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 Alberi Sacri nel Paganesimo Germanico

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Numero di messaggi : 1826
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Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Alberi Sacri nel Paganesimo Germanico   Mer 10 Nov 2010 - 8:48

Barnstokkr

FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barnstokkr

Barnstokkr
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In Norse mythology, Barnstokkr (Old Norse, literally "child-trunk"[1]) is a tree that stands in the center of King Völsung's hall. Barnstokkr is attested in chapters 2 and 3 of the Völsunga saga, written in the 13th century from earlier tradition, partially based on events from the 5th century and the 6th century, where, during a banquet, a one-eyed stranger appears and thrusts a sword into the tree which only Sigmund is able to pull free. Scholarly theories have been put forth about the implications of Barnstokkr and its relation to other trees in Germanic paganism.

Contents
[hide]

* 1 Völsunga saga
* 2 Theories
* 3 Modern influence
* 4 See also
* 5 Notes
* 6 References

[edit] Völsunga saga

Barnstokkr is introduced in chapter 2 of Völsunga saga where King Völsung is described as having "had an excellent palace built in this fashion: a huge tree stood with its trunk in the hall and its branches, with fair blossoms, stretched out through the roof. They called the tree Barnstokk[r]".[2]

In chapter 3, King Völsung is holding a marriage feast for his daughter Signy and King Siggeir at King Völsung's hall. At the hall, large fires are kindled in long hearths running the length of the hall, while in the middle of the hall stands the great tree Barnstokkr. That evening, while those attending the feast are sitting by the flaming hearths, they are visited by a one-eyed, very tall man whom they do not recognize. The stranger is wearing a hooded, mottled cape, linen breeches tied around his legs, and is barefooted. Sword in hand, the man walks towards Barnstokkr and his hood hangs low over his head, gray with age. The man brandishes the sword and thrusts it into the trunk of the tree, and the blade sinks to its hilt. Words of welcome fail the crowd.[3]

The tall stranger says that he who draws the sword from the trunk shall receive it as a gift, and he who is able to pull free the sword shall never carry a better sword than it. The old man leaves the hall, and nobody knows who he was, or where he went. Everyone stands, trying their hand at pulling free the sword from the trunk of Barnstokkr. The noblest attempt to pull free the sword first followed by those ranked after them. Sigmund, son of King Völsung, takes his turn, and—as if the sword had lay loose for him—he draws it from the trunk. The saga then continues.[3]

[edit] Theories

Hilda Ellis Davidson draws links to the sword placed in Barnstokkr to marriage oaths performed with a sword in pre-Christian Germanic societies, noting a potential connection between the carrying of the sword by a young man before the bride at a wedding as a phallic symbol, indicating an association with fertility. Davidson cites records of wedding ceremonies and games in rural districts in Sweden involving trees or "stocks" as late as the 17th century, and cites a custom in Norway "surviving into recent times" for "the bridegroom to plunge his sword into the roof beam, to test the 'luck' of the marriage by the depth of the scar he made".[4]

Davidson points out a potential connection between the descriptor apaldr (Old Norse "apple tree") and the birth of King Völsung, which is described earlier in the Völsunga saga as having occurred after Völsung's father Rerir sits atop a burial mound and prays for a son, after which the goddess Frigg has an apple sent to Rerir. Rerir shares the apple with his wife, resulting in his wife's long pregnancy. Davidson states that this mound is presumably the family burial mound, and proposes a link between the tree, fruit, mound, and the birth of a child.[5]

Davidson opines that Siggeir's anger at his inability to gain the sword that Odin has plunged into Barnstokkr at first sight appears excessive, and states that there may be an underlying reason for Siggeir's passionate desire for the sword. Davidson notes that the gift of the sword was made at a wedding feast, and states that Barnstokkr likely represents the 'guardian tree', "such as those that used to stand beside many a house in Sweden and Denmark, and which was associated with the 'luck' of the family", and that the 'guardian tree' also had a connection with the birth of children. Davidson cites Jan de Vries in that the name barnstokkr "used in this story was the name given to the trunk of such a tree because it used to be invoked and even clasped by the women of the family at the time of childbirth."[6]

Providing examples of historical structures built around trees, or with 'guardian trees' around or in the structure in Germanic areas, Davidson states that the "'luck' of a family must largely depend on the successful bearing and rearing of sons, and there is a general belief that when a guardian tree is destroyed, the family will die out." In connection with this, Davidson theorizes that at the bridal feast, it should have been Siggeir, the bridegroom, who drew the sword from the tree, "and that its possession would symbolize the 'luck' which would come to him with his bride, and the successful continuation of his own line in the sons to be born of the marriage". The sword having been refused to him, Davidson theorizes that this may well have been intended as a deadly insult, and that this lends a tragic air to the scene in the hall.[7]

Jesse Byock (1990) states that the name Barnstokkr may not conceivably be the original name of the tree, and instead that it is possible that it may have originally been bran(d)stokkr, the first part of the compound potentially having been brandr, (meaning brand or firebrand), a word sometimes synonymous with "hearth", and pointing to a potential connection to the fire burning within the hall. Byock notes that the tree is called an eik (Old Norse "oak"), which has an unclear meaning as the Icelanders often employed the word as a general word for "tree", and the tree is also referred to as apaldr, which is also a general term used to refer to trees. Byock theorizes that the latter reference to an apple tree may imply a further symbolic meaning pointing to the apple tree of the goddess Iðunn, and that the Barnstokkr may be further identified with the world tree Yggdrasil.[1]

Andy Orchard (1997) states that the role and placement of Barnstokkr as a "mighty tree, supporting and sprouting through the roof of Völsung's hall" has clear parallels in Norse mythology with the world tree Yggdrasil, particularly in relation to Yggdrasil's position to the hall of Valhalla. Orchard further points out parallels between Sigurd's ability to solely remove the sword from the trunk and King Arthur's drawing of the sword Excalibur.[8]
[edit] Modern influence

In Richard Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen opera cycle, the tree appears as Barnstock, when the hero Siegmund, with a great tug, pulls from it a sword that he names Nothung.[9] Barnstokkr has been theorized as English author and philologist J. R. R. Tolkien's immediate source for a scene in his 1954 work The Lord of the Rings depicting the fictional character of Frodo Baggins and his acceptance of the weapon Sting after it has been thrust "deep into a wooden beam".[10] Some of the structures described in Tolkien's Lord of the Rings have been described as "recalling" the position and placement of Barnstokkr in Völsunga saga, which Tolkien was well familiar with.[11]
[edit] See also
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Barnstokkr

* Glasir, the golden tree that stands before Valhalla.
* Læraðr, a tree that sits atop Valhalla, grazed upon by a goat and a hart.
* Sacred tree at Uppsala, an ever green tree before the Temple of Uppsala.

[edit] Notes

1. ^ a b Byock (1990:113).
2. ^ Byock (1990:37).
3. ^ a b Byock (1990:38).
4. ^ Davidson (1960:1–3).
5. ^ Davidson (1960:3).
6. ^ Davidson (1960:4).
7. ^ Davidson (1960:5).
8. ^ Orchard (1997:14).
9. ^ Köhler (2004:345).
10. ^ Flieger (2005:42).
11. ^ Clark (2000:155).

[edit] References

* Byock, Jesse L. (Trans.) (1990). The Saga of the Volsungs: The Norse Epic of Sigurd the Dragon Slayer. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23285-2
* Clark, George. Timmons, Daniel (2000). J.R.R. Tolkien and His Literary Resonances. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-30845-4
* Davidson, H. R. (1960). "The Sword at the Wedding" as collected in Folklore, Vol. 71, No. 1 (March 1960).
* Köhler, Joachim. Spencer, Stewart (2004). Richard Wagner: The Last of the Titans. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10422-7
* Flieger, Verlyn (2005). Interrupted Music: The Making of Tolkien's Mythology. Kent State University Press. ISBN 0-87338-824-0
* Orchard, Andy (1997). Dictionary of Norse Myth and Legend. Cassell. ISBN 0 304 34520 2


"Sigmund's Sword" (1889) by Johannes Gehrts.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sigmunds_Schwert_%281889%29_by_Johannes_Gehrts.jpg
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Alberi Sacri nel Paganesimo Germanico   Mer 10 Nov 2010 - 8:53

Donar Oak


FONTE:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donar_Oak

Donar Oak
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Donar Oak (also Thor's Oak) was a legendary oak tree sacred to the Germanic tribe of the Chatti, ancestors of the Hessians, and an important sacred site of the pagan Germanic peoples.

While many oak trees have been referred to as "Donar Oaks", the most meaningful of them is the oak chopped down by Saint Boniface in the early eighth century. According to the saint's hagiography the tree stood at a location near the village of Geismar (today part of the town of Fritzlar) in northern Hesse, and was the main point of veneration of the Germanic deity known among the West Germanic Chatti tribes and most other Germanic tribes as 'Donar (High German: Donner = thunder), by the Old English (Anglo-Saxons) as Thunor and by northern Germanics as Thor. It was deliberately chopped down in 723 and symbolizes the beginning of the Christianization of the non-Frankish tribes of northern Germany.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Germanic and German oak trees
* 2 Boniface and the Donar Oak
* 3 See also
* 4 References
* 5 External links

[edit] Germanic and German oak trees

The oak tree in Germany has a long and sacred history, which has endured into modern times. The oak was already associated with Zeus in the classical period, and was particularly strong among Germanic peoples.[1]

In Germany, the oak tree stood for traditional values such as truth, longevity, and loyalty, and in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries it came to symbolize Germany itself; Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock hailed it as a national symbol, and he associated it with Arminius in his Hermanns Schlacht. Ein Bardiet für die Schaubühne (1769), a historic epic celebrating the first-century military leader who became an emblem of German unity.[2]

[edit] Boniface and the Donar Oak

In 723, the Anglo-Saxon missionary Saint Boniface, Apostle of the Germans, arrived in the area in his quest to convert the northern Germanic tribes to Christianity, using as his base the Frankish fortified settlement of Büraburg on the opposite side of the Eder river. He had just been in contact with Charles Martel, who had confirmed Frankish commitment to the mission in Thuringia and Hesse. With the military support of the Frankish empire (there was a base in Büraburg-Fritzlar), Boniface, in what was probably a well-planned and advertised action, had the oak felled to convey the superiority of the Christian God over Donar and the native Germanic religion.[3] The account in the first hagiography of Boniface, by Willibald, relates that the huge oak was felled by a great gust of wind, "as if by miracle" with Boniface only making one swing of the axe. When Donar did not respond by hurling a lightning bolt at him, the assembled local people agreed to be baptized.[4]

In Bonifacian iconography, the act is one of the most important symbols for the saint, and many prayer cards illustrate him with an axe, sometimes with his foot on the tree stump;[5] the scene as it was depicted, in all its pathos, by Willibald was a great example for historical paintings of the nineteenth century.[3]

Boniface used the wood of the oak to build a chapel dedicated to Saint Peter in Fritzlar. From this chapel originated a Benedictine monastery.[3] In 742 Boniface established the diocese of Büraburg,[6] with his disciple, Witta, as bishop. The first abbot of the monastery, St. Wigbert, built a stone basilica at the site of the wooden chapel which was, after its destruction by Saxons in 1079, replaced in 1180-1200 by the large Romanesque-Gothic cathedral of St. Peter that today dominates the town. The bishopric of Büraburg was abolished after Witta's death by Lullus and incorporated into that of Mainz.

References

1. ^ Davidson, Hilda Ellis (1993). The Lost Beliefs of Northern Europe. Routledge. ISBN 0-203-40850-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=sWLVZN0H224C.
2. ^ Schierz, Kai Uwe (2004). "Von Bonifatius bis Beuys, oder: Vom Umgang mit heiligen Eichen". In Hardy Eidam, Marina Moritz, Gerd-Rainer Riedel, Kai-Uwe Schierz (in German). Bonifatius: Heidenopfer, Christuskreuz, Eichenkult. Stadtverwaltung Erfurt. pp. 139–45.
3. ^ a b c Padberg, Lutz von (2003). Bonifatius: Missionar und Reformer. C.H. Beck. pp. 41–42. ISBN 9783406480195. http://books.google.com/books?id=XL2PML7WeKYC&pg=PA41.
4. ^ Willibald (1905). "Vita Bonifatii Auctore Willibaldo". In Wilhelm Levison. Vitae Sancti Bonifati Archiepiscopi Moguntini. Hahn. pp. 1–58. , p. 31, translated in Talbot, C.H. (1954). The Anglo-Saxon Missionaries in Germany: Being the Lives of S.S. Willibrord, Boniface, Sturm, Leoba and Lebuin, together with the Hodoeporicon of St. Willibald and a Selection from the Correspondence of St. Boniface'. Sheed and Ward. pp. 45–46.
5. ^ Aaij, Michel (May 2007). "Boniface's Booklife: How the Ragyndrudis Codex Came to be a Vita Bonifatii". The Heroic Age 10. http://www.heroicage.org/issues/10/aaij.html. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
6. ^ Heinemeyer, Karl (2004). "Bonifatius in Mitteldeutschland". In Hardy Eidam, Marina Moritz, Gerd-Rainer Riedel, Kai-Uwe Schierz (in German). Bonifatius: Heidenopfer, Christuskreuz, Eichenkult. Stadtverwaltung Erfurt. pp. 73–87.



FONTE IMMAGINE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bonifatius_Donareiche.jpg

FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albero_di_Thor

Albero di Thor
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L'Albero di Thor era un antico albero sacro per la tribù germanica dei catti e uno dei più importanti luoghi sacri dei popoli germanici pagani.

L'albero era ubicato nei pressi del villaggio di Geismar, che oggi fa parte della città di Fritzlar nell'Assia del nord, ed era il principale luogo di culto della divinità norrena Thor (conosciuto come Donar tra le tribù della Germania occidentale) da parte dei catti e della maggiore parte delle altre tribù germaniche. Il suo abbattimento nel 723 segnò l'inizio della cristianizzazione delle tribù non franche della Germania settentrionale.

Nel 723 il missionario anglosassone Winfrid - poi conosciuto come San Bonifacio, l'apostolo dei germani - arrivò in quest'area per convertire al Cristianesimo i popoli germanici, utilizzando come base l'insediamento fortificato franco di Büraburg sul lato opposto del fiume Eder. Fu lui ad abbattere l'albero nel tentativo di dimostrare la superiorità del Cristianesimo e, secondo le fonti, quando vide che Thor non rispondeva il popolo accettò di farsi battezzare.

Bonifacio usò il legno dell'albero per costruire una cappella a Fritzlar, foundò un monastero benedettino e stabilì il primo vescovato della Germania al di là dei vecchi confini dell'Impero romano a Büraburg, col suo discepolo Witta come vescovo. Il primao abate del monastero, san Wigbert, costruì una basilica di pietra là dove era stata costruita la cappella di legno dopo che questa era stata distrutta dai sassoni nel 1079, basilica che fu poi rimpiazzata nel 1180/1200 dall'ampia cattedrale romanico-gotica di san Pietro che oggi troneggia nella città. Il vescovato di Büraburg fu abolito dopo la morte di Witta e il suo inglobamento in quello di Mainz.
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Alberi Sacri nel Paganesimo Germanico   Mer 10 Nov 2010 - 9:15

Irminsul

FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irminsul

Irminsul
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An Irminsul (Old Saxon, probably "great/mighty pillar" or "arising pillar") was a kind of pillar which is attested as playing an important role in the Germanic paganism of the Saxon people. The oldest chronicle describing an Irminsul refers to it as a tree trunk erected in the open air.[1] The purpose of the Irminsuls and the implications thereof have been the subject of considerable scholarly discourse and speculation for hundreds of years.

Contents
[hide]

* 1 Etymology
* 2 Attestations
o 2.1 Royal Frankish Annals
o 2.2 De miraculis sancti Alexandri
o 2.3 Hildesheim
o 2.4 Kaiserchronik
* 3 Theories
o 3.1 Germania
o 3.2 Externsteine relief and site
o 3.3 Jupiter Columns
* 4 Neopaganism
* 5 See also
* 6 Footnotes
* 7 References

[edit] Etymology

A Germanic god Irmin, inferred from the name Irminsul and the tribal name Irminones, is sometimes presumed to have been the national god or demi-god of the Saxons.[2] It has been suggested that Irmin was more probably an aspect, avatar or epithet of some other deity – most likely Wodan (Odin). Irmin might also have been an epithet of the god Ziu (Tyr) in early Germanic times, only later transferred to Odin, as certain scholars ascribe to the idea that Odin replaced Tyr as the chief Germanic deity at the onset of the Migration Period. This was the favored view of early 20th century Nordicist writers[3], but it is not generally considered likely in modern times[4].

The Old Norse form of Irmin is Jörmunr, which just like Yggr was one of the names of Odin. Yggdrasil ("Yggr's horse") was the yew or ash tree from which Odin sacrificed himself, and which connected the nine worlds. Jakob Grimm connects the name Irmin with Old Norse terms like iörmungrund ("great ground", i.e. the Earth) or iörmungandr ("great snake", i.e. the Midgard serpent)[5].

It is thus often conjectured that the Irminsul was a World tree, the equivalent of Yggdrasil among the Saxon tribes of Germany. But the few primary sources that attest to it are not clear about whether it was a "world-pillar" or simply the pedestal for a cult image. In the Annales Pettaviani, it is even mentioned as ... locum, qui dicitur Ermensul ... ("... [a] place which they called Irminsul ...")[citation needed]. Likewise, it is unknown whether the Irminsul was made of wood or stone and whether there was one or several. Meanwhile, the "T"-shaped Irminsul representation most often seen today is entirely conjectural; contemporary sources always refer to it as a straightforward pillar or column.

The linguistic connection between Irmin- and iörmun/jörmun- is generally accepted, but the terms simply mean "great/mighty" or "rising high". It is easy to see how "The great one" or "The exalted one" could become a by-name of Odin, but unfortunately this is of little use to determine whether the Saxon term refers to a deity or simply means – as is usually preferred today – "great pillar" instead of "Irmin's pillar" or "Odin's pillar".

[edit] Attestations

[edit] Royal Frankish Annals

According to the Royal Frankish Annals (CE 772), during the Saxon wars, Charlemagne is repeatedly described as ordering the destruction of the chief seat of their religion, an Irminsul.[6] The Irminsul is described as not being far from Heresburg (now Obermarsberg), Germany.[6] Jacob Grimm states that "strong reasons" point to the actual location of the Irminsul as being approximately 15 miles (24 km) away, in the Teutoburg Forest and states that the original name for the region "Osning" may have meant "Holy Wood."[6]

[edit] De miraculis sancti Alexandri

The Benedictine monk Rudolf of Fulda (CE 865) provides a description of an Irminsul in chapter 3 of his Latin work De miraculis sancti Alexandri. Rudolf's description states that the Irminsul was a great wooden pillar erected and worshipped beneath the open sky and that its name, Irminsul, signifies universal all-sustaining pillar.[6]

[edit] Hildesheim

Under Louis the Pious in the 9th century, a stone column was dug up at Obermarsberg[7] in Westphalia, Germany and relocated to the Hildesheim cathedral in Hildesheim, Lower Saxony, Germany.[8] The column was reportedly then used as a candelabrum until at least the late 19th century.[8] In the 13th century, the destruction of the Irminsul by Charlemagne was recorded as having still been commemorated at Hildesheim on the Saturday after Laetare Sunday.[1]

The commemoration was reportedly done by planting two poles six feet high, each surmounted by a wooden object one foot in height shaped like a pyramid or a cone on the cathedral square.[1] The youth then used sticks and stones in an attempt to knock over the object.[1] This custom is described as existing elsewhere in Germany, particularly in Halberstadt where it was enacted on the day of Laetare Sunday by the Canons themselves.[1]

[edit] Kaiserchronik

Awareness of the significance of the concept seems to have persisted well into Christian times. For example, in the twelfth-century Kaiserchronik an Irminsul is mentioned in three instances:

Concerning the origin of the Wednesday:

ûf ainer irmensiule / stuont ain abgot ungehiure, / daz hiezen si ir choufman.[9]
"On an Irminsul / stands an enormous idol / which they call their merchant"

Concerning Julius Caesar:

Rômâre in ungetrûwelîche sluogen / sîn gebaine si ûf ain irmensûl begruoben[10]
"The Romans slew him treacherously / and buried his bones on an Irminsul"

Concerning Nero:

ûf ain irmensûl er staich / daz lantfolch im allez naich.[11]
"He climbed upon an Irminsul / the peasants all bowed before him"

It is notable that the overwhelming majority of Middle Ages sources understand the Irminsul as a pillar, not as a tree-like structure. In that they agree with older authors. In contrast to these, however, the object of worship or significance is understood to be placed on top of the Irminsul rather than being the pillar itself.

[edit] Theories

A number of theories surround the subject of the Irminsul.
[edit] Germania

In Tacitus' Germania, the author mentions rumors of what he describes as "Pillars of Hercules" in land inhabited by the Frisii that had yet to be explored.[12] Tacitus adds that these pillars exist either because Hercules actually did go there or because the Romans have agreed to ascribe all marvels anywhere to Hercules' credit. Tacitus states that while Drusus Germanicus was daring in his campaigns against the Germanic tribes, he was unable to reach this region, and that subsequently no one had yet made the attempt.[13] Connections have been proposed between these "Pillars of Hercules" and later accounts of the Irminsuls.[1] Hercules was likely frequently identified with Thor by the Romans due to the practice of interpretatio romana.[14]

[edit] Externsteine relief and site

According to one particularly well-known suggestion, an Irminsul was situated at or near the Externsteine, a famous rock formation near Detmold, Germany. A Christian relief on the Externsteine (see photo above) depicts what has been described as a bent tree-like design at the feet of Nicodemus. This artwork, variously dated to the early ninth to early twelfth century AD, is popularly believed to represent the bent or fallen Irminsul beneath a triumphant Christianity.

While both the artwork and the Irminsul were known to scholars for centuries - Goethe for example discussed the relief in detail[15] -, they were not connected until the 1929 interpretation[16] of lay archaeologist Wilhelm Teudt.[17] In 1934 to 1935, the Ahnenerbe undertook extensive fieldwork in an attempt to uncover material evidence of the use of the Externsteine as a place of Germanic paganism worship, yet no such evidence was found.

Few modern scholars[18] consider it anything but an outright invention of Teudt, who did not provide evidence to back his claims.

Today it is generally accepted by historians that there is no historic attestation connecting the design in the Externsteine relief to the Irminsul. Certainly, the Eresburg was only about 45 kilometers (c.28 miles) from the Externsteine, and insofar there indeed was an Irminsul "near the Externsteine" but extensive archaeological studies of the Externsteine have failed to yield any material evidence for their use as a sacred site between Mesolithic and pre-Christian times. Thermoluminescence dating of firesites suggests that the site was occasionally used as a rock shelter in Saxon times, but apparently not to the extent one would expect from a major place of worship.[19]
[edit] Jupiter Columns

Comparisons have been made between the Irminsul and the Jupiter Columns that were erected along the Rhine in Germania around CE 2 and 3. Scholarly comparisons were once made between the Irminsul and the Jupiter Columns, however, Rudolf Simek states that the columns were of Gallo-Roman religious monuments, and that the reported location of the Irminsul in Eresburg does not fall within the area of the Jupiter Column archaeological finds.[20]

[edit] Neopaganism

A depiction of an Irminsul based on the Externsteine relief (shaped back into a vertical position) is used in some currents of Germanic Neopaganism.

Footnotes

1. ^ a b c d e f d'Alviella (1891:112).
2. ^ Robinson (1917): p.389
3. ^ E.g. Meyer (1910): p.192
4. ^ E.g. Farwerck (1970): p.33
5. ^ Grimm (1835)
6. ^ a b c d Stallybrass (1882): 116-118).
7. ^ According to the Royal Frankish Annals (Anonymus ([790]): chapter 772):

Et inde perrexit partibus Saxoniae prima vice, Eresburgum castrum coepit, ad Ermensul usque pervenit et ipsum fanum destruxit et aurum vel argentum, quod ibi repperit, abstulit. Et fuit siccitas magna, ita ut aqua deficeret in supradicto loco, ubi Ermensul stabat; et dum voluit ibi duos aut tres praedictus gloriosus rex stare dies fanum ipsum ad perdestruendum et aquam non haberent, tunc subito divina largiente gratia media die cuncto exercitu quiescente in quodam torrente omnibus hominibus ignorantibus aquae effusae sunt largissimae, ita ut cunctus exercitus sufficienter haberet.

8. ^ a b d'Alviella (1891:106-107).
9. ^ Schröder (1892): p.81, lines 129-131
10. ^ Schröder (1892): p.92, lines 601-602
11. ^ Schröder (1892): p.158, lines 4213-4214
12. ^ Tacitus ([98]): chapter 34
13. ^ Birley (1999:55).
14. ^ Rives (1999:160).
15. ^ von Goethe (1824)
16. ^ Teudt (1929): p.27-28
17. ^ Halle (2002)
18. ^ See e.g. Matthes & Speckner (1997) for some who accept Teudt's proposal, but note that their work has several serious flaws. For example, they ignore the lack of archaeological evidence for Iron Age use of the Externsteine as a sacred site. Also, their claim that the figure of Nicodemus standing on the design represents the subjugation of the pagan faith (p.191) has been claimed as being based on a mistranslation of Nikodemos (Νικόδημος, "Victory of the people") as "Victory over the [Saxon] people".
19. ^ Schmidt & Halle (1999)
20. ^ Simek (2007:175-176).

[edit] References

* Adam of Bremen ([1070s]): [Religious beliefs of the Swedes]. In: Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum. [In Latin] HTML fulltext of English translation at Northvegr Foundation
* Anonymus ([790]): Annales regni Francorum [Royal Frankish Annals]. [In Latin] HTML fulltext.
* Birley, Anthony Richard (Trans.) (1999). Agricola and Germany. Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-283300-6
* Farwerck, F.E. (1970): Noord-Europese Mysteriën ["Northern European mystery cults"]. [In Dutch]
* d'Alviella, Eugène Goblet (1891). The Migration of Symbols. A. Constable and Co.
* Halle, Uta (2002): Die Externsteine sind bis auf weiteres germanisch! - Prähistorische Archäologie im Dritten Reich ["Until further notice, the Externsteine are Germanic! - Prehistoric archaeology in the Third Reich"]. [In German] Verlag für Regionalgeschichte, Bielefeld.
* Matthes, Walther & Speckner, Rolf (1997): Das Relief an den Externsteinen. Ein karolingisches Kunstwerk und sein spiritueller Hintergrund ["The Externsteine relief. A Carolingian artwork and its spiritual background"]. [In German] edition tertium, Ostfildern vor Stuttgart.
* Meyer, Richard Moritz (1910): Altgermanische Religionsgeschichte ["Ancient Germanic Religious History"]. [In German]
* Rives, J.B. (Trans.) (1999). Germania: Germania. Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-815050-4
* Robinson, Charles Henry (1917): The Conversion of Europe. Longmans, Green, and Co., London, New York, Bombay and Calcutta.
* Simek, Rudolf (2007) translated by Angela Hall. Dictionary of Northern Mythology. D.S. Brewer 0859915131
* Schmidt, Martin & Halle, Uta (1999): On the folklore of the Externsteine - Or a centre for Germanomaniacs. In: Gazin-Schwartz, Amy & Holtorf, Cornelius: Archaeology and Folklore: 153-169. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-20144-6 Partial text at Google Books
* Schoppe, Karl (1947): Die Irminsul, Forschungen über ihren Standort ["The Irminsul. Research concerning its location"]. [In German] Paderborn.
* Schröder, Edward (1892): Die Kaiserchronik eines Regensburger Geistlichen ["The Kaiserchronik of a Regensburg cleric"]. [In German] Hahnsche Buchhandlung, Hannover. HTML fulltext
* Stallybrass, James Steven (1882). (Trans.) J. Grimm's Teutonic Mythology, volume I.
* Tacitus, Publius Cornelius ([98]): De Origine et situ Germanorum ["About the origin and location of the Germanic peoples"]. [In Latin] HTML fulltext at Wikisource
* Teudt, Wilhelm (1929): Germanische Heiligtümer. Beiträge zur Aufdeckung der Vorgeschichte, ausgehend von den Externsteinen, den Lippequellen und der Teutoburg ["Germanic sacred sites. Contributions to the discovery of prehistory, based upon the Externsteine, the Lippe springs and the Teutoburg"]. [In German] Eugen Diederichs Verlag, Jena.
* von Goethe, Johann Wolfgang (1824): Die Externsteine [The Externsteine]. Kunst und Altertum 5: 130-139 [Article in German].


"The destruction of Irminsul by Charlemagne" (1882) by Heinrich Leutemann.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Zerst%C3%B6rung_der_Irminsaule_durch_Karl_den_Gro%C3%9Fen_by_Heinrich_Leutemann.jpg


FONTE
: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irminsul

Irminsul
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Irminsul (in antico sassone grande pilastro) è il pilastro che connette il cielo e la terra, il mondo materiale a quello spirituale. Il suo nome derivava da un antico Dio germanico, Irmin. L'Irminsul era spesso rappresentato come una quercia o un grande palo di legno forse coronato da una immagine sacra, ed era la principale divinità dei Sassoni, similmente all'Yggdrasill dei vichinghi.

Ai tempi di Carlo Magno c'erano probabilmente molti Irminsul, ma nella sua conquista dopo l'800 il rappresentante della Cristianità trionfante li distrusse tutti (anche il più importante, a Externsteine), anche se presumibilmente il loro culto, bollato come pagano e demoniaco, continuò a lungo.

Nella cattedrale di Hildesheim un Irminsul, probabilmente risalente ai tempi degli antichi Romani (quando Irmin era equiparato al dio Mercurio), è stato inglobato come candelabro.

Nel sito di Externsteine si può osservare una incisione del XII secolo, in cui un albero veniva piegato dal peso della Croce da cui veniva deposto il Cristo, incisione da molti interpretata come rappresentazione della vittoria del Cristianesimo sul Paganesimo.


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Irminsul_als_Weltenbaum.jpg
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Alberi Sacri nel Paganesimo Germanico   Mer 10 Nov 2010 - 9:19

Læraðr


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L%C3%A6ra%C3%B0r


Heiðrún grazing Læraðr's foliage.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hei%C3%B0r%C3%BAn_by_Lorenz_Fr%C3%B8lich.jpg

Læraðr is a tree in Norse mythology, often identified with Yggdrasill. It stands at the top of the Valhöll. Two animals, the goat Heiðrún and the hart Eikþyrnir, graze its foliage.

Contents
[hide]

* 1 Etymology
* 2 Attestations
o 2.1 Poetic Edda
o 2.2 Prose Edda
* 3 Theories
* 4 References

[edit] Etymology

The meaning of Læraðr / Léraðr is unclear. One of the meanings of læ is "harm", "betrayal". A possible translation of Læraðr could therefore be "arranger of betrayal", which would relate to Yggdrasill as the place of Odin's self-sacrifice.[1] Another reading is sometimes suggested, *hléradr, whose first component means "shelter" and which could thus be rendered into "giver of protection".[2]

[edit] Attestations

[edit] Poetic Edda

Læraðr is mentioned in two stanzas of the Grímnismál:

Heidrun the goat is called,
that stands o’er Odin’s hall,
and bits from Lærad’s branches.
He a bowl shall fill
with the bright mead;
that drink shall never fail.

Eikthyrnir the hart is called,
that stands o’er Odin’s hall,
and bits from Lærad’s branches;
from his horns fall
drops into Hvergelmir,
whence all waters rise:-

—Grímnismál (25, 26), Thorpe's translation[3]

[edit] Prose Edda

Under the name Léraðr, it also appears in Snorri Sturluson's Gylfaginning:

The she-goat, she who is called Heidrún, stands up in Valhall and bites the needles from the limb of that tree which is very famous, and is called [Léraðr]; and from her udders mead runs so copiously, that she fills a tun every day. [...] Even more worthy of note is the hart Eikthyrni, which stands in Valhall and bites from the limbs of the tree; and from his horns distils such abundant exudation that it comes down into Hvergelmir, and from thence fall those rivers called thus [...].

—Gylfaginning (39), Brodeur's translation[4]

[edit] Theories

According to John Lindow, the first reason to identify Lærad with Yggdrasill is "Lærad's location at Odin's hall, which would be at the center of the cosmos".[1] Another argument is that many animals dwell in or around Yggdrasill, such as an eagle, the squirrel Ratatoskr, four stags, many snakes and the dragon Níðhöggr. Snorri also wrote that Hvergelmir was located under Yggdrasill (Gylfaginning, 15, 16)

[edit] References

1. ^ a b Lindow, John. 2002. Norse Mythology: A Guide to the Gods, Heroes, Rituals, and Beliefs. New York: Oxford University Press. First published: ABC-Clio, 2001. ISBN 0195153820.
2. ^ Simek, Rudolf. 1996. Dictionary of Northern Mythology. Translated by Angela Hall. First published: Alfred Kröner Verlang, 1984. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer. ISBN 0-85991-513-1.
3. ^ Thorpe, Benjamin (trans.). 1866. Edda Sæmundar Hinns Froða: The Edda Of Sæmund The Learned. London: Trübner & Co.
4. ^ Brodeur, Arthur Gilchrist (trans.). 1916. Snorri Sturluson: The Prose Edda. New York: The American-Scandinavian Foundation.

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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Alberi Sacri nel Paganesimo Germanico   Mer 10 Nov 2010 - 9:22

Mímameiðr


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%C3%ADmamei%C3%B0r

Mímameiðr
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


In Norse mythology, Mímameiðr (Old Norse "Mimi's tree"[1]) is a tree whose branches stretch over every land, is unharmed by fire or metal, bears fruit that assists pregnant women, and upon whose highest bough roosts the cock Víðópnir.

Mímameiðr is solely attested in the Poetic Edda poem Fjölsvinnsmál. Due to parallels between descriptions of the two, scholars theorize that Mímameiðr may be another name for the world tree Yggdrasil, and also Hoddmímis holt, a wood in within which Líf and Lífthrasir are foretold to take refuge during the events of Ragnarök.

Mímameiðr is sometimes modernly anglicized as Mimameid or Mimameith.[2]

Contents
[hide]

* 1 Fjölsvinnsmál
* 2 Theories
* 3 Notes
* 4 References

[edit] Fjölsvinnsmál

Mímameiðr is mentioned in stanzas of the Poetic Edda poem Fjölsvinnsmál, where the tree is described as having limbs that stretch over every land, bearing helpful fruit, and as harboring the cock Víðópnir. The first mention occurs when Svipdagr asks Fjölsviðr to tell him what the name of the tree whose branches reach over every land. Fjolsvith responds that:

Benjamin Thorpe translation:

Mimameidir it is called;
but few men know from what roots it springs:
it by that will fall which fewest know.
Nore fire nor iron will harm it.[3]



Henry Adams Bellows translation:

"Mimameith its name, and no man knows
What root beneath it runs;
And few can guess what shall fell the tree,
For fire nor iron shall fell it."[4]



This stanza is followed by another where Svipdagr asks Fjölsviðr what grows from the seed of the tree. Fjölsviðr responds that fruit grows from the tree:

Benjamin Thorpe translation:

Its fruit shall on the fire be laid,
for labouring women;
out then will pass what would in remain:
so is it a creator of mankind."[3]



Henry Adams Bellows translation:

"Women, sick with child shall seek
Its fruit to the flames to bear;
Then out shall come what within was hid,
And so is it mighty with men."[5]



In the notes to his translation of this stanza, Bellows comments this stanza is to be understood as explaining that, when cooked, the fruit of Mímameiðr—which he identifies as Yggdrasil—will assure safe childbirth.[5]

A third mention occurs when Svipdagr tells Fjölsviðr to tell him what the name of the glittering, golden cock is that sits "on the highest bough". Fjölsviðr complies, revealing that the cock is named Víðópnir:

Benjamin Thorpe translation:

"Vidofnir he is called; in the clear air he stands,
in the boughs of Mima's tree:
affliction only brings, together indissoluble,
the swart bird at his lonely meal."[3]



Henry Adams Bellows translation:

"Vithofnir his name, and now he shines
Like lightning on Mimameith's limbs;
And great is the trouble with which he grieves
Both Surt and Sinmora."[5]



[edit] Theories

Scholar Rudolf Simek connects Mímameiðr with Mímisbrunnr ("Mímir's well"), which is located beneath one of the three roots of the cosmological tree Yggdrasil. Simek concludes that due to the location of the well, Mímameiðr is potentially another name for Yggdrasil. In addition, Simek says that Hoddmímis holt ("Hoard-Mímir's" holt)—a wood whose name refers to the same figure and wherein Líf and Lífþrasir survive Ragnarök—may also be another name for Yggdrasil, and therefore is likely the same location as Mímameiðr.[6]

Scholar John Lindow concurs, noting that if the figures within the location names are the same, then the identification of all the locations as within close vicinity is likely.[7]

[edit] Notes

1. ^ Simek (2007:216)
2. ^ The anglicization Mimameid is used in such modern works as Lindow (2001:232), whereas Mimameith appears in Bellows (1923:242).
3. ^ a b c Thorpe (1907:98).
4. ^ Bellows (1923:242).
5. ^ a b c Bellows (1923:243).
6. ^ Simek (1995:216 and 154).
7. ^ Lindow (2001:179).

[edit] References

* Bellows, Henry Adams (Trans.) (1923). The Poetic Edda. New York: The American-Scandinavian Foundation.
* Lindow, John (2001). Norse Mythology: A Guide to the Gods, Heroes, Rituals, and Beliefs. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515382-0
* Simek, Rudolf (2007) translated by Angela Hall. Dictionary of Northern Mythology. D.S. Brewer ISBN 0859915131
* Thorpe, Benjamin (Trans.) (1907). The Elder Edda of Saemund Sigfusson. Norrœna Society.

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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Alberi Sacri nel Paganesimo Germanico   Mer 10 Nov 2010 - 9:26

Yggdrasil


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FRASSINO

IL FRASSINO YGGDRASILL

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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Alberi Sacri nel Paganesimo Germanico   Oggi a 15:21

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