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 Gru - Gruidae

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Iniziato Sciamano
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Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Gru - Gruidae   Sab 25 Dic 2010 - 19:49

Oggi vedremo insieme questo interessante uccello che per i Cinesi rappresenta simbolicamente la giustizia e longevità.

E come per diversi altri tipi di uccelli veniva considerata in molte culture messaggera divina.

Come al solito riporto solo alcune schede prese da wikipedia o stralci di esse poiché comprende 15 specie diverse ovviamente ne riporterò solo quelle che a parer mio sono più significative.

Quindi per un approfondimento dell’argomento vi consiglio la lettura ai link originali.


FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gruidae

Gruidae
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Le gru sono uccelli che costituiscono la famiglia delle Gruidae.
Indice
[nascondi]

* 1 Caratteristiche
* 2 Sistematica
* 3 Bibliografia
* 4 Altri progetti
* 5 Collegamenti esterni

Caratteristiche [modifica]

Esse si caratterizzano per la lunghezza delle parti del loro corpo: zampe (nude per la maggior parte), ali e becco (dritto e acuminato). Per contro hanno una coda corta di dodici penne. Diffuse in quasi tutti i continenti, tranne il Sud America e i poli.
Sistematica [modifica]

Ci sono 15 specie viventi di gru in 4 generi:

SOTTOFAMIGLIA BALEARICINAE - gru coronate

* Genere Balearica
o Gru pavonina, Balearica pavonina
o Gru coronata grigia, Balearica regulorum

SOTTOFAMIGLIA GRUINAE - vere gru

* Genere Grus
o Gru cenerina, Grus grus, nota anche come gru eurasiatica
o Gru canadese, Grus canadensis
o Gru urlatrice, Grus americana
o Gru antigone, Grus antigone
o Brolga, Grus rubicunda
o Gru siberiana, Grus leucogeranus
o Gru dal collo bianco, Grus vipio
o Gru monaca, Grus monacha
o Gru dal collo nero, Grus nigricollis
o Gru della Manciuria, Grus japonensis
* Genere Anthropoides
o Gru del paradiso, Anthropoides paradisea
o Damigella di Numidia, Anthropoides virgo
* Genere Bugeranus
o Gru caruncolata, Bugeranus carunculatus

Bibliografia [modifica]

* Hayes, M.A. (2005): Divorce and extra-pair paternity as alternative mating strategies in monogamous sandhill cranes. MS thesis, University of South Dakota, Vermilion, S.D.. 86 p. PDF fulltext at the International Crane Foundation's Library
* Lambrecht, Kálmán (1933): Handbuch der Palaeornithologie. Gebrüder Bornträger, Berlin.
* Miller, Alden H. & Sibley, Charles G. (1942): A New Species of Crane from the Pliocene of California. Condor 44: 126-127. PDF fulltext


FONTE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gru_della_Manciuria

Grus japonensis
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

La gru della Manciuria (Grus japonensis) è una grossa gru ed è la seconda specie di gru più rara al mondo. In Asia orientale è nota come simbolo di fortuna e fedeltà. Con 139 cm d'altezza, la gru non è una preda facile e domina su tutte le creature che si trovano nelle paludi e negli acquitrini in cui vive. Quando è adulta, la gru della Manciuria è di colore bianco candido, con una chiazza di pelle rossa sulla testa. Questa chiazza di pelle diventa rosso brillante quando la gru è irritata o eccitata. Un maschio raggiunse eccezionalmente il peso di 15 kg, facendo di questa specie la gru più grande del mondo, sebbene la grossa gru antigone sia più alta.



FONTE IMMAGINE: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Crane_japan2.JPG

In primavera ed estate, le gru della Manciuria vivono in Siberia, dove si schiudono le loro uova. Normalmente la gru depone 2 uova, ma sopravviverà un solo piccolo. Più tardi, in autunno, migrano in stormi verso la Corea, la Cina e altri Paesi dell'Asia orientale, dove trascorreranno l'inverno. Tutte le gru della Manciuria migrano, ad eccezione di un gruppo che risiede tutto l'anno sull'isola di Hokkaidō, in Giappone.

La gru si nutre di piccoli anfibi, invertebrati acquatici, insetti e vegetali che raccoglie in paludi e acquitrini.

Vive in paludi, sulle rive dei fiumi, nelle risaie e in ogni luogo dove vi sia acqua, vegetazione perenne e cibo.

Indice
[nascondi]

* 1 Popolazione
* 2 Mitologia
* 3 Letteratura
* 4 Bibliografia
* 5 Altri progetti
* 6 Collegamenti esterni

Popolazione [modifica]

La popolazione stimata della specie è solamente di 1700-2000 individui in natura, facendone una delle specie di uccelli più minacciate. La National Aviary di Pittsburgh, in Pennsylvania, sta svolgendo un progetto in cui zoo statunitensi donano uova che verranno portate in Russia e fatte schiudere nella Riserva Naturale di Khinganski, in cui verranno poi liberati gli individui una volta schiusesi. Questo progetto ha inviato 150 uova negli anni 1995-2005.

Mitologia [modifica]

In Giappone, questa gru, conosciuta come tancho, si dice che possa vivere per 1000 anni.

In Cina, la gru della Manciuria è stata spesso rappresentata in racconti fantastici, normalmente nei panni della cavalcatura di un saggio o di un immortale. Le gru della Manciuria sono chiamate xian he, o gru fatate.

Letteratura [modifica]

Nel libro di Jeff Stone, I cinque antenati, Hok (che in cantonese significa gru), una bambina di 12 anni, si trasforma in gru della Manciuria.

Bibliografia [modifica]

* BirdLife International 2004. Grus japonensis. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Versione 2010.1



FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crane_%28bird%29


Grey Crowned Crane, Balearica regulorum
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Grey_Crowned_Crane.jpg

Crane (bird)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds of the order Gruiformes, and family Gruidae. There are fifteen species. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Cranes live on all continents except Antarctica and South America.

Most species of cranes are at least threatened, if not critically endangered, within their range. The plight of the Whooping Cranes of North America inspired some of the first US legislation to protect endangered species.

Contents
[hide]

* 1 Biology
* 2 Taxonomy
* 3 Myth and lore
* 4 See also
* 5 References
* 6 External links
o 6.1 Myth and lore links

Biology

They are opportunistic feeders that change their diet according to the season and their own nutrient requirements. They eat a range of items from suitably sized small rodents, fish, amphibians, and insects, to grain, berries, and plants.

Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances". While folklore often states that cranes mate for life, recent scientific research indicates that these birds do change mates over the course of their lifetimes (Hayes 2005), which may last several decades. Cranes construct platform nests in shallow water, and typically lay two eggs at a time. Both parents help to rear the young, which remain with them until the next breeding season[1].

Some species and populations of cranes migrate over long distances; others do not migrate at all. Cranes are gregarious, forming large flocks where their numbers are sufficient.


Taxonomy

There are 15 living species of cranes in 4 genera:

SUBFAMILY BALEARICINAE - crowned cranes

* Genus Balearica
o Black Crowned Crane, Balearica pavonina
o Grey Crowned Crane, Balearica regulorum

SUBFAMILY GRUINAE - typical cranes

* Genus Grus
o Common Crane, Grus grus, also known as the Eurasian Crane
o Sandhill Crane, Grus canadensis
o Whooping Crane, Grus americana
o Sarus Crane, Grus antigone
o Brolga, Grus rubicunda
o Siberian Crane, Grus leucogeranus
o White-naped Crane, Grus vipio
o Hooded Crane, Grus monacha
o Black-necked Crane, Grus nigricollis
o Red-crowned Crane, Grus japonensis, also known as the Manchurian Crane and Japanese Crane
* Genus Anthropoides
o Blue Crane, Anthropoides paradisea
o Demoiselle Crane, Anthropoides virgo
* Genus Bugeranus
o Wattled Crane, Bugeranus carunculatus

The fossil record of cranes leaves much to be desired. Apparently, the subfamilies were well distinct by the Late Eocene (around 35 mya). The present genera are apparently some 20 mya old. Biogeography of known fossil and the living taxa of cranes suggests that the group is probably of (Laurasian?) Old World origin. The extant diversity at the genus level is centered on (eastern) Africa, making it all the more regrettable that no decent fossil record exists from there. On the other hand, it is peculiar that numerous fossils of Ciconiiformes are documented from there; these birds presumably shared much of their habitat with cranes back then already.

Fossil genera are tentatively assigned to the present-day subfamilies:

Gruinae

* Palaeogrus (Middle Eocene of Germany and Italy - Middle Miocene of France)
* Pliogrus (Early Pliocene of Eppelsheim, Germany)
* Camusia (Late Miocene of Menorca, Mediterranean)
* "Grus" conferta (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene of Contra Costa County, USA) - see Miller & Sibley (1942)

Sometimes considered Balearicinae

* Geranopsis (Hordwell Late Eocene - Early Oligocene of England)
* Anserpica (Late Oligocene of France)

Sometimes considered Gruidae incertae sedis

* Eobalearica (Ferghana Late? Eocene of Ferghana, Uzbekistan)
* Probalearica (Late Oligocene? - Middle Pliocene of Florida, USA, France?, Moldavia and Mongolia) - A nomen dubium?
* Aramornis (Sheep Creek Middle Miocene of Snake Creek Quarries, USA)

The supposed Grus prentici is not a true crane; it was eventually placed in the genus Paragrus (Lambrecht 1933:520).


Myth and lore


Pine, Plum and Cranes, 1759 AD, by Shen Quan (1682—1760). Hanging scroll, ink and colour on silk. The Palace Museum, Beijing.
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pine,_Plum_and_Cranes.jpg


The cranes' beauty and their spectacular mating dances have made them highly symbolic birds in many cultures with records dating back to ancient times. Crane mythology is widely spread and can be found in areas such as the Aegean, South Arabia, China, Korea, Japan and in the Native American cultures of North America. In northern Hokkaidō, the women of the Ainu people performed a crane dance that was captured in 1908 in a photograph by Arnold Genthe. In Korea, a crane dance has been performed in the courtyard of the Tongdosa Temple since the Silla Dynasty (646 CE).

In Mecca, in pre-Islamic South Arabia, Allāt, Uzza, and Manah were believed to be the three chief goddesses of Mecca, they were called the "three exalted cranes" (gharaniq, an obscure word on which 'crane' is the usual gloss). See The Satanic Verses for the best-known story regarding these three goddesses.

The Greek for crane is Γερανος (Geranos), which gives us the Cranesbill, or hardy geranium. The crane was a bird of omen. In the tale of Ibycus and the cranes, a thief attacked Ibycus (a poet of the 6th century BCE) and left him for dead. Ibycus called to a flock of passing cranes, who followed the attacker to a theater and hovered over him until, stricken with guilt, he confessed to the crime.

Pliny the Elder wrote that cranes would appoint one of their number to stand guard while they slept. The sentry would hold a stone in its claw, so that if it fell asleep it would drop the stone and waken.

Aristotle describes the migration of cranes in The History of Animals, adding an account of their fights with Pygmies as they wintered near the source of the Nile. He describes as untruthful an account that the crane carries a touchstone inside it that can be used to test for gold when vomited up. (This second story is not altogether implausible, as cranes might ingest appropriate gizzard stones in one locality and regurgitate them in a region where such stone is otherwise scarce)


References

1. ^ Archibald, George W. (1991). Forshaw, Joseph. ed. Encyclopaedia of Animals: Birds. London: Merehurst Press. pp. 95–96. ISBN 1-85391-186-0.

* Hayes, M.A. (2005): Divorce and extra-pair paternity as alternative mating strategies in monogamous sandhill cranes. MS thesis, University of South Dakota, Vermilion, S.D.. 86 p. PDF fulltext at the International Crane Foundation's Library

* Lambrecht, Kálmán (1933): Handbuch der Palaeornithologie. Gebrüder Bornträger, Berlin.

* Miller, Alden H. & Sibley, Charles G. (1942): A New Species of Crane from the Pliocene of California. Condor 44: 126-127. PDF fulltext


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarus_Crane

Sarus Crane
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sarus_Crane_I_IMG_8628.jpg

The Sarus Crane (Grus antigone) is a large non-migratory crane found in parts of the Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia and Australia. The tallest of the flying birds, standing at a height of up to 1.8 m (5.9 ft),[3] they are conspicuous and iconic[4] species of open wetlands. The Sarus Crane is easily distinguished from other cranes in the region by the overall grey colour and the contrasting red head and upper neck. They forage on marshes and shallow wetlands for roots, tubers, insects, crustaceans and small vertebrate prey. Like other cranes, they form long-lasting pair-bonds and maintain territories within which they perform territorial and courtship displays that include loud trumpeting, leaps and dance-like movements. In India they are considered symbols of marital fidelity, believed to mate for life and pine the loss of their mates even to the point of starving to death. The main breeding season is during the rainy season, when the pair builds an enormous nest "island", a circular platform of reeds and grasses nearly two metres in diameter and high enough to stay above the shallow water surrounding it. Sarus Crane numbers have declined greatly in the last century and it has been estimated that the current population is a tenth or less (perhaps 2.5%) of the numbers that existed in the 1850s. The stronghold of the species is India, where it is traditionally revered and lives in agricultural lands in close proximity to humans. Elsewhere, the species has been extirpated in many parts of its former range.


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sarus_Crane_%28Grus_antigone%29_at_Sultanpur_I_Picture_151.jpg

In culture

The species is venerated in India and legend has it that the poet Valmiki cursed a hunter for killing a Sarus Crane and was then inspired to write the epic Ramayana.[60][61] The species was a close contender to the Indian Peafowl as the national bird of India.[62] Among the Gondi people, the tribes classified as "five-god worshippers" consider the Sarus Crane as sacred.[63] The meat of the Sarus was considered taboo in ancient Hindu scriptures.[64] It is widely believed that the Sarus pairs for life and that death of one partner leads to the other pining to death. They are a symbol of marital virtue and in parts of Gujarat, it is a custom to take a newly wed couple to see a pair of Sarus Cranes.[65] Being ubiquitous in the flood plains of the Ganges, observations on their biology had been made by the Mughal emperor, Jahangir around AD 1607. He noted, for instance, that the species always laid two eggs with an interval of 48 hours between them and that the incubation period was 34 days.[6]
Although venerated and protected by Indians, these birds were hunted during the colonial period. It was noted that killing a bird would lead to its surviving partner trumpeting for many days and it was traditionally believed that the other would starve to death. Even sport hunting guides discouraged shooting these birds.[66] According to 19th century British zoologist Thomas C. Jerdon, young birds were said to be good eating, while older ones were "worthless for the table".[67] Eggs of the Sarus Crane are however used in folk remedies in some parts of India.[65][68]

Young birds were often captured and kept in menageries both in India and in Europe in former times. They were also successfully bred in captivity early in the 17th century by Emperor Jehangir[69] and in Europe and the United States in the early 1930s.[34][70]

... The young birds are easily reared by hand, and become very tame and attached to the person who feeds them, following him like a dog. They are very amusing birds, going through the most grotesque dances and antics, and are well worth keeping in captivity. One which I kept, when bread and milk was given to him, would take the bread out of the milk, and wash it in his pan of water before eating it. This bird, which was taken out of the King's palace at Lucknow, was very fierce towards strangers and dogs, especially if they were afraid of him. He was very noisy—the only bad habit he possessed.
—Irby, 1861[71]

An Indian 14-seater propeller aircraft, the Saras, is named after this crane.[72][73]


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red-crowned_Crane



FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Grus_japonensis_-Marwell_Wildlife,_Hampshire,_England-8a.jpg

Red-crowned Crane
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Red-crowned Crane (Grus japonensis), also called the Japanese Crane or Manchurian Crane, is a large crane and is the second rarest crane in the world. (Chinese: 丹顶鹤; Chinese: 丹頂鶴; Hanyu Pinyin: Dāndǐng Hè; Japanese: 丹頂 or タンチョウ, tancho; the Chinese character '丹' means 'red', '頂/顶' means 'crown' and '鶴/鹤' means 'crane'). In East Asia, it is known as a symbol of luck, longevity and fidelity. At 140-150 cm (55-60 inches) high, the crane does not make easy prey, for all that it stands out in its natural habitat of marshes and swamps. When it matures, the Red-crowned Crane is snow white with a patch of red skin on its head. This patch of skin becomes bright red when the crane becomes angry or excited. This species is the heaviest crane, typically 7.7–10- kg (17-22 lb)[2], although large Sarus Cranes are taller.[3] The maximum known weight of a male Red-crowned Crane is 15 kg (33 lbs.)[4]

In the spring and summer, the Red-crowned Crane breeds in Siberia and occasionally in northeastern Mongolia (i.e., Mongol Daguur Strictly Protected Area). Normally the crane lays 2 eggs, with only one surviving. Later, in the fall, it migrates in flocks to Korea, Japan, China, Taiwan, and other countries in East Asia to spend the winter. All Red-crowned Cranes migrate, except for a flock that is resident in Hokkaidō.

The crane eats small amphibians, aquatic invertebrates, insects, and plants that grow in marshes and swamps.

The habitats used are marshes, riverbanks, rice fields, and other wet areas.

Culture

In Japan, this crane is known as the tancho and is said to live for 1000 years. A pair of Red-crowned Cranes were used in the design for the Series D 1000 yen note. In the Ainu language, the Red-crowned Crane is known as sarurun kamuy or marsh kamuy.

In China, the Red-crowned Crane is often featured in myths and legends. In Taoism, the Red-crowned Crane is a symbol of longevity and immortality. In art and literature, immortals are often depicted riding on cranes. A mortal who attains immortality is similarly carried off by a crane. Reflecting this association, Red-crowned Cranes are called xian he (仙鹤), or fairy cranes. The Red-crowned Crane is also a symbol of nobility. Depictions of the crane have been found in Shang Dynasty tombs and Zhou Dynasty ceremonial bronzeware. A common theme in later Chinese art is the reclusive scholar who cultivates bamboo and keeps cranes.

Because of its importance in Chinese culture, the Red-crowned Crane was selected by the National Forestry Bureau of the People's Republic of China as its only candidate for the national animal of China. This decision was deferred because the Red-crowned Crane's Latin name translates as "Japanese Crane".[6]


FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue_Crane


FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Anthropoides_paradiseus_-Etosha_National_Park,_Namibia-8.jpg


Blue Crane
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Blue Crane (Anthropoides paradiseus), also known as the Stanley Crane and the Paradise Crane, is the national bird of South Africa. It is a tall, ground-dwelling bird, but is fairly small by the standards of the crane family. It is 100–120 cm (40–47 in) tall and weighs from 4 to 6.2 kg (8.8-13.6 lbs). This crane is pale blue-gray in colour with a white crown, a pink bill, and long, dark gray wingtip feathers which trail to the ground.

Cultural references

The Blue Crane is a bird very special to the amaXhosa, who call it indwe. When a man distinguished himself by deeds of valour, or any form of meritorious conduct, he was often decorated by a chief by being presented with the feathers of this bird. After a battle, the chief would organise a ceremony called ukundzabela – a ceremony for the heroes, at which feathers would be presented. Men so honoured – they wore the feathers sticking out of their hair – were known as men of ugaba (trouble) - the implication being that if trouble arose, these men would reinstate peace and order.

The Blue Crane is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies.
Tornare in alto Andare in basso
Tila
Iniziato Sciamano
Iniziato Sciamano


Femminile Serpente
Numero di messaggi : 1826
Data d'iscrizione : 22.03.10
Età : 39
Località : Prov. CN

MessaggioOggetto: Re: Gru - Gruidae   Sab 25 Dic 2010 - 19:51

In questo articolo scopriamo che la simbologia di questo totem ci ricorda di prestare l'attenzione su una singola cosa importante nella nostra vita e quindi di focalizzare un progetto alla volta...

FONTE: http://www.linsdomain.com/totems/pages/crane.htm

CRANE

Longevity
and
Focus


To the ancient Chinese, the Crane was a symbol of justice and longevity.
A Crane totem entering your life could signal recovery of what was lost to you.

Crane people have a sense of secrecy and protectiveness.

Crane reflects the importance of not dividing your attention
between more than one project rather focusing on just the more important one.
Mothers with Crane totems do better as stay-at-home moms
rather than trying to juggle raising a family and work.
If this is impossible, ask Crane to help you accomplish both.

Crane can teach you how to celebrate your creative resources
and keep them alive, by having the proper focus in your life.

Some of the information on this webpage was derived from the following sources:
Sans, Jamie & Carson, David. Medicine Cards: the Discovery of Power Through the Way of Animals. Santa Fe, NM. 1988. Print.
Andrews, Ted. Animal-speak: the Spiritual & Magical Powers of Creatures Great & Small. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 1993. Print.
Andrews, Ted. Animal-Wise: the Spirit Language and Signs of Nature. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 1999. Print.
D. J. Conway. Animal Magick: the Art of Recognizing & Working with Familiars. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 2003. Print.
Farmer, Steven D. Animal Spirit Guides. Hayhouse Inc., 2006. Print.



FONTE: http://animalitotem.wordpress.com/

Gru (Corr): Un tempo la gru era molto comune nelle Isole Britanniche. Una tardiva tradizione celtica, apparentemente nata dopo l’arrivo del cristianesimo, narra che le gru in un’altra vita erano persone che ora stanno pagando una penitenza per il precedente cattivo operato. La gru era associata al dio del mare Manannan mac Lir. La gru, con i suoi colori nero, bianco e rosso, è stato un uccello sacro, collegato anche alle divinità della luna. Se compare nel viaggio sciamanico. Impartisce insegnamenti e svela i misteri che permettono di raggiungere una verità più profonda.
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