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 Shugendō and Hijiri

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MessaggioOggetto: Shugendō and Hijiri   Mar 5 Mag 2009 - 10:15

Shugendō (修験道?) is an old Japanese religion in which enlightenment is obtained through the study of the relationship between Man and Nature. Shugendō literally means "the path of training and testing." It centers on an ascetic, mountain-dwelling lifestyle and incorporates teachings from Koshintō (ancient Shinto), Buddhism and other eastern philosophies including folk animism. Shugendo practitioners are the most direct lineage descendants of the ancient hijiri of the eight and ninth centuries.[1] The focus or goal of shugendō is the development of spiritual experience and power.
En-no-Gyōja is often considered as having first organized shugendō as a doctrine.

Hijiri (Japanese: “holy man”), in Japanese religion, a man of great personal magnetism and spiritual power, as distinct from a leader of an institutionalized religion. Historically, hijiri has been used to refer to sages of various traditions, such as the shaman, Shinto mountain ascetic, Taoist magician, or Buddhist reciter. Most characteristically hijiri describes the wandering…


FONTE: http://www.scribd.com/doc/4035968/Shugend
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MessaggioOggetto: Re: Shugendō and Hijiri   Mar 16 Nov 2010 - 9:18

FONTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shugend%C5%8D

Shugendō
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Shugendō practitioners in the mountains of Kumano, Mie
FONTE IMMAGINE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:%E7%AB%8B%E7%9F%B3%E5%85%89%E6%AD%A3DSCF0451.JPG


Shugendō (Japanese: 修験道?) is an ancient Japanese religion in which enlightenment or oneness with kami is obtained through the understanding of the relationship between Man and Nature, centered on an ascetic, mountain-dwelling practice. The focus or goal of shugendō is the development of spiritual experience and power. Having backgrounds in mountain worship, Shugendo incorporated beliefs or philosophies from Old Shinto as well as folk animism, and further developed as Taoism and esoteric Buddhism have arrived in Japan. The 7th century ascetic and mystic En no Gyōja is often considered as having first organized shugendō as a doctrine. The focus or goal of shugendō is the development of spiritual experience and power. Shugendō literally means "the path of training and testing."

Contents
[hide]

* 1 History
* 2 Followers
* 3 References
* 4 Further reading
* 5 External links

[edit] History

With its origins in the solitary hijiri back in the 7th century, shugendō evolved as a sort of amalgamation between esoteric Buddhism, Shinto and several other religious influences including Taoism. Buddhism and Shinto were amalgamated in the shinbutsu shūgō, and Kūkai's syncretic view held wide sway up until the end of the Edo period, coexisting with Shinto elements within shugendō[1]

In 1613 (Edo period), the Tokugawa Shogunate issued a regulation obliging shugendō temples to either belong to Shingon or Tendai temples.

During the Meiji Restoration, when Shinto was declared an independent state religion separate from Buddhism, shugendō was banned as a superstition not fit for a new, enlightened Japan. Some shugendō temples converted themselves into various officially approved Shintō denominations.

In modern times, shugendō is practiced mainly by Tendai and Shingon sects, retaining an influence on modern Japanese religion and culture. Some temples include: Kinpusen-ji in Yoshino (Tendai), Ideha Shrine in Dewa Sanzan, Daigo-ji in Kyoto (Shingon).

[edit] Followers

Those who practice shugendō are referred to in two ways. One term, shugenja (修験者), is derived from the term shugendō, literally meaning "a person of training and testing", i.e. "a person of shugen." The other term, yamabushi (山伏), means "one who lies in the mountains". Supernatural creatures often appeared as yamabushi in Japanese myths and folklore, as is evident in tales of the legendary warrior monk Saitō Musashibō Benkei and the deity Sōjōbō, king of the tengu (mountain spirits). Shugendō practitioners are the most direct lineage descendants of the ancient Kōya Hijiri monks of the eight and ninth centuries.[2]

Modern shugenja in Japan and throughout the world are known to self-actualize their spiritual power in experiential form through challenging and rigorous ritualistic tests of courage and devotion known as shugyō. Pilgrimages involving mountain treks are embarked upon by shugenja and, through the experience of each trek, as well as years of study, "rank" is earned within the sect. The rituals are kept secret from the neophyte shugenja and the world at large. This denju ensures the true faith of the neophytes and maintains the fear of the unknown as they embark upon the austere journey. This secrecy was also borne out of previous episodes of persecution and oppression of shugenja as a threat to the ruling military hegemony. Many modern shugenja maintain the practice of relative anonymity in their daily lives.[citation needed]

[edit] References

1. ^ Miyake, Hitoshi. Shugendo in History. pp45–52.
2. ^ Blacker, Carmen (1999). The Catalpa Bow. UK: Japan Library. pp. 165–167. ISBN 1-873410-85-9.

* Miyake, Hitoshi. The Mandala of the Mountain: Shugendō and Folk Religion. Tokyo: Keio University Press, 2005. ISBN 978-4-7664-1128-7.
* McMullen, James P.; Kornicki, Peter F. (1996). Religion in Japan: arrows to heaven and earth. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 120–121. ISBN 0-521-55028-9.

[edit] Further reading

* Sutra on the Unlimited Life of the Threefold Body (translated into English)
* Shugen: The Autumn Peak of Haguro Shugendo

[edit] External links

* Shugendo—Official Shugendo web site in English & French of "Shugendo France" association, member of "Union Bouddhiste de France" (French Buddhism Union) for French government (French)
* A Useful Shugendo Index
* A Look at Japanese Ascetic Practice
* Kenjaku, French yamabushi, personal website
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