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 Lince Rossa - La lince

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AutoreMessaggio
Tila
Iniziato Sciamano
Iniziato Sciamano


Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Lince Rossa - La lince   Sab 6 Nov 2010 - 17:17

Admin, come noterai anche oggi apro una scheda dedicata ad un animale molto puccioso Very Happy

La prima parte è dedicata alle caratteristiche grazie ai documenti di wikipedia...

buona lettura...

FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lynx_%28genere%29

Lynx (genere)
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Lince è il nome comune dei felini del genere Lynx (Kerr 1792).

Le linci hanno una coda corta, e generalmente dei ciuffi di peli sulle punte delle orecchie. Pesano da 5 a circa 30 kg e hanno un'altezza alla spalla di 55 cm. Frequentano soprattutto gli ambienti forestali non omogenei (con radure, canaloni, ecc.) e non troppo fitti, dove si trovano le prede di cui si nutrono (prevalentemente Ungulati, come il Capriolo, e Lagomorfi). La lince preda tipicamente all'agguato, percorrendo durante lo scatto per raggiungere la preda una distanza media di circa 5-20m. Generalmente le linci aiutano a migliorare le condizioni del territorio eliminando gli individui deboli, malati, e vecchi. Occasionalmente possono attaccare animali domestici. Sono tolleranti nei confronti della presenza umana, purché sia possibile trovare prede a sufficienza per sfamare la popolazione.

Il genere Lynx si suddivide in 4 specie:

* Lince europea o eurasiatica (Lynx lynx), detta anche Cerviere o Lupo cerviere
* Lince pardina o spagnola o iberica (Lynx pardinus)
* Lince rossa, (Lynx rufus), la più diffusa in America, detta anche bobcat
* Lince canadese (Lynx canadensis)

Indice
[nascondi]

* 1 La presenza
* 2 Curiosità
* 3 Bibliografia
* 4 Voci correlate
* 5 Altri progetti
* 6 Collegamenti esterni

La presenza [modifica]


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lynx_kitten.jpg

Sulle Alpi era un tempo presente la sottospecie Lynx lynx alpina, oggi probabilmente estinta. In Italia la presenza della lince è ben documentata sulle Alpi Giulie (Provincia di Udine) in particolare nelle Valli del Natisone e Torre, nella Val Resia e Val Canale dove è giunta dalla vicina Slovenia. Dopo un progetto di ripopolamento che ha avuto scarso successo, è presente, in modo estremamente sporadico anche nel Parco Nazionale del Gran Paradiso la Lince europea nella sottospecie Lynx lynx carpathicus.

La lince è presente anche nel parco nazionale d'Abruzzo, dove almeno fin agli inizi del XX secolo la presenza è certa, confermata in numerosi documenti di ricercatori e studiosi dell'epoca. Dal 1970 sono iniziate nuove ricerche intensificate poi dal Gruppo lince Italia che ha dimostrato la presenza della specie, almeno per quanto riguarda gli ultimi tre decenni del Novecento. Si può quindi ipotizzare che un gruppo relitto di individui sia sopravvissuto nelle zone più remote dell'Appennino centrale. Mancano però tuttora analisi genetiche in grado di stabilire a che specie o sottospecie appartengano questi individui.

Fonti incerte parlano inoltre di avvistamenti anche nell'appennino Tosco-Emiliano dove sono già presenti coppie stanziali di lupi.

La lince rossa Lynx rufus, più piccola della lince europea, è il felino più diffuso negli USA dove prende il nome di wildcat o bobcat.

Fra le sottospecie di lince eurasiatica alcuni autori presentano la lince della Sardegna Lynx lynx sardiniae MOLA, 1908 di cui non c’è alcun riferimento in alcun museo, non ci sono resti di nessun tipo. Indagini condotte dalla Regione Sardegna non hanno riscontrato la presenza di una lince neanche allo stato fossile, per tanto la lince in Sardegna non è mai esistita. Mola la descrive sommariamente, come un grosso gatto selvatico.(Stefano Orga – direttore del Museo Zoologico di Avellino)
Curiosità [modifica]

* Dal termine "Lince" in inglese (lynx) deriva il nome del browser testuale Lynx, per l'assonanza con Links.
* La lince o lonza nei bestiari medievali simboleggiava la lussuria e Dante riprese questa allegoria nel primo canto dell'Inferno. Probabilmente aveva visto uno di questi felini (o una specie di pantera) in una delle gabbie di leoni che la Repubblica di Firenze era solita allevare vicino a Palazzo Vecchio.
* Scrisse Plinio: "L'orina delle linci si solidifica così come viene emessa e si rappresenta in pietre simili al carbonchio, risplendenti di un colore rosso, che chiamano lincurio; perciò alcuni autori sostengono che l'ambra si genera così. Ne sono ben consapevoli le linci che, per gelosia, ricoprono di terra la loro orina e questa, perciò, tanto più velocemente si consolida."

Bibliografia [modifica]

* Mossolin, Francesco: La Lince appenninica. Svelato il mistero del "Gattopardo"?, Guerra edizioni, Perugia, 2009, ISBN 978-88-557-0184-6.



FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lynx_rufus


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bobcat2.jpg

Lynx rufus
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

La lince rossa (Lynx rufus) è molto somigliante alla lince canadese, dalla quale differisce per il mantello più colorato, chiazzato di bruno e di grigio, per la coda più lunga, le zampe più corte e i ciuffi all'apice delle orecchie meno lunghi. Il cranio, più arrotondato di quello della lince comune del Canada, differisce pure per la minore capacità. La coda della lince rossa termina con un manicotto di peli bianchi, più o meno appariscente, mentre nella lince canadese questo manicotto è nero.

Lo zoologo S. Young pubblicò nel 1958 una monografia sulla lince rossa, dalla quale si apprende il peso delle più grandi linci rosse catturate. Esso varia da 18 a 34 kg; quest'ultimo peso è quello di un maschio abbattuto nel Colorado nel 1951. La maggior parte però delle linci rosse uccise pesavano da 4,5 a 13 kg.
Indice
[nascondi]

* 1 Sottospecie
* 2 Distribuzione geografica
* 3 Cacciatrice molto discreta
* 4 Riproduzione
* 5 Nemici e longevità
* 6 Bibliografia
* 7 Altri progetti

Sottospecie [modifica]

Attualmente vengono riconosciute dodici sottospecie di lince rossa:

* L. rufus rufus (Schreber) – Stati Uniti orientali e centrooccidentali
* L. rufus gigas (Bangs) – dal New York settentrionale fino alla Nuova Scozia e al New Brunswick
* L. rufus floridanus (Rafinesque) – Stati Uniti sudorientali ed interno della valle del Mississippi, fino al Missouri Sudoccidentale e all'Illinois meridionale
* L. rufus superiorensis (Peterson & Downing) – area dei Grandi Laghi occidentale, compreso Michigan settentrionale, Wisconsin, Ontario meridionale e la maggior parte del Minnesota
* L. rufus baileyi (Merriam) – Stati Uniti sudoccidentali e Messico nordoccidentale
* L. rufus californicus (Mearns) – California ad ovest della Sierra Nevada
* L. rufus escuinipae (J. A. Allen) – Messico centrale, con una estensione verso nord lungo la costa occidentale del Sonora meridionale
* L. rufus fasciatus (Rafinesque) – Oregon, Washington ad ovest della Catena delle Cascate, California nordorientale e Columbia Britannica sudoccidentale
* L. rufus oaxacensis (Goodwin) – Oaxaco, in Messico
* L. rufus pallescens (Merriam) – Stati Uniti nordoccidentali e Columbia Britannica meridionale, Alberta e Saskatchewan
* L. rufus peninsularis (Thomas) – Baja California
* L. rufus texensis (Mearns) – Louisiana occidentale, Texas orientale, Oklahoma centromeridionale, e a sud nel Tamaulipas, Nuevo León e Coahuila, in Messico

Distribuzione geografica [modifica]

La lince rossa vive nella maggior parte degli Stati Uniti, nonché nel Messico settentrionale e centrale, dove abbonda sull'altopiano centrale e sui monti. Il suo limite meridionale coincide con quello delle foreste tropicali. Vive pure nella cordigliera vulcanica del Messico centrale, ma non discende nel bacino del Rio Balsas. A nord la lince rossa arriva fino al Lago Superiore. La troviamo, infine, nelle province canadesi del Quebec, del New Brunswick e della Nuova Scozia. S. Young ha pubblicato la foto di un esemplare albino, completamente bianco e con gli occhi rossi, catturato al laccio e vivente presso il padrone di una fattoria, situata nei pressi di Edna, in California. Vi sono pure linci rosse melaniche cioè completamente nere, ma sono rare.

Cacciatrice molto discreta

Grazie al suo modo di vivere, particolarmente discreto, la lince rossa è riuscita a sopravvivere in posti dove tutti gli altri grandi carnivori sono scomparsi. Principalmente notturna, essa non è legata ad alcun particolare biotopo; s'incontra infatti nei più disparati ambienti naturali. Quando non viene disturbata dall'uomo, è attiva anche durante il giorno. D'altronde, molto spesso vive nelle vicinanze delle installazioni umane, pur senza destare l'attenzione del suo mortale nemico. Il modo di vivere della lince rossa era praticamente ignorato prima dell'importante studio condotto dallo zoologo americano T. N. Bailey, tra il 1969 e il 1972, nella parte sud-orientale dell'Idaho. Nel corso di questa ricerca furono catturate, e quindi di nuovo lasciate libere, 66 linci rosse; 17 di queste bestie erano state fornite da Bailey di un apparecchio radio trasmittente. Questo apparecchio permise infatti allo studioso di seguire le peregrinazioni delle sue linci attraverso macchie e boschi. La lince rossa vive più volentieri nei terreni rocciosi accidentati, dove le prede sono abbondanti e più facile riesce la caccia alla posta. In Florida e in Louisiana essa si trova nelle foreste di magnolie e nelle giungle paludose. Non teme le elevate altitudini e M. Carry ha notato le sue tracce a 3300 m sul monte Mc Lellan, nel Colorado.

Il territorio dei maschi comprende parecchi territori di femmine, ma gli incontri tra loro sono molto rari, a causa delle marche odorose, urina e deiezioni, che le linci depositano in differenti, importanti punti del loro territorio. Una lince, fiutando una marca fresca, avverte il recente passaggio di un altro simile e, per evitare d'incontrarlo, prende un'altra direzione. L'urina proiettata contro le rocce e i colpi di artigli sui tronchi degli alberi costituiscono degli efficaci segnali «stradali».

La lince rossa si sposta molto. La madre però non si allontana più di un paio di chilometri dalla tana, quando alleva la prole. Il territorio dei maschi può coprire 110 km², mentre quello delle femmine non supera i 10 km². Questo felide si nutre soprattutto di piccoli mammiferi. Nell'Idaho le lepri costituiscono il 90% della sua alimentazione. Questa lince cattura anche gli uccelli e talvolta il cervo mulo soccombe ai suoi attacchi. Tuttavia la lotta tra il predatore e la sua grossa preda spesso si rivela pericolosa anche per l'aggressore, come testimoniano i crani di linci che presentano gravi fratture. È superfluo dire che per un animale come la lince rossa, la cui distribuzione geografica è tanto vasta, il regime alimentare e le prede cambiano da una regione all'altra e secondo le stagioni. S. Young, nel suo studio condotto sull'insieme degli Stati Uniti (3538 stomachi esaminati), ha rilevato la presenza delle seguenti prede, espresse in percentuale in base al numero di stomachi nei quali esse sono state trovate: roditori 45%, lepri 45%, cervidi 4%, piccoli animali 2%, selvaggina da penna 1%, serpenti e lucertole 1%. Nella pianura del Mississippi e del Missouri alcune linci rosse si nutrono regolarmente di gatti domestici. Nel menù della lince rossa figurano anche l'orsacchiotto, l'opossum, la lontra, le donnole, il tacchino selvatico, l'airone, il cane delle praterie, alcuni crostacei, l'antilocapra, il muflone di Dall e le quaglie.

La lince rossa individua le sue prede per mezzo della vista e dell'udito finissimo. Si avvicina con discrezione e attacca sempre di sorpresa. Essa è ritenuta maestra in questa difficile arte, che le permette di catturare le lepri, molto più veloci, le quali riescono a scappar via, quando la lince sbaglia il salto.

Come gli altri predatori, la lince vede aumentare il suo numero in periodo di abbondanza e, al contrario, diminuire quando le prede diventano rare, in seguito a malattie o ad avverse condizioni atmosferiche.

La lince rossa non teme affatto l'acqua, anzi ci va molto di buon grado per pescare. È ottima e veloce nuotatrice. Nell'Oregon il naturalista J. Yoakum ha osservato parecchie volte linci rosse che saltavano in acqua per prendere i pesci. Durante l'estate, quando forte è la calura, le linci a volte si bagnano nell'acqua poco profonda dei fiumi e dei laghi. La lince rossa miagola e fa le fusa; la sua voce somiglia a quella del nostro gatto domestico, ma è più sonora.

Questo felide è un animale solitario. Il maschio si scorge in compagnia della femmina solo durante la stagione della riproduzione.
Riproduzione [modifica]

La femmina della lince rossa partorisce da febbraio a giugno, in una caverna o sotto blocchi di rocce. A volte si verificano figliate tardive, in agosto. La gestazione dura da 62 a 70 giorni circa. Il numero dei piccoli è di 2-3 per ciascuna figliata; essi pesano alla nascita da 280 a 300 grammi, e aprono gli occhi tra il 6° ed il 9º giorno.

Bailey ha constatato che le femmine restano fedeli alla loro tana, quando non sono molestate, e che vi tornano ogni anno per partorirvi. All'età di 3 mesi i figli lasciano la tana, in compagnia della madre.

Su 150 linci rosse catturate con le trappole nel Nuovo Messico, si sono contati 78 maschi e 72 femmine. Il «Fish and Wildlife Service» dell'Arizona ha registrato la proporzione del 55,7% di maschi e del 44,3% di femmine, su 8703 linci rosse uccise dal luglio 1919 al 30 giugno 1944.
Nemici e longevità [modifica]

Se si eccettua l'uomo, la lince rossa ha pochi nemici naturali. Tuttavia, a volte, è attaccata dal puma, come testimoniano parecchie osservazioni fatte da naturalisti degni di fede, nel 1941, nel 1949 e nel luglio 1950, nell'Utah.

S. Young segnala 11 linci rosse che, in cattività, raggiunsero un'età superiore ai 10 anni. Di esse 4 vissero 15 anni. Nel 1955 Carter pubblicò una nota relativa ad una bella lince rossa maschio, del peso di 15 kg, morta all'età di 25 anni in un giardino zoologico privato americano.
Bibliografia [modifica]

* Wozencraft, W. C. (16 December 2005). in Wilson, D. E., and Reeder, D. M. (eds): Mammal Species of the World, 3rd edition, Johns Hopkins University Press, 542-543. ISBN 0-8018-8221-4.
* Kelly, M., Caso, A. & Lopez Gonzalez, C. 2008. Lynx rufus. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Versione 2010.1
* Zielinski, William J; Kuceradate, Thomas E, American Marten, Fisher, Lynx, and Wolverine: Survey Methods for Their Detection, DIANE Publishing1998, 77–8 ISBN 0-7881-3628-3
* Carron Meaney; Gary P. Beauvais. Species Assessment for Canada Lynx (Lynx Canadensis) in Wyoming (PDF). United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, settembre 2004. URL consultato il 2007-06-25.
* Johnson, W.E., Eizirik, E., Pecon-Slattery, J., Murphy, W.J., Antunes, A., Teeling, E. & O'Brien, S.J. (2006). The Late Miocene radiation of modern Felidae: A genetic assessment.. Science 311: 73–77.
* Mills, L. Scott, Conservation of Wildlife Populations: Demography, Genetics, and Management, Blackwell PublishingNov 2006, 48 ISBN 1-4051-2146-7
* Wilson, Don E; Ruff, Sue, The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals, Smithsonian Institution PressSep 1999, 234–5 ISBN 1-56098-845-2
* Deletion of bobcat (Lynx rufus) from Appendix II (PDF) in Thirteenth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties, Proposal 5. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, ottobre 2004. URL consultato il 2007-05-31.
* Cahalane, Victor H, Meeting the Mammals, Kessinger Publishing2005-03-01, 64 ISBN 1-4179-9522-X
* Sparano, Vin T, Complete Outdoors Encyclopedia, St. Martin's PressSeptember 1998, 228 ISBN 0-312-19190-1
* McDowell, Robert L, Endangered and Threatened Wildlife of New Jersey, Rutgers University PressApr 2003, 23–4, 27 ISBN 0-8135-3209-4
* Fergus, Charles, Wildlife of Virginia and Maryland Washington D.C, Stackpole Books2003-08-01, 119 ISBN 0-8117-2821-8
* Nowell, K. and Jackson, P. (1996). Wild Cats. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. (PDF). IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
* Sikes, Robert S. (1992) Morphologic Variation of the Bobcat (Felis rufus) in the Eastern United States and Its Association with Selected Environmental Variables. American Midland Naturalist 128 (2): 313–324.
* Ulmer, Jr., Fred A. (1941). Melanism in the Felidae, with Special Reference to the Genus Lynx. Journal of Mammalogy 22 (3): 285-288.
* Bobcat in bcadventure.com. Interactive Broadcasting Corporation. URL consultato il 2007-06-25.
* Peterson, Roger Tory; Murie, Olaus Johan, A Field Guide to Animal Tracks, Houghton Mifflin Field Guides1998-01-15, 115 ISBN 0-395-91094-3
* Tom Brown, Tom Brown's Field Guide to Nature Observation and Tracking, Berkley Trade, 1986. ISBN 9780425099667
* Whitaker, John O; Hamilton, W J, Mammals of the Eastern United States, Cornell University Press1998-01-01, 493–6 ISBN 0-8014-3475-0
* Kamler, JF (Jul-Sep 2000) Home Range, Habitat Selection, and Survival of Bobcats, Lynx rufus, in a Prairie Ecosystem in Kansas. Canadian Field-Naturalist 114 (3): 388–94.
* Lovallo, Matthew J. (aprile 1996) Bobcat (Lynx rufus) Home Range Size and Habitat Use in Northwest Wisconsin. American Midland Naturalist 135 (2): 247–8.
* Nielsen, Clayton K. (luglio 2001) Spatial Organization of Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Southern Illinois. The American Midland Naturalist 146 (1): 43–52.
* Chamberlain, Michael I. (2003) Space use, movements and habitat selection of adult bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Central Mississippi. The American Midland Naturalist 149 (2): 395–405.
* Baker, Leslie A. (gennaio 2001) Prey Selection by Reintroduced Bobcats (Lynx rufus) on Cumberland Island, Georgia. The American Midland Naturalist 145 (1): 80–93. DOI:10.1674/0003-0031(2001).
* Labisky, Ronald F. (aprile 1998) Behaviors of Bobcats Preying on White-tailed Deer in the Everglades. The American Midland Naturalist 139 (2): 275–281.
* Major, JT (1987) Interspecific relationships of coyotes, bobcats, and red foxes in western Maine. Journal of Wildlife Management 51 (3): 606–616.
* Fischer, William C.; Miller, Melanie; Johnston, Cameron M.; Smith, Jane K., Fire Effects Information System, DIANE Publishing1996-02-01, 83 ISBN 0-7881-4568-1
* Nowak, Ronald M, Walker's Mammals of the World, Johns Hopkins University PressApr 1999, 809 ISBN 0-8018-5789-9
* Janečka, JE (agosto 2006) Kinship and social structure of bobcats (Lynx rufus) inferred from microsatellite and radio-telemetry data. Journal of Zoology 269 (4): 494–501. DOI:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00099.x.
* Holly Akenson, James Akenson, Howard Quigley. Winter Predation and Interactions of Wolves and Cougars on Panther Creek in Central Idaho in Wildlife: Wolves. Yellowstone National Park
* Fuller, Todd K. (ottobre 1995) Survival and Cause-Specific Mortality Rates of Adult Bobcats (Lynx rufus). American Midland Naturalist 134 (2). DOI:10.2307/2426311.
* Kikuchi, Yoko, Chomel, Bruno B; Kasten, Rickie W; Martenson, Janice S; Swift, Pamela K; O'Brien, Stephen J (Feb 2004). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in American free-ranging or captive pumas (Felis concolor) and bobcats (Lynx rufus). Veterinary Parasitology 120 (1–2): 1–9.
* Feldhamer, George A; Thompson, Bruce C; Chapman, Joseph A, Wild Mammals of North America, Johns Hopkins University Press2004-01-01, 769–70 ISBN 0-8018-7416-5
* Bobcats: Living on the Urban Edge. National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. URL consultato il 2007-06-18.
* Tobin, Dave. «Elusive Bobcat Creeps into Region». Syracuse Post-Standard, 2007-05-31.
* National Park Service. Yellowstone National Park. Bobcat
* Appendices I, II and III. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. URL consultato il 2007-05-24.
* Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Petition Finding and Proposed Rule To Delist the Mexican Bobcat (Lynx Rufus Escuinapae). Fish and Wildlife Service, May 2005. URL consultato il 2007-06-27.
* (Nov 1996). "Bobcat Harvest Assessment 1995–96". California Department of Fish and Game.
* Pollock, Donald (Mar 1993). Histoire de Lynx, Review. American Anthropologist 95 (1): 223.
* Yalman, Nur (Nov 1996). Lévi-Strauss in Wonderland: Playing Chess with Unusual Cats: The Story of Lynx. American Ethnologist 23 (4): 902.
* Florida Bobcat Bio Facts. Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens, 2005. URL consultato il 2007-06-27.
* Kroeber, A. L. (Apr-Jun 1908). Preliminary Sketch of the Mohave Indians. American Anthropologist 4 (2): 279.
* Kerry Temple. Wood Ghost. Notre Dame Magazine, Spring 1996. URL consultato il 2007-06-25.



FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bobcat_lynx_rufus.jpg


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bobcat

Bobcat
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Bobcat (Lynx rufus) is a North American mammal of the cat family, Felidae. With twelve recognized subspecies, it ranges from southern Canada to northern Mexico, including most of the continental United States. The Bobcat is an adaptable predator that inhabits wooded areas, as well as semi-desert, urban edge, forest edges and swampland environments. It persists in much of its original range and populations are healthy.

With a gray to brown coat, whiskered face, and black-tufted ears, the Bobcat resembles the other species of the mid-sized Lynx genus. It is smaller than the Canada Lynx, with which it shares parts of its range, but is about twice as large as the domestic cat. It has distinctive black bars on its forelegs and a black-tipped, stubby tail, from which it derives its name.

Though the Bobcat prefers rabbits and hares, it will hunt anything from insects and small rodents to deer. Prey selection depends on location and habitat, season, and abundance. Like most cats, the bobcat is territorial and largely solitary, although there is some overlap in home ranges. It uses several methods to mark its territorial boundaries, including claw marks and deposits of urine or feces. The Bobcat breeds from winter into spring and has a gestation period of about two months.

Although Bobcats have been hunted extensively by humans, both for sport and fur, their population has proven resilient. The elusive predator features in Native American mythology and the folklore of European settlers.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Taxonomy
o 1.1 Subspecies
* 2 Physical characteristics
* 3 Behavior
o 3.1 Social structure and home range
o 3.2 Hunting and diet
o 3.3 Reproduction and life cycle
* 4 Tracks
* 5 Ecology
* 6 Distribution and habitat
* 7 Conservation
* 8 In mythology
* 9 See also
* 10 References
* 11 External links

[edit] Taxonomy

There had been debate over whether to classify this species as Lynx rufus or Felis rufus as part of a wider issue regarding whether the four species of Lynx should be given their own genus, or be placed as a subgenus of Felis.[3][4] The Lynx genus is now accepted, and the Bobcat is listed as Lynx rufus in modern taxonomic sources.

Johnson et al. report that Lynx shared a clade with the Puma, Leopard Cat (Prionailurus), and Domestic Cat (Felis) lineages, dated to 7.15 million years ago (mya); Lynx diverged first, approximately 3.24 mya.[5]

The Bobcat is believed to have evolved from the Eurasian Lynx, which crossed into North America by way of the Bering land bridge during the Pleistocene, with progenitors arriving as early as 2.6 mya.[4] The first wave moved into the southern portion of North America, which was soon cut off from the north by glaciers. This population evolved into modern Bobcats around 20,000 years ago. A second population arrived from Asia and settled in the north, developing into the modern Canada Lynx.[3] Hybridization between the Bobcat and the Canada lynx may sometimes occur (see felid hybrid).[6]
[edit] Subspecies

Twelve Bobcat subspecies are currently recognized:

* L. rufus rufus (Schreber) – eastern and midwestern United States
* L. rufus gigas (Bangs) – northern New York to Nova Scotia and New Brunswick
* L. rufus floridanus (Rafinesque) – southeastern United States and inland to the Mississippi valley, up to southwestern Missouri and southern Illinois
* L. rufus superiorensis (Peterson & Downing) – western Great Lakes area, including upper Michigan, Wisconsin, southern Ontario, and most of Minnesota
* L. rufus baileyi (Merriam) – southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico
* L. rufus californicus (Mearns) – California west of the Sierra Nevada
* L. rufus escuinipae (J. A. Allen) – central Mexico, with a northern extension along the west coast to southern Sonora
* L. rufus fasciatus (Rafinesque) – Oregon, Washington west of the Cascade Range, northwestern California, and southwestern British Columbia
* L. rufus oaxacensis (Goodwin) – Oaxaca
* L. rufus pallescens (Merriam) – northwestern United States and southern British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan
* L. rufus peninsularis (Thomas) – Baja California
* L. rufus texensis (Mearns) – western Louisiana, Texas, south central Oklahoma, and south into Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, and Coahuila[1][7]

The subspecies division has been challenged, given a lack of clear geographic breaks in the Bobcat range and the minor differences between subspecies.[8]

[edit] Physical characteristics

The Bobcat resembles other species of the Lynx genus but is on average the smallest of the four. Its coat is variable, though generally tan to grayish brown, with black streaks on the body and dark bars on the forelegs and tail. Its spotted patterning acts as camouflage. The ears are black-tipped and pointed, with short black tufts. There is generally an off-white color on the lips, chin, and underparts. Bobcats in the desert regions of the southwest have the lightest colored coats, while those in the northern, forested regions are darkest. Kittens are born well-furred and already have their spots.[9] A few melanistic Bobcats have been sighted and captured in Florida. They appear black, but may actually still exhibit a spot pattern.[10]

The face appears wide due to ruffs of extended hair beneath the ears. The fur is brittle but quite long and dense. The nose of the Bobcat is pinkish-red, and it has a base color of gray or yellowish- or brownish-red on its face, sides, and back. Bobcat eyes are yellow with black pupils.[11] The pupils are round black circles and will widen during nocturnal activity to maximize light reception.[12] The cat has sharp hearing and vision, and a good sense of smell. It is an excellent climber, and will swim when it needs to, but will normally avoid water.[13]

The adult male Bobcat is 28 to 40 inches (71 to 100 cm) long, averaging 35 inches (89 cm); with a stubby 4 to 7 inches (10 to 18 cm) tail,[11] which has a "bobbed" appearance and gives the species its name. An adult stands about 20 to 24 inches (51 to 61 cm) at the shoulders.[9] Adult males usually range from 20 to 30 pounds (9.1 to 14 kg); females average about 13 to 21 pounds (5.9 to 9.5 kg).[14] The largest bobcat accurately measured on record weighed 48.9 pounds (22.2 kg), although there are unverified reports of them reaching 59 pounds (27 kg).[15][16] The Bobcat is muscular, and its hind legs are longer than its front legs, giving it a bobbing gait. At birth it weighs 0.6 to 0.75 pound (270 to 340 g) and is about 10 inches (25 cm) in length. By its first year it will reach about 10 pounds (4.5 kg).[13]

The cat is larger in its northern range and in open habitats.[17] A morphological size comparison study in the eastern United States found a divergence in the location of the largest male and female specimens, suggesting differing selection constraints for the sexes.[18]
[edit] Behavior

The Bobcat is crepuscular. It keeps on the move from three hours before sunset until about midnight, and then again from before dawn until three hours after sunrise. Each night it will move from 2 to 7 miles (3.2 to 11 km) along its habitual route.[13] This behavior may vary seasonally, as Bobcats become more diurnal during fall and winter. This is a response to the activity of their prey, which are more active during the day in colder months.[12]

[edit] Social structure and home range

Bobcat activities are confined to well-defined territories, which vary in size depending on gender and the distribution of prey. The home range is marked with feces, urine scent, and by clawing prominent trees in the area. In its territory the Bobcat will have numerous places of shelter: usually a main den, and several auxiliary shelters on the outer extent of its range, such as hollow logs, brush piles, thickets, or under rock ledges. Its den smells strongly of the Bobcat.[19]

The sizes of Bobcat's home ranges vary significantly; a World Conservation Union (IUCN) summary of research suggests ranges anywhere from 0.02 to 126 sq mi (0.052 to 330 km2).[17] One study in Kansas found resident males to have roughly an 8 sq mi (21 km2) range and females less than half that area. Transient Bobcats were found to have both a larger (roughly 22 sq mi/57 km2) and less well-defined home range. Kittens had the smallest range at about 3 sq mi (7.8 km2).[20] Research has shown that dispersal from the natal range is most pronounced with males.[21]

Reports on seasonal variation in range size have been equivocal. One study found a large variation in male range sizes, from 16 sq mi (41 km2) in summer up to 40 sq mi (100 km2) in winter.[19] Another found that female Bobcats, especially those which were reproductively active, expanded their home range in winter, but that males merely shifted their range without expanding it, which was consistent with numerous earlier studies.[22] Other research in various American states has shown little or no seasonal variation.[20][23][24]

Like most felines, the Bobcat is largely solitary but ranges will often overlap. Unusually for a cat, males are more tolerant of overlap, while females rarely wander into others' ranges.[22] Given their smaller range sizes, two or more females may reside within a male's home range. When multiple male territories overlap a dominance hierarchy is often established resulting in the exclusion of some transients from favored areas.

In line with widely differing estimates of home range size, population density figures are divergent: anywhere from 1 to 38 Bobcats per 25 sq mi (65 km2) in one survey.[17] The average is estimated at one Bobcat per 5 square miles (10 km2).[19] A link has been observed between population density and sex ratio. One study noted that a dense, unharvested population in California had a sex ratio of 2.1 males per female. When the density decreased, the sex ratio skewed to 0.86 males per female. Another study observed a similar ratio, and suggested that males may be better able to cope with the increased competition, and that this would help limit reproduction until various factors lowered the density.[25]

[edit] Hunting and diet

The Bobcat is able to go for long periods without food, but will eat heavily when prey is abundant. During lean periods, it will often prey on larger animals that it can kill and return to feed on later. The Bobcat hunts by stalking its prey and then ambushing it with a short chase or pounce. Its preference is for mammals about 1.5 to 12.5 pounds (0.68 to 5.7 kg). Its main prey varies by region. In the eastern United States it is the Eastern Cottontail species, and in the north it is the Snowshoe Hare. When these prey species exist together, as in New England, they are the primary food sources of the Bobcat. In the far south, the rabbits and hare are sometimes replaced by Cotton Rats as the primary food source. The Bobcat is an opportunistic predator that, unlike the more specialized Canadian Lynx, will readily vary its prey selection.[17] Research has shown that diet diversification positively correlates to a decline in numbers of the Bobcat's principal prey; the abundance of its main prey species is the main determinant of overall diet.[26]

The Bobcat hunts animals of different sizes, and will adjust its hunting techniques accordingly. With small animals, such as rodents, squirrels, birds, fish and insects, it will hunt in areas known to be abundant in prey, and will lie, crouch, or stand and wait for victims to wander close. It will then pounce, grabbing its prey with its sharp, retractable claws. For slightly larger animals, such as rabbits and hares, it will stalk from cover and wait until they come within 20 to 35 feet (6.1 to 11 m) before rushing in to attack. Less commonly it will feed on larger animals such as foxes, minks, skunks, small dogs and domesticated cats.[19] Bobcats are considered the major predatory threat to the endangered Whooping Crane.[27] Bobcats are also occasional hunters of livestock and poultry. While larger species such as cattle and horses are not known to be attacked, Bobcats do present a threat to smaller ruminants such as sheep and goats. According to the National Agricultural Statistics Service, Bobcats killed 11,100 sheep in 2004, comprising 4.9% of all sheep predator deaths.[28] However, some amount of Bobcat predation may be misidentified, as Bobcats have been known to scavenge on the remains of livestock kills by other animals.[29]

It has been known to kill deer, especially in winter when smaller prey is scarce, or when deer populations become more abundant. One study in the Everglades showed a large majority of kills (33 of 39) were fawns, but that prey up to eight times the Bobcat's weight could be successfully taken.[30] It stalks the deer, often when the deer is lying down, then rushes in and grabs it by the neck before biting through the throat, base of the skull, or chest. On the rare occasions that a Bobcat kills a deer, it eats its fill and then buries the carcass under snow or leaves, often returning to it several times to feed.[19]

The Bobcat prey base overlaps with that of other mid-sized predators of a similar ecological niche. Research in Maine has shown little evidence of competitive relationships between the Bobcat and Coyote or Red Fox; separation distances and territory overlap appeared random amongst simultaneously monitored animals.[31] However, other studies have found that bobcat populations may decrease in areas with high coyote populations.[32] With the Canadian Lynx, however, the interspecific relationship affects distribution patterns: competitive exclusion by the Bobcat is likely to have prevented any further southward expansion of the range of its felid cousin.[4]
[edit] Reproduction and life cycle

Bobcats typically live to six or eight years of age, with a few reaching beyond ten. The longest they have been known to live is 16 years in the wild and 32 years in captivity.[25]

They generally begin breeding by their second summer, though females may start as early as their first year. Sperm production begins each year by September or October, and the male will be fertile into the summer. A dominant male will travel with a female and mate with her several times, generally from winter until early spring; this varies by location, but most mating takes place during February and March. The pair may undertake a number of different behaviors, including bumping, chasing, and ambushing. Other males may be in attendance, but remain uninvolved. Once the male recognizes that the female is receptive, he grasps her in the typical felid neck grip. The female may later go on to mate with other males,[19] and males will generally mate with several females.[33] During courtship, the otherwise silent Bobcat may let out loud screams, hisses, or other sounds.[34] Research in Texas has suggested that establishing a home range is necessary for breeding; studied animals with no set range had no identified offspring.[21] The female has an estrous cycle of 44 days, with the estrus lasting five to ten days. Bobcats remain reproductively active throughout their lives.[12][33]

The female raises the young alone. One to six, but usually two to four, kittens are born in April or May, after roughly 60 to 70 days of gestation. There may sometimes be a second litter, with births as late as September. The female generally gives birth in some sort of enclosed space, usually a small cave or hollow log. The young open their eyes by the ninth or tenth day. They start exploring their surroundings at four weeks and are weaned at about two months. Within three to five months they begin to travel with their mother.[34] They will be hunting by themselves by fall of their first year and usually disperse shortly thereafter.[19] In Michigan, however, they have been observed staying with their mother as late as the next spring.[33]

[edit] Tracks

Bobcat tracks show four toes without claw marks, due to their retractable claws. The tracks can range in size from 1 to 3 inches (2.5 to 7.6 cm); the average is about 1.8 inches[35] (as seen in photograph at left). When walking or trotting, the tracks are spaced roughly 8 to 18 inches (20 to 46 cm) apart. The Bobcat can make great strides when running, often from 4 to 8 feet (1.2 to 2.4 m).[36]

Like all cats, the Bobcat directly registers, meaning its hind prints usually fall exactly on top of its fore prints (not seen in photograph). Bobcat tracks can be generally distinguished from feral or house cat tracks by their larger size: approximately 2 square inches (13 cm²) versus 1½ square inches (10 cm²).[37]

[edit] Ecology

The adult Bobcat has few predators other than man, although it may be killed in interspecific conflict. Cougars and Gray Wolves will kill adult Bobcats, a behavior repeatedly observed in Yellowstone National Park.[38] Coyotes have killed adult bobcats and kittens.[39][40][41] Kittens may be taken by several predators including owls, eagles, foxes, as well as other adult male Bobcats; when prey populations are not abundant, fewer kittens are likely to reach adulthood.

Diseases, accidents, hunters, automobiles, and starvation are the other leading causes of death. Juveniles show high mortality shortly after leaving their mothers, while still perfecting their hunting technique. One study of 15 Bobcats showed yearly survival rates for both sexes averaged 0.62, in line with other research suggesting rates of 0.56 to 0.67.[42] There have also been reports of cannibalism occurring when prey levels are low, but it is very rare and does not significantly influence the population.[25]

The Bobcat may have external parasites, mostly ticks and fleas, and will often carry the parasites of its prey, especially those of rabbits and squirrels. Internal parasites (endoparasites) are especially common in Bobcats. One study found an average infection rate of 52% from Toxoplasma gondii, but with great regional variation.[43] One mite in particular, Lynxacarus morlani, has to date only been found on the Bobcat. It is still unclear how large a role parasites and diseases play in the mortality of the Bobcat, but they may account for greater mortality than starvation, accidents, and predation.[25]

edit] Distribution and habitat

The Bobcat is an exceptionally adaptable animal. It prefers woodlands—deciduous, coniferous, or mixed—but unlike the other Lynx species it does not depend exclusively on the deep forest. It ranges from the humid swamps of Florida to desert lands of Texas or rugged mountain areas. It will make its home near agricultural areas, if rocky ledges, swamps, or forested tracts are present, its spotted coat serving as camouflage.[19] The population of the Bobcat depends primarily on the population of its prey; other principal factors in the selection of habitat type include protection from severe weather, availability of resting and den sites, dense cover for hunting and escape, and freedom from disturbance.[8]

The Bobcat's range does not seem to be limited by human populations, as long as it can still find a suitable habitat; only large, intensively cultivated tracts are unsuitable for the species.[17] The animal may appear in backyards in "urban edge" environments, where human development intersects with natural habitats.[44] If chased by a dog it will usually climb up a tree.[19]

The historical range of the Bobcat was from southern Canada, throughout the United States, and as far south as the Mexican state of Oaxaca, and it still persists across much of this area. Range maps typically show a pocket of territory in the U.S. Midwest and parts of the Northeast where it is no longer thought to exist, including southern Minnesota, eastern South Dakota and much of Missouri, mostly due to habitat changes from modern agricultural practices.[12][17][19] While thought to no longer exist in western New York and Pennsylvania, multiple confirmed sightings of Bobcats (including dead specimens) have been recently reported in New York's Southern Tier and in central New York.[45] In addition, bobcats sightings have been confirmed in northern Indiana, and one was recently killed near Albion, Michigan.[46] In early March, 2010, a bobcat was sighted (and later captured by animal control authorities) in a parking garage in downtown Houston, TX.[47] In August and September, 2010, a number of sightings were reported in the Houston suburbs of Pearland and Friendswood.

Its population in Canada is limited due to both snow depth and the presence of the Canadian Lynx. The Bobcat does not tolerate deep snow, and will wait out heavy storms in sheltered areas;[48] it lacks the large, padded feet of the Canadian Lynx and can not support its weight on snow as efficiently. The Bobcat is not entirely at a disadvantage where its range meets that of the larger felid: displacement of the Canadian Lynx by the aggressive Bobcat has been observed where they interact in Nova Scotia, while the clearing of coniferous forests for agriculture has led to a northward retreat of the Canadian Lynx's range to the advantage of the Bobcat.[17] In northern and central Mexico, the cat is found in dry scrubland and forests of pine and oak; its range ends at the tropical southern portion of the country.[17]

On September 19, 2010, a Bobcat was found very close Cuyahoga Valley National Park in Boston Heights. The picture was taken at 1:40am with a motion activated camera in a resident's backyard, which bordered the park. The resident called the photo a "one in a million shot." It is possible that this is not a wild Bobcat, as it could have been released by an exotic animal collector.[49]

[edit] Conservation

The Bobcat is listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES),[50] which means it is not considered threatened with extinction, but that hunting and trading must be closely monitored. The animal is regulated in all three of its range countries and it is found in a number of protected areas of the United States, its principal territory.[17] Estimates from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service placed Bobcat numbers between 700,000 and 1,500,000 in the U.S. in 1988, with increased range and population density suggesting even greater numbers in subsequent years; for these reasons, the U.S. has petitioned CITES to remove the cat from Appendix II.[8] Populations in Canada and Mexico remain stable and healthy. The IUCN lists it as a species of "least concern", noting that it is relatively widespread and abundant, but that information from southern Mexico is poor.[2]

Today the species is considered endangered in Ohio, Indiana, and New Jersey. It was removed from the threatened list of Illinois in 1999 and of Iowa in 2003. In Pennsylvania limited hunting and trapping is once again allowed, after having been banned from 1970 to 1999. The Bobcat also suffered population declines in New Jersey at the turn of the nineteenth century, mainly because of commercial and agricultural developments causing habitat fragmentation; by 1972, the Bobcat was given full legal protection, and was listed as endangered in the state in 1991.[12] L. rufus escuinipae, the subspecies found in Mexico, was for a time considered endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, but was delisted in 2005.[51]

The Bobcat has long been valued both for fur and sport; it has been hunted and trapped by humans, but has maintained a high population, even in the southern United States where it is extensively hunted. Indirectly, kittens are most vulnerable to hunting given their dependence on an adult female for the first few months of life. The 1970s and 1980s saw an unprecedented rise in price for Bobcat fur causing further interest in hunting, but by the early 1990s prices had dropped significantly.[52] Regulated hunting still continues, with half of mortality of some populations being attributed to this cause. As a result, the rate of Bobcat deaths is skewed in winter, when hunting season is generally open.[25]
[edit] In mythology

In Native American mythology bobcat is often twinned with the figure of coyote in a theme of duality.[53] Lynx and coyote are associated with the fog and wind, respectively—two elements representing opposites in Amerindian folklore. This basic story, in many variations, is found in the native cultures of North America (with parallels in South America), but they diverge in the telling. One version, which appears in the Nez Perce folklore for instance, depicts Lynx and coyote as opposed, antithetical beings.[54] However, another version depicts them with equality and identicality. Claude Lévi-Strauss argues that the former concept, that of twins representing opposites, is an inherent theme in New World mythologies, but that they are not equally balanced figures, representing an open-ended dualism rather than the symmetric duality of Old World cultures. The latter notion then, Lévi-Strauss suggests, is the result of regular contact between Europeans and native cultures. Additionally, the version found in the Nez Perce story is of much greater complexity, while the version of equality seems to have lost the tale's original meaning.[55]

In a Shawnee tale, the Bobcat is outwitted by a rabbit, which gives rise to its spots. After trapping the rabbit in a tree, the Bobcat is persuaded to build a fire, only to have the embers scattered on its fur, leaving it singed with dark brown spots.[56] The Mohave believed dreaming habitually of beings or objects would afford them their characteristics as supernatural powers. Dreaming of two deities, Cougar and Lynx, they thought, would grant them the superior hunting skills of other tribes.[57] European settlers to the Americas also admired the cat, both for its ferocity and grace, and in the United States it "rests prominently in the anthology of…national folklore."[58]
[edit] See also
Okapi2.jpg Mammals portal
[edit] References

1. ^ a b Wozencraft, W. Christopher (16 November 2005). "Order Carnivora (pp. 532-628)". In Wilson, Don E., and Reeder, DeeAnn M., eds. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2 vols. (2142 pp.). pp. 542. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3.
2. ^ a b Kelly, M., Caso, A. & Lopez Gonzalez, C. (2008). Lynx rufus. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 22 March 2009. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of least concern
3. ^ a b Zielinski, William J; Kuceradate, Thomas E (1998). American Marten, Fisher, Lynx, and Wolverine: Survey Methods for Their Detection. DIANE Publishing. pp. 77–8. ISBN 0788136283.
4. ^ a b c Carron Meaney; Gary P. Beauvais (September 2004). "Species Assessment for Canada lynx (Lynx Canadensis) in Wyoming" (PDF). United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. Archived from the original on May 17, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060517191522/http://uwadmnweb.uwyo.edu/wyndd/Species+Assessments/Canada+Lynx+-+Final+(Sep+2004).pdf. Retrieved 2007-06-25.
5. ^ Johnson, W.E., Eizirik, E., Pecon-Slattery, J., Murphy, W.J., Antunes, A., Teeling, E. & O'Brien, S.J. (2006). "The Late Miocene radiation of modern Felidae: A genetic assessment.". Science 311 (5757): 73–77. doi:10.1126/science.1122277. PMID 16400146.
6. ^ Mills, L. Scott (November 2006). Conservation of Wildlife Populations: Demography, Genetics, and Management. Blackwell Publishing. p. 48. ISBN 1405121467.
7. ^ Wilson, Don E; Ruff, Sue (September 1999). The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals. Smithsonian Institution Press. pp. 234–5. ISBN 1-56098-845-2.
8. ^ a b c "Deletion of Bobcat (Lynx rufus) from Appendix II" (PDF). Thirteenth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties, Proposal 5. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. October 2004. http://www.cites.org/common/cop/13/raw_props/US-Lynx%20rufus.pdf. Retrieved 2007-05-31.
9. ^ a b Cahalane, Victor H (2005-03-01). Meeting the Mammals. Kessinger Publishing. p. 64. ISBN 1-4179-9522-X.
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11. ^ a b Sparano, Vin T (September 1998). Complete Outdoors Encyclopedia. St. Martin's Press. p. 228. ISBN 0312191901.
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13. ^ a b c Fergus, Charles (2003-08-01). Wildlife of Virginia and Maryland Washington D.C.. Stackpole Books. p. 119. ISBN 0811728218.
14. ^ http://www.pictures-of-cats.org/Picture-of-a-Bobcat.html
15. ^ http://www.uwsp.edu/wildlife/carnivore/Bobcat%20Natural%20History_files/Bobcat%20Natural%20History.htm
16. ^ http://www.uwsp.edu/wildlife/carnivore/Bobcat%20Natural%20History_files/Bobcat%20Natural%20History.htm
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18. ^ Sikes, Robert S.; Michael L. Kennedy (1992). "Morphologic Variation of the Bobcat (Felis rufus) in the Eastern United States and Its Association with Selected Environmental Variables". American Midland Naturalist 128 (2): 313–324. doi:10.2307/2426465. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-0031(199210)128%3A2%3C313%3AMVOTB(%3E2.0.CO%3B2-E.
19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Whitaker, John O; Hamilton, W J (1998-01-01). Mammals of the Eastern United States. Cornell University Press. pp. 493–6. ISBN 0801434750.
20. ^ a b Kamler, JF; Gipson, PS (Jul-September 2000). "Home Range, Habitat Selection, and Survival of Bobcats, Lynx rufus, in a Prairie Ecosystem in Kansas". Canadian Field-Naturalist 114 (3): 388–94. http://md1.csa.com/partners/viewrecord.php?requester=gs&collection=ENV&recid=4848238&q=Lynx+rufus&uid=1023712&setcookie=yes. Retrieved 2007-05-26.
21. ^ a b Janečka, JE; TL Blankenship; DH Hirth; ME Tewes; CW Kilpatrick; LI Grassman Jr. (August 2006). "Kinship and social structure of Bobcats (Lynx rufus) inferred from microsatellite and radio-telemetry data". Journal of Zoology 269 (4): 494–501. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00099.x. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00099.x. Retrieved 2007-06-18.
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24. ^ Chamberlain, Michael I.; Bruce D. Leopold, L. Mike Conner (2003). "Space use, movements and habitat selection of adult Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Central Mississippi". The American Midland Naturalist 149 (2): 395–405. doi:10.1674/0003-0031(2003)149[0395:SUMAHS]2.0.CO;2. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=14678518. Retrieved 2007-05-27.
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26. ^ Baker, Leslie A.; Robert J. Warrena; Duane R. Diefenbacha; William E. James; Michael J. Conroy (January 2001). "Prey Selection by Reintroduced Bobcats (Lynx rufus) on Cumberland Island, Georgia". The American Midland Naturalist 145 (1): 80–93. doi:10.1674/0003-0031(2001)145[0080:PSBRBL]2.0.CO;2. http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.1674%2F0003-0031(2001)145%5B0080%3APSBRBL%5D2.0.CO%3B2. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
27. ^ http://www.whoopingcrane.com/FLOCKSTATUS.HTM
28. ^ Sheep and Goats Death Loss. National Agricultural Statistics Service. May 6, 2005. http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/MannUsda/viewDocumentInfo.do?documentID=1628. Retrieved 2007-12-27.
29. ^ "A Comparison of Bobcat and Coyote Predation on Lambs in North-Coastal California". The Journal of Wildlife Management 62 (2). April 1998. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-541X%28199804%2962%3A2%3C700%3AACOBAC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-B&size=LARGE&origin=JSTOR-enlargePage. Retrieved 2008-01-07. "The proportion of Bobcat scats containing sheep consumed by Bobcats was small (4.2%) and occurrence did not peak in the lambing season, suggesting that sheep consumed by Bobcats were scavenged.".
30. ^ Labisky, Ronald F.; Margaret C. Boulay (April 1998). "Behaviors of Bobcats Preying on White-tailed Deer in the Everglades". The American Midland Naturalist 139 (2): 275–281. doi:10.1674/0003-0031(1998)139[0275:BOBPOW]2.0.CO;2.
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34. ^ a b Nowak, Ronald M (April 1999). Walker's Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 809. ISBN 0801857899.
35. ^ "Bobcat". bcadventure.com. Interactive Broadcasting Corporation. http://www.bcadventure.com/adventure/wilderness/animals/bobcat.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-25.
36. ^ Peterson, Roger Tory; Murie, Olaus Johan (1998-01-15). A Field Guide to Animal Tracks. Houghton Mifflin Field Guides. p. 115. ISBN 0395910943.
37. ^ Brown, Tom (1986). Tom Brown's Field Guide to Nature Observation and Tracking. Berkley Trade. ISBN 9780425099667.
38. ^ Holly Akenson, James Akenson, Howard Quigley. "Winter Predation and Interactions of Wolves and Cougars on Panther Creek in Central Idaho". Wildlife: Wolves. Yellowstone National Park. http://www.yellowstonenationalpark.com/wolves.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-24.
39. ^ Fedriani,J . M., T. K. Fuller,R . M. Sauvajot, and E. C. York.2 000. Competition and intraguild predation among three sympatric carnivores. Oecologia (Heidelb) 125:258-270.
40. ^ Gipson, P. S., and J. F Kamler. 2002. Bobcat killed by coyote. Southwestern Naturalist4 7:511-514.
41. ^ KNICK, S. T. 1990. Ecology of bobcats relative to exploitation and a prey decline in southeastern Idaho. Wildlife Monographs 108:1-42.
42. ^ Fuller, Todd K.; Stephen L. Berendzen, Thomas A. Decker, James E. Cardoza (October 1995). "Survival and Cause-Specific Mortality Rates of Adult Bobcats (Lynx rufus)". American Midland Naturalist 134 (2): 404. doi:10.2307/2426311. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-0031(199510)134%3A2%3C404%3ASACMRO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C. Retrieved 2007-05-26.
43. ^ Kikuchi, Yoko; Chomel, Bruno B; Kasten, Rickie W; Martenson, Janice S; Swift, Pamela K; O’Brien, Stephen J (February 2004). "Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in American free-ranging or captive pumas (Felis concolor) and Bobcats (Lynx rufus)". Veterinary Parasitology 120 (1–2): 1–9. doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2004.01.002. PMID 15019138.
44. ^ "Bobcats: Living on the Urban Edge". National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. http://www.nps.gov/samo/naturescience/Bobcats.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-18.
45. ^ Tobin, Dave (2007-05-31). "Elusive Bobcat Creeps into Region". Syracuse Post-Standard. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-161466623.html. Retrieved 2007-06-26.
46. ^ "Bobcat killed near Albion". MLive.com. 2008-10-25. http://www.mlive.com/news/citpat/index.ssf?/base/news-26/1224929140178170.xml&coll=3. Retrieved 2009-02-15.
47. ^ >"Bobcat captured in Houston parking garage". chron.com. 2010-03-02. http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/facebook/6893765.html. Retrieved 2010-03-03.
48. ^ National Park Service. Yellowstone National Park. "Bobcat". Archived from the original on 2006-05-23. http://web.archive.org/web/20060523234925/http://www.nps.gov/yell/nature/animals/Bobcat/Bobcat.html. Retrieved 2006-08-24.
49. ^ Sangiacomo, Michael (25 September 2010). The Plain Dealer (Boston Heights). http://blog.cleveland.com/metro/2010/09/snap_of_a_shutter_confirms_bob.html. Retrieved 26 September 2010.
50. ^ "Appendices I, II and III". Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. http://www.cites.org/eng/app/appendices.shtml. Retrieved 2007-05-24.
51. ^ "Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Petition Finding and Proposed Rule To Delist the Mexican Bobcat (Lynx rufus escuinapae)". Fish and Wildlife Service. May 2005. http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-IMPACT/2005/May/Day-19/i10002.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-27.
52. ^ Grenfell Jr., William E. (November 1996). Bobcat Harvest Assessment 1995–96. California Department of Fish and Game.
53. ^ "Lynx" is used generically in mythological descriptions, but necessarily implies the Bobcat throughout much of the United States
54. ^ Pollock, Donald (March 1993). "Histoire de Lynx, Review". American Anthropologist 95 (1): 223. doi:10.1525/aa.1993.95.1.02a00800.
55. ^ Yalman, Nur (November 1996). "Lévi-Strauss in Wonderland: Playing Chess with Unusual Cats: The Story of Lynx". American Ethnologist 23 (4): 902. doi:10.1525/ae.1996.23.4.02a00120.
56. ^ "Florida Bobcat Bio Facts". Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens. 2005. Archived from the original on February 25, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060225003145/http://www.jaxzoo.org/things/biofacts/FloridaBobcat.asp. Retrieved 2007-06-27.
57. ^ Kroeber, A. L. (Apr-June 1908). "Preliminary Sketch of the Mohave Indians". American Anthropologist 4 (2): 279.
58. ^ Temple, Kerry (Spring 1996). "Wood Ghost". Notre Dame Magazine. Archived from the original on December 19, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20061219092933/http://www.nd.edu/~ndmag/tempsp96.html. Retrieved 2007-06-25.


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bobbie_2010_2.jpg


Ultima modifica di Tila il Mar 28 Dic 2010 - 20:52, modificato 1 volta
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Lince Rossa - La lince   Sab 6 Nov 2010 - 17:25

Come di consueto vediamo insieme la parte della simbologia...

FONTE: http://www.esoterya.com/totem-lince/2294/

La lince è il custode dei misteri. Questo animale conosce ed è la guardiano di tutti gli antichi segreti.

La lince sa muoversi libera da legami di tempo e spazio inoltre è solitaria e silenziosa, quindi riuscire a conoscere le sue conoscenze è assai difficile.

Se vi appare nei sogni, vuole significare che esiste un segreto ancora oscuro, o dentro di voi stessi o in qualcuno molto vicino a voi.

Se una persona ha dentro di sè una considerevole energia della lince, avrà la capacità di veggenza e introspezione, grazie a queste saprà riconoscere se stesso e capire la vera identità, delle persone che ha di fronte.

L’unica modo per prendere possesso delle conoscenze della lince è di retribuirla adeguatamente almeno secondo l’usanza degli sciamani. Questo tipo di usanza rientra nella loro tradizione sciamanica e si basa sul principio di scambio di energie.



FONTE: http://animalitotem.wordpress.com/2008/02/05/animali-dalla-d-alla-l/

Segreti. La lince è la detentrice della conoscenza occulta e si dice che sia in relazione con le conoscenze delle antiche confraternite di iniziati. Ti aiuta a sviluppare i poteri della visione e della chiaroveggenza, per guardare all’interno delle persone e delle situazioni.



FONTE:
http://animalitotem.wordpress.com/2008/02/27/animali-della-tradizione-celtica/

Lince: Questa creatura è il custode dei segreti delle confraternite mistiche. La lince può contribuire allo sviluppo delle facoltà psichiche e aiuta nelle pratiche divinatorie. A volte simboleggia la necessità di esaminare se stessi nel profondo, per portare alla luce i talenti nascosti.




Questo articolo ci parla della lince come animale solitario e quindi potrebbe invitarci a prendere le distanze magari da alune persone...mentre ci ricorda che dobbiamo essere rispettosi e amorevoli verso la famiglia e nel lavoro.

legato simbolicamente anche alla creazione ci offre una connessione alla nostra parte più sottile, al nostro io interiore.

FONTE: http://www.whats-your-sign.com/bobcat-animal-totem.html

Foremost, the Bobcat animal totem is a sign of patience. Bobcats are superior hunters, and they incorporate stealth, strategy and wield a great deal of patience in their hunting excursions.

In this way, the Bobcat sends us a clear message that in order for us to get what we want, we must be willing to plan, adapt, and above all, have the patience to see our ideals manifest.

When dealing with social settings (friends, family, work) the Bobcat reminds us to be fully aware. We must be mindful to extend our respect, love and consideration with others.

As the Bobcat is primarily a solitary creature, we may take its presence as a sign for us to step back from the company of certain people in our lives. Or, the Bobcat may be trying to tell us that we need some time to ourselves. Alone time is time for us to reflect, and regain our energy. The Bobcat intrinsically knows this, and may be trying to tell you to take a break away from the public eye.

Bobcat animal totems encourage us to be more playful in our lives and more flexible. As they are very opportunistic themselves, the Bobcat asks us to reach out for more opportunities, break out of our molds & routines.

The Bobcat animal totem is also about creation, and developing our abilities into a higher level of value. Additionally, the Bobcat is also about the unseen and silent aspects of our inner selves.

This deals with our connection with creation as the Bobcat will ask us to deeply consider the innermost parts of ourselves that we don't normally recognize. The Bobcat encourages us to delve deep into our hearts and minds and shed light on our potential.

Additionally, when Bobcat appears to us, we need to consider some passions that we have been keeping a secret. Now is the time to unleash our hidden desires - unlock our inner secret wisdom & talents.

As you can see, Bobcat has much to share with us, but we must be willing and open to receiving these messages.

The Bobcat is a very advanced teacher. Those with the Bobcat animal totem are usually young with old souls. Often these people are mistaken for having "chips on their shoulders," or thought to be "bearing grudges." This often isn't the case.

Bobcat serves as a teacher to these younger people because they have so much to philosophically sort out. These people do this on a higher level of intellect, and often cannot find outside support to help them with their learning process. As a result, these old souls tend to feel a little resentful at having to learn some tough lessons on their own, and usually feel isolated.

For a little more information about this amazing animal, check out my Animal Tracks Page and discover what it means when you encounter the footprints of the Bobcat upon your life journey.

When identified, and sought out for communication, the Bobcat facilitates learning, growth, understanding, and a more playful attitude with these chosen few who retain the Bobcat as their animal totem.



FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:07-03Bobcat.jpg


Anche in questo documento è chiaro il messaggio che questo totem vuole insegnarci, dobbiamo imparare a vivere in solitudine ma senza diventar per questo dei reclusi...bensì socializzare solo se è necessario. Ci insegna anche il dono della riservatezza e segretezza...soprattutto per ciò che rappresenta il magico e l'interiore...

FONTE: http://www.linsdomain.com/totems/pages/bobcat.htm

Silence, Solitude and Secrets

People with a Bobcat totem are often solitary like their totem animal.
Coming to terms with that, learning to be alone
without being lonely is part of what the Bobcat can teach.
However, you must be careful not become a recluse.
Learn when to be social and when you need alone-time.

Bobcat people often become keeper of secrets
and they must learn never to break their silence and friend’s confidences.
If trust is broken, things will be distorted and blown out of proportion.
Keep the secret -- maintain the silence -- honor the trust given.

Bobcats have the ability to turn on and off creative forces.
Bobcat magic uses darkness and secrecy;
be silent about your magic and power –
don’t broadcast what you can do to everyone. Speaking of it dissipates the power.
You must learn when to speak, how much to say, and what to share with others.
This is essential.

Bobcat people are night people.
They also can have psychometry (the ability to sense an object) and/or clairaudience.
Trust in your senses.
Even if there is no logical reason, trust what your inner voice is saying.
Bobcat people can see what is hidden -- and this ability
can make some people uncomfortable around a Bobcat person.

Information on this webpage was partially derived from the following source:
Andrews, Ted. Animal-speak: the Spiritual & Magical Powers of Creatures Great & Small. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 1993. Print.


Ultima modifica di Tila il Mer 29 Dic 2010 - 14:14, modificato 1 volta
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Lince Rossa - La lince   Dom 7 Nov 2010 - 13:30

Custode di antichi segreti...Maestro delle capacità nascoste... così inzia questo documento che continua con il dire che la lince è il custode della conoscenza occulta, della antica magia. Chi avrà questo totem sarà in grado di vedere i segreti delle persone, le loro paure, gli inganni....


FONTE: http://www.linsdomain.com/totems/pages/lynx.htm

LYNX

Keeper of the ancient secrets,
Teacher of the hidden skills,
Open my heart and mind to wisdom,
Fill my days with strengthened will.
Reveal the fearful truth of being,
The part of us we fail to see.
O lynx of smiling, hidden secrets,
Bring aid and wisdom now to me.

Secrets

Lynx is the keeper of lost magic
and occult knowledge.
Lynx is the guardian of the secrets
and, more importantly, the knower of the secrets.

Lynx medicine is a very specific type of clairvoyance.
If the medicine is strong in you, you will get mental pictures concerning people
and the secrets they hide. You will see their fears, lies, and self-deceptions.
You never speak of these revelations - but you know.

With a Lynx totem, people will share their secrets with you.
They will take you into their confidence and you will "accidentally"
discover things about people (whether you want to or not).
You must be very careful not to break confidences.
Your words must be chosen carefully and used cautiously.
Strength through silence must be your motto.

You do not have to do anything with the secrets you learn,
you, like the Lynx, are the keeper of secrets.
Listen to your higher self.


Some of the information on this webpage was derived from the following sources:
Sans, Jamie & Carson, David. Medicine Cards: the Discovery of Power Through the Way of Animals. Santa Fe, NM. 1988. Print.
Andrews, Ted. Animal-speak: the Spiritual & Magical Powers of Creatures Great & Small. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 1993. Print.
Andrews, Ted. Animal-Wise: the Spirit Language and Signs of Nature. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 1999. Print.
D. J. Conway. Animal Magick: the Art of Recognizing & Working with Familiars. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 2003. Print.
Farmer, Steven D. Animal Spirit Guides. Hayhouse Inc., 2006. Print.



Canada Lynx
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Canadian_lynx_by_Keith_Williams.jpg


The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx)
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lynx_lynx2.jpg


Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx)
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lynx_lynx_poing.jpg



Questo articolo dipinge la lince come un bellissimo esemplare della famiglia dei gatti (beh non ha tutti i torti Very Happy ), saggio conoscitore di segreti.
Quindi per chi ha questo totem sarà innata la facoltà di carpire i segreti anche più intimi delle persone, ama vivere in solitudine, sarà responsabile e non giudicherà gli altri...

FONTE: http://wolfs_moon.tripod.com/LynxTotem.html

Spirit of Lynx
with
Wolfs Moon

Role: ~Knower of Secrets~

Lesson: Uncover the Hidden

Element: Water

Wind: North ~Land of the Elders & Wisdom~

Medicine: Invisibility

~Keywords~

wolfmoon

Knower of Secrets Silence Solitary

Uncover the Hidden Clairvoyance

Invisibility

native bar

Knower of Secrets

The Lynx is a beautiful member of the cat family, distinguished by its compact body and long legs, bobbed tail and tufts of fur that sprout out a the top of each ear. Their coats are thick and luxurious in the winter to protect them against the icy winds that prevail in the high mountainous environs of their Canadian and Alaskan homes.

Across centuries and woven throughout the lore of many Peoples, the Lynx has long been recognized as a silent witness to the foils and follies of human kind, a wise and silent sage that possesses knowledge of the secret mysteries of both ~Heaven~ and Earth. He is not the Gatekeeper to this fountain of eternal wisdom, he is one of the Totems that possesses the knowledge of these secrets that other Totems are assigned to protect.

***The tufts of fur that adorn the ears of a Lynx are thought to serve much like a receiver for the secret knowledge and wisdom transmitted from the Ancestors. Like their Animal Ally, the two-legged with Lynx as a Primary Totem will enter upon this Earthwalk with a keen sense of, or interest in, the deeper mysteries of ~Life.~

Often, the childhood is one of heightened emotional and/or psychic awareness wherein the Lynx Soul felt somehow distanced or removed from those around them. Their gift for sudden flashes of Insight would have been noticed at a very early age, and either encouraged (if the adults in the Lynx cub`s life were open-minded or metaphysically inclined individuals) or attempted to be thoroughly squashed. As this would have taken place during that individual`s ~formative~ years, the adult Lynx may not have conscious recollection of this squelching of their psychic/perceptive insights, yet as adults, and if this has not been resolved, there will exist a reluctance to share their insights with others for fear of rejection or ridicule.

And in part, this is because the one beside whom Lynx Totem pads simply ~knows~ the deeper mysteries and secrets of Life and it is this inner Knowing that guides and directs their decisions and choices as they walk their Path of Physical Life. They are not necessarily here to divulge that knowledge on a broad basis, unless other Totems walking, flying or swimming beside them dictate otherwise. For example, if one were to have Power Totem of Lynx, yet have Mission Totem of Crow, then not only would Lynx provide the Knowledge of Universal ~Secrets,~ Crow would be present as Mission Totem to carry the message of such secrets to ~Others.~ Hence, when examining ones Animal Allies, it is crucial to take the entirety of the Animal Spirits into consideration, as well as examining the Medicine and Lessons unique to each Totem.***


Uncover the Hidden

Lynx Totem in Snow

The Lynx has been well equipped by Mother Earth to survive in climates and seasons that demand only the "fittest" will survive. ~She~ has gifted the Lynx with a thick coat to protect against the ice and snow of a bitter winter, as well as having outfitted this graceful creature with large paws that serve much like snowshoes that keep the Lynx aloft on drifts of snow, in order that he/she may easily chase the fleet and sure-footed snowshoe hare that is the primary source of the Lynxes` diet.

It is the ability of the Lynx to blend in with his/her environs and move silently and swiftly across varying terrain, that are the primary factors in this cat`s ability to approach prey nearly unseen and unheard.

This beautiful animal is a species soon to be threatened with extinction, and hence is awaiting a listing on the endangered species list, so encounters in the wild in this current age is, tragically, highly unlikely. Equally, these illusive creatures have always been difficult to catch sight of due to the fact that they have an uncanny ability to slip unnoticed long before a human has the opportunity to realize they were even present. The Lynx however, will often observe the two-legged with a mixture of caution and curiosity, staying hidden in bushes, shadows, or any other form of concealment that is available.

This ability to move so silently and pass unseen was noted by indigenous peoples who understood the ~Medicine~ of the Lynx to be one of slipping effortlessly between planes and dimensions.

***For the Two-Legged with Lynx as a Primary Totem, there will exist the inherent ability within these souls to uncover all that which is "hidden" from the eyes of a less observant individual. This is not necessarily an immediate or intuitive sensing, but rather a gradual process of uncovering hidden corners and shadows through silent observation, much as the Lynx in the wild will quietly observe prey, trespassers into their territory and potential mates.

Lynx Soul will be able to see right through the outer appearances and what Others might chose to present to the outside world, to the very heart of all that is ~Hidden~ beneath. This means that the one beside whom Lynx pads will have an uncanny ability to recognize the fears, secrets, agenda and feelings of ~guilt~ or remorse that are all but invisible to most other souls.

There are other Totems (such as Black Panther) who possess the ability to see into the hearts and minds of their fellow two-legged, yet where part of the Black Panther Soul`s Medicine is to point these areas out, it is not the Medicine of Lynx to do so. Lynx Souls merely uncover the hidden and store the knowledge away, perhaps transmitting this knowing to the one whose hidden feelings and thoughts he/she has successfully uncovered telepathically, yet they remain silent on these things until such a time that they are approached for "assistance."

Even then, the Lynx soul is very cautious about how much is revealed or shared of their Inner Knowing, as they are not here to point these areas out to Others, nor does this knowledge necessitate they must share it, they are purely and simply the Detectives of the Animal Spirits and uncover Hidden Truths.

If there is another Totem within the individual`s Personal or Primary Totems that is a relater of such information (such as Crow), or a "counseling" Totem (such as Dolphin), then the information Lynx uncovers will be utilized for therapeutic reasons by that other Animal Ally.

The caution for the Lynx Totem however, is that the Uncovered Hidden Truths must never be shared with anyone other than whom that truth has been revealed, and certainly never used as a weapon against that soul, or as a means to exert control or power over them. Revealing unhidden truths for such willful and egotistical purpose would be an example of the ~Contrary Medicine~ (Shadow element) of the Lynx."



Solitary

Like most cats, the Lynx will spend much of its life alone, and it is typically only when the female is in estrus that Lynx will seek out a mate. Then, once the mating is complete, the pair will part and go their separate ways, with the female raising any kittens that might be produced from the coupling. The kittens (generally born in the late Spring months) will stay with their mother only until February or early March, when the female will once more go into estrus.

***For the two-legged beside whom Lynx pads, they will find themselves alone at intermittent intervals throughout their Earthwalk, via either desire or design.

In some instances, this is a literal "aloneness" that comes with separation by either ~death~ of a loved one, or the disintegration and parting of a relationship. Yet in other instances, the Lynx soul will feel separate from ~Others,~ even while sharing the same physical space, a trait that can often be misunderstood by loved ones.

It is not that these individuals do not desire companionship, and this tendency may be substantially reduced if there is another Primary Totem that is either ~Mate~ or ~Group~ oriented (such as Wolf, Hawk, Eagle or Dolphin), it is simply that the area of Partnerships and emotionally intimate encounters will either be a highly charged area of their current Earthwalk, or it will be next to non-existent.

In the instance of the former, the Lynx individual will meet many of his/her ~Life Lessons~ through disappointments, disillusionment or losses in love that will leave them with the desire to be alone, or feeling abandoned and rejected. And in the case of the latter, this may either be an extremely sore spot for the two-legged with Lynx Totem, or will simply be an area of non concern. Much depends upon the other Primary Totems that surround the individual.***


Invisibility

Each Animal has its own Medicine which is unique to that specific ~Creature,~ as gifted by the Great Mystery. For the Lynx, it is the Medicine of Invisibility, or the ability to slip unseen/unnoticed between planes.

This Medicine serves the Lynx to observe in silence, the foibles, follies, falsehoods and triumphs of the Human Spirit. This information is then carried to the Elders that they may determine the course of Humanities spiritual progress.

***The two-legged beside whom Lynx walks will have the ability to slip unseen into any circumstance or environment. Once "there," they will quietly observe all that is around them and often appear either extremely shy to the casual observer, or are labeled as "aloof" and/or "arrogant." In both instances this is usually not the case, it is simply that the Medicine of Invisibility requires the Holder of the Medicine to remain a part of the backdrop unobserved, rather than to take center stage and be noticed. Difficulty sometimes arises when they become conspicuous in their inconspicuousness.

In some tribes, the Shaman are well versed in the Medicine of the Lynx, which assists them as they quite literally disappear into other planes and dimensions. Yet this is a Medicine that is perfected over many lifetimes and with due work, diligence and sacrifice of will and desire to dominate either circumstances or ~others.~

As the Ultimate Responsibility of this Medicine is to serve as a sounding board and silent, non-judgmental witness to friends, strangers, family and co-workers who find the Lynx soul to be comforting in their ability to listen without offering advice, and to offer support free of judgment. When following this pathway of Proper Silence, the Lynx individual is answering his/her Higher Calling to be of benefit to both their fellow two-leggeds, and to serve the Purpose of the Elders.***


Ultima modifica di Tila il Mer 29 Dic 2010 - 14:26, modificato 1 volta
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Lince Rossa - La lince   Ven 19 Nov 2010 - 10:38

Buondì a tutti,

stamani ho trovato questa scheda molto interessante di wikipedia, che naturalmente condivido con tutti voi, curioso è un mito del medioevo dove si pensava che la lince fosse in grado di produrre gemme preziose...

Buona lettura!


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lynx_%28mythology%29

Lynx (mythology)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Lynx is an elusive, ghost-like animal that sees without being seen. Often called "the keeper of secrets of the forest", its magical appearance stems from the mystery that such a creature's secrecy can also be its strength. The Lynx teaches us that even the smallest can succeed in life, and that the world can unfold itself to those who stop and listen.

Contents


* 1 Roles of the Lynx
* 2 Associations and attributes
* 3 In Medieval Mythology
* 4 See also
* 5 Notes
* 6 References


Roles of the Lynx

The lynx is not a guardian of secrets so much as the one who knows them, especially when it comes to those secrets that are either obscured by time and space or are completely lost to the world. The lynx is therefore associated with divination and clairvoyance. Those who seek the lynx may find difficulty in getting it to cooperate. Just because the lynx knows secrets does not mean it wishes to share them. Only by respecting the lynx's behavior and listening carefully may one begin to receive an answer.

This power and ability to remain unseen attracted ancient warriors to adopt the lynx and, thus, they believed, its nature. Cunning, solitary hunters, lynx have large eyes and a keen sense of hearing which enables them to hunt at night.

Those who have been touched by the lynx's presence may be given a boon and bane. A lynx may guide the listener to a secret, whether it be a lost object or a hidden truth that is somehow relevant at the present time. On the other hand, the lynx may be an omen to warn those who have somehow betrayed the confidentiality of oneself or others.

The lynx was chosen as the emblem of the Accademia dei Lincei ("Academy of the Lynxes"), one of the world's oldest scientific societies. Its piercing vision was invoked symbolically as characteristic of those dedicated to science.


Associations and attributes

The lynx is associated with Dionysus and Lugh. Though lynx are undoubtedly of keen eyesight, this quality of the lynx may have been conflated with the attributes of the near homophonic Lynceus.[1]



In Medieval Mythology

In medieval times, the lynx was said to produce a gem. According to many bestiaries, the Lynx would urinate in a hole that it had dug in ground, and then cover it with dirt. The urine would form a gem after so many days. Forcing the Lynx to produce the gem was believed to be a devilish act. Many Medieval naturalists identified the gem as a carbuncle, which is an archaic term for the garnet. The typical feline behavior was interpreted as being somewhat "miserly" according to Medieval observers.


Notes


1. ^ Source: http://www.ianridpath.com/startales/lynx.htm (Friday, 31 August 2007)


References

* Howen, L. A. J. R. (1994). Animal parallelism in medieval literature and the bestiaries: A preliminary investigation. Published in "Neophilologus": Issue: Vol. 78, No. 3, July 1994 Source: http://www.springerlink.com/content/l61r5u40q4512878/ (Friday, 31 August 2007) ISSN 0028-2677 (Print) 1572-8668 (Online)
* http://www.ianridpath.com/startales/lynx.htm (Friday, 31 August 2007)
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Lince Rossa - La lince
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