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FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Turquoise.pebble.700pix.jpg
Il Turchese è un minerale di colore azzurro-verde appartenente al sistema triclino. Sempre opaca o appena traslucida questa gemma può mostrare un colore azzurro uniforme o venature dendritiche brune o nere di limonite. Rarissima in cristalli trasparenti, si trova sempre in noduli o masse microcristalline reniformi oppure in sottili venature all'interno delle rocce incassanti. La sua porosità causa facili alterazioni al colore originario per questo motivo talvolta si effettuano trattamenti di impregnazione a scopo protettivo.
La sua formula chimica è: CuAl6[(OH)2|PO4]4H2O.
* 1 Caratteri diagnostici
* 2 Usi
* 3 Origine
* 4 Tipi di Turchese
* 5 Cristalloterapia
* 6 Altri progetti
Caratteri diagnostici [modifica]
Scaldato in un tubo chiuso la turchese perde acqua e diventa bruna o nera; inoltre non fonde al cannello e non tinge la fiamma in verde (al contrario delle imitazioni).
È stato usato fin dall'antichità come pietra preziosa ed ornamentale.
Grande importanza ebbe presso gli egizi che lo ricavavano dalle miniere dello Uadi Maghara nella penisola del Sinai.Il taglio più usato è quello a superficie curva.
La turchese è un minerale di genesi secondaria e si forma in seguito alla circolazione di soluzioni mineralizzanti all'interno di rocce sedimentarie soprattutto arenarie o vulcaniche.
Viene estratto prevalentemente in USA (negli stati dell'Arizona, Nevada, Nuovo Messico), in Cina, Perù, Messico, Iran, Tibet, Siberia, Australia, Africa, e Turchia.
Tipi di Turchese [modifica]
Esistono vari tipi di Turchese.
* Turchese africano. Viene estratto in miniere africane. Il suo colore è sul verde pallido e presenta dei punti neri. In realtà si origina come diaspro, e non come vero Turchese.
* Turchese americano. Proveniente dall’America, di colore celeste acceso.
* Turchese cinese. Proveniente dalla Cina, estratto dalle aree note come Hubei e Anhui. Di un colore verde mischiato con blu e giallo. Viene trattato, nei suoi strati esterni, con della cera di paraffina.
* Turchese giallo limone. Cinese, di colore giallo chiaro mischiato a un po’ di verdino. Molto raro.
* Turchese messicano. Di un celeste acceso, estratto dalle miniere messicane Compitas.
* Turchese nepalese. Di un celeste un po’ più opaco rispetto agli altri.
* Turchese persiano.
* Turchese trattato. Le parti porose della pietra vengono riempite con una sostanza trasparente (di solito paraffina, olio minerale, colore plastico).
* Turchese stabilizzato. La resina presente viene infusa all’interno dei pori della pietra, in modo che il colore non cambi nel tempo.
* Turchese Mojave o verde mela. Si tratta di un turchese colorato di un verde acceso.
Secondo la tradizione, al turchese si riconoscono proprietà protettive e facilitative della parola e della comunicazione a scapito del conflitto di appartenenza dell'esprimibil. Gli si riconoscono anche numerose virtù terapeutiche fra cui la capacità di proteggere dai morsi di serpenti velenosi, secondo la tradizione inoltre questa pietra sbiadisce all'approssimarsi di una disgrazia. Si credeva inoltre che fosse capace di infondere coraggio in battaglia ed di segnalare l'infedeltà diventando nera in caso di adulterio. Come tutte le pietre blu e azzurre, è legata al 5º chakra, quello della gola.FONTE
Turquoise is an opaque, blue-to-green mineral that is a hydrous phosphate of copper and aluminium, with the chemical formula CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8·4H2O. It is rare and valuable in finer grades and has been prized as a gem and ornamental stone for thousands of years owing to its unique hue. In recent times, turquoise, like most other opaque gems, has been devalued by the introduction of treatments, imitations, and synthetics onto the market.
The substance has been known by many names but the word turquoise, which dates to the 17th century was derived from the French language turques, because it was first brought to Europe from Turkey from the mines in Persia. Pliny referred to the mineral as callais and the Aztecs knew it as chalchihuitl.
* 1 Properties of turquoise
* 2 Formation
* 3 Occurrence
o 3.1 Iran
o 3.2 Sinai
o 3.3 United States
o 3.4 Other sources
* 4 History of its use
* 5 Culture
* 6 Imitations
* 7 Treatments
o 7.1 Waxing and Oiling
o 7.2 Stabilization
o 7.3 Dyeing
o 7.4 Reconstitution
o 7.5 Irradiation
o 7.6 Backing
* 8 Valuation and care
* 9 See also
* 10 Notes
* 11 References
 Properties of turquoise
Even the finest of turquoise is fracturable, reaching a maximum hardness of just under 6, or slightly more than window glass. Characteristically a cryptocrystalline mineral, turquoise almost never forms single crystals and all of its properties are highly variable. Its crystal system is proven to be triclinic via X-ray diffraction testing. With lower hardness comes lower specific gravity (2.60–2.90) and greater porosity: These properties are dependent on grain size. The lustre of turquoise is typically waxy to subvitreous, and transparency is usually opaque, but may be semitranslucent in thin sections. Colour is as variable as the mineral's other properties, ranging from white to a powder blue to a sky blue, and from a blue-green to a yellowish green. The blue is attributed to idiochromatic copper while the green may be the result of either iron impurities (replacing aluminium) or dehydration.
The refractive index (as measured by sodium light, 589.3 nm) of turquoise is approximately 1.61 or 1.62; this is a mean value seen as a single reading on a gemmological refractometer, owing to the almost invariably polycrystalline nature of turquoise. A reading of 1.61–1.65 (birefringence 0.040, biaxial positive) has been taken from rare single crystals. An absorption spectrum may also be obtained with a hand-held spectroscope, revealing a line at 432 nanometres and a weak band at 460 nanometres (this is best seen with strong reflected light). Under longwave ultraviolet light, turquoise may occasionally fluoresce green, yellow or bright blue; it is inert under shortwave ultraviolet and X-rays.
Turquoise is insoluble in all but heated hydrochloric acid. Its streak is a pale bluish white and its fracture is conchoidal, leaving a waxy lustre. Despite its low hardness relative to other gems, turquoise takes a good polish. Turquoise may also be peppered with flecks of pyrite or interspersed with dark, spidery limonite veining.
As a secondary mineral, turquoise apparently forms by the action of percolating acidic aqueous solutions during the weathering and oxidation of pre-existing minerals. For example, the copper may come from primary copper sulfides such as chalcopyrite or from the secondary carbonates malachite or azurite; the aluminium may derive from feldspar; and the phosphorus from apatite. Climate factors appear to play an important role as turquoise is typically found in arid regions, filling or encrusting cavities and fractures in typically highly altered volcanic rocks, often with associated limonite and other iron oxides. In the American southwest turquoise is almost invariably associated with the weathering products of copper sulfide deposits in or around potassium feldspar bearing porphyritic intrusives. In some occurrences alunite, potassium aluminium sulfate, is a prominent secondary mineral. Typically turquoise mineralization is restricted to a relatively shallow depth of less than 20 metres (66 ft), although it does occur along deeper fracture zones where secondary solutions have greater penetration or the depth to the water table is greater.
Although the features of turquoise occurrences are consistent with a secondary or supergene origin, some sources refer to a hypogene origin. The hypogene hypothesis, which holds that the aqueous solutions originate at significant depth, from hydrothermal processes. Initially at high temperature, these solutions rise upward to surface layers, interacting with and leaching essential elements from pre-existing minerals in the process. As the solutions cool, turquoise precipitates, lining cavities and fractures within the surrounding rock. This hypogene process is applicable to the original copper sulfide deposition; however, it is difficult to account for the many features of turquoise occurrences by a hypogene process. That said, there are reports of two phase fluid inclusions within turquoise grains that give elevated homogenization temperatures of 90 to 190 °C that require explanation.
Turquoise is nearly always cryptocrystalline and massive and assumes no definite external shape. Crystals, even at the microscopic scale, are exceedingly rare. Typically the form is vein or fracture filling, nodular, or botryoidal in habit. Stalactite forms have been reported. Turquoise may also pseudomorphously replace feldspar, apatite, other minerals, or even fossils. Odontolite is fossil bone or ivory that has been traditionally thought to have been altered by turquoise or similar phosphate minerals such as the iron phosphate vivianite. Intergrowth with other secondary copper minerals such as chrysocolla is also common.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Turquoise_with_quartz.jpg
Turquoise was among the first gems to be mined, and while many historic sites have been depleted, some are still worked to this day. These are all small-scale, often seasonal operations, owing to the limited scope and remoteness of the deposits. Most are worked by hand with little or no mechanization. However, turquoise is often recovered as a byproduct of large-scale copper mining operations, especially in the United States.
For at least 2,000 years, the region once known as Persia, has remained an important source of turquoise. This deposit, which is blue naturally, and turns green when heated due to dehyration, is restricted to a mine-riddled region in Neyshabur, the 2,012-metre (6,601 ft) mountain peak of Ali-mersai, which is tens of kilometers from Mashhad, the capital of Khorasan province, Iran. A weathered and broken trachyte is host to the turquoise, which is found both in situ between layers of limonite and sandstone, and amongst the scree at the mountain's base. These workings, together with those of the Sinai Peninsula, are the oldest known.
Since at least the First Dynasty (3000 BCE), and possibly before then, turquoise was used by the Egyptians and was mined by them in the Sinai Peninsula, called "Country of Turquoise" by the native Monitu. There are six mines in the region, all on the southwest coast of the peninsula, covering an area of some 650 square kilometres (250 sq mi). The two most important of these mines, from a historic perspective, are Serabit el-Khadim and Wadi Maghareh, believed to be among the oldest of known mines. The former mine is situated about 4 kilometres from an ancient temple dedicated to Hathor.
The turquoise is found in sandstone that is, or was originally, overlain by basalt. Copper and iron workings are present in the area. Large-scale turquoise mining is not profitable today, but the deposits are sporadically quarried by Bedouin peoples using homemade gunpowder. In the rainy winter months, miners face a risk from flash flooding; even in the dry season, death from the collapse of the haphazardly exploited sandstone mine walls is not unheard of. The colour of Sinai material is typically greener than Iranian material, but is thought to be stable and fairly durable. Often referred to as Egyptian turquoise, Sinai material is typically the most translucent, and under magnification its surface structure is revealed to be peppered with dark blue discs not seen in material from other localities.
 United States
The Southwest United States is a significant source of turquoise; Arizona, California (San Bernardino, Imperial, and Inyo counties), Colorado (Conejos, El Paso, Lake, and Saguache counties), New Mexico (Eddy, Grant, Otero, and Santa Fe counties) and Nevada (Clark, Elko, Esmeralda County, Eureka, Lander, Mineral County and Nye counties) are (or were) especially rich. The deposits of California and New Mexico were mined by pre-Columbian Native Americans using stone tools, some local and some from as far away as central Mexico. Cerrillos, New Mexico is thought to be the location of the oldest mines; prior to the 1920s, the state was the country's largest producer; it is more or less exhausted today. Only one mine in California, located at Apache Canyon, operates at a commercial capacity today.
The turquoise occurs as vein or seam fillings, and as compact nuggets; these are mostly small in size. While quite fine material—rivalling Iranian material in both colour and durability—is sometimes found, most American turquoise is of a low grade (called "chalk turquoise"); high iron levels mean greens and yellows predominate, and a typically friable consistency precludes use in jewellery in the turquoise's untreated state.
Arizona is currently the most important producer of turquoise by value. Two mines exist in the state, one is the Sleeping Beauty Mine in Globe, the other is the Kingman Mine that operates alongside a copper mine outside of the city.
Nevada is the country's other major producer, with more than 120 mines which have yielded significant quantities of turquoise. Unlike elsewhere in the US, most Nevada mines have been worked primarily for their gem turquoise and very little has been recovered as a byproduct of other mining operations. Nevada turquoise is found as nuggets, fracture fillings and in breccias as the cement filling interstices between fragments. Because of the geology of the Nevada deposits, a majority of the material produced is hard and dense, being of sufficient quality that no treatment or enhancement is required. While nearly every county in the state has yielded some turquoise, the chief producers are in Lander and Esmeralda Counties. Most of the turquoise deposits in Nevada occur along a wide belt of tectonic activity that coincides with the state's zone of thrust faulting. It strikes about N15°E and extends from the northern part of Elko County, southward down to the California border southwest of Tonopah. Nevada has produced a wide diversity of colours and mixes of different matrix patterns, with turquoise from Nevada coming in various shades of blue, blue-green, and green. Some of this unusually coloured turquoise may contain significant zinc and iron, which is the cause of the beautiful bright green to yellow-green shades. Some of the green to green yellow shades may actually be variscite or faustite, which are secondary phosphate minerals similar in appearance to turquoise. A significant portion of the Nevada material is also noted for its often attractive brown or black limonite veining, producing what is called "spiderweb matrix". While a number of the Nevada deposits were first worked by Native Americans, the total Nevada turquoise production since the 1870s has been estimated at more than 600 tons, including nearly 400 tons from the Carico Lake mine. In spite of increased costs, small scale mining operations continue at a number of turquoise properties in Nevada, including the Godber, Orvil Jack and Carico Lake Mines in Lander County, the Pilot Mountain Mine in Mineral County, and several properties in the Royston and Candelaria areas of Esmerelda County.
Untreated turquoise, Nevada USA. Rough nuggets from the McGinness Mine, Austin; Blue and green cabochons showing spiderweb, Bunker Hill Mine, Royston
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Turq_mcGuin_bunker.jpg
In 1912, the first deposit of distinct, single-crystal turquoise was discovered in Lynch Station, Campbell County, Virginia. The crystals, forming a druse over the mother rock, are very small; 1 mm (0.04 in) is considered large. Until the 1980s Virginia was widely thought to be the only source of distinct crystals; there are now at least 27 other localities.
In an attempt to recoup profits and meet demand, some American turquoise is treated or enhanced to a certain degree. These treatments include innocuous waxing and more controversial procedures, such as dyeing and impregnation (see Treatments). There are however, some American mines which produce materials of high enough quality that no treatment or alterations are required. Any such treatments which have been performed should be disclosed to the buyer on sale of the material.
History of its use
The pastel shades of turquoise have endeared it to many great cultures of antiquity: it has adorned the rulers of Ancient Egypt, the Aztecs (and possibly other Pre-Columbian Mesoamericans), Persia, Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, and to some extent in ancient China since at least the Shang Dynasty. Despite being one of the oldest gems, probably first introduced to Europe (through Turkey) with other Silk Road novelties, turquoise did not become important as an ornamental stone in the West until the 14th century, following a decline in the Roman Catholic Church's influence which allowed the use of turquoise in secular jewellery. It was apparently unknown in India until the Mughal period, and unknown in Japan until the 18th century. A common belief shared by many of these civilizations held that turquoise possessed certain prophylactic qualities; it was thought to change colour with the wearer's health and protect him or her from untoward forces.
The Aztecs inlaid turquoise, together with gold, quartz, malachite, jet, jade, coral, and shells, into provocative (and presumably ceremonial) mosaic objects such as masks (some with a human skull as their base), knives, and shields. Natural resins, bitumen and wax were used to bond the turquoise to the objects' base material; this was usually wood, but bone and shell were also used. Like the Aztecs, the Pueblo, Navajo and Apache tribes cherished turquoise for its amuletic use; the latter tribe believe the stone to afford the archer dead aim. Among these peoples turquoise was used in mosaic inlay, in sculptural works, and was fashioned into toroidal beads and freeform pendants. The Ancestral Puebloans (Anasazi) of the Chaco Canyon and surrounding region are believed to have prospered greatly from their production and trading of turquoise objects. The distinctive silver jewelry produced by the Navajo and other Southwestern Native American tribes today is a rather modern development, thought to date from circa 1880 as a result of European influences.
In Persia, turquoise was the de facto national stone for millennia, extensively used to decorate objects (from turbans to bridles), mosques, and other important buildings both inside and out, such as the Medresseh-I Shah Husein Mosque of Isfahan. The Persian style and use of turquoise was later brought to India following the establishment of the Mughal Empire there, its influence seen in high purity gold jewellery (together with ruby and diamond) and in such buildings as the Taj Mahal. Persian turquoise was often engraved with devotional words in Arabic script which was then inlaid with gold.
Cabochons of imported turquoise, along with coral, was (and still is) used extensively in the silver and gold jewellery of Tibet and Mongolia, where a greener hue is said to be preferred. Most of the pieces made today, with turquoise usually roughly polished into irregular cabochons set simply in silver, are meant for inexpensive export to Western markets and are probably not accurate representations of the original style.
The Egyptian use of turquoise stretches back as far as the First Dynasty and possibly earlier; however, probably the most well-known pieces incorporating the gem are those recovered from Tutankhamun's tomb, most notably the Pharaoh's iconic burial mask which was liberally inlaid with the stone. It also adorned rings and great sweeping necklaces called pectorals. Set in gold, the gem was fashioned into beads, used as inlay, and often carved in a scarab motif, accompanied by carnelian, lapis lazuli, and in later pieces, coloured glass. Turquoise, associated with the goddess Hathor, was so liked by the Ancient Egyptians that it became (arguably) the first gemstone to be imitated, the fair structure created by an artificial glazed ceramic product known as faience. (A similar blue ceramic has been recovered from Bronze Age burial sites in the British Isles.)
The French conducted archaeological excavations of Egypt from the mid-19th century through the early 20th. These excavations, including that of Tutankhamun's tomb, created great public interest in the western world, subsequently influencing jewellery, architecture, and art of the time. Turquoise, already favoured for its pastel shades since c. 1810, was a staple of Egyptian Revival pieces. In contemporary Western use, turquoise is most often encountered cut en cabochon in silver rings, bracelets, often in the Native American style, or as tumbled or roughly hewn beads in chunky necklaces. Lesser material may be carved into fetishes, such as those crafted by the Zuni. While strong sky blues remain superior in value, mottled green and yellowish material is popular with artisans. In Western culture, turquoise is also the traditional birthstone for those born in the month of December. The turquoise is also a stone in the Jewish High Priest's breastplate, described in Exodus 28.
In many cultures of the Old and New Worlds, this gemstone has been esteemed for thousands of years as a holy stone, a bringer of good fortune or a talisman. It really does have the right to be called a 'gemstone of the peoples'. The oldest evidence for this claim was found in Ancient Egypt, where grave furnishings with turquoise inlay were discovered, dating from approximately 3000 BC. In the ancient Persian Empire, the sky-blue gemstones were earlier worn round the neck or wrist as protection against unnatural death. If they changed colour, the wearer was thought to have reason to fear the approach of doom. Meanwhile, it has been discovered that the turquoise certainly can change colour, but that this is not necessarily a sign of impending danger. The change can be caused by the light, or by a chemical reaction brought about by cosmetics, dust or the acidity of the skin.
he name of this stone has come to mean the shades of color between blue and green but originally it simply meant 'the stone from Turkey' because all examples of Turquoise were traded through the city of Istanbul. Prized in Ancient Egypt the stone was used or jewelry and decoration and also ground to make a special blue eye paint.
Turquoise protects against magical and mental attacks and is said to be the guardian of babies and young children. It can also be used in conjunction with divination or scrying to give you insights as to the motives or identity of the person who has attacked you. Lessens the effects of curses and psychic attacks and can be used as a gem elixir to bring comfort to anyone suffering from mental shock. The stone is also known as a peace maker and is believed to reconcile warring enemies, even a quarrelling husband and wife.
Turquoise has long been associate with travel. Carry a piece to keep you safe and sure footed on your journeys. Turquoise combines the powers of all the elements and is renowned as a stone of vision. The stone is the vivid blue of the sky and gives its bearer the vision associated with creatures of the air such as Hawk and Eagle. Helps you to find unity and wholeness within yourself, balancing the different aspects of your character to achieve stability.