „Nisan saman-i bithe“ bei den Hezhe". Münchner Beiträge zur Völkerkunde 2: 117–155
* Rubcova, E. S. (1954) (in Russian). Materials on the Language and Folklore of the Eskimoes (Vol. I, Chaplino Dialect). Moscow • Leningrad: Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Original data: Рубцова, Е. С. (1954). Материалы по языку и фольклору эскимосов (чаплинский диалект). Москва • Ленинград: Академия Наук СССР.
* Szomjas-Schiffert, György (1996) (in Hungarian and English). Lapp sámánok énekes hagyománya • Singing tradition of Lapp shamans. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó. ISBN 963 05 6940 X.
* Vitebsky, Piers (2001). The Shaman: Voyages of the Soul - Trance, Ecstasy and Healing from Siberia to the Amazon. Duncan Baird. ISBN 1-903296-18-8.
* Vitebsky, Piers (1996) (in Hungarian). A sámán. Budapest: Magyar Könyvklub • Helikon Kiadó. Translation of the original: Vitebsky, Piers (1995). The Shaman (Living Wisdom). Duncan Baird.
* Voigt, Vilmos (1966) (in Hungarian). A varázsdob és a látó asszonyok. Lapp népmesék [The magic drum and the clairvoyant women. Sami folktales]. Népek meséi [Tales of folks]. Budapest: Európa Könyvkiadó.

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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Le popolazioni   Sab 30 Apr 2011 - 15:38

I Nani

E' una popolazione tungusa di tradizione sciamanica. Come vedremo hanno una grande venerazione per l'orso (Doonta) e la tigre (Amba). Tra le loro credenze c'è la convinzione che tutte le cose possiedano un loro spirito...

Dell'articolo di wikipedia riporto solo uno stralcio perciò per approfondimenti se ne consiglia la visione alla fonte originale.

FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nani_people

Nani people
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Nani people (self name нани, Nani means 'natives'; self name Hezhen means 'people of the Orient'; Russian: нанайцы, nanaitsy; Chinese: 赫哲族, Hèzhézú; formerly also known as Golds and Samagir) are a Tungusic people of the Far East, who have traditionally lived along Heilongjiang (Amur), Songhuajiang (Sunggari) and Ussuri rivers on the Middle Amur Basin. The ancestors of the Nanais were the Jurchens of northernmost Manchuria.

The Nanai/Hezhe language belongs to the Manchu-Tungusic branch of the Altai languages.

Endonyms

Own names are [kilən] ([nanio] and [nabəi]) and [χədʑən] ([nanai]).[4] [na] means native and [nio], [bəi], [nai] means people in different dialects.

The Russian linguist L.I. Sem gives the self-name [xədʑən] in the Cyrillic form, хэǯэ най ( Hezhe nai ) or хэǯэны (Hezheni), and explains it as the self-name of the Nanais of the lower Amur, meaning, "people who live along the lower course of the river".[5] It is the source of the Chinese name for the Nanais, formerly "黑斤" (Heijin), "赫哲哈喇" (Hezhehala), and modern Chinese name "赫哲" (Hezhe).[6]

Traditional lifestyle and culture

Some of the earliest first-hand accounts of the Nanai people in the European languages belong to the French Jesuit geographers travelling on the Ussury and the Amur in 1709. According to them, the native people living on the Ussury and on the Amur above the mouth of the Dondon River (which falls into the Amur between today's Khabarovsk and Komsomolsk-on-Amur) were known as Yupi Tartars (fish-skin tartars, see the Economy section below), while the name of the people living on the Dondon and on the Amur below Dondon was transcribed by the Jesuits into French as Ketching.[7] The latter name may be the French transcription of the reported self-name (see #Endonyms, above) of the Nanais of the lower Amur, [xədʑən], which was also applied to the closely related Ulch people,[8]

According to the Jesuits, the language of the "Yupi" people seemed to occupy an intermediate position between the Manchu language and that of the "Ketching" people; some level of communication between the Yupi and the Ketching was possible.[9]

Economy

As described by early visitors (e.g., Jesuit cartographers on the Ussury River in 1709), the economy of the people living there (who would be classified as Nanai, or possible Udege people, today) was based on fishing. The people would live in villages along the banks of the Ussuri, and would spend their entire summers fishing, eating fresh fish in the summer (particularly appreciating the sturgeon), and drying more fish for eating in winter. Fish would be used as fodder for those few domestic animals they had (which made the flesh of a locally raised pig almost inedible by visitors with European tastes).[10]

The traditional clothing was made out of fish skins. These skins were left to dry. Once dry, they were struck repeatedly with a mallet to leave them completely smooth. Finally they were sewn together.[10] The fish chosen to be used were those weighing more than 50 kilograms.[11] In the past centuries, this distinct practice earned the Nanai the name "Fish-skin Tartars" (Chinese: 鱼皮鞑子, Yupi Dazi). This name has also been applied, more generically, to other aboriginal groups of he lower Sungari and lower Amur basins.[12]

Agriculture entered the Nanai lands only slowly. Practically the only crop grown by the Yupi villagers on the Ussuri River shores in 1709 was some tobacco.[10]

Religion


"Idol poles" (totem poles) of the Nanais ("Goldi"). Drawing by Richard Maack, between 1854-1860
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ravenstein-p377-Maack-Goldi-Idol-Poles.png

The Nanais are mainly Shamanist, with a great reverence for the bear (Doonta) and the tiger (Amba). They consider that the shamans have the power to expel bad spirits by means of prayers to the gods. During the centuries they have been worshipers of the spirits of the sun, the moon, the mountains, the water and the trees. According to their beliefs, the land was once flat until great serpents gouged out the river valleys. They consider that all the things of the universe possess their own spirit and that these spirits wander independently throughout the world. In the Nanai religion, inanimate objects were often personified. Fire, for example, was personified as an elderly woman whom the Nanai referred to as Fadzya Mama. Young children were not allowed to run up to the fire, since they might startle Fadzya Mama, and men always were courteous in the presence of a fire.

Nanai shamans, like other Tungusic peoples of the region, had characteristic clothing, consisting of a skirt and jacket; a leather belt with conical metal pendants; mittens with figures of serpents, lizards or frogs; and hats with branching horns or bear, wolf, or fox fur attached to it. Bits of Chinese mirrors were also sometimes incorporated into the costume.

The deceased were normally buried in the ground with the exception of children who died prior to the first birthday; in this case the child's body was wrapped in a cloth or birchbark covering and buried in the tree branches as a "wind burial". Many Nanai are also Tibetan Buddhist.

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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Le popolazioni   Gio 10 Nov 2011 - 13:24

I Nganasani o Nganasan

Come vedremo, nei seguenti articoli di wikipedia, la loro posizione isolata ha fatto sì che la tradizione sciamanica sia rimasta ancora oggi molto presente...

FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nganaseni

Nganasani
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Gli Nganasani[1][2] (o Nganasan,[3] Nagaseni[senza fonte]) sono una delle popolazioni indigene della Siberia, la più settentrionale di quelle del gruppo samoiedo. Vivono nella Penisola del Tajmyr (per cui sono anche chiamati a volte Taimyri), nell'Oceano Artico e il loro territorio è incluso nel Kraj di Krasnojarsk. Il loro insediamento principale è il villaggio di Ust-Avam, ma sono molto diffusi anche nel capoluogo Dudinka del Circondario autonomo di Tajmir (oggi fuso nel Territorio di Krasnojarsk).

Parlano il nagaseno, lingua di origine samoieda.

I Nagaseni avam vivono nella parte occidentale della Penisola del Tajmyr, nelle valli dei fiumi Pjassina, Dudipta e Boganida. Coloro i quali invece parlano il dialetto Vadeyev vivono nella tundra e nelle parti orientali del Tajmyr, nel Distretto Chatangskij, tra il fiume Cheta, il lago Tajmyr e la Baia di Chatanga. I Nagaseni condividono il proprio territorio con i Dolgani. A sud - sudest confinano con gli Jakuti, a sudovest con gli Eneti.

La popolazione nagasena è oggi molto esigua nel numero, nel 2002 si contavano infatti solo 834 unità. Durante gran parte della loro storia sono stati cacciatori nomadi, pescatori e allevatori di renne. Un significativo cambiamento al loro stile di vita si verificò negli anni 40 del XX secolo, quando le autorità sovietiche decisero di estirpare la religione sciamanica dei Nagaseni, che fino ad allora avevano resistito a tutti i tentativi di conversione da parte dei missionari occidentali. Gli sciamani furono arrestati e i loro oggetti sacri confiscati. Dagli anni 60 furono inoltre costretti ad abbandonare la loro vita nomade per stabilirsi nei villaggi, a fianco di Russi e Dolgani. I repentino cambiamenti provocò un forte impatto nel morale della popolazione, causando tra i suoi membri molti problemi di alcoolismo che persistono ancora oggi.


Sciamanesimo

Il relativo isolamento in cui i Nagaseni sono vissuti ha fatto sì che la loro religione sciamanica, pur contaminata dal cristianesimo ortodosso a causa della sostanziale russificazione della zona avvenuta in era sovietica, abbia persistito fino ad oggi.

Accanto a numerosi dei minori, venerano particolarmente Nguo (o Nuo), l'Essere Supremo e la sua sposa Na (o Nuo Nam), divinità delle nascite. Nel pantheon un posto particolare era inoltre riservato a Ku, dio del sole, in onore del quale, ogni febbraio, gli sciamani officiano il rito della "purificazione della tenda". Numerosi sono inoltre i sacrifici e le consacrazioni delle renne agli spiriti sovrani che, in questa particolare forma di sciamanesimo, abitano gli elementi e gli oggetti quotidiani. Seppur, come le altre popolazioni siberiane, non conoscano nelle proprie opere la raffigurazione degli dei "maggiori", i Nagaseni sono soliti costruire piccole statue antropomorfe in legno o pietra che contengono al loro interno gli spiriti del clan, della famiglia o della casa: il loro nome è Kojka e la loro collocazione nelle abitazioni Nagasene è solitamente in una nicchia apposita vicino al focolare.

Per quanto concerne la vita ultraterrena i Nagaseni, a differenza degli altri samoiedi, influenzati più profondamente dalle dottrine cristiane, credono in due tipi di anime: un'anima "ombra" che al momento della morte o scompare totalmente o si reca in cielo e una n'jlim, anima che si va a ricollogare nel ventre della dea Na destinata a trasmigrare in un neonato.

Note

^ Nganasani - Sapere.it. URL consultato il 9 settembre 2011.
^ Salvatore Abbruzzese, Religioni [1992], p. 353. ISBN 8816439033 URL consultato il 9 settembre 2011.
^ Artemij Keidan, Deissi, riferimento, metafora: questioni classiche di linguistica e filosofia del linguaggio [2008], p. 159. ISBN 8884537436 URL consultato il 9 settembre 2011.


Bibliografia

(HU) Hoppál, Mihály (1994). Sámánok, lelkek és jelképek. Budapest: Helikon Kiadó. ISBN 963-208-298-2.
(HU) Hoppál, Mihály (2005). Sámánok Eurázsiában. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó. ISBN 963-05-8295-3 2
Storia delle religioni, 18, I popoli senza scrittura, Vol. 2 (1978). A cura di Henri-Charles Puech, Roma-Bari: Laterza.


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nganasan_people

Nganasan people
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


The Nganasans are one of the indigenous peoples of Siberia. They are the northernmost of the Samoyedic peoples, living on the Taymyr Peninsula by the Arctic Ocean. Their territory is part of Krasnoyarsk Krai. Their "capital" is the settlement of Ust-Avam. They speak Nganasan language.

The Avam Nganasans live in the western part of the Taymyr Peninsula, in the valleys of the rivers Pyasina, Dudypta, and Boganida. The speakers of the Vadeyev dialect live in the tundra and in the eastern parts of Taymyr, in Khatangsky District by the Kheta River, Lake Taymyr, and the Khatanga Bay.

The Nganasans are few in number - 834 (2002 Census). Throughout most of their history they have been nomadic hunters, fishers, and herders of reindeer. They successfully resisted attempts at conversion to foreign religions until the Soviets. The biggest change in their history occurred in the 1940s, when the Soviet authorities decided to end their shamanist beliefs. Shamans were imprisoned and their holy artifacts confiscated. Since the 1960s, the nomadic life of the Nganasans has ended and they have been settled in villages, where they live alongside Russians and Dolgans. These sudden changes caused depression for many Nganasans and alcoholism is a big problem among them.

Shamanism

The isolated location of Nganasan people enabled shamanism as a living phenomenon among them even by the beginning of 20th century;[1] the last notable Nganasan shaman's seances could be recorded on film in the 1970s.[2]

One of the occasions in which the shaman partook was the clean tent rite held after the polar night, including sacrifice.[3][4] The Nganasan name for clean tent rite was “maδuśa”.[5]

Notes

^ Hoppál 2005, p. 92
^ Hoppál 1994, p. 62
^ Hoppál 2005, pp. 92–93
^ Lintrop
^ Katzschmann 2008, p. 41. (see online)


References

Hoppál, Mihály (1994) (in Hungarian). Sámánok, lelkek és jelképek. Budapest: Helikon Kiadó. ISBN 963 208 298 2. The title means “Shamans, souls and symbols”.
Hoppál, Mihály (2005) (in Hungarian). Sámánok Eurázsiában.. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó. ISBN 963-05-8295-3 2. The title means “Shamans in Eurasia”, the book is written in Hungarian, but it is published also in German, Estonian and Finnish. Site of publisher with short description on the book (in Hungarian)
Katzschmann, Michael (2008) (in German) (online browsable, just few pages are lacking). Chrestomathia Nganasanica. Texte – Übersetzung – Glossar – Grammatik. Books on Demand. ISBN 9783837011210.
Lintrop, Aado. "The Clean Tent Rite". Studies in Siberian Shamanism and Religions of the Finno-Ugrian Peoples. Folk Belief and Media Group of the Estonian Literary Museum.


External links

Helimski, Eugene. "Nganasan shamanistic tradition: observation and hypotheses". Shamanhood: The Endangered Language of Ritual, conference at the Centre for Advanced Study, 19–23 June 1999, Oslo.
Lintrop, Aado. "The Nganasan Shamans from Kosterkin family". Studies in Siberian Shamanism and Religions of the Ugric-Samoyedic Peoples. Folk Belief and Media Group of the Estonian Literary Museum.
Lintrop, Aado (December 1996). "The Incantations of Tubyaku Kosterkin". Electronic Journal of Folklore 2. ISSN 1406-0949.

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Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Re: Le popolazioni   Lun 9 Apr 2012 - 9:48

Molto interessante è il rapporto tra queste popolazioni sciamaniche e un animale in particolare la renna, per approfondimenti vi consiglio la visione del seguente link interno:

http://sciamanesimo.forumattivo.com/t1297-renna-caribu-reindeer-caribou

Dove troverete nella prima parte la scheda di questo animale ed a seguire un documento di wikipedia che ci darà modo di conoscere il ruolo della renna nello sciamanesimo siberiano.

Buona lettura.
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Le popolazioni   Oggi a 12:28

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