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 Le festività

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AutoreMessaggio
Tila
Iniziato Sciamano
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Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Le festività   Mer 27 Ott 2010 - 6:44

Visto l'avvicinarsi della data non potevo non iniziare questo topic parlando proprio del periodo dedicato alla profonda meditazione e della magica festa: Samhain

Buona lettura...

FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samhain

Samhain
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Samhain (pronuncia inglese: samèin; pronuncia originale irlandese: sàuin, ma anche sàun; grafia mannese Sauin, corrispondente alla pronuncia celtica tradizionale) è il termine gaelico moderno per indicare la stagione invernale, e si usa convenzionalmente anche per indicare la stagione invernale presso le antiche popolazioni celtiche, non conoscendosi i termini antichi per indicare questa stagione. Samhain è anche noto come Calan Gaeaf in Galles. Bealtaine, Lúnasa e Samhain sono tutt'ora i nomi di mesi di maggio, agosto e novembre nella lingua irlandese.

Indice


* 1 Storia
o 1.1 La festa in Italia
* 2 Nel Neopaganesimo
* 3 Note
* 4 Bibliografia
* 5 Voci correlate
* 6 Collegamenti esterni

Storia

Benché nel Calendario di Coligny, l'unica fonte archeologica che fa riferimento al computo del tempo presso i celti, l'unica festa chiaramente indicata sia Trinuxtion Samoni (Samonios), tradizionalmente si ritiene che dividessero l'anno in due parti: inverno detto " geimhredh" (il cui inizio era segnato dalla festa di Samhain) ed estate detta "samradh" (di cui l'inizio era segnato da Beltane). I Celti erano influenzati principalmente dai cicli lunari e delle stelle che segnavano lo scorrere dell'anno agricolo che iniziava con Samhain (in novembre), alla fine dei raccolti, quando il terreno veniva preparato per l'inverno.

La vigilia di Samhain (in irlandese Oidhche Shamhna) era la festività principali del calendario celtico, probabilmente celebrata il 31 ottobre, rappresentava l'ultimo raccolto. Oggi in Irlanda Oíche Shamhna indica la notte di Halloween. I falò hanno sempre avuto un ruolo importante in questa festa. Anche in epoca cristiana i villici erano usi lanciare nel fuoco le ossa del bestiame macellato (il bestiame aveva un ruolo prominente nel mondo gaelico pre-cristiano). Una volta che i falò erano stati accesi, tutti gli altri fuochi venivano spenti ed ogni famiglia prendeva solennemente il nuovo fuoco dal falò.

Come molte feste celtiche, veniva celebrata a più livelli: dal punto di vista materiale era il tempo della raccolta e dell'immagazzinamento del cibo per i lunghi mesi invernali. Essere soli in questa occasione significava esporre sé stessi ed il proprio spirito ai pericoli dei rigori invernali. Naturalmente, questo aspetto della festa ha perso in epoca moderna gran parte del suo significato, visto che oggi le carestie fortunatamente non costituiscono più un problema come presso le antiche società rurali.


Spiritualmente parlando, la festa era un momento di contemplazione. Per i Celti morire con onore, vivere nella memoria della tribù ed essere ricordati nella grande festa che si sarebbe svolta la vigilia di Samhain era una cosa molto importante (in Irlanda questa sarebbe stata Fleadh nan Mairbh ("Festa dei Morti"). Questo era il periodo più magico dell'anno: il giorno che non esisteva. Durante la notte il grande scudo di Skathach veniva abbassato, eliminando le barriere fra i mondi e permettendo alle forze del caos di invadere i reami dell'ordine ed al mondo dei morti di entrare in contatto con quello dei vivi. I morti avrebbero potuto ritornare nei luoghi che frequentavano mentre erano in vita, e celebrazioni gioiose erano tenute in loro onore. Da questo punto di vista le tribù erano un tutt'uno col loro passato ed il loro futuro. Questo aspetto della festa non fu mai eliminato pienamente, nemmeno con l'avvento del Cristianesimo.

Samhain fa parte dei momenti dell’anno che segnano tangibilmente il ritmo solare - lunare - agricolo ed è una festa di ricostruzione del tempo cosmico , per cui chi non vi partecipa rischia di essere distrutto poiché è escluso dal tempo. A questo proposito in un testo ogamico sta scritto che “chi non veniva ad Emain in occasione della notte di Samhain perdeva la sua ragione. Si provvedeva ad alzare il tumulo , la sua tomba e la sua pietra tombale nella mattina seguente “ (“Ogam”, XI, 61). L’autorità reale è sospesa , il re subisce la morte rituale , è annegato in una botte di vino e la sua casa viene incendiata (“Ogam” , VII, 38).


Infine, dal punto di vista dell'ordine cosmico, il sorgere delle Pleiadi, le stelle dell'inverno, segna la supremazia della notte sul giorno. In alcune parti della Bretagna occidentale, si usa cucinare le kornigou, torte a forma di corna di cervo, a simboleggiare il Dio cornuto che perde le corna prima di ritornare nel suo regno nell'Aldilà.

La festa in Italia

Quando i Romani entrarono in contatto coi Celti, identificarono Samhain con la loro festa dei morti (Lemuria) che era però celebrata nei giorni 9, 11 e 13 maggio. Con la cristianizzazione venne istituita la festa di Ognissanti (1 novembre), mentre il 2 novembre si celebra il Giorno dei morti. Attualmente nei paesi di cultura anglosassone si celebra invece la festa di Halloween.

Nel Neopaganesimo

Il Sauin è oggi ripreso nella cultura neopagana. È uno dei Sabba per i wiccani (nello specifico quello in cui allegoricamente il Dio muore e la Dea ne piange la scomparsa[1]) ed è una festa etnica tradizionale per i ricostruzionisti celtisti. Questi ultimi lo celebrano nel rispetto più scrupoloso possibile delle usanze celtiche storiche.[2][3]

Note

1. ^ Starhawk(1979, 1989). The Spiral Dance: A Rebirth of the Ancient Religion of the Great Goddess. New York, Harper and Row. ISBN 0-06-250814-8
2. ^ Adler, Margot (1979, edizione rivisitata nel 2006) Drawing Down the Moon: Witches, Druids, Goddess-Worshippers, and Other Pagans in America Today. Boston, Beacon Press ISBN 0-8070-3237-9. pp.3, 243-299
3. ^ McColman, Carl (2003) Complete Idiot's Guide to Celtic Wisdom. Alpha Press ISBN 0-02-864417-4. pp.12, 51

Bibliografia [modifica]

* Carmichael, Alexander (1992). Carmina Gadelica. Lindisfarne Press ISBN 0-940262-50-9
* Chadwick, Nora (1970) The Celts. London, Penguin ISBN 0-14-021211-6
* Danaher, Kevin (1972) The Year in Ireland. Dublin, Mercier ISBN 1-85635-093-2
* Evans-Wentz, W. Y. (1966, 1990) The Fairy-Faith in Celtic Countries. New York, Citadel ISBN 0-8065-1160-5
* MacKillop, James (1998). Dictionary of Celtic Mythology. Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-280120-1
* McNeill, F. Marian (1959) The Silver Bough, Vol. 1-4. William MacLellan, Glasgow


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samhain

Samhain
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the Celtic holiday. For other meanings, see Samhain (disambiguation)
Samhain
Also called Samhuinn (Gàidhlig)
Sauin (Gaelg)
Oíche Shamhna (Gaeilge)
Observed by Gaels
(Irish people, Scottish people)
Neopagans
(Celtic Reconstructionists, Wiccans)
Begins Northern Hemisphere: Sunset on October 31
Southern Hemisphere: Sunset on April 30
Ends Northern Hemisphere: Sunset on November 1
Southern Hemisphere: Sunset on May 1
Celebrations Bonfires
Guising
Divination
Apple bobbing
Feasting
Related to Halloween, Calan Gaeaf, All Saints' Day, All Souls' Day

Samhain (play /ˈsɑːwɪn/, /ˈsaʊ.ɪn/, or /ˈsaʊn/)[1] is a Gaelic festival held on October 31–November 1. The Irish name Samhain is derived from Old Irish and means roughly "summer's end".[2] A harvest festival with ancient roots in Celtic polytheism, it was linked to festivals held around the same time in other Celtic cultures, and continued to be celebrated in late medieval times. Due to its date it became associated with the Christian festival All Saints' Day, and greatly influenced modern celebration of Halloween.

Contents


* 1 Overview
* 2 Etymology
* 3 History
o 3.1 Gaelic folklore
o 3.2 Ancient Ireland
* 4 Related festivals
o 4.1 Brittany
o 4.2 Wales
o 4.3 Isle of Man
o 4.4 Cornwall
* 5 Neopaganism
o 5.1 Celtic Reconstructionism
o 5.2 Wicca
* 6 See also
* 7 References
* 8 Secondary sources
* 9 Further reading
* 10 External links

Overview

Samhain marked the end of the harvest, the end of the "lighter half" of the year and beginning of the "darker half". It was traditionally celebrated over the course of several days. Many scholars believe that it was the beginning of the Celtic year.[3][4][5] It has some elements of a festival of the dead. The Gaels believed that the border between this world and the otherworld became thin on Samhain; because some animals and plants were dying, it thus allowed the dead to reach back through the veil that separated them from the living. Bonfires played a large part in the festivities. People and their livestock would often walk between two bonfires as a cleansing ritual, and the bones of slaughtered livestock were cast into its flames.[6]

The Gaelic custom of wearing costumes and masks, was an attempt to copy the spirits or placate them. In Scotland the dead were impersonated by young men with masked, veiled or blackened faces, dressed in white.[7][8] Samhnag — turnips which were hollowed-out and carved with faces to make lanterns — were also used to ward off harmful spirits.[8]

The Gaelic festival became associated with the Christian All Saints' Day and All Souls' Day, and has hugely influenced the secular customs now connected with Halloween, a name first attested in the 16th century as a Scottish shortening of the fuller All-Hallows-Even.[9] Samhain continues to be celebrated as a religious festival by some Neopagans.[4][10]

Etymology

In Modern Irish the name is Samhain [ˈsˠaunʲ], In Scottish Gaelic, Samhain [ˈsaũ.iɲ], in Manx Gaelic Sauin and Old Irish Samain [ˈsaṽɨnʲ] — roughly translated as "summer's end". Samhain and an t-Samhain are also the Irish and Scottish Gaelic names of November, respectively.

The Modern Irish word Samhain is derived from the Old Irish samain, samuin, or samfuin, all referring to 1 November (latha na samna: 'samhain day'), and the festival and royal assembly held on that date in medieval Ireland (oenaig na samna: 'samhain assembly'). Its meaning is glossed as 'summer's end', and the frequent spelling with f suggests analysis by popular etymology as sam ('summer') and fuin ('sunset', 'end'). The Old Irish sam ('summer') is from Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) *semo-; cognates are Welsh haf, Breton hañv, English summer and Old Norse language sumar, all meaning 'summer', and the Sanskrit sáma ("season").[11]

In 1907, Whitley Stokes suggested an etymology from Proto-Celtic *samani ('assembly'), cognate to Sanskrit sámana, and the Gothic samana.[12] J. Vendryes concludes that these words containing *semo- ('summer') are unrelated to samain, remarking that furthermore the Celtic 'end of summer' was in July, not November, as evidenced by Welsh gorffennaf ('July').[13] We would therefore be dealing with an Insular Celtic word for 'assembly', *samani or *samoni, and a word for 'summer', saminos (derived from *samo-: 'summer') alongside samrad, *samo-roto-. The Irish samain would be etymologically unrelated to 'summer', and derive from 'assembly'. But note that the name of the month is of Proto-Celtic age, cf. Gaulish SAMON[IOS] from the Coligny calendar, and the association with 'summer' by popular etymology may therefore in principle date to even pre-Insular Celtic times.

Confusingly, Gaulish Samonios (October/November lunation) corresponds to GIAMONIOS, the seventh month (the April/May lunation) and the beginning of the summer season. Giamonios, the beginning of the summer season, is clearly related to the word for winter, Proto-Indo-European *g'hei-men- (Latin hiems, Latvian ziema, Lithuanian žiema, Slavic zima, Greek kheimon, Hittite gimmanza ), cf. Old Irish gem-adaig ('winter's night'). It appears, therefore, that in Proto-Celtic the first month of the summer season was named 'wintry', and the first month of the winter half-year 'summery', possibly by ellipsis, '[month at the end] of summer/winter', so that samfuin would be a restitution of the original meaning. This interpretation would either invalidate the 'assembly' explanation given above, or push back the time of the re-interpretation by popular etymology to very early times indeed.

Samhain was also called the Féile Moingfhinne (meaning "festival of Mongfhionn"). According to Cormac's Glossary, Mongfhionn was a goddess the pagan Irish worshipped on Samain.

Bealtaine, Lúnasa and Samhain are still today the names of the months of May, August and November in the Irish language. Similarly, an Lùnastal and an t-Samhain are the modern Scottish Gaelic names for August and November.

History


The Gaulish calendar appears to have divided the year into two halves: the 'dark' half, beginning with the month Samonios (the October/November lunation), and the 'light' half, beginning with the month Giamonios (the April/May lunation). The entire year may have been considered as beginning with the 'dark' half, so that the beginning of Samonios may be considered the Celtic New Year's Day. The celebration of New Year itself may have taken place during the 'three nights of Samonios' (Gaulish trinux[tion] samo[nii]), the beginning of the lunar cycle which fell nearest to the midpoint between the autumnal equinox and the winter solstice. The lunations marking the middle of each half-year may also have been marked by specific festivals. The Coligny calendar marks the mid-summer moon (see Lughnasadh), but omits the mid-winter one (see Imbolc). The seasons are not oriented at the solar year, viz. solstice and equinox, so the mid-summer festival would fall considerably later than summer solstice, around 1 August (Lughnasadh). It appears that the calendar was designed to align the lunations with the agricultural cycle of vegetation, and that the exact astrological position of the Sun at that time was considered less important.

In medieval Ireland, Samhain became the principal festival, celebrated with a great assembly at the royal court in Tara, lasting for three days. After being ritually started on the Hill of Tlachtga, a bonfire was set alight on the Hill of Tara, which served as a beacon, signaling to people gathered atop hills all across Ireland to light their ritual bonfires. The custom has survived to some extent, and recent years have seen a resurgence in participation in the festival.[14]

Samhain was identified in Celtic literature as the beginning of the Celtic year[15] and its description as "Celtic New Year" was popularised in 18th century literature[16] From this usage in the Romanticist Celtic Revival, Samhain is still popularly regarded as the "Celtic New Year" in the contemporary Celtic cultures, both in the Six Celtic Nations and the diaspora. For instance, the contemporary calendars produced by the Celtic League begin and end at Samhain.[17]

Gaelic folklore

The Samhain celebrations have survived in several guises as a festival dedicated to the harvest and the dead. In Ireland and Scotland, the Féile na Marbh, the 'festival of the dead' took place on Samhain.

The night of Samhain, in Irish, Oíche Shamhna and Scots Gaelic, Oidhche Shamhna, is one of the principal festivals of the Celtic calendar, and falls on the October 31. It represents the final harvest. In modern Ireland and Scotland, the name by which Halloween is known in the Gaelic language is still Oíche/Oidhche Shamhna. It is still the custom in some areas to set a place for the dead at the Samhain feast, and to tell tales of the ancestors on that night.[4][6][18]

Traditionally, Samhain was time to take stock of the herds and grain supplies, and decide which animals would need to be slaughtered in order for the people and livestock to survive the winter. This custom is still observed by many who farm and raise livestock [4][6][18] because it is when meat will keep since the freeze has come and also since summer grass is gone and free foraging is no longer possible.

Bonfires played a large part in the festivities celebrated down through the last several centuries, and up through the present day in some rural areas of the Celtic nations and the diaspora. Villagers were said to have cast the bones of the slaughtered cattle upon the flames. In the pre-Christian Gaelic world, cattle were the primary unit of currency and the center of agricultural and pastoral life. Samhain was the traditional time for slaughter, for preparing stores of meat and grain to last through the coming winter.

With the bonfire ablaze, the villagers extinguished all other fires. Each family then solemnly lit its hearth from the common flame, thus bonding the families of the village together. Often two bonfires would be built side by side, and the people would walk between the fires as a ritual of purification. Sometimes the cattle and other livestock would be driven between the fires, as well.[4][6][18]

Gaelic custom of wearing costumes and masks, was an attempt to copy the evil spirits or placate them. In Scotland the dead were impersonated by young men with masked, veiled or blackened faces, dressed in white.[7][8] Candle lanterns (Gaelic: samhnag), carved from turnips were part of the traditional festival. Large turnips were hollowed out, carved with faces, placed in windows to ward off evil spirits.[8]

Guisers — men in disguise, were prevalent in 16th century in the Scottish countryside. Children going door to door "guising" (or "Galoshin" on the south bank of the lower Clyde) in costumes and masks carrying turnip lanterns, offering entertainment of various sorts in return for food or coins, was traditional in 19th century, and continued well into 20th century.[19] At the time of mass transatlantic Irish and Scottish immigration that popularized Halloween in North America, Halloween in Ireland and Scotland had a strong tradition of guising and pranks.[20]

Divination is a common folkloric practice that has also survived in rural areas.[21] The most common uses were to determine the identity of one's future spouse, the location of one's future home, and how many children a person might have. Seasonal foods such as apples and nuts were often employed in these rituals. Apples were peeled, the peel tossed over the shoulder, and its shape examined to see if it formed the first letter of the future spouse's name.[22] Nuts were roasted on the hearth and their movements interpreted - if the nuts stayed together, so would the couple. Egg whites were dropped in a glass of water, and the shapes foretold the number of future children. Children would also chase crows and divine some of these things from how many birds appeared or the direction the birds flew.[4][6][7][18]

Ancient Ireland

The Ulster Cycle is peppered with references to Samhain. Many of the adventures and campaigns undertaken by the characters therein begin at the Samhain Night feast. One such tale is Echtra Nerai ('The Adventure of Nera') concerning one Nera from Connacht who undergoes a test of bravery put forth by King Ailill. The prize is the king's own gold-hilted sword. The terms hold that a man must leave the warmth and safety of the hall and pass through the night to a gallows where two prisoners had been hanged the day before, tie a twig around one man's ankle, and return. Others had been thwarted by the demons and spirits that harassed them as they attempted the task, quickly coming back to Ailill's hall in shame. Nera goes on to complete the task and eventually infiltrates the sídhe where he remains trapped until next Samhain. Taking etymology into consideration, it is interesting to note that the word for summer expressed in the Echtra Nerai is samraid.

The other cycles feature Samhain as well. The Cath Maige Tuireadh (Battle of Mag Tuired) takes place on Samhain. The deities Morrígan and Dagda meet and have sex before the battle against the Fomorians; in this way the Morrígan acts as a sovereignty figure and gives the victory to The Dagda's people, the Tuatha Dé Danann.

The tale The Boyhood Deeds of Fionn includes an important scene at Samhain. The young Fionn Mac Cumhail visits Tara where Aillen the Burner, one of the Tuatha Dé Danann, puts everyone to sleep at Samhain and burns the place. Through his ingenuity Fionn is able to stay awake and slays Aillen, and is given his rightful place as head of the fianna.

Related festivals
Further information: All Saints and Halloween

Brittany

In parts of western Brittany, Samhain is still heralded by the baking of kornigou, cakes baked in the shape of antlers to commemorate the god of winter[citation needed] shedding his 'cuckold' horns as he returns to his kingdom in the Otherworld. The Romans identified Samhain with their own feast of the dead, the Lemuria. This, however, was observed in the days leading up to May 13. With Christianization, the festival in November (not the Roman festival in May) became All Hallows' Day on November 1 followed by All Souls' Day, on November 2. Over time, the night of October 31 came to be called All Hallow's Eve, and the remnants festival dedicated to the dead eventually morphed into the secular holiday known as Halloween.

Wales
Main article: Calan Gaeaf

The Welsh equivalent of this holiday is called Nos Galan Gaeaf (see Calan Gaeaf). As with Samhain, this marks the beginning of the dark half of the year and it officially begins at sunset on October 31.

Isle of Man
Main article: Hop-tu-Naa

The Manx celebrate Hop-tu-Naa, which is a celebration of the original New Year's Eve. The term is Manx Gaelic in origin, deriving from Shogh ta’n Oie, meaning "this is the night". Traditionally, children dress as scary beings, carry turnips rather than pumpkins and sing an Anglicised version of Jinnie the Witch and may go from house to house asking for sweets or money.

Cornwall
Main article: Allantide

The Cornish equivalent of this holiday is known as Allantide or in the revived Cornish language Nos Calan Gwaf.
Neopaganism

Samhain is observed by various Neopagans in various ways. As forms of Neopaganism can differ widely in both their origins and practices, these representations can vary considerably despite the shared name. Some Neopagans have elaborate rituals to honor the dead, and the deities who are associated with the dead in their particular culture or tradition. Some celebrate in a manner as close as possible to how the Ancient Celts and Living Celtic cultures have maintained the traditions, while others observe the holiday with rituals culled from numerous other unrelated sources, Celtic culture being only one of the sources used.[10][23][24]

Celtic Reconstructionism

Celtic Reconstructionist Pagans tend to celebrate Samhain on the date of first frost, or when the last of the harvest is in and the ground is dry enough to have a bonfire. Like other Reconstructionist traditions, Celtic Reconstructionists place emphasis on historical accuracy, and base their celebrations and rituals on traditional lore from the living Celtic cultures, as well as research into the older beliefs of the polytheistic Celts. At bonfire rituals, some observe the old tradition of building two bonfires, which celebrants and livestock then walk or dance between as a ritual of purification.[4][6][18][24][25]

According to Celtic lore, Samhain is a time when the boundaries between the world of the living and the world of the dead become thinner, allowing spirits and other supernatural entities to pass between the worlds to socialize with humans. It is the time of the year when ancestors and other departed souls are especially honored. Though Celtic Reconstructionists make offerings to the spirits at all times of the year, Samhain in particular is a time when more elaborate offerings are made to specific ancestors. Often a meal will be prepared of favorite foods of the family's and community's beloved dead, a place set for them at the table, and traditional songs, poetry and dances performed to entertain them. A door or window may be opened to the west and the beloved dead specifically invited to attend. Many leave a candle or other light burning in a western window to guide the dead home. Divination for the coming year is often done, whether in all solemnity or as games for the children. The more mystically inclined may also see this as a time for deeply communing with the deities, especially those whom the lore mentions as being particularly connected with this festival.[4][6][18][24][25]

Wicca
Main article: Wheel of the Year

Samhain is one of the eight annual festivals, often referred to as 'Sabbats', observed as part of the Wiccan Wheel of the Year. It is considered by most Wiccans to be the most important of the four 'greater Sabbats'. It is generally observed on October 31 in the Northern Hemisphere, starting at sundown. Samhain is considered by some Wiccans as a time to celebrate the lives of those who have passed on, and it often involves paying respect to ancestors, family members, elders of the faith, friends, pets and other loved ones who have died. In some rituals the spirits of the departed are invited to attend the festivities. It is seen as a festival of darkness, which is balanced at the opposite point of the wheel by the spring festival of Beltane, which Wiccans celebrate as a festival of light and fertility.[26]

See also

Holidays

* Beltane
* Imbolc
* Lughnasadh



Calendars

* Celtic calendar
* Coligny calendar
* Irish calendar
* Welsh Holidays



Early Irish literature

* Serglige Con Culainn
* Togail Bruidne Dá Derga
* Cath Maige Tuired
* Mesca Ulad
* Tochmarc Étaíne

* Samhain in popular culture

References

1. ^ in English, the inaccurate spelling pronunciation /sæmˈheɪn/ is sometimes heard: Random House,[1] Oxford English Dictionary
2. ^ Rogers, Nicholas (2002). "Samhain and the Celtic Origins of Halloween". Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night, pp.11–21. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-516896-8.
3. ^ Chadwick, Nora (1970) The Celts London, Penguin. ISBN 0-14-021211-6 p. 181: "Samhain (1 November) was the beginning of the Celtic year, at which time any barriers between man and the supernatural were lowered".
4. ^ a b c d e f g h Danaher, Kevin (1972) The Year in Ireland: Irish Calendar Customs Dublin, Mercier. ISBN 1-85635-093-2 pp.190-232
5. ^ McNeill, F. Marian (1961, 1990) The Silver Bough, Vol. 3. William MacLellan, Glasgow ISBN 0-948474-04-1 p.11
6. ^ a b c d e f g O'Driscoll, Robert (ed.) (1981) The Celtic Consciousness New York, Braziller ISBN 0-8076-1136-0 pp.197-216: Ross, Anne "Material Culture, Myth and Folk Memory" (on modern survivals); pp.217-242: Danaher, Kevin "Irish Folk Tradition and the Celtic Calendar" (on specific customs and rituals)
7. ^ a b c Campbell, John Gregorson (1900, 1902, 2005) The Gaelic Otherworld. Edited by Ronald Black. Birlinn Ltd. ISBN 1-84158-207-7 pp.559-62
8. ^ a b c d Arnold, Bettina (2001-10-31). "Bettina Arnold – Halloween Lecture: Halloween Customs in the Celtic World". Halloween Inaugural Celebration. University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee: Center for Celtic Studies. http://www.uwm.edu/~barnold/lectures/holloween.html. Retrieved 2007-10-16.
9. ^ Simpson, John; Weiner, Edmund (1989). Oxford English Dictionary (second ed.). London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-861186-2. OCLC 17648714.
10. ^ a b Hutton, Ronald. The Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles: Their Nature and Legacy. Oxford, Blackwell. pp. 327–341. ISBN 0-631-18946-7.
11. ^ Pokorny, Julius. IEW (1959), s.v. "sem-3", p. 905.
12. ^ Stokes, "Irish etyma." Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung 40 (1907): p. 245.
13. ^ Vendryes, Lexique Étymologique de l'Irlandais Ancien (1959).[page needed]
14. ^ Samhain 2007 photos and account of Samhain ritual on the Hill of Tara (and worldwide), Oct. 31, 2007
15. ^ Chadwick, op. cit. pp. 180-181
16. ^ Hutton, Ronald (1996) Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain. Oxford, Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-288045-4
17. ^ The Celtic League Calendar
18. ^ a b c d e f McNeill, F. Marian (1961, 1990) The Silver Bough, Vol. 3. William MacLellan, Glasgow ISBN 0-948474-04-1 pp.11-46
19. ^ Bannatyne, Lesley Pratt (1998) Forerunners to Halloween Pelican Publishing Company. ISBN 1-56554-346-7 p.44
20. ^ Rogers, Nicholas. (2002) "Festive Rights:Halloween in the British Isles". Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night. pp.43, p.48. Oxford University Press.
21. ^ Danaher (1972), pp.218-227
22. ^ Danaher (1972), p.223
23. ^ Adler, Margot (1979, revised edition 2006) Drawing Down the Moon: Witches, Druids, Goddess-Worshippers, and Other Pagans in America Today. Boston, Beacon Press ISBN 0-8070-3237-9. pp.3, 243-299
24. ^ a b c McColman, Carl (2003) Complete Idiot's Guide to Celtic Wisdom. Alpha Press ISBN 0-02-864417-4. pp.12, 51
25. ^ a b Bonewits, Isaac (2006) Bonewits's Essential Guide to Druidism. New York, Kensington Publishing Group ISBN 0-8065-2710-2. pp.179, 183-4, 128-140
26. ^ Starhawk (1979, 1989) The Spiral Dance: A Rebirth of the Ancient Religion of the Great Goddess. New York, Harper and Row ISBN 0-06-250814-8 pp.193-6 (revised edition)


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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Le festività   Mer 20 Lug 2011 - 16:42

In questo post conosceremo meglio, grazie ai documenti di wikipedia, Imbolc la festa associata alla dea Brigid.

Buona lettura!


FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imbolc

Imbolc
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Imbolc (o anche Oimelc) è l'antica festa irlandese del culmine dell'inverno, che cadeva tradizionalmente il 1º febbraio, nel punto mediano tra il solstizio d'inverno e l'equinozio di primavera. La celebrazione iniziava tuttavia al tramonto del giorno precedente, in quanto il calendario celtico faceva iniziare il giorno appunto dal tramonto del sole.

Il termine Imbolc in irlandese significa "in grembo", in riferimento alla gravidanza delle pecore, così come Oimelc sta per "latte ovino", a indicare che in origine si trattava di una festa legata alle pecore da latte. In questo periodo venivano infatti alla luce gli agnellini e le pecore producevano latte. Il latte fresco, il formaggio, il burro e il siero di latte, per non parlare dei pasticci fatti con le code mozzate degli agnelli, costituivano spesso la differenza tra la vita e la morte per le persone anziane e i bambini, durante il gelo pungente di febbraio. [1][2] La festività celebrava la luce, che si rifletteva nell'allungamento della durata del giorno, e nella speranza per l'arrivo della primavera. Era tradizione celebrare la festa accendendo lumini e candele. [3] In epoca cristiana la festa di Imbolc venne equiparata alla Candelora. Poiché la festa pagana era sotto gli auspici della dea Brígit, si trasformò nella ricorrenza di Santa Brigida. [4][5]

Nel mondo romano la Dea Februa (Giunone) veniva celebrata alle calende di febbraio. [6]

Non è corretto tuttavia affermare che la festa cristiana della Candelora, celebrata il 2 febbraio, sia subentrata all'antica ricorrenza di Imbolc. Innanzitutto non esiste nessuna evidenza del fatto che Imbolc fosse celebrata in epoca pre-cristiana al di fuori dell'Irlanda[senza fonte] (da cui provengono gli unici resoconti scritti), mentre la festa della Candelora ha origine nel bacino del Mar Mediterraneo. L'una e l'altra festa coincidono in quanto appartengono entrambe al calendario astronomico-stagionale, essendo il 1º febbraio il punto equidistante tra il solstizio d'inverno e l'equinozio di primavera.

Nel neopaganesimo Imbolc è uno degli otto sabbat, che attualmente si celebra il primo o il 2 febbraio (quest'ultima data più utilizzata in America, forse per una confusione con la Candelora). Nell'emisfero sud si celebra in agosto.

[modifica] Note

^ Jean Markale, C. Fiorillo, Gianfranco De Turris,, Il druidismo: religione e divinità dei Celti, Edizioni Studio Tesi, 1990, ISBN 978-88-272-0782-6, pag. 188
^ Elena Percivaldi, I Celti: una civiltà europea, Giunti, 2003, ISBN 978-88-09-03140-1, pag. 74
^ Atlante della storia d'Irlanda, Giunti, ISBN 978-88-440-1327-1, pag. 47
^ Jean Markale, C. Fiorillo, Gianfranco De Turris,, Il druidismo: religione e divinità dei Celti, Edizioni Studio Tesi, 1990, ISBN 978-88-272-0782-6, pag. 188
^ Elena Percivaldi, I Celti: una civiltà europea, Giunti, 2003, ISBN 978-88-09-03140-1, pag. 74
^ Nelida Caffarello, Dizionario archeologico di antichità classiche, Olschki, 1971




FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imbolc

Imbolc
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Imbolc (also Imbolg or Oimelc), or St Brigid’s Day (Scots Gaelic Là Fhèill Brìghde, Irish Lá Fhéile Bríde, the feast day of St. Brigid), is an Irish festival marking the beginning of spring. Most commonly it is celebrated on February 1 or 2 (or February 12, according to the Old Calendar), which falls halfway between the Winter Solstice and the Spring Equinox in the northern hemisphere.[1][2]

The festival was observed in Gaelic Ireland during the Middle Ages. Reference to Imbolc is made in Irish mythology, in the Tochmarc Emire of the Ulster Cycle.[3] Imbolc was one of the four cross-quarter days referred to in Irish mythology, the others being Beltane, Lughnasadh and Samhain.[4] It has been suggested that it was originally a pagan festival associated with the goddess Brigid, who was later Christianised as St. Brigid.

In the 20th century, Imbolc was resurrected as a religious festival in Neopaganism, specifically in Wicca, Neo-druidry and Celtic reconstructionism.[1][2]


Etymology

Irish imbolc derives from the Old Irish i mbolg "in the belly". This refers to the pregnancy of ewes.[5] A medieval glossary etymologizes the term as oimelc "ewe's milk".[6]

Since Imbolc is immediately followed (on 2 February) by Candlemas (Irish Lá Fhéile Muire na gCoinneal "feast day of Mary of the Candles", Welsh Gŵyl Fair y Canhwyllau),[7] Irish imbolc is sometimes rendered as "Candlemas" in English translation; e.g. iar n-imbulc, ba garb a ngeilt translated as "after Candlemas, rough was their herding".[8]


History

Prehistory

A significance of the date of Imbolc already in the Irish Neolithic period has been suggested on the Newgrange UNESCO World Heritage website[9], based on the arrangement of a number of Megalithic monuments, such as the Mound of the Hostages at the Hill of Tara. At this site in County Meath the inner chamber of the passage tomb is aligned with the rising sun on the dates of Imbolc and Samhain.[10]

Gaelic Ireland and Scotland

Evidence of how Imbolc was celebrated in Gaelic Ireland is found in medieval Irish texts that mention the festival, besides folklore collected during the 19th and early 20th century in rural Ireland and Scotland.[2][11]

Among agrarian peoples, Imbolc has been traditionally associated with the onset of lactation of ewes, soon to give birth to the spring lambs. Chadwick notes that this could vary by as much as two weeks before or after the start of February.[5] However, the timing of agrarian festivals can vary widely, given regional variations in climate. This has led to some debate about both the timing and origins of the festival. The Blackthorn is said to blossom at Imbolc.[12]

Gaelic folklore

The holiday was, and for many still is, a festival of the hearth and home, and a celebration of the lengthening days and the early signs of spring. Celebrations often involved hearthfires, special foods (butter, milk, and bannocks, for example), divination or watching for omens, candles or a bonfire if the weather permits.[1][2] Imbolc is traditionally a time of weather prognostication, and the old tradition of watching to see if serpents or badgers came from their winter dens is perhaps a precursor to the North American Groundhog Day. A Scottish Gaelic proverb about the day is:

Thig an nathair as an toll
Là donn Brìde,
Ged robh trì troighean dhen t-sneachd
Air leac an làir.

"The serpent will come from the hole
On the brown Day of Bride,
Though there should be three feet of snow
On the flat surface of the ground." [13]

Imbolc is the day the Cailleach — the hag of Gaelic tradition — gathers her firewood for the rest of the winter. Legend has it that if she intends to make the winter last a good while longer, she will make sure the weather on Imbolc is bright and sunny, so she can gather plenty of firewood. Therefore, people are generally relieved if Imbolc is a day of foul weather, as it means the Cailleach is asleep and winter is almost over.[14] On the Isle of Man, where she is known as Caillagh ny Groamagh, the Cailleach is said to have been seen on Imbolc in the form of a gigantic bird, carrying sticks in her beak.[14]

Fire and purification are an important aspect of this festival. Brigid (also known as Brighid, Bríde, Brigit, Brìd) is the Gaelic goddess of poetry, healing and smithcraft.[15] As both goddess and saint she is also associated with holy wells, sacred flames, and healing. The lighting of candles and fires represents the return of warmth and the increasing power of the Sun over the coming months.[5]


Snowdrops in the snow
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Snowdrop.JPG


St. Brigid's Day

In the modern Irish Calendar, Imbolc is variously known as the Feast of Saint Brigid (Secondary Patron of Ireland), Lá Fhéile Bríde, and Lá Feabhra — the first day of Spring. Christians may call the day "Candlemas". Long celebrated as "the feast of the Purification of the Virgin".[2]

One folk tradition that continues in both Christian and Pagan homes on St. Brigid's Day (or Imbolc) is that of the Brigid's Bed. The girls and young, unmarried, women of the household or village create a corn dolly to represent Brigid, called the Brideog ("little Brigid" or "young Brigid"), adorning it with ribbons and baubles like shells or stones. They make a bed for the Brideog to lie in. On St. Brigid's Eve (January 31), the girls and young women gather together in one house to stay up all night with the Brideog, and are later visited by all the young men of the community who must ask permission to enter the home, and then treat them and the corn dolly with respect.[2][16]

Brigid is said to walk the earth on Imbolc eve. Before going to bed, each member of the household may leave a piece of clothing or strip of cloth outside for Brigid to bless. The head of the household will smother (or "smoor") the fire and rake the ashes smooth. In the morning, they look for some kind of mark on the ashes, a sign that Brigid has passed that way in the night or morning. The clothes or strips of cloth are brought inside, and believed to now have powers of healing and protection.[2][16]

On the following day, the girls carry the Brideog through the village or neighborhood, from house to house, where this representation of the Saint/Goddess is welcomed with great honor. Adult women — those who are married or who run a household — stay home to welcome the Brigid procession, perhaps with an offering of coins or a snack. Since Brigid represents the light half of the year, and the power that will bring people from the dark season of winter into spring, her presence is very important at this time of year.[2][16]


Neopagan festival

Neopagans of diverse traditions observe this holiday in a variety of ways. As forms of Neopaganism can be quite different and have very different origins, these representations can vary considerably despite the shared name. Some celebrate in a manner as close as possible to how the Ancient Celts are believed to have observed the festival, as well as how these customs have been maintained in the living Celtic cultures. Other types of Neopagans observe the holiday with rituals taken from numerous other unrelated sources, Celtic cultures being only one of the sources used.[17][18]

Imbolc is usually celebrated by modern Pagans on February 1 or 2nd in the northern hemisphere, and August 1 or 2nd in the southern hemisphere. Some Neopagans time this celebration to the solar midpoint between the winter solstice and spring equinox, which now falls later in the first week or two of February. Since the Celtic year was based on both lunar and solar cycles, it is most likely that the holiday would be celebrated on the full moon nearest the midpoint between the winter solstice and vernal equinox, or when the primroses, dandelions, or other spring flowers rise up through the snow, or when the sun aligned with the passage tombs among the pre-Celtic megaliths.[16][19]


Imbolc celebration in Marsden, West Yorkshire, February 2007.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Imbolc_Festival_February_3rd_2007.jpg


Celtic Reconstructionist

Like other Reconstructionist traditions, Celtic Reconstructionists place emphasis on historical accuracy and cultural preservation.[20][21] They base their Imbolc celebrations on traditional lore and customs that have been maintained in the Six Celtic nations and the Irish and Scottish diasporas. They also employ research into the older beliefs of the polytheistic Celts.[20][21] They usually celebrate the festival when the first stirrings of spring are felt, or on the full moon that falls closest to this time. Many use traditional songs and rites from sources such as The Silver Bough and The Carmina Gadelica. It is especially a time of honoring the Goddess Brighid, and many of her dedicants choose this time of year for rituals to her.[20][21]

Wicca

Wiccans celebrate a variation of Imbolc as one of four "fire festivals", which make up half of the eight holidays (or "sabbats"), of the wheel of the year. Imbolc is defined as a cross-quarter day, midway between the winter solstice (Yule) and the spring equinox (Ostara). The precise astrological midpoint in the Northern hemisphere is when the sun reaches fifteen degrees of Aquarius. In the Southern hemisphere, if celebrated as the beginning of local Spring, the date is the midpoint of Leo. Sometimes the festival is referred to as "Brigid". Among Dianic Wiccans, Imbolc (also referred to as "Candlemas") is the traditional time for initiations.[22]

In Wicca, Imbolc is commonly associated with the goddess Brigid, and hence the Wiccan Goddess, and as such it is sometimes viewed as a "women’s festival" with specific rites only for female members of a coven.[23]

References

^ a b c Danaher, Kevin (1972) The Year in Ireland: Irish Calendar Customs Dublin, Mercier. ISBN 1-85635-093-2 pp. 38
^ a b c d e f g h McNeill, F. Marian (1959, 1961) The Silver Bough, Vol. 1–4. William MacLellan, Glasgow; Vol. 2, pp. 11–42
^ Hutton, Ronald (1996). The Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain. New York: Oxford University Press. Page 134-135.
^ Cunliffe, Barry (1997). The Ancient Celts. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Page 188-190.
^ a b c Chadwick, Nora K. (1970). The Celts. Harmondsworth: Penguin. p. 181. ISBN 0-14-021211-6.
^ Meyer, Kuno, Sanas Cormaic: an Old-Irish Glossary compiled by Cormac úa Cuilennáin, King-Bishop of Cashel in the ninth century (1912).
^ MacKillop, James (1998). Dictionary of Celtic mythology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 270. ISBN 0-19-280120-1.
^ Gwynn, Edward John, MRIA (1868-1941), The Metrical dindshenchas, Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, 1903-1935, iii 370.61.[1]
^ "Imbolc". Newgrange UNESCO World Heritage website. Retrieved 1 June 2011.
^ Mythical Ireland - Tara
^ Danaher, Kevin (1972) The Year in Ireland: Irish Calendar Customs Dublin, Mercier. ISBN 1-85635-093-2 pp. 200–229
^ Aveni, Anthony F. (2004). The Book of the Year: A Brief History of Our Seasonal Holidays. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 38. ISBN 0-19-517154-3.
^ Carmichael, Alexander (1900) Carmina Gadelica: Hymns and Incantations, Ortha Nan Gaidheal, Volume I, p. 169 The Sacred Texts Archive
^ a b Briggs, Katharine (1976) An Encyclopedia of Fairies. New York, Pantheon Books., pp. 57–60
^ MacKillop, James (1998). Dictionary of Celtic mythology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 58. ISBN 0-19-280120-1.
^ a b c d Carmichael, Alexander (1900) pp. 166–8 The Sacred Texts Archive
^ Adler, Margot (1979) Drawing Down the Moon: Witches, Druids, Goddess-Worshippers, and Other Pagans in America Today. Boston, Beacon Press ISBN 0-8070-3237-9. p. 3
^ McColman, Carl (2003) Complete Idiot's Guide to Celtic Wisdom. Alpha Press ISBN 0-02-864417-4. p. 51
^ Bonewits, Isaac (2006) Bonewits's Essential Guide to Druidism. New York, Kensington Publishing Group ISBN 0-8065-2710-2. p. 184–5
^ a b c McColman, Carl (2003) p. 12
^ a b c Bonewits (2006) pp. 130–7
^ Budapest, Zsuzsanna (1980) The Holy Book of Women's Mysteries ISBN 0-914728-67-9
^ Gallagher, Ann-Marie (2005). The Wicca Bible: The Definitive Guide to Magic and the Craft. London: Godsfield Press. Page 63.
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Le festività   Sab 23 Lug 2011 - 15:52

Beltane

FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beltane

Beltane
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Beltane o Beltaine (dal gaelico irlandese Bealtaine o dal gaelico scozzese Bealtuinn; entrambi dall'antico irlandese Beletene, "fuoco luminoso") è un'antica festa gaelica che si celebra attorno al 1º maggio. "Bealtaine" (pronuncia IPA /ˈbʲɑlˠ.t̪ˠə.n̪ʲə/) è anche il nome del mese di maggio in irlandese ed è anche tradizionalmente il primo giorno di primavera in Irlanda. È il giorno situato a metà fra l'equinozio di primavera ed il solstizio estivo, astronomicamente il giorno corretto è il 5 maggio.

Fonti gaeliche del X secolo affermano che i druidi accendevano dei falò sulla cima dei colli e che vi conducevano attraverso il bestiame del villaggio per purificarlo ed in segno di buon augurio. Anche le persone attraversavano i fuochi, allo stesso scopo. L'usanza persistette attraverso i secoli e dopo la cristianizzazione (i popolani sostituirono i druidi nell'accendere i fuochi), fino agli anni cinquanta. La celebrazione sopravvive ancora oggi in alcuni luoghi, dove principalmente le persone vengono fatte passare attraverso i fuochi. Una celebrazione di Beltane si tiene ogni anno la notte del 30 aprile a Calton Hill, presso Edimburgo (Scozia), a cui partecipano circa 15.000 persone.

Beltane è una festività prettamente britannica e irlandese, non estesa a tutti i popoli celtici, dato che i Gallesi, i Bretoni ed i Galli non celebravano questa ricorrenza.


Neopaganesimo

Nel Druidismo, Beltane indica una delle otto festività legate al ciclo delle stagioni. Nella Wicca Beltane o Beltaine indica uno degli otto sabbat, celebrato il 1º maggio. Anche se la festività riprende alcuni aspetti della festa gaelica (come i falò), sembra più legata alla celebrazione germanica di Calendimaggio, sia per il significato di festa della fertilità che per i rituali (come la danza attorno ad un palo ornato di fiori e stringhe, di cui ogni danzatore tiene un'estremità). Beltaine viene celebrato con una rappresentazione rituale del rapporto fra il Dio e la Dea.


Tradizioni italiane

La tradizione endemica europea di accendere fuochi e falò in occasione di festività primaverili o legate ad equinozi e solstizi è la traccia indelebile degli antichissimi riti legati al Dio Belanu ed al Beltaine; in Italia i celtoliguri erano senz'altro tra gli adoratori del dio e celebravano questa festività. Ancora oggi esiste tra l'altro in molte culture contadine, come ad esempio in Piemonte. In alta Valle Camonica (BS), la piccola comunità di Pontagna, frazione del comune di Temù, festeggia la notte tra il 15 ed il 16 di agosto (nella tradizione Cristiana è la festa di Santa Giulia) con grandi fuochi accesi in alto sui monti, ben visibili da fondo valle. Analogamente, ad Avezzano è tradizione accendere fuochi in onore della Madonna di Pietraquaria la notte del 26 aprile.




FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beltane

Beltane
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Beltane or Beltaine (play /ˈbɛlteɪn/) is the anglicised spelling of Old Irish Bel(l)taine or Beltine (modern Irish Bealtaine [ˈbʲal̪ˠt̪ˠənʲə], Scottish Gaelic Bealltainn [ˈbʲal̪ˠt̪ˠənʲ]), the Gaelic name for either the month of May or the festival that takes place on the first day of May.

Bealtaine was historically a Gaelic festival celebrated in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man. Bealtaine and Samhain were the leading terminal dates of the civil year in medieval Ireland, though the latter festival was the more important. The festival regained popularity during the Celtic Revival and remains observed in the Celtic Nations and the Irish diaspora.

In Irish Gaelic, the month of May is known as Mí Bhealtaine or Bealtaine, and the festival as Lá Bealtaine ('day of Bealtaine' or, 'May Day'). In Scottish Gaelic, the month is known as either (An) Cèitean or a' Mhàigh, and the festival is known as Latha Bealltainn or simply Bealltainn. The feast was also known as Céad Shamhain or Cétshamhainin from which the word Céitean derives. Beltane was formerly spelled 'Bealtuinn' in Scottish Gaelic; in Manx it is spelt 'Boaltinn' or 'Boaldyn'. In Modern Irish, Oidhche Bealtaine or Oíche Bealtaine is May Eve, and Lá Bealtaine is May Day. Mí na Bealtaine, or simply Bealtaine is the name of the month of May.

In Neopaganism, Bealtaine is considered a cross-quarter day, marking the midpoint in the Sun's progress between the spring equinox and summer solstice. The astronomical date for this midpoint is closer to 5 May or 7 May, but this can vary from year to year.[1]


History

Celtic period

According to Nora Chadwick, in Celtic Ireland "Beltine (or Beltaine) was celebrated on 1 May, a spring-time festival of optimism. Fertility ritual again was important, in part perhaps connecting with the waxing power of the sun, symbolized by the lighting of fires through which livestock were driven, and around which the people danced in a sunwise direction"[2]

In Irish mythology, the beginning of the summer season for the Tuatha Dé Danann and the Milesians started at Bealtaine. Great bonfires would mark a time of purification and transition, heralding in the season in the hope of a good harvest later in the year, and were accompanied with ritual acts to protect the people from any harm by Otherworldly spirits, such as the Aos Sí. Like the festival of Samhain, opposite Beltane on 31 October Beltane was also a time when the Otherworld was seen as particularly close at hand. Excavations at Uisnech in the 20th century provided evidence of large fires taking place. [3]


Medieval period

In medieval Ireland, the main Bealtaine fire was held on the central hill of Uisneach 'the navel of Ireland', one of the ritual centres of the country, which is located in what is now County Westmeath.[citation needed] The lighting of bonfires on Oidhche Bhealtaine seems to have survived to the present day only in County Limerick, especially in Limerick itself, as their yearly bonfire night and in County Wicklow in Arklow[citation needed], though some cultural groups have expressed an interest in reviving the custom at Uisneach and perhaps at the Hill of Tara.[4]

Beltane marked the beginning of the pastoral summer season when the herds of livestock were driven out to the summer pastures and mountain grazing lands. Due to the change from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar, Bealltainn in Scotland was commonly celebrated on 15 May while in Ireland Sean Bhealtain / "Old May" began about the night of 11 May.[citation needed] The lighting of bonfires on Oidhche Bhealtaine ('the eve of Bealtaine') on mountains and hills of ritual and political significance was one of the main activities of the festival.[5][6] In modern Scottish Gaelic, Latha Buidhe Bealltainn or Là Buidhe Bealltainn ('the yellow day of Bealltain') is used to describe the first day of May. This term Lá Buidhe Bealtaine is also used in Irish and is translated as 'Bright May Day'. In Ireland it is referred to in a common folk tale as Luan Lae Bealtaine; the first day of the week (Monday/Luan) is added to emphasise the first day of summer.


Modern period

Edward Dwelly in Bealltuinn (1911) describes a 1 May custom of his day, practised in the Scottish Highlands, where young people met on the moors, lighted a bonfire and made an oatmeal cake toasted at the embers. The cake was divided, one of the pieces marked with charcoal, and, drawing the pieces blindfolded, the person who got the marked piece was compelled to leap over the flames three times.

In Gaelic folkore, the village's cattle were driven between two fires to purify them and bring luck (Eadar dà theine Bhealltainn in Scottish Gaelic, 'Between two fires of Beltane'). This term is also found in Irish and is used as a turn of phrase to describe a situation which is difficult to escape from. In Scotland, boughs of juniper were sometimes thrown on the fires to add an additional element of purification and blessing to the smoke. People would also pass between the two fires to purify themselves.

Another common aspect of the festival in the early 20th century in Ireland was the hanging of May Boughs on the doors and windows of houses and the erection of May Bushes in farmyards, which usually consisted either of a branch of rowan/caorthann (mountain ash) or more commonly whitethorn/sceach geal (hawthorn) which is in bloom at the time and is commonly called the 'May Bush' or just 'May' in both Ireland and Britain. Furze/aiteann was also used for the May Boughs, May Bushes and as fuel for the bonfire. The practice of decorating the May Bush or Dos Bhealtaine with flowers, ribbons, garlands and coloured egg shells exists to some extent among the Gaelic diaspora, most notably in Newfoundland, and in some Easter traditions observed on the East Coast of the United States.[5]

The festival persisted widely up until the 1950s, and in some places the celebration of Beltane continues today.[3][7][8] The town of Peebles in the Scottish Borders holds a traditional week-long event known as the Beltane Fair every year in June, when a local girl is crowned Beltane Queen on the steps of the parish church. Like other Borders festivals, it incorporates a Common Riding. [9]


Brythonic culture

In Brythonic culture, i.e. in Wales, Brittany, and Cornwall, there are festivals similar to it at the same time of year such as the Padstow 'obby 'oss. In Wales, the day is known as Calan Mai. A cognate term in Continental Celtic may have been Gaulish Belotenia.[10]


Etymology

Since the early 20th century it has been commonly accepted that Old Irish Bel(l)taine is derived from a Common Celtic *belo-te(p)niâ, meaning "bright fire" (where the element *belo- might be cognate with the English word bale [as in 'bale-fire'] meaning 'white' or 'shining'; compare Anglo-Saxon bael, and Lithuanian/Latvian baltas/balts, found in the name of the Baltic; in Slavic languages byelo or beloye also means 'white', as in Беларусь (White Russia or Belarus) or Бе́лое мо́ре [White Sea]). A more recent etymology by Xavier Delamarre would derive it from a Common Celtic *Beltinijā, cognate with the name of the Lithuanian goddess of death Giltinė, the root of both being Proto-Indo-European *gʷelH- "suffering, death".[11]

According to Dáithí Ó hÓgáin[year needed], the term Céad Shamhain or Cétshamhainin means "first half", which he links to the Gaulish word samonios (which he suggests means "half a year") as in the end of the "first half" of the year that begins at Samhain. According to Ó hÓgáin this term was also used in Scottish Gaelic and Welsh.[citation needed] In Ó Duinnín's Irish dictionary[year needed] it is referred to as Céadamh(ain) which it explains is short for Céad-shamh(ain) meaning "first (of) summer". The dictionary also states that Dia Céadamhan is May Day and Mí Céadamhan is May.


Toponymy

Place names in Ireland that contain remnants of the word 'Bealtaine' include a number of places called 'Beltany' – indicating places where Bealtaine festivities were once held. There are three Beltanys in County Donegal – one near Raphoe – another near Killybegs [Bealtine Bridge} and the third in the parish of Tulloghobegly. Two others are located in County Tyrone, one near Clogher and the other in the parish of Cappagh. In the parish of Kilmore, County Armagh, there is a place called Tamnaghvelton/Tamhnach Bhealtaine ('field of the Bealtaine festivities'). Lisbalting/Lios Bealtaine ('fort or enclosure of Bealtaine') is located in Kilcash Parish, County Tipperary. Glasheennabaultina ('the Bealtaine stream') is the name of a stream joining the River Galey near Athea, County Limerick.


Revival


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Beltane_Dancers_2006.jpg

Edinburgh festival

A revived Beltane Fire Festival has been held every year since 1988 during the night of 30 April on Calton Hill in Edinburgh, Scotland and attended by up to 15,000 people (except in 2003 when local council restrictions forced the organisers to hold a private event elsewhere).


Gaelic diaspora

The lighting of a community Bealtaine fire from which individual hearth fires are then relit is observed in modern times in some parts of the Gaelic diaspora, though in the majority of these cases this practice is a cultural revival rather than an unbroken survival of the ancient tradition.[5][12][13]


Neo-Paganism

Beltane is observed by Neopagans in various forms, and by a variety of names. As forms of Neopaganism can vary largely from tradition to tradition, representations can vary considerably despite the shared name. Some celebrate in a manner as close as possible to how the Ancient Celts and Living Celtic cultures have maintained the traditions, while others observe the holiday with rituals taken from numerous other unrelated sources, Celtic culture being only one of the sources used.[14][not in citation given][15]


Celtic Reconstructionist

Like other Reconstructionist traditions, Celtic Reconstructionist Pagans place emphasis on historical accuracy. They base their celebrations and rituals on traditional lore from the living Celtic cultures, as well as research into the older beliefs of the polytheistic Celts.[16][not in citation given]

Celtic Reconstructionists usually celebrate Lá Bealtaine when the local hawthorn trees are in bloom, or on the full moon that falls closest to this event. Many observe the traditional bonfire rites, to whatever extent this is feasible where they live, including the dousing of the household hearth flame and relighting of it from the community festival fire.[citation needed] Some decorate May Bushes and prepare traditional festival foods.[citation needed] Pilgrimages to holy wells are traditional at this time, and offerings and prayers to the spirits or deities of the wells are usually part of this practice.[citation needed] Crafts such as the making of equal-armed rowan crosses are common, and often part of rituals performed for the blessing and protection of the household and land.[16][not in citation given][17][not in citation given][18]


Wicca

Wiccans and Wiccan-inspired Neopagans celebrate a variation of Beltane as a Sabbat, one of the eight solar holidays. Although the holiday may use features of the Gaelic Bealtaine, such as the bonfire, it bears more relation to the Germanic May Day festival, both in its significance (focusing on fertility) and its rituals (such as maypole dancing). Some Wiccans celebrate "High Beltaine" by enacting a ritual union of the May Lord and May Lady.[19]

Among the Wiccan Sabbats, Beltane is a cross-quarter day; it is celebrated in the northern hemisphere on 1 May and in the southern hemisphere on 1 November. Beltane follows Ostara and precedes Midsummer.[19]


References

^ Dames (1992) p.214
^ Chadwick, Nora, The Celts, p. 181.
^ a b MacKillop, James (1998) A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology. Oxford, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280120-1 pp.39, 400–402, 421
^ Aideen O'Leary reports ("An Irish Apocryphal Apostle: Muirchú's Portrayal of Saint Patrick" The Harvard Theological Review 89.3 [July 1996:287–301] p. 289) that, for didactic and dramatic purposes, the festival of Beltane, as presided over by Patrick's opponent King Lóegaire mac Néill, was moved to the eve of Easter and from Uisneach to Tara by Muirchú (late seventh century) in his Vita sancti Patricii; he describes the festival as in Temora, istorium Babylone ('at Tara, their Babylon'). However there is no authentic connection of Tara with Babylon, nor any know connection of Tara with Beltane.
^ a b c Danaher, Kevin (1972) The Year in Ireland: Irish Calendar Customs Dublin, Mercier. ISBN 1-85635-093-2 pp. 86–127
^ Chadwick, Nora (1970) The Celts London, Penguin. ISBN 0-14-021211-6 p. 181
^ McNeill (1959) Vol. 2. p.63
^ Campbell, John Gregorson (1900, 1902, 2005) The Gaelic Otherworld. Edited by Ronald Black. Edinburgh, Birlinn Ltd. ISBN 1-84158-207-7 p.552–4
^ http://www.peeblesbeltanefestival.co.uk
^ MacKillop (1998) p.39
^ Delamarre, Xavier. Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise, Editions Errance, Paris, 2003, p. 70
^ Dames, Michael (1992) Mythic Ireland. London, Thames & Hudson ISBN 0-500-27872-5. pp. 206–10
^ McNeill, F. Marian (1959) The Silver Bough, Vol. 2. William MacLellan, Glasgow ISBN 0-85335-162-7 p. 56
^ Adler, Margot (1979) Drawing Down the Moon: Witches, Druids, Goddess-Worshippers, and Other Pagans in America Today. Boston, Beacon Press ISBN 0-8070-3237-9. p.3
^ McColman, Carl (2003) Complete Idiot's Guide to Celtic Wisdom. Alpha Press ISBN 0-02-864417-4. p. 51
^ a b McColman (2003) pp.12, 51
^ Bonewits, Isaac (2006) Bonewits's Essential Guide to Druidism. New York, Kensington Publishing Group ISBN 0-8065-2710-2. pp. 130 7
^ Healy, Elizabeth (2001) In Search of Ireland's Holy Wells. Dublin, Wolfhound Press ISBN 0-86327-865-5 p.27
^ a b Starhawk (1979, 1989) The Spiral Dance: A Rebirth of the Ancient Religion of the Great Goddess. New York, Harper and Row ISBN 0-06-250814-8 pp. 181 196 (revised edition)



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Numero di messaggi : 1826
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Le festività   Lun 25 Lug 2011 - 7:38

Lughnasadh


FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lughnasadh

Lughnasadh
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Lughnasadh "Festival di Lugh" (secondo Keatings[1] e Cormac[2]) o "matrimonio di Lúg" secondo Rhys[3]. (In Irlandese arcaico, pron. [luɣnəsəð]; Irlandese: Lúnasa; Gaelico Scozzese: Lùnastal; Gaelico di Manx: Luanistyn) é una festa tradizionale Gaelica celebrata il primo di Agosto, da questa importante festa il mese in gaelico ha ereditato il nome (e non il contrario). In origine era legata al raccolto, corrisponde all'inglese Lammas, dall'Inglese arcaico Hlaf Mæsse "Raduno del pane".

^ Keating's general history of Ireland. (1861)
^ Sanas Cormaic Cormac's glossary
^ John Rhys, Hibbert Lectures 1886 pag. 410~415


Neopaganesimo

Nel neopaganesimo Lughnasadh (o anche Lunasa o Lughnasa) è uno degli otto sabbat (celebrato il 1º agosto nell'emisfero nord), il primo dei tre che celebrano la stagione del raccolto (gli altri sono Mabon e Samhain). La festa ricorda il sacrificio del Dio (sotto forma di grano): nel suo ciclo di morte (per dare nutrimento alla popolazione) e rinascita, il grano veniva identificato come uno degli aspetti del dio Sole, che i Gaelici chiamavano Lugh.

Viene anche usato il nome Lammas preso da una festa anglosassone poi cristianizzata che si svolgeva nello stesso periodo, che potrebbe o meno avere la stessa origine. Come indica il nome (da loaf-mass, "festa dei pani"), si tratta di una festa di ringraziamento per il pane, che rappresenta il primo frutto del raccolto.

Alcuni neopagani celebrano la festa cucinando una figura del Dio fatta di pane per poi sacrificarla e consumarla ritualmente.




FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lughnasadh

Lughnasadh
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Lughnasadh (Old Irish, pronounced [luɣnəsəð]; Irish: Lúnasa; Scottish Gaelic: Lùnastal; Manx: Luanistyn) is a traditional Gaelic holiday celebrated on 1 August. It is in origin a harvest festival, corresponding to the English Lammas.

Name

In Old Irish, the name of the festival has at various points in time been written Lughnasa, Lughnasad, Lugnasad or Lughnassadh.

In Modern Irish (Gaeilge), the name for the month of August is Lúnasa, with the day itself being called Lá Lúnasa ("the day of Lúnasa").[1][2]

In Modern Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig), the festival and the month are both called Lùnastal.[3]

In Welsh (Cymraeg), the day is known as Calan Awst, an originally Latin term.[4]

History

Irish mythology

In Irish mythology, the Lughnasadh festival is said to have been begun by the god Lugh, as a funeral feast and games commemorating his foster-mother, Tailtiu, who died of exhaustion after clearing the plains of Ireland for agriculture. The first location of the Áenach Tailteann gathering was at Telltown, located between Navan and Kells. Historically, the Áenach Tailteann was a time for contests of strength and skill, and a favored time for contracting marriages and winter lodgings. A peace was declared at the festival, and religious celebrations were also held. The festival survived as the Taillten Fair, and was revived for a period in the twentieth century as the Telltown Games.[5][6]

A similar Lughnasadh festival was held at Carmun (whose exact location is under dispute). Carmun is also believed to have been a goddess of the Celts, perhaps one with a similar story as Tailtiu.[6]


Gaulish Edrinios

A festival corresponding to Lughnasadh may have been observed by the Gauls at least up to the first century; on the Coligny calendar, the eighth day of the first half of the month Edrinios, is marked with the inscription TIOCOBREXTIO that identifies other major feasts. The same date was later adopted for the meeting of all the representatives of Gaul at the Condate Altar in Gallo-Roman times. During the reign of Augustus Caesar the Romans instituted a celebration on August 1 to the genius of the emperor in Lyon, capital of Roman Gaul. Lyon (modern French) derives from the Latinized Gaulish word "Lugdunum" ("Lugodunon" in Gaulish), literally "Lugh's (Lug) fortress (dunon)".

Gaelic folklore

In Gaelic Ireland, Lughnasadh was a favored time for handfastings — trial marriages that would generally last a year and a day, with the option of ending the contract before the new year, or later formalizing it as a more permanent marriage.[5][7][8][9]

Modern day celebration

On mainland Europe and in Ireland many people continue to celebrate the holiday with bonfires and dancing. The Christian church has established the ritual of blessing the fields on this day. In the Irish diaspora, survivals of the Lúnasa festivities are often seen by some families still choosing August as the traditional time for family reunions and parties, though due to modern work schedules these events have sometimes been moved to adjacent secular holidays, such as the Fourth of July in the United States.[5][7]

Neopaganism

Lughnasadh is observed by Neopagans in various forms, and by a variety of names. As forms of Neopaganism can be quite different and have very different origins, these representations can vary considerably despite the shared name. Some celebrate in a manner as close as possible to how the Ancient Celts and Living Celtic cultures have maintained the traditions, while others observe the holiday with rituals drawn from numerous other sources, Celtic culture being only one of the sources used.[10][11][12]

Celtic Reconstructionism

Like other Polytheistic Reconstructionist traditions, Celtic Reconstructionists place emphasis on historical accuracy, and base their celebrations and rituals on traditional lore from the living Celtic cultures, as well as research into the older beliefs of the polytheistic Celts. Celtic Reconstructionists who follow Gaelic traditions tend to celebrate Lughnasadh at the time of first fruits, or on the full moon that falls closest to this time. In the Northeastern United States, this is often the time of the blueberry harvest, while in the Pacific Northwest the blackberries are often the festival fruit.[7][13]

In Celtic Reconstructionism (CR), Lúnasa is seen as a time to give thanks to the spirits and deities for the beginning of the harvest season, and to propitiate them with offerings and prayers to not harm the still-ripening crops. The god Lugh is honored by many at this time, as he is a deity of storms and lightning, especially the storms of late summer. Gentle rain on the day of the festival is seen as his presence and his bestowing of blessings. Many CRs also honor the goddess Tailtiu on this day, and may seek to keep the Cailleachan ("Storm Hags") from damaging the crops, much in the way appeals are made to Lugh.[7][13][14][15]

Wicca

Lughnasadh or Lammas is also the name used for one of the eight sabbats in the Wiccan Wheel of the Year. It is the first of the three autumn harvest festivals, the other two being the Autumn equinox (also called Mabon by Wiccans) and Samhain. It is seen as one of the two most auspicious times for handfasting, the other being at Beltane.[16] Some Wiccans mark the holiday by baking a figure of the "corn god" in bread, and then symbolically sacrificing and eating it.[17]

References

^ Grundy, Valerie; Cróinín, Breandán, Ó; O Croinin, Breandan (2000). The Oxford pocket Irish dictionary: Béarla-Gaeilge, Gaeilge-Béarla =; English-Irish, Irish-English. Oxford [England]: Oxford University Press. pp. 479. ISBN 0-19-860254-5.
^ O'Donaill, Niall (1992). Focloir Poca English - Irish / Irish - English Dictionary - Gaeilge / Bearla (Irish Edition). French European Pubns. pp. 809, 811. ISBN 0-8288-1708-1.
^ Macbain, Alexander (1998). Etymological dictionary of Scottish-Gaelic. New York, NY: Hippocrene Books. p. 236. ISBN 0-7818-0632-1.
^ MacKillop, James (1998). Dictionary of Celtic mythology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 72. ISBN 0-19-280120-1.
^ a b c McNeill, F. Marian (1959) The Silver Bough, Vol. 2. William MacLellan, Glasgow ISBN 0-85335-162-7 pp.94-101
^ a b MacKillop, James (1998) A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology. Oxford, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280120-1 pp.309-10, 395-6, 76, 20
^ a b c d Danaher, Kevin (1972) The Year in Ireland: Irish Calendar Customs Dublin, Mercier. ISBN 1-85635-093-2 pp.167-186
^ Chadwick, Nora (1970) The Celts London, Penguin. ISBN 0-14-021211-6 p. 181
^ O'Donovan, J., O'Curry, E., Hancock, W. N., O'Mahony, T., Richey, A. G., Hennessy, W. M., & Atkinson, R. (eds.) (2000). Ancient laws of Ireland, published under direction of the Commissioners for Publishing the Ancient Laws and Institutes of Ireland. Buffalo, New York: W.S. Hein. ISBN 1-57588-572-7. (Originally published: Dublin: A. Thom, 1865-1901. Alternatively known as Hiberniae leges et institutiones antiquae.)
^ Adler, Margot (1979, revised edition 2006) Drawing Down the Moon: Witches, Druids, Goddess-Worshippers, and Other Pagans in America Today. Boston, Beacon Press ISBN 0-8070-3237-9. pp.3, 243-299
^ McColman, Carl (2003) Complete Idiot's Guide to Celtic Wisdom. Alpha Press ISBN 0-02-864417-4. p.51
^ Hutton, Ronald. The Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles. Oxford, Blackwell. pp. 331–341. ISBN 0-631-18946-7.
^ a b McColman (2003) pp.12, 51
^ Bonewits, Isaac (2006) Bonewits's Essential Guide to Druidism. New York, Kensington Publishing Group ISBN 0-8065-2710-2. pp.186-7, 128-140
^ McNeill, F. Marian (1957) The Silver Bough, Vol. 1. William MacLellan, Glasgow ISBN 0-85335-161-9 p.119
^ Farrar, Janet & Stewart (1981) "Eight Sabbats for Witches". Phoenix Publishing. ISBN 0-919345-26-3 pp.102-3, 106
^ Starhawk (1979, 1989) The Spiral Dance: A Rebirth of the Ancient Religion of the Great Goddess. New York, Harper and Row ISBN 0-06-250814-8 pp.191-2 (revised edition)


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