Forum di sciamanesimo, antropologia e spirito critico
Nei momenti più bui, ricorda sempre di fare un passo alla volta.
Voler ottenere tutto e subito è sciocco
Nei momenti più difficili, ricorda sempre che le abitudini stabiliscono un destino.
Stabilisci quelle che ti danno energia e crescita.
È solo nell’ora più profonda del Duat, nella Notte oscura dell’anima che possiamo vedere noi stessi.
E capire come superare la notte.
Non rifuggire l’oscurità, impara a vederci attraverso.
Tutto passa e scorre, il giorno diviene notte e la notte giorno.
Ciò che è bene per te ora domani diverrà un ostacolo e un impedimento, o un danno, e viceversa.
Tutto finisce e muta, come la pelle di un serpente.
Impara ad essere la volontà pura di vivere e non la pelle morta di un intento esaurito.
Tutto ciò che non supera l’alba del tuo nuovo giorno, non deve essere portato con te.
Il mondo è infinito, non giudicare perdite e guadagni come il piccolo pescatore che non ha mai visto l’Oceano.
Sconfinate sono le possibilità della Ruota.
Impara a fluire e solo allora senza occhi, senza orecchie né pensiero, vedrai, sentirai e capirai il Tao.
(Admin - Shamanism & Co. © 2011 - All rights reserved)


Forum di sciamanesimo, antropologia e spirito critico

forum di sciamanesimo, antropologia, spirito critico, terapie alternative, esoterismo. Forum of shamanism, anthropology, criticism, alternative therapies and esoterism
 
IndicePortaleFAQCercaRegistrarsiAccedi

Condividere | 
 

 Rinoceronte

Vedere l'argomento precedente Vedere l'argomento seguente Andare in basso 
AutoreMessaggio
Tila
Iniziato Sciamano
Iniziato Sciamano


Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Rinoceronte    Ven 17 Dic 2010 - 16:54

FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhinocerotidae

Rhinocerotidae
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

I rinoceronti (dal greco antico Ῥινόκερος Rhinòkeros, formato da ῥίς, ῥίνος, "naso" e κέρας, -ατος, "corno") sono mammiferi omeotermi dell'ordine dei perissodattili e costituiscono la famiglia Rhinocerotidae. Essa comprende cinque specie (due africane e tre asiatiche), differenti fra loro ma con alcune caratteristiche comuni che li rendono immediatamente distinguibili dagli altri animali.

Indice
[nascondi]

* 1 Caratteristiche generali
* 2 Status
* 3 Evoluzione
* 4 Altri progetti
* 5 Voci correlate


Caratteristiche generali [modifica]

Tutti i rinoceronti hanno una vista debole, una struttura massiccia, col corpo allungato e le zampe colonnari, una testa grossa sormontata da uno o due corni, che pur essendo estremamente robusti non sono di materiale osseo ma di cheratina, la stessa sostanza di cui sono composti peli e capelli. Sono erbivori ma l'alimentazione varia a seconda della specie.


Dimensioni delle varie specie a confronto.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Rhinosizes_it.svg

Le due specie africane sono il rinoceronte nero (Diceros bicornis) e il rinoceronte bianco (Ceratotherium simum). Il primo si differenzia per la struttura più agile, il dorso insellato, le orecchie quasi tonde e, come suggerisce il nome, una colorazione più scura, anche se non propriamente nera. Il rinoceronte nero è inoltre più piccolo: i maschi misurano circa 3,75 m di lunghezza, 1,5 m di altezza alla spalla e pesano 2 tonnellate. Inoltre, il rinoceronte nero ha un labbro dalla forma ad uncino e si nutre delle foglie più basse degli alberi. Il rinoceronte bianco invece, ha il labbro quadrato e si nutre brucando l'erba ed inoltre è più grosso: i maschi misurano 3,9-4,5 metri di lunghezza, 1,8-2 metri di altezza al garrese e 2,2-3,6 tonnellate di peso. In effetti, il rinoceronte bianco è il più grosso animale terrestre dopo gli elefanti e insieme all'ippopotamo, tanto che in effetti pare che esso sia stato chiamato così per un'incomprensione, in quanto invece di "white" si volesse chiamarlo "wide", largo, grande. Un'altra fondamentale differenza sta nel temperamento: mentre il rinoceronte bianco è pacifico e tranquillo, quello nero può rivelarsi molto aggressivo ed è famoso per le sue cariche furiose contro le jeep ed altri autoveicoli nella savana, che spesso vengono seriamente danneggiati. Nel film Ma che siamo tutti matti? viene mostrato che il rinoceronte africano, quando vede un fuoco, ha l'istinto di correre a spegnerlo con le zampe.

Le tre specie di rinoceronti asiatici sono meno conosciute. Esse sono il rinoceronte indiano, il rinoceronte di Giava e il rinoceronte di Sumatra.

Una caratteristica curiosa di questi animali è che possiedono gli organi genitali rivolti all'indietro.

Status [modifica]

I rinoceronti africani erano circa 160.000 nel 1970, ma la loro consistenza numerica è da anni ridotta a circa 10.000, per la maggior parte rinoceronti bianchi, mentre i rinoceronti neri sono stati in larga parte sterminati. Le cause di questo drastico calo nel numero di esemplari vanno ricercate nella caccia da parte dell'uomo.

I rinoceronti erano assai diffusi in Africa come anche in Asia meridionale, ma il contatto con gli uomini europei decisi a cacciarli fu per essi drammatico. Infatti la strategia di difesa che adottano questi animali non è la fuga che potrebbero efficacemente attuare grazie alle doti di velocità e agilità, bensì la carica frontale contro l'aggressore. Un comportamento decisamente controproducente contro armi precise e potenti come i fucili da caccia grossa di cui erano dotati i nuovi cacciatori europei.

Fino a non molti decenni fa si cacciavano i rinoceronti soprattutto per scopo di intrattenimento nei safari di caccia grossa (vi furono cacciatori che uccisero oltre 1000 esemplari). Successivamente prevalse invece il bracconaggio per motivi economici, il cui scopo principale è impadronirsi del corno del rinoceronte, utilizzato dagli arabi per fare impugnature di pugnali pregiati e dai cinesi nelle ricette di medicina tradizionale, che gli attribuisce doti da afrodisiaco.

Il bracconaggio ha provocato una strage di questi animali, che sono efficacemente protetti quasi esclusivamente in Sudafrica, paese nel quale vivono solo popolazioni di rinoceronte bianco; questo spiega perché il numero dei rinoceronti bianchi sia adesso maggiore di quello degli altri tipi.

Il rinoceronte asiatico è più prossimo all'estinzione di quello africano. Restano poco più di 2000 rinoceronti Indiani, da 300 a 350 rinoceronti di Sumatra, una cinquantina di rinoceronti di Giava e forse tre o quattro rinoceronti d'Indocina. Tutti sono stati cacciati per le loro corna.

Evoluzione [modifica]

I rinoceronti appartengono al gruppo di perissodattili noti come ceratomorfi (Ceratomorpha). Questo gruppo, nel Terziario inferiore, era estremamente diversificato e comprendeva diverse famiglie di erbivori primitivi, tra cui gli Isectolophidae, i Deperetellidae, i Lophialetidae e gli Helaletidae, che forse diedero origine ai tapiri. Assieme a questi piccoli animali incominciarono a svilupparsi gli antenati dei rinoceronti, come Hyrachyus e Breviodon. Queste forme primitive includevano erbivori poco specializzati della taglia di una pecora, e vengono classificate nella superfamiglia dei Rhinocerotoidea. Da questi animali si svilupparono gli aminodontidi (Amynodontidae), pesanti erbivori simili a ippopotami vissuti principalmente nell'Oligocene (da 35 a 25 milioni di anni fa) e gli iracodontidi (Hyracodontidae), snelli e veloci, dalla corporatura simile a quella di un pony. Un'ulteriore evoluzione degli iracodontidi portò alla comparsa dei più grandi mammiferi terrestri, gli asiatici indricoteri (gen. Indricotherium), lunghi anche otto metri.


Hyracodon
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hyracodon.jpg



Metamynodon
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Metamynodon.jpg


I veri rinoceronti (Rhinocerotidae) apparvero nell'Eocene medio, con forme ancora piccole e primitive ma che già anticipavano le successive specie di dimensioni maggiori. Tra questi antichi progenitori, da ricordare gli americani Teletaceras e Uintaceras e soprattutto Epiaceratherium, rinvenuto anche in Veneto. Il primo rinoceronte di gran mole è Trigonias, dell'Eocene superiore e dell'Oligocene: ancora sprovvisto di corno, questo animale era già di forme pesanti. Nel corso dell'Oligocene i rinoceronti si diffusero in Asia, Europa, Africa e Nordamerica. In particolare, grande sviluppo ebbe un gruppo di rinoceronti dalle zampe lunghe abituati a vivere nelle praterie: gli acerateri (Aceratheriini), tra cui Aceratherium, Chilotherium e Aphelops, che sopravvissero fino al Pliocene (circa 4 milioni di anni fa). Un altro gruppo, dalle caratteristiche diametralmente opposte, fu quello dei teleocerati (Teleoceratini), come Teleoceras e Brachypotherium, che svilupparono corporatura e modo di vita simile a quello degli ippopotami.

Nel corso del Miocene prosperarono anche altri tipi di rinoceronti dotati di una dentatura adatta alle fibre dure, gli elasmoteri (Elasmotheriinae), come Diceratherium, Menoceras e Sinotherium, dotati di corna ben sviluppate.



Aceratherium
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Aceratherium.jpg



Teleoceras
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Teleoceras.jpg


Nel frattempo si stavano evolvendo anche rinoceronti di tipo moderno: l'asiatico Gaindatherium del Miocene può essere considerato un antenato dell'odierno genere Rhinoceros. Nel Pliocene e Pleistocene grande diffusione ebbe il genere Dicerorhinus, attualmente rappresentato dal solo rinoceronte di Sumatra (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis). I primi esemplari di rinoceronti africani (generi Diceros e Ceratotherium) comparvero nel Pliocene.

I mutamenti climatici di fine Pliocene portarono all'estinzione dei teleocerati e degli acerateri, mentre gli elasmoteri si specializzarono sempre più fino a dar vita, nel Pleistocene medio, all'unicorno gigante (Elasmotherium sibiricum), dotato di un corno alto fino a due metri. Le glaciazioni finirono per far estinguere anche la maggior parte dei rinoceronti di clima caldo di Europa e Asia, ma permisero la comparsa del rinoceronte villoso (Coelodonta antiquitatis), caratteristico dell'Asia e dell'Europa e adattatosi ai climi più rigidi. La fine delle glaciazioni fece estinguere anche questo gigante.


Elasmotherium
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Elasmotherium1.jpg



Coelodonta
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wooly_rhinoceros.jpg



FONTE:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhinoceros

Rhinoceros
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Rhinoceros (pronounced /raɪˈnɒsərəs/), also known as rhino, is a group of five extant species of odd-toed ungulates in the family Rhinocerotidae. Two of these species are native to Africa and three to southern Asia.

The rhinoceros family is characterized by its large size (one of the largest remaining megafauna), with all of the species able to reach one tonne or more in weight; an herbivorous diet; and a thick protective skin, 1.5–5 cm thick, formed from layers of collagen positioned in a lattice structure; relatively small brains for mammals this size (400–600 g); and a large horn. They generally eat leafy material, although their ability to ferment food in their hindgut allows them to subsist on more fibrous plant matter, if necessary. Unlike other perissodactyls, the African species of rhinoceros lack teeth at the front of their mouths, relying instead on their powerful premolar and molar teeth to grind up plant food.[1]

Rhinoceros are killed by humans for their valuable horns, which are made of keratin, the same type of protein that makes up hair and fingernails.[2] Both African species and the Sumatran Rhinoceros have two horns, while the Indian and Javan Rhinoceros have a single horn. Rhinoceros have acute hearing and sense of smell, but poor eyesight. Most live to be about 60 years old or more.

The IUCN Red List identifies three of the species as "critically endangered".

Contents
[hide]

* 1 Taxonomy and naming
o 1.1 White Rhinoceros
o 1.2 Black Rhinoceros
o 1.3 Indian Rhinoceros
o 1.4 Javan Rhinoceros
o 1.5 Sumatran Rhinoceros
* 2 Evolution
* 3 Predators
* 4 Horns
* 5 Historical representations
* 6 Footnotes
* 7 References
* 8 External links

[edit] Taxonomy and naming

The word rhinoceros is derived through Latin from the Ancient Greek: ῥῑνόκερως, which is composed of ῥῑνο- (rhino-, "nose") and κέρας (keras, "horn"). The plural in English is rhinoceros or rhinoceroses. The collective noun for a group of rhinoceros is crash or herd.[3]

The five living species fall into three categories. The two African species, the White Rhinoceros and the Black Rhinoceros, diverged during the early Pliocene (about 5 million years ago) but the Dicerotini group to which they belong originated in the middle Miocene, about 14.2 million years ago. The main difference between black and white rhinos is the shape of their mouths. White rhinos have broad flat lips for grazing and black rhinos have long pointed lips for eating foliage. A popular — if unverified — theory claims that the name White Rhinoceros was actually a mistake, or rather a corruption of the word wyd ("wide" in Afrikaans), referring to their square lips.[4]

White Rhinoceros are divided into Northern and Southern subspecies. There are two living Rhinocerotini species, the Indian Rhinoceros and the Javan Rhinoceros, which diverged from one another about 10 million years ago. The Sumatran Rhinoceros is the only surviving representative of the most primitive group, the Dicerorhinini, which emerged in the Miocene (about 20 million years ago).[5] The extinct Woolly Rhinoceros of northern Europe and Asia was also a member of this tribe.

A subspecific hybrid white rhino (Ceratotherium s. simum × C. s. cottoni) was bred at the Dvůr Králové Zoo (Zoological Garden Dvur Kralove nad Labem) in the Czech Republic in 1977. Interspecific hybridisation of Black and White Rhinoceros has also been confirmed.[6]

All rhinoceros species have 82 chromosomes (diploid number, 2N, per cell), except the Black Rhinoceros, which has 84. This is the highest known chromosome number of all mammals.



Black Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in Tanzania.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ngorongoro_Spitzmaulnashorn.jpg


White Rhinoceros


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Waterberg_Nashorn2.jpg

The White or Square-lipped Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is, after the elephant, the most massive remaining land animal in the world, along with the Indian Rhinoceros and the hippopotamus, which are of comparable size. There are two subspecies of White Rhinos; as of 2005, South Africa has the most of the first subspecies, the Southern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum). The population of Southern White Rhinos is about 14,500, making them the most abundant subspecies of rhino in the world. However, the population of the second subspecies, the critically endangered Northern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum cottoni), is down to as few as four individuals in the wild, and as of June 2008 this sub-species are thought to have become extinct in the wild.[7] Six are known to be held in captivity, two of which reside in a zoo in San Diego. There are currently four that were in held in captivity since 1982 in a zoo in the Czech Republic which were transferred to a wildlife refuge in Kenya in December 2009, in an effort to have the animals reproduce and save the subspecies.[8]

The White Rhino has an immense body and large head, a short neck and broad chest. This rhino can exceed 3,500 kg (7,700 lb), have a head-and-body length of 3.5–4.6 m (11–15 ft) and a shoulder height of 1.8–2 m (5.9–6.6 ft) The record-sized White Rhinoceros was about 4,500 kg (10,000 lb).[9] On its snout it has two horns. The front horn is larger than the other horn and averages 90 cm (35 in) in length and can reach 150 cm (59 in). The White Rhinoceros also has a prominent muscular hump that supports its relatively large head. The colour of this animal can range from yellowish brown to slate grey. Most of its body hair is found on the ear fringes and tail bristles with the rest distributed rather sparsely over the rest of the body. White Rhinos have the distinctive flat broad mouth which is used for grazing.

[edit] Black Rhinoceros

The name Black Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) was chosen to distinguish this species from the White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum). This can be confusing, as those two species are not really distinguishable by colour. There are four subspecies of black rhino: South-central (Diceros bicornis minor), the most numerous, which once ranged from central Tanzania south through Zambia, Zimbabwe and Mozambique to northern and eastern South Africa; South-western (Diceros bicornis bicornis) which are better adapted to the arid and semi-arid savannas of Namibia, southern Angola, western Botswana and western South Africa; East African (Diceros bicornis michaeli), primarily in Tanzania; and West African (Diceros bicornis longipes) which was tentatively declared extinct in 2006.[10]

An adult Black Rhinoceros stands 150–175 cm (59–69 in) high at the shoulder and is 3.5–3.9 m (11–13 ft) in length.[11] An adult weighs from 850 to 1,600 kg (1,900 to 3,500 lb), exceptionally to 1,800 kg (4,000 lb), with the females being smaller than the males. Two horns on the skull are made of keratin with the larger front horn typically 50 cm long, exceptionally up to 140 cm. Sometimes, a third smaller horn may develop. The Black Rhino is much smaller than the White Rhino, and has a pointed mouth, which they use to grasp leaves and twigs when feeding.

[edit] Indian Rhinoceros

The Indian Rhinoceros or the Great One-horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) is now found almost exclusively in Nepal and North-Eastern India. The rhino once inhabited many areas of Pakistan to Burma and may have even roamed in China. But because of human influence their range has shrunk and now they only exist in several protected areas of India (in Assam, West Bengal and a few pairs in Uttar Pradesh) and Nepal, plus a few pairs in Lal Suhanra national park in Pakistan. It is confined to the tall grasslands and forests in the foothills of the Himalayas.

The Indian Rhinoceros has thick, silver-brown skin which creates huge folds all over its body. Its upper legs and shoulders are covered in wart-like bumps, and it has very little body hair. Fully grown males are larger than females in the wild, weighing from 2,500–3,200 kg (5,500–7,100 lb).The Indian rhino stands at 1.75-2.0 meters (5.75-6.5 ft) Female Indian rhinos weigh about 1,900 kg. The Indian Rhino is from 3–4 metres long. The record-sized specimen of this rhino was approximately 3,800 kg. The Indian Rhino has a single horn that reaches a length of between 20 and 100 cm. Its size is comparable to that of the White Rhino in Africa.

Two-thirds of the world's Great One-horned Rhinoceroses are now confined to the Kaziranga National Park situated in the Golaghat district of Assam, India.[12]

[edit] Javan Rhinoceros

The Javan Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus) is one of the rarest and most endangered large mammals anywhere in the world.[13] According to 2002 estimates, only about 60 remain, in Java (Indonesia) and Vietnam. Of all the rhino species, the least is known of the Javan Rhino. These animals prefer dense lowland rain forest, tall grass and reed beds that are plentiful with large floodplains and mud wallows. Though once widespread throughout Asia, by the 1930s the rhinoceros was nearly hunted to extinction in India, Burma, Peninsular Malaysia, and Sumatra for the supposed medical powers of its horn and blood. As of 2009, there are only 40 of them remaining in Ujung Kulon Conservation, Java, Indonesia.

Like the closely related larger Indian Rhinoceros, the Javan rhinoceros has only a single horn. Its hairless, hazy gray skin falls into folds into the shoulder, back, and rump giving it an armored-like appearance. The Javan rhino's body length reaches up to 3.1–3.2 m (10–10 ft), including its head and a height of 1.5–1.7 m (4 ft 10 in–5 ft 7 in) tall. Adults are variously reported to weigh between 900–1,400 kg[14] or 1,360-2,000 kg.[15] Male horns can reach 26 cm in length while in females they are knobs or are not present at all.[15]

[edit] Sumatran Rhinoceros

The Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) is the smallest extant rhinoceros species, as well as the one with the most fur, which allows it to survive at very high altitudes in Borneo and Sumatra. Due to habitat loss and poaching, its numbers have declined and it is one of the world's rarest mammals. About 275 Sumatran Rhinos are believed to remain.

Typically a mature Sumatran rhino stands about 130 cm (51 in) high at the shoulder, a body length of 240–315 cm (94–124 in) and weighs around 700 kg (1,500 lb), though the largest individuals have been known to weigh as much as 1,000 kilograms. Like the African species, it has two horns; the largest is the front (25–79 cm) and the smaller being the second, which is usually less than 10 cm long. The males have much larger horns than the females. Hair can range from dense (the most dense hair in young calves) to scarce. The color of these rhinos is reddish brown. The body is short and has stubby legs. They also have a prehensile lip.

[edit] Evolution

Rhinocerotoids diverged from other perissodactyls by the early Eocene. Fossils of Hyrachyus eximus found in North America date to this period. This small hornless ancestor resembled a tapir or small horse more than a rhino. Three families, sometimes grouped together as the superfamily Rhinocerotoidea, evolved in the late Eocene: Hyracodontidae, Amynodontidae and Rhinocerotidae.

Hyracodontidae, also known as "running rhinos," showed adaptations for speed, and would have looked more like horses than modern rhinos. The smallest hyracodontids were dog-sized; the largest was Indricotherium, believed to be one of the largest land mammals that ever existed. The hornless Indricotherium was almost seven metres high, ten metres long, and weighed as much as 15 tons. Like a giraffe, it ate leaves from trees. The Hyracodontids spread across Eurasia from the mid-Eocene to early Miocene.

The family Amynodontidae, also known as "aquatic rhinos," dispersed across North America and Eurasia, from the late Eocene to early Oligocene. The amynodontids were hippopotamus-like in their ecology and appearance, inhabiting rivers and lakes, and sharing many of the same adaptations to aquatic life as hippos.

The family of all the modern rhinoceros, the Rhinocerotidae, first appeared in the Late Eocene in Eurasia. The earliest members of Rhinocerotidae were small and numerous; at least 26 genera lived in Eurasia and North America until a wave of extinctions in the middle Oligocene wiped out most of the smaller species. Several independent lineages survived, however. Menoceras, a pig-sized rhinoceros which had two horns side-by-side or the Teleoceras of North America which had short legs and a barrel chest and lived until about 5 million years ago. The last rhinos in America became extinct during the Pliocene.

Modern rhinos are believed to have dispersed from Asia beginning in the Miocene. Two species survived the most recent period of glaciation and inhabited Europe as recently as 10,000 years ago. The woolly rhinoceros appeared in China around 1 million years ago and first arrived in Europe around 600,000 years ago and again 200,000 years ago, where alongside the woolly mammoth, they became numerous but eventually were hunted to extinction by early humans. Another species of enormous rhino, Elasmotherium, survived through the middle Pleistocene. Also known as the giant rhinoceros, Elasmotherium was two meters tall, five meters long and weighed around five tons, with a single enormous horn, hypsodont teeth and long legs for running.

Of the extant rhinoceros species, the Sumatran Rhino is the most archaic, first emerging more than 15 million years ago. The Sumatran Rhino was closely related to the woolly rhinoceros, but not to the other modern species. The Indian Rhino and Javan Rhino are closely related and from a more recent lineage of Asian rhino. The ancestors of early Indian and Javan rhino emerged 2-4 million years ago.[16]

The origin of the two living African rhinos can be traced back to the late Miocene (6 mya) species Ceratotherium neumayri. The lineages containing the living species diverged by the early Pliocene (1.5 mya), when Diceros praecox, the likely ancestor of the Black Rhinoceros, appears in the fossil record.[17] The black and white rhinoceros remain so closely related that they can still mate and successfully produce offspring

Predators

In the wild, adult rhinoceros have few natural predators other than humans. Young rhinos can fall prey to predators such as big cats, crocodiles, wild dogs, and hyena. It has also been reported that a large Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) was seen taking a black rhino while it was drinking from a river; whether other species of rhino may fall prey to these large reptiles is unknown. Although rhinos are of large size and have a reputation of being tough, they are actually very easily poached. Because it visits water holes daily, the rhinoceros is easily killed while taking a drink. As of December 2009 poaching has been on a "global" increase whilst efforts to protect the rhinoceros are being considered increasingly ineffective. The worst estimate, that only 3% of poachers are successfully countered, is reported of Zimbabwe. Rhino horn is considered to be particularly effective on fevers and even "life saving" by traditional Chinese medicine practitioners, which in turn provides a sales market. Nepal is apparently alone in avoiding the crisis while poacher-hunters grow ever more sophisticated.[19] South African officials are calling for urgent action against rhinoceros poaching after poachers killed the last female rhinoceros in Krugersdorp Park near Johannesburg.[20]

[edit] Horns

Rhinoceros horns, unlike those of other horned mammals, consist of keratin only and lack a bony core, such as bovine horns. Rhinoceros horns are used in traditional Asian medicine, and for dagger handles in Yemen and Oman. Esmond Bradley Martin has reported on the trade for dagger handles in Yemen.[21]

One repeated misconception is that rhinoceros horn in powdered form is used as an aphrodisiac in Traditional Chinese Medicine as Cornu Rhinoceri Asiatici (犀角). It is, in fact, prescribed for fevers and convulsions.[22] Neither have been proven by Evidence-based medicine. Discussions with TCM practitioners to reduce its use have met with mixed results since some TCM doctors mistakenly see rhinoceros horn as a life-saving medicine of better quality than substitutes.[23] China has signed the CITES treaty however. To prevent poaching, in certain areas, rhinos have been tranquilized and their horns removed. Many rhino range States have stockpiles of rhino horn.[24]

[edit] Historical representations

Albrecht Dürer created a famous woodcut of a rhinoceros in 1515, based on a written description and brief sketch by an unknown artist of an Indian rhinoceros that had arrived in Lisbon earlier that year. Dürer never saw the animal itself, and as a result, Dürer's Rhinoceros is a somewhat inaccurate depiction.

There are legends about rhinoceros stamping out fire in Malaysia, India, and Burma. The mythical rhinoceros has a special name in Malay, badak api, where badak means rhinoceros and api means fire. The animal would come when a fire is lit in the forest and stamp it out.[25] There are no recent confirmations of this phenomenon. However, this legend has been reinforced by the film The Gods Must Be Crazy, where an African rhinoceros is shown to be putting out two campfires.[26]
Tornare in alto Andare in basso
Tila
Iniziato Sciamano
Iniziato Sciamano


Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Re: Rinoceronte    Ven 17 Dic 2010 - 16:59

FONTE: http://animalitotem.wordpress.com/2008/02/05/animali-dalla-m-alla-r/

RINOCERONTE – Manifestazione. Porta consapevolezza dei costanti progressi si stanno compiendo. Con la sua forza e la sua calma ti aiuta a rallentare e a superare l’impazienza in relazione ai risultati che a poco a poco stanno prendendo forma nella tua vita.


FONTE: http://www.linsdomain.com/totems/pages/rhinoceros.htm

RHINOCEROS

Ancient Wisdom

Rhinoceros is a solitary animal and teaches how to be comfortable within yourself.
Rhino is the embodiment of the axiom: "Know thyself!"

Since Rhino is an ancient animals, it often gives it totem people
insight into their own past lives.
Meditating on Rhino can often result in unlocking those memories.
Often how you see your Rhino gives insight into that past life.
Two horned Rhinos come from Africa while one horned Rhinos are from Asia.

People with a Rhino totem have a heightened sense of smell.
The sense of smell is symbolic of higher discrimination, spiritual idealism
and higher wisdom and Rhino gives all of these to their totem people.
Trust your inner wisdom.
Don’t look at appearance only – go beyond and trust your internal senses.

Rhino will help you see the wisdom in your life.
It has a solidity that will help you put your life in its proper perspective.

Some of the information on this webpage was derived from the following sources:
Sans, Jamie & Carson, David. Medicine Cards: the Discovery of Power Through the Way of Animals. Santa Fe, NM. 1988. Print.
Andrews, Ted. Animal-speak: the Spiritual & Magical Powers of Creatures Great & Small. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 1993. Print.
Andrews, Ted. Animal-Wise: the Spirit Language and Signs of Nature. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 1999. Print.
D. J. Conway. Animal Magick: the Art of Recognizing & Working with Familiars. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 2003. Print.
Farmer, Steven D. Animal Spirit Guides. Hayhouse Inc., 2006. Print.



FONTE: http://www.whats-your-sign.com/animal-symbolism-rhinoceros.html

Rhino Meanings and Symbolic Thoughts on the Rhinoceros

Animal symbolism of the rhinoceros revolves around a mass of misguided perception. The rhino is replete with contradictions.

One of the top three largest land mammals, the rhino’s physical presence is mammoth. Although the rhino is known to display aggressive behavior, for the most part it is a passive creature – preferring to roam its wide-open grassy spaces in contemplative solitude. Here we see the first of many paradoxes that lead us to the underlying symbolic theme of the rhinoceros: “things are not as they seem.”

Rhino animal symbolism reminds us to appreciate the expansive bounty we have around us. When the rhino comes to us in our daily lives it is time for us to stop and give thanks to the infinite wonders occurring in every millimeter and minute of our lives. Here are a few examples of how we may do this:

* Do as the rhino does and press your feet into the mother (earth) with connective assurance that all is well.
* Inhale the richness of green as the rhino does in the tall grasses in which it lives. Savor the scent – impress it fully into memory – recall it during times when you need revitalization.
* Surround yourself in cool comfort as the rhino does with his mud bath rituals. Again, let the rich abundance and stability of the mother (earth) enfold you and reassure you.

It is the rhino’s intimate connection with the earth that makes it a perfect symbol for confidence, assurance, steadiness, and sure-footedness. When we are feeling insecure, nervous, or disconnected, the best tonic for our nervy ails is to allow the rhino to run through our spiritual realm. Mentally envision the stoic, noble rhino swaggering easily across the awing expanse of the Ngorongoro Crater where the scenery is equally matched to the regal rhino’s energy.

And speaking of energy, the rhino possesses solar animal symbolism and you will find your envisioning it will produce heat within your body.

Simply put, the rhino is a creature of substance, stamina, solidity, and explosive power. When you are feeling transparent and empty, invite the rhino into your being – see what happens – observe yourself being filled with the majesty this creature represents.

The animal symbolism of the rhino horn deals with:

* Protection
* Achievement
* Heightened Senses
* Utilization of Inner Resource

It’s not the actual horn that is powerful – the horn itself is nothing but built-up rhino skin – physically, the horn is worthless. Symbolically however, the horn is priceless.

Shamans, and ancient practitioners of animal symbolism and spirit communication have recognized the symbolism of the rhino horn as special and unique. Humans, in their misunderstanding of universal energy, have tried to take the horn to own specialized energy. When, in fact, it cannot be physically acquired. That energy is available at every turn.

Our physical human eyes see something special and magical in the rhino horn – we can initiate that powerful strength, protection, and success internally. Indeed, mystics tell of having visions of an illuminated (sometimes golden) horn the rhinoceros thrust through the veil of ignorance – ripping the veil open to let loose all the opulence and riches (enlightenment) of all mankind’s desire.

This was not a vision that indicated everyone should go out and get a rhino horn for their alter, or horn powder for their morning elixir. These symbolic visions beckon us to think, feel, pray, love, and live on a deeper level.

By invoking all that is true, beautiful, loving, and joyous we don the golden horn of power. By directing this horn of virtue, we ourselves rip through the ambiguous veil, and find our own clarity and abundance on the other side of the fog.

Animal symbolism of the rhinoceros includes:

* Agility
* Solitary
* Wisdom
* Paradox
* Freedom
* Stability
* Gratitude
* Longevity
* Judgment
* Grounding
* Peace of Mind
* Self-Assurance
* Unconventional
* Sensory Perception

If the rhinoceros is your totem, it is your responsibility to take heart of the underlying symbolic message the rhino has for you “nothing is as it seems.” The rhino is your companion to help you on a soulful journey in recognizing the truth with your spiritual eyes – not what your physical eyes see.

The rhino will also help you maintain connection with the Mother (earth) as you soar into a broader, expansive insights that brings your understanding and awareness to a whole new (and wonderful) level.



Ed ora un video dedicato agli amanti dei pucci Very Happy



Tornare in alto Andare in basso
 
Rinoceronte
Vedere l'argomento precedente Vedere l'argomento seguente Tornare in alto 
Pagina 1 di 1

Permesso di questo forum:Non puoi rispondere agli argomenti in questo forum
Forum di sciamanesimo, antropologia e spirito critico :: SCIAMANESIMO :: I TEMI DELLO SCIAMANESIMO - THEMES OF SHAMANSIM :: Animali Totem e Spiriti Guida - Totem Animals and Allies Spirits :: Totem Animals R-V-
Andare verso: